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IADC DRILLING SERIES

WELL
CEMENTING
OPERATIONS
Ron Sweatman

Published under the auspices Copyright © 2015.
of the IADC Technical International Association of
Publications Committee Drilling Contractors.

If professional engineering expertise is required. The IADC Drilling Series is a collection of books covering key topics that the drilling engineer needs to know. the services of a competent individual or firm should be sought.org/ technical-publications-committee/.IADC. reasonable or otherwise.org/ebookstore Visit www. Gulf Publishing Company. Texas. Ted G. go to www. Gulf Publishing Company. on the information presented. Suite 760 Houston. Bill Rehm. WELL C EM ENTING OP ER A T I ONS About Well Cementing Operations This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. Houston. 2008 Casing and Liners for Drilling and Completion. et al. et al. Bill Rehm. Texas 77042 USA COPYRIGHT © 2015 i . concept.org/bookstore Well Cementing Operations by Ronald Sweatman 1st Edition. each reader is responsible for his own reliance. Gulf Publishing Company. 1st Printing ISBN: 978-0-9909049-8-4 Copyright © 2015 International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). and for the general information and education of the reader. Neither the author nor the publisher warrant or guarantee that application of any theory. method.IADC. Byrom. International Association of Drilling Contractors 10370 Richmond Avenue. or action described in this book will lead to the result desired by the reader. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the prior written permission of the publisher.IADC. Although the author and publisher believe the information presented is accurate as of the date of publication. 2007 Visit www. This book was prepared under the auspices of the IADC Technical Publications Committee as part of the IADC Drilling Manual. 2012 Managed Pressure Drilling. Other books in the series include: Underbalanced Drilling: Limits and Extremes. For more information.

WE LL C EM EN T I NG OPERA TI ONS ii COPYRIGHT © 2015 .

It has been my great pleasure to have worked with everyone that helped. Mike Killalea. his idea for having an IADC book on cementing. and Spears & Associates for their contributions. Broday. providing access to many internal documents such as training manuals. Any illustrations lacking an explicit credit line were supplied by Halliburton. and approving the use of many Halliburton graphics in the book’s figures. and his staff are thanked for their help to review and publish the book as one of the IADC Drilling Series Books. and my five grandchildren. Keagan. and patience. Sharon. and his continued encouragement in getting this book written as a TPC project. and Weatherford International. and their management and relevant employees for approval to use company time preparing the book. Appreciation is acknowledged for the use of graphics from publications by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. We also thank the America’s Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA). encouragement. this book is dedicated to my wife. Special thanks go to Dr. Baker Hughes Incorporated. Texas COPYRIGHT © 2015 iii . Leon “Doc” Robinson for the offer to join the IADC Technical Publications Committee (TPC). Cynthia and Susan. Others that warrant special thanks include Halliburton Company. and contributions from many sources. Many other members of the IADC TPC also deserve special thanks for their help which included expert technical guidance in preparing the book’s outline. his great leadership as Chair of the TPC for many years. my two daughters. and Rowan. Ronald “Ron” Sweatman Montgomery. Caitlin. understanding. IADC Group Vice President/Publisher. WELL C EM ENTING OP ER A T I ONS Acknowledgements This book was written with support. We all hope that the book’s technical content will help efforts to achieve good well cementing performance and to make operational improvements. suggesting content. peer reviews. contributing cementing data. For giving me their support. Savanah. and editing. the Halliburton Cementing Product Service Line. American Petroleum Institute.

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & Acronyms . Primary Cementing Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cement Mixing and Pumping Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WELL C EM ENTING OP ER A T I ONS TABLE OF CONTENTS WELL CEMENTING OPERATIONS IADC DRILLING SERIES About Well Cementing Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4. . . . . . . Downhole Cementing Equipment . . . . . . . . . 43 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 193 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foam Cementing . . . . . 319 COPYRIGHT © 2015 v . Liner Cementing . . . . . . . . 291 Appendix B: Cementing Personnel Job Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i Other Drilling Series Books . . . . . . . . . . . iii Chapters 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 10. . . . . . Squeeze Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Appendix D: Glossary of Relevant Oilfield Terms. . . . . . . . . .71 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plug-Back Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cements and Additives . . . . . . 1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 11. . . . . . . . . . Offshore Cementing . 245 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bulk Cement Storage and Handling . . . Introduction to Cementing . . . . . . . Primary Cementing for Horizontal & ERD Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Appendix C: RedBook Website Instructions . . 275 Appendices Appendix A: General Safety & Work Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cementing Technology Developments . . 103 7. . . Primary Cementing . . . . . . . Slang. . . . . . . . . 310 Appendix E: Index . . . . . .17 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 9. . . . . . . . . Casing and Tubing . . Surface Cementing Equipment . . . 199 13. . . . .

