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Design of

Flexible
Pavements:
IRC 37 2012

Nikhil Saboo, BITS Pilani

for commercial vehicles – 1984: Design based on traffic in terms of Cumulative number of standard axle load (traffic upto 30 msa) – 2001: Traffic increased to 150 msa – Elastic layered theory applied for computation of stresses and starins – Development of FPAVE – Fatigue and rutting equation developed (R-56) .History – 1970: Based on CBR of soil.

. High strength will lead to wide shrinkage cracks which can rapidly reflect to the pavement surface. History – 2012: Many new changes – Different types of base and sub-base layers – Granular base and sub-base – Cementitious base and sub-base with aggregate interlayer – Cementitious base and sub-base with SAMI – RAP with/without addition of fresh aggregates treated with foamed bitumen/bitumen emulsion – Use of perpetual pavement Note: Only low strength cementitious base and sub base are recommended.

Criteria – Till the fatigue cracking in bituminous layer extends to 20% of the area – Rutting in pavement reaches 20mm for 20% of the length. – 10% failure criteria included for increasing the reliability – 10% criteria applicable for traffic > 30 msa – Design life: 15-20 years – Stage construction not permitted for cementitious base and sub-base – Traffic in terms of cumulative number of standard axle load repetition – N = 365 x {[(1+r)n-1]/r} x A x D x F .

5-3 MPa. – Strength in terms of resilient modulus: Use empirical equations given in code.75-1.Requirements – Subgