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The Mendelssohn Bach Project

THE GENERATION OF ‘POET-MATHEMATICIANS’

**The Case of Niels Abel
**

by David Shavin

**July 16—China has put on as to harmonize their souls
**

the table the beautiful—and with the complexities of the

very ‘American’—mission of development of human com-

wiping out poverty by the munities. After the American

year 2030. Revolution, a youthful genius,

The type of thinking re- Karl Gauss, in what was ap-

quired today to finally wipe parently an obscure mathe-

out poverty, disease and matical text, went boldly

hunger will involve a level of where most others feared to

creativity once described by tread. An identifiable, small

Lyndon LaRouche as being core of youth, took up Gauss’

able to “play ping-pong with challenge. In the United

the stars.” States Edgar Alan Poe popu-

The beautiful composition larized the ‘poet-mathemati-

of a new alliance of nations cian’ in the 1840’s with his

pushing the frontiers of ‘Dupin’ character, who was

plasma physics, fusion tech- Niels Abel based on one of those youth.

nologies and materials pro- This report will develop

cessing, as the surplus is deployed to craft massive in- the case of Niels Abel, one of Gauss’ youth generation.

frastructure projects throughout the developing world,

requires a level of thinking and emotional development Introduction

that will make future generations stand in awe.1 First, pick any number, that is, a positive, integral

This type of thinking is that of the ‘poet-mathemati- number. Let’s try, for example, 23. Multiply it by 9.

cian’. It was also expressed in Plato’s Republic as a We’ll get 207. Then, add up all the digits in the product,

‘philosopher-king’—the almost impossible, but com- 2 + 0 + 7. You’ll always get 9, regardless of what number

pletely necessary development of leaders, who pursue you start with.2 This is not magic. It has to do with a

the most difficult paradoxes in astronomy and music, so type of brainwashing you went through in first grade. It

is not difficult to discover why this works nor how you

1. See LaRouche’s Four Laws: http://www.larouchepub.com/ were brainwashed; but, for maximum therapeutic ben-

lar/2016/4329_revisit_4_laws.html. In particular, “The creation of

credit. . . must be assured . . . to create a general economic recovery of

efit, we’ll leave this exercise to the reader. This simple

the nation, per capita, and for rate of net effects in productivity . . . . This example is only a drop in Karl Friedrich Gauss’ ocean,

means intrinsically, a thoroughly scientific, rather than a merely math- but it introduces an overlooked capacity. The human

ematical one, and by the related increase of the effective energy-flux

density per capita, and for the human population when considered as

each and all as a whole. The ceaseless increase of the physical-produc- 2. In the cases where you get a sum larger than 10, repeat the adding of

tivity of employment . . .” is key. “Man is mankind’s only true measure digits—e.g., 11 multiplied by 9 yields 99; and adding 9 + 9 yields 18,

of the history of our Solar system, and what reposes within it.” not 9. Here, adding the 1+ 8 will, once again, yield 9.