WE LL C EM EN T I NG OPERA TI ONS Use for Section Notes… vi COPYRIGHT © 2015 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Fracturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Historical Background of Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 RedBook Website Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Common Oilfield Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Running Drill Pipe . . . 15 Glossary — Oilfield Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Setting Production Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Installing the Completion System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Cementing and the Drilling of an Oil & Gas Well . . . . . . . . 2 Before Starting This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Purpose of Cement in an Oil & Gas Well . . . . . . .15 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Cementing Personnel Job Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How This Course Book is Organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Drilling To Final Depth . 9 Installing the Production Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Common Oilfield Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Running and Cementing Intermediate Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Sand Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cementing . . . . . . . . . . Slang. 15 COPYRIGHT © 2015 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Study Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Running Surface Casing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Completing the Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Acidizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 General Safety and Work Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Drilling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Tripping In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTR ODU CTION TO CEM ENT I NG CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CEMENTING TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

geometry. Try to set aside enough time to complete an entire unit during a study period. types of materials and processes. etc. If you course only the basics are necessary. At the end of each unit. calculation of answers using basic math and They will very briefly describe what is in the unit. require •• Review both the section and unit introductions. a quiz or a test. operation. Welcome to the IADC Cementing Book and Course. mathematical models. The answers to all unit quizzes and the self-check tests This course book is an introduction to the cementing are at the end of relevant chapters. drawings charts. time periods and beyond. Go Become familiar with the way this book is organized. and helping prepare the student to assume greater responsibility. are available on the Internet as described later. drilling contractors and others evaluate personal progress. Keep this book available at all times as unexpected This book allows learning at one’s own speed. Try to put into your own words the paragraph you have just read. Go back to the Experts in cementing may use more exotic beginning of the unit and read the content. How This Course Book is Organized •• Check your understanding. This course was designed to make learning as easy as possible. This course contains many new terms. without opportunities to work on a unit may arise such as an instructor. Look at the figures and RedBook is needed. a list of topic areas and the learning later. The time spent learning throughout the world. well cementing a self-check test. Before Starting This Course Some study suggestions include: Parts of this course. complete the Essential Math course headings to see what’s familiar and what isn’t. Course comprehensive final examination makes the reader completion will help the student communicate more eligible to study the advanced chapters in the book effectively in the office and at the job site. followed by points. Both the quizzes and tests will help service companies. unit contains all the information needed at this time. If additional training in math or using •• Skim through the unit. Cementing is the process that each unit and chapter is not important. and at any time or place that may be waiting on a well location to perform a cementing convenient. These learning tools They will tell you what to expect. After completing process: what it is. Understanding the book’s content may start the Study Suggestions journey to learning how to design and deliver cementing services. However. perform working for oil and gas operators. refer to the appropriate answer key. it is important enables well integrity for many years of well operating that the content is remembered. figures to help explain the text (pictures. why is it done and how to do it. Each minutes to look over your notes. with the 2 COPYRIGHT © 2015 . but for the purpose of this paragraph by paragraph. •• Review the unit. or the Essential RedBook course. look it up in a dictionary. objectives for that chapter. to get the most out of it. along with the Halliburton Cementing Tables (RedBook). back and underline or make notes of important The table of contents begins each chapter. starting with Chapter 5. are unfamiliar with the meaning of a word. It will and complete the tests to retain the knowledge. This will help you to review the content an introduction. improving and those in other books on the subject. participation during cementing jobs. •• Read the content carefully.WE LL C EM EN T I NG OPERA TI ONS possible exception of a dictionary and the Halliburton INTRODUCTION Cementing Tables (RedBook). The acquaint readers with this course and suggest ways reader is responsible for learning this course. types of Successful completion of all the chapter tests and a equipment. Other books or manuals are not necessary. Study the figures. take a few Each chapter in this book contains several units.) and most have a unit quiz. Each unit is made up of text. one must read all sections Take time to carefully read this introduction. This book provides excellent value for students When all the units in a chapter are complete.