July 28, 2017 EIR Wall Street IS the Problem 27

we desire increase . the mind’s unique growth separately. The geometric tion with ‘mathematician’ aids in opening up critical mean (GM) involves the internally-generated ‘expo- areas of investigation. is a healthy juxtapo. published a stunningly powerful poetic work in a most creasing our thirst for his poetic power? austere form. it be. from the crafted an opening theme to mountaintop. though marvelous. itself. and ics in Physics.. See. . were? Or did it make us fall in love with the bard. The tion as verbs. that is. and. but to take and necessary capacity for a measure of their interplay. ginning and end points of the growth (2x8=16). captured The poet has an ability to in the exponentials. Measuring World-Changing increase. a) the internally-gener- pears easiest to deal with. If sitiones Arithmeticae. In growing from 2 to 8. exploiting a harmonic interplay of the ex- world where the (subjective) ponents. Shakespeare boldly announced. a transforming the world. He Clearly.” then figuring out the magnitude that acts upon itself to 28 Wall Street IS the Problem EIR July 28. . it is not tional banking without the capacities of the poet-math- magical. of implications. One can determine this geometric ‘half-way’ point by multiplying the be- 3. 2017 .” Which is the verb? Does beauty impel us to desire I. and only a fool would attempt to carry out na- it is itself an integral part. is what most people understand as the ‘average’ of two sition. b) the externally-gener- powerful capacities of the ated ‘accretion’-type of mind. and repeating this tively requires national banking. Next. make us. numbers. Half-way between 2 and 8 is 5. actually. bases and residue.mind. The arithmetic mean (AM) term. after a cycle of production. ‘poet-mathematician’. formalist mathematics and his insistence upon the role Gauss’ arithmetic-geometric mean is one simple of what is called here the ‘poet-mathematician’. Carl Friedrich Gauss. dramatically expand. It would help to approximate the nential’ growth. entitled Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. 2 doubles to 4. and seize upon. doubles to 8. beauty and (objective) truth developed in Gauss’ Disqui- share a fruitful interplay. and rigorous devel. as personalities. properties of number. or does it increase our desire? Power Did Shakespeare’s beautiful command of language change us. bore the world is constructed in many fruits and a vast amount such a rich fashion. the laws and his “Sonnets” where both powers of mind behind the ‘desire’ and ‘increase’ func. growth. LaRouche’s “Poetry Must Begin to Supercede Mathemat. Lyndon LaRouche’s pas. ated power to grow. and identifiable. . is at the core of his rejection of more complex and inter-connected process. non-magical national ‘doubling’-growth. the mag- ing the power of the culture’s nitude of the resultant activity overall mental activity. forms patterns and organizes the world of which banking. ematician. But one fun- hooves us to raise our damental. e. and play upon. point is 4.3 The case of this type of interplay. the ‘half-way’ subject with another juxtaposition: The world objec. and rather general principle guage up to the level of what concerns us here: The con- we’re investigating—rather joined measurement of both than reducing it to what ap. more than we In 1801. painted by Christian Albrecht Jensen That is: Not to measure sion for. the young genius. The jarring aspect of setting ‘poet’ in combina. thought-processes and lan. in. a simple poetic snapshot: “From fairest crea- tures.g. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss exponential and arithmetic (1777-1855) opment of. or.

Summer.. musical and/or poetic measured relative to a specific moment in the produc. July 28. June 11. If it is a physical process worth encourag. The dynamics of bodies moving vidual’s courageous decision to deal with nothing short in elliptical orbits. revolve around each indi- a different magnitude. portrait by Auguste Eugene Leray Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Évariste Galois Bernhard Riemann Sophie Germain Dirichlet obtain the same result (that is.g. EIR. were Sophie ric is where one measures the power of a process (e. or ‘dunamis’. whereby one ately. The two limits level helpful in delineating how they were able to de- converge towards each other with some rapidity to form velop such a rigorous and higher-ordered language.4 Lawfully. The case of Dirichlet involves the author’s development of the role of the German-Jewish Mendelssohn family.’ squaring Galois. Power/‘dunamis’ is developed by Bruce Director in “Riemann for surements—frequently at variance with the ‘back-engi. the individuals who most seriously. where there is some signifi. producing a different world than No. LeJeune Dirichlet. of the higher-ordered mathe- e. what is usually called. the GM is the root of 20. core. took up this mission. 2010. the GM is 4. That physical pro. matics. cance to quantifying how much has been produced at always combined two critical components: the end of a production cycle. Common to all five is itself). the most fascinating exemplars. rise to a level beyond mere biographical side-notes. and Bernhard Riemann. 8. it will be fruitful in some fashion. That fruitfulness core—where it is clear that the strength and power in has physically changed the world.. (That is. and the arithmetic.. in of the former arithmetic and geometric means. The historically-specific realities of their lives. historically-specific moral ing. require physically-driven mea. propriate for mapping how the mind intervenes upon Is this a silly game. then. and for the Dirichlet case: “Rebecca Dirichlet’s before. The most serious students of Gauss’ Disquisitiones geometric mean have? Put a bit too simply. Evariste whether it grows ‘fully acting upon itself. next production cycle. a and the AM is the slightly larger 4. Here. their own personalities. We have power being 1) a non-‘mathematical’. or ass-backwards engineering involved in Centuries. Arithmeticae. power acts. as rather successively takes the arithmetic and geometric means unique individuals. the geomet. gnettes from the Political Life of Moses Mendelssohn. and tion process.5. that their actual activities and methods of thinking. Germain. ap- the arithmetic-geometric mean. the AM is 5. 2) an identifiable. changing what that power can accomplish in the Development Of the Complex Domain. or the dynamics of an integrated manufacturing facility. between 4 and 5. 2. power. arithmetically stacking bricks in a pile. have proven to be. next stage. after one cycle of production. going from 2 to 8. Gauss de. their conceptions and dealings with matters of cess. 2017 EIR Wall Street IS the Problem 29 .g. See: Philosophical Vi- make?’. Fidelio. 4. Here. see also: “Riemann for Anti-Dummies: Part 66” someone calculating ’how much profit will my money 5. cally. A geometric oped to capture the historically-specific actions of ‘root’ really is something that grows differently than.5 Niels Abel. 1999. Anti-Dummies: Part 33” : Hyperbolic Functions—A Fugue Across 25 neering’.g. and somewhat ironi- e. most passion- velops the arithmetic-geometric mean. designed to keep math majors the outside world. busy? What physical significance would an arithmetic. his ‘poet-mathematicians’. is now acting upon ‘discreteness’/‘continuity’. a language has to be devel- taking the square-root of 16 yields 4). Vol.

where Crelle had fallen short. that from Niels Abel was a talented Norwegian youth who. He had set himself the task of developing Friedrich Schiller. neues Leben lar core of his aesthetic education had to do with the and Hardenberg’s Zulima.” Berlin and the Composer-Mathematician First. Goethe’s Der untreue Knabe. Abel was able to quickly explain That is. in partic. Things of which I can find more use than if I were purely studying Mathematics. Niemeyer’s Dreistimmiger Kanon. discussed one of his own mathe- matical papers—and. A. But he also composed music. much. but rather Here. Leipzig. Goethe’s Rastlose Liebe. he met August Crelle. had already devoured Gauss’ Disquisitiones cluding settings of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Arithmeticae. evidently. 30 Wall Street IS the Problem EIR July 28. However. The ten settings. H. at Berlin to Potsdam.6 He had authored a work on music in Gauss’ treatment of the elliptical transcendentals and such curves as the lemniscates. Crelle’s primary job was to II. his wonderfully strange kind of meeting where music is year on the way to Paris. of the totality of the universe. Crelle’s Zehn Gesänge am Fortepiano (op. Abel’s Wonderfully Strange Year develop transportation for the Prussian state. ing: “There is at his place some ular. Though Bechtolsheim’s Die Blume aus Norden. Abel was pleasantly shocked in emplar of discreteness in the finding that Crelle’s Monday continuity of the processes of night gatherings were not math- the universe. Schulin from their first meeting: Crelle Potsdamer Bahnhof in Berlin. Friedrich von Hardenberg’s Sängers Klage. if at all. thisson’s Elysium. Mein Edmund. a man primarily known today. Liebe. 3) seem to be from the he turned twenty-three that he was able to travel to period of the Liberation War (1813/14). which he would later apply to his so- called mathematical work.” Up to that point. are: Paris. in the fall of 1825. it wasn’t until 6. are located as an ex.” Crelle greatly valued Abel’s talent and honesty C. we shall examine the musikabends! Abel begins his case of Gauss’ Norwegian pro. in Berlin. As Abel put it: “One learns many strange Things on such a Tour. fortunately I do not understand tion empowered him to push for. via Berlin. Friedrich von Mat- largely overlooked by historians and biographers. only for the math- ematical periodical he founded. Prague and Vienna. himself at the centers of learning and study. Tiedge’s Abendfeier. 2017 . more advanced than for the con- August Leopold Crelle cert stage. Goethe’s Der Fischer. they themselves. when mainly discussed. whereby he would create the first Prussian railroad. in- eighteen. and Abel’s aesthetic education is in full view. development of his power of inversion. One particu. ematics seminars. description of Crelle’s gather- tégé. in order. “Crelle’s Journal. Niels Abel—and. Abel’s ward the measurement of the passion for the theater had been mind’s activity upon the world. of which un- Abel’s unique aesthetic educa. A. He also set Goethe’s Neue Liebe. to test C. personally.

and its chief supporter.P. 1824. he arranged for a performance Briefly. as it was founded in the wake of Abel’s visit. Op. arranged. it was her manuscript copy of J. again points to the likelihood that these spe- cific works were indeed part and parcel of the social discus- sions of these circles. regarding Sara: she was a student of Bach’s of Mozart’s Requiem which included the fifteen year. tiré du Grand Quintuor. “St. Crelle: a piano-arrangement of Mozart’s (K. Schmidt.P. In all. LeJeune evening music seminars studied. at their great-aunt’s— Sara Levy’s—or at both loca- tions!) That Felix. including its director. Dirichlet. At this very time of Abel’s So. Abel’s weekly schedule in Berlin is known to visit (1825).) Before leaving Berlin for Paris. K. she was the prime source old Felix Mendelssohn. Arrangé pour le Pianoforte à quatre mains et dedié 9. introducing him sieur Crelle par son ami J. and Saturday evening musik- Offering. that occasioned the historic 1829 Bach Renais- the aunt of Mendelssohn’s mother. July 28. à Mdmlle Fanny & Msr. during his famous ‘trip to work played a central role in Crelle’s seminar that year. 546) discussions on Gauss on Friday mid-day walks with Adagio and Fugue quartet-study of Bach’s “Musical Crelle and Jakob Steiner. arranged for four hands8 and dedicated to the Berlin. 546. emie. and was the piano soloist per- Crelle also had longstanding connections and activities forming from her Bach manuscripts with the Singakad- with the Berlin Singakademie. produced his own first string quintet. P. on the occasion of the anniversary of Mozart’s previous two decades from the Berlin Singakademie. Oeuvre 29. (Perhaps. (Zelter was Mendelssohn’s teacher and Sara Levy was Felix. Rondeau. [1825]. Crelle had known Levy over the lecture. Beethoven’s String Quintet. He introduced Abel to the Men- Felix Mendelssohn Sara Levy delssohns’ circle by getting him invited to Sara Levy’s Saturday 1823.) sance9—which played such an important role for Felix It is not known specifically what Crelle’s Monday Mendelssohn’s soon-to-be brother-in-law. Schmidt. seems to be whether Fanny and Felix performed this work at Crelle’s. eldest son. Schmidt. Wilhelm Friedrich. J. and teenagers.” EIR. “Rebecca Dirichlet’s Development Of the Complex Domain. June 11. however a decent hy. Sara Levy. Bach’s Carl Friedrich Zelter. pothesis may be ventured. Paris’. For this occasion. La Fugue quatuor de W.”7 It is not a big stretch to assume that this abends at Sara Levy’s. Abel would actually spend fully one-half of his The arranger. Matthew’s Passion. arranged. Abel with a letter of recommendation. who served as the orchestra. death.” given to her great-nephew. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy par J. Adagio and Fugue. he gave a memorial evening musikabends. within months. 29 String famous journal itself is a residue of Abel’s stopover in Quintet. Finally. Crelle’s mathematicians.A. one of 7. provided Mozart arrangée pour le Piano=Forte à quatre mains et dédiée à Mon. 2017 EIR Wall Street IS the Problem 31 . Trautwein: Berlin. but Crelle certainly seems to have had other plans for him. the only question left (Later. circle even tighter. Crelle tried to get Abel to become the editor of the journal. Crelle’s was in Berlin. S. Abel may not have under- stood much about musical dis- cussions when he first arrived. and on December 5. a special work had been dedicated to have included: Monday night musikabends at Crelle’s. pp 31-32. 2010. 8. for Bach manuscripts. the same Winter that Abel time in Berlin with Crelle and Sarah Levy. Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn—drawing the its initial issues were centered upon Abel’s works. published Beethoven’s Op. Professor Dirksen. 29.

The composer-father had actually given “K. After two lack of ideas for several years. 1826. and bly including “Amadeus”—this five years after Mozart’s death. . . and spends significant time with him over the the implications of the dissymmetry of physical trans- next month. and seminar. versity. . F. Of some note. even if he does not move straight to it. wants to months of their meeting. 2017 . first met. Abel’s ‘diversion’ away from Paris: “. . Naumann would become the swing to Leipzig and surroundings I do not know . Leipzig.” four names. the procedures of Abel’s earlier teacher. Abel writes of case for functions to work at all’—and August: “a really gifted fellow” and “a very agreeable b) isolating the non-symmetric characteristics of a man and we associated harmoniously . Johann Gottlieb Nau- mann. Mozart’s study of Bach. Abel had been expected Abel. Christian Gottfried Körner. .to Alexander von Humboldt. it was 10. Gottfried August Homilius. Abel’s teacher at Christiania Uni- with the composer’s son. sponse to Hansteen is telling: “. in the drive for a national theater. but evidently only as While Abel’s powerful methods of an adjunct to the paradigmatic cases of the crystalline a) inversion—of reversing investigations. where the mathematical elite ion. and had been involved with Schiller’s friend.” With Bach-ian inver- taught mathematics. Within young god Thor. Bernt Holm- boe.10 This Nau. Naumann had composed for Ben- jamin Franklin’s Glass-harmonica Exhibit in the Freiberg Mining Museum. where he works.[T]here will be no Naumann called them enantio-morphisms. to. he] always arrives where he is supposed exceptions to perfect symmetry in crystals (e. The father had studied Bach’s “Preludes and Fugues” with one of Bach’s Leipzig stu- dents. I shall probably gather days in Leipzig. on Feb. professor of crystallography at Freiburg. and his university professor Hansteen.g.[W]hy that ology work from Norwegian into German. Abel meets August at a mineralogy sions and transformations. Freiburg. . from exceptions to perfect symmetry—a key feature of ‘what we may infer from the facts’ to ‘what must be the Abel’s mathematical developments. searching for his hammer. primarily. Freiburg and Crystallography Next. . Bach. and had just finished translating Keilhau’s ge. studying the [Regardless. Baltazar Mathias Keilhau. Naumann. Crelle and Dirksen were well aware that Humboldt was recruiting talented geniuses to help build up Berlin. where K. 32 Wall Street IS the Problem EIR July 28. for just at present there are many Freiburg.given courage and shape in Berlin. and chiralitry or ‘handedness’). not part of the official agenda. K. distor. with the Nau- manns—sons of the Dresden composer. were said to reside. Abel goes for a month’s-long stay in Leipzig and Freiburg. F. F.’s brother.” system. (1786). The Leipzig/Freiburg discussions might formations of nature. in Leipzig. nota. 22. to bee-line toward Paris. . Christopher Hansteen—himself an important mann had recently visited Norway’s mountains to study part of Gauss’ geo-magnetic project—commented upon crystals. August Naumann. might have been suggested earlier by some of The trips to Leipzig and Freiburg were. . thoughts circulating in my head.” Abel’s re- tion of axes. there should be little wonder! have touched upon mathematics. . twinning.. along with his Norwegian traveling compan. somehow. they—Abel and Kielhau—are off to more on my travels.

It works out satisfactorily as long as one in his upcoming dealings with the mathematical reac- proceeds generally. For Abel. this author has not been able matics-by-induction. from the top down: “Everywhere [in advanced former glory and contemporary wretchedness. in honor of Francis dure has led to so few of the so-called paradoxes. “William Tell” in Prague. Leibniz’s “analysis situs” approach (also characterized Otherwise of note. (It might be The ‘Melancholy Spectre’ of Venice imagined that Abel benefitted from discussions with Abel’s visit to Venice provided him a ‘Feindbild. Abel saw an Italian opera in Dresden. As soon Rome. in between Freiburg and Venice. the so-called paradoxes are to be sought!] It is had to happen. not to be overlooked. it never Abel.’ Abel’s description: “There is a to develop a case for reconstructing those discussions. J. by LaRouche as a “top-down” approach—to be pre. Auguste Dupin. vatory. especially the tradition of Euler] one finds this should not be discounted as simply a ‘poetic truth. one is largely occupied with that there had been a Venice. a six-week stay in Vienna. unfortunately. the very fact the fact that in analysis. .Everything testifies to Decay. Library of Congress Edgar Allan Poe Frédéric Thjéodore Lix C. Everywhere one Then.” This analysis. . ‘Hoggism’) was not merely wasteful. he also sought out the heads of the astronomical observatory. aesthetical education would prove of significant utility clusions. The 23-year-old Abel now describes to Hansteen his mathematics. and it is extremely peculiar that such a proce. In Prague. .’ those working at what was once Johann Kepler’s obser- an enemy-image. incorrect theorems arise from the false con.’ miserable way of concluding from the special to the The backward state of build-from-the-bottom mathe- general. . was also one with “signs of basis. . 2017 EIR Wall Street IS the Problem 33 . is not often the the world—without suffering the penalty of mental case—then it does not work any more and a number of damage to one’s own faculties! Even this part of his connected. after Venice. from an illustration for The Purloined Letter by Edgar Allan Poe. To my mind it lies in problem. however. and Schiller’s ferred to that of the “bottoms-up”). in not openly developing the implica- newly-formulated plan to put analysis on a rigorous tions of the Disquisitiones. matics (what Poe would call. which included visits to the- edness. . a second incarnation of functions which can be expressed by powers. .) melancholy Spectre invading Venice. . . for his moral objection to ‘mathe. [For Bacon.” This is a pretty strong echo of tionaries of Paris. could not be accepted as a necessary feature of as other functions enter—this. Its very existence betrayed a systemic really interesting to seek the cause. his last major stop before Paris was sees Signs of former Glory and contemporary Wretch. J.” The state of aters and discussions with Crelle’s friend. Edler July 28. but.

knowing 1823.”) Contrary to expectations from the ‘bottoms-up’ crowd. Leipzig. at Saigey’s library. C. (Algebra students typically learn the simplest one. a vatory. where exponen- gustin-Louis Cauchy and by the Restorationist grip tial and logarithmic functions did not lead up to. and then given to account of his Norwegian article on the moon’s gravita. it were very likely. were made subject to human cul- Academy. which reported useful scientific ad- vances to Parisians. Audebart’s journal was given a favorable review This July-October 1826 period in Paris saw Abel’s by one member of the French Academy.” Dirichlet certainly was Paris: Abel Links Up with Dirichlet. 11. Audebart’s editor.’ de l’Industrie. the “Littrow projection” is said to be the only with no report being produced. Saigey. .” After “He is a very sharp Mathematician. For what it is worth. “I showed it to Mr of the quintic. Prior to October 30th. . His methods allowed for was the gathering place for the serious thinkers in a breath-taking expansion of the human race’s ability Paris. but over the Academy. Alexis Bouvard. The introduction of his Mémoire sur une short synopses of articles from other science journals. employed Abel to write and Freiburg. Still.von Littrow. His Fellow not confused: he knew he was talking with a Norwe- ‘Countryman’ in the Land of the Disquisitiones gian! While he might have been referring to Abel’s Bouvard introduced Abel to a key group of French time in Berlin and possibly even the Humboldt plan to republicans around Audebart. Algorithmic solutions had been found for 2nd. had tried to genius. August perhaps most concentrated work. it was a rather brutal and desperate action.) It was there. Littrow’s own simply lost the paper. ematician for the present Time who knows how Math- proving no such algorithm was possible.11 the impossibility of solving in whole Numbers the Littrow provided Abel with what would be a critical [quintic] equation x5 + y5 = z5 and other neat Things. 2017 . scendentals. He made sure to record: “Herrn Le-jeune Dirichlet. (From the 1815 Congress of Vienna rather were derived from the elliptic and higher tran- until the 1830 July Revolution. of Berlin. and Dirichlet. that he bonded with Abel in the ‘country of called the Bulletin General et Universel de Sciences et the Disquisitiones. formulated back in Freiburg. had addressed why such was the case. Abel had already de- equations. the director of the Vienna Observatory. Cauchy claimed that he conformal retro-azimuthal map projection. It is certainly possible that Dirich. propriété générale d’une classe trés étendue des func- Abel’s first submissions included an account of his own tions transcendantes was read by Joseph Fourier proof on the impossibility of the quintic. who. [H]e has shown the presentation of the paper to the Academy. due to his published account time to examine the Mémoire. the “qua. Abel writes (10/24/1826) of Dirichlet: Cauchy. In his 12. Even for someone committed to ‘academic advisor’ back in Prague had been August Gottlieb Meissner. Curiously. J. although he is the math- tions. not only was no such algorithm discovered for 5th-power equa- is Nothing to come out of him. as Audebart’s scientific library. F. Prussian. intervene upon Mozart’s “Don Giovanni” production back in 1787. Cauchy promptly buried the met with Lejeune Dirichlet. described his powerful ‘inversion’ plan of attack. but Abel. Abel had offered Cauchy let had sought out Abel. Higher species of curves. was three report. of characteris- tered under the restored monarchies of Louis XVI’s tic actions that accounted for all the important features two brothers. Augustin-Louis Cauchy to make a report. 3rd and 4th -power preceding three months in Paris. who the other Day came to me and said he regarded me his Countryman. The Memoir on Transcendental Functions disappeared. Baron de Férrusac. Audebart had established what would later be Dirichlet. centered around his Dupin—the actual scientist whose name Edgar Alan paper on transcendental functions. suppressing scientific development and suppressing the professor of aesthetics and classical literature—who happens to be the source for the story that the Venetian agent. years Abel’s junior. maintained by Saigey. That work should Poe would use for his fictional poet-mathematician! be viewed as the fruit. scribed the problem: “Cauchy is ‘fou’ [mad] and there dratic equation. to deal with transcendental functions. at 21. especially those from outside of Dealing with Demons—LaPlace and Cauchy Paris. His Issues are excellent. ematics ought to be treated. that Abel ture and deliberation. Casanova. but he scarcely deigned to glance at it.12 along with an before the Academy on October 30. in particular.” letter of introduction to the director of the Paris obser. In recruit Abel to Berlin. for those who would not be hemmed in by Au. and Cauchy was their controller at the of the visible curves. Abel had tional effect on the pendulum. Abel might not have been completely surprised. France was adminis. but 34 Wall Street IS the Problem EIR July 28.

13 that is to say. Recall issues.” The full facets of clearly stemmed from his moral commitment to truth. only sixty. Leipzig. symmetric. . Abel’s creative personality found lawful expression in seeking. For the attentive. tions. Pierre Simon Marquis de Laplace Berlin. 36. had everything to tician. Each addition of 9 lowers the digit column by 1 and increases the next column to the left by 1. from the Middle Ages] and remark- 14. in his or her unthinking acceptance of the unhappily as old as a Stone. in the powerful language of inversion.” [‘He has the horrible ing you on the importance of the columns and the place-holder role of habit of silencing people’. Further. The two are characters from a topical fictional work by Lesage. ahead. 45. cesses cannot but give form and shape to the previously vinced that the older generation around the Academy hidden processes of the ‘mathematician’. was “awfully skaldic [ancient. (1745-1827) Prague and Vienna—and. .” while Simeon Denis Poisson was “some. but who has chosen to obscure and smother Abel’s forecast: “One learns many strange Things on them. .” But Abel was especially tion: The key is ‘9’ as the last numeral of the ‘base 10’ system. tify the leading mathematical even decadent Venice. in identifying the char. Things of which I can find more use than if acteristic evil in the scientific community of 1826. drilling and grill- de couper la langue de gens’. chy’s Paris. The problem only arises when the mind is deceived as to how the action of shaping ‘number-space’ has implica- 13. . cian capable enough to iden. 2017 EIR Wall Street IS the Problem 35 . and of dis- decay’ disease. biologically. The 74-year-old Adrien. Abel recorded his analysis as to why the The development of access to higher-order causal pro- disease would not be easily cured in Paris. rather than re- veals—not unlike the obscuran- tism that Abel objected to in La- Place’s collaborator. which demon would pre-deter- mine everything mechanisti- cally—a ruse little different from the “Invisible Hand.” Such sophistries were designed to cover over. and then spent some weeks. tionary social culture of Resto- olic and a bigot. such a Tour. I were purely studying Mathematics. who halted the enu- cuses Zambullo. July 28. an obscurantism which would now extend to simply burying Augustin-Louis Cauchy Abel’s masterpiece. . “He appears quick and small. Cauchy . but He has the same etc. Abel’s analytical ability. 54. (It was very important to line up your columns when adding. This ‘hidden’ property is simply a function Shortcoming of which [the demon] Haltefanden ac. 90. and his moral repulsion for the ‘Venetian Bach. the felt need to invoke a hy- pothesized ‘superior intelli- gence. number ‘ten’. characteristic processes in crystallography. Multiply- exercised over the sophistical Pierre-Simon LaPlace: ing by nine creates a series: 9. 72. 18. 27.” Sylvestre François Lac. with columns that LaPlace’s deterministic axiomatics left him with representing increased powers. yes. ‘la mauvaise habitude meration of numbers at 9. Freiburg. here is one explanation of the number puzzle from ably Old. 108.’ LaPlace’s Demon. though.) There is no problem in ordering numbers in groups of ten. in the face of the reac- Cauchy is tremendously Cath. for the reader to compare with his or her own solu- what captivated by himself.] Abel certainly recognized zero. Abel’s ability to forge he writes very obscurely. hidden processes even apply to the first-grade mathe- Marie Legendre was an “exceedingly obliging Man but matician. 63. A sorely rationist mathematics in Cau- strange Thing for a Mathema. 99. the top of the article. of the intervention made by your first-grade teacher. 81.” What is this “sorely Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin do with his previous year in strange Thing”? A mathemati. (And these would not challenge Cauchy. He was con.)14 roix.

how manuscripts go astray in the portfolios of the maining. With which was then the equivalent of a death sentence. he had left. locked away in Cauchy’s study. already are in the service of the Prus. From November. Abel. and I dare not hope for it. actions indicate that his prime concern was to get home Cauchy eventually succeeded in locating Abel’s and to concentrate on his own work for whatever time manuscript—but not before he had succeeded. However. he surprised Crelle by turning down Galois. historically-specific moral only rarely produces them. will actual activities and methods of thinking always com- become mathematicians of the very highest rank. An identifiable. are located as an exemplar of dis- lier. to repeat from above: “. . creteness in the continuity of the processes of the uni- Karl Jacobi. except Abel. and nobody wants to learn. It seems likely that this is every Friday. 1829. Though he did take the next four months to in “losing” the manuscript submitted to the Academy revisit Berlin. For this science will be in core—where it is clear that the strength and power in a debt of gratitude to your Excellency. Everybody works for himself without con- cern for others. But in both cases. they them- Berlin. only days ear. Alexander Humboldt had arranged a professor. in time.III. A non-‘mathematical’ musical and/or poetic progress to them.” sian government. Wilhelm von Humboldt ship in Germany for Dirichlet. It is very difficult to become closely associated with them. represent in reality a group of young The case of Galois underlines and intensifies that of mathematicians giving the greatest expectations for Abel. Then his “Countryman” Dirichlet left Paris. Again the Prussian government is core. who had walked with Crelle and Abel he was increasingly isolated. attending the musikabends at Crelle’s of the next-in-line of Gauss’ geniuses. for bined two critical components: in spite of their youth.” 36 Wall Street IS the Problem EIR July 28. Crelle’s letter arrived. and Steiner. In December 1831. That is. Academy to produce Abel’s “lost” manuscript. he had less than two years re. 1826 until January. again. . who who already have the death of Abel on their con- all. He wrote home about the ostracism: “On the whole. the his offer to become the editor of Crelle’s Journal. rator in Berlin. Neils Abel had died. selves. . In April. sciences. personally. His intervention from the Norwegian consul in Paris. 2017 . 1827. . All want to instruct. members of the Institute. the French are ex- tremely reserved toward strangers. that of Evariste and at Sara Levy’s. Abel’s closest mathematical collabo. Perhaps they.” Crelle and their conceptions and dealings with matters of Humboldt still planned to get Abel a professorship in ‘discreteness’/‘continuity. probably in 1828. I do not like the French as well as the Germans. Galois wrote: “I must tell you When he left for home. wrote Humboldt: “The conceive of such carelessness on the part of those gentlemen Dirichlet. T hose Who Already Have the Death of Abel on Their Consciences Abel received no response in Paris to his opus magnum.their the advance of science.” Years of intellectual fascism had taken its toll around the Academy. from a prison in Paris. Abel’s last three months in Paris. would exert pressure upon the Paris the precise period when Abel contracted tuberculosis. Jacobi. and in a position to support talents so great that nature 2. precocious genius. verse.’ revolve around the indi- Berlin. although I cannot in truth Crelle. The most absolute egotism reigns supreme. science already owes essential 1. with the vidual’s courageous decision to deal with nothing news that Abel had received his appointment in short of the totality of the universe.

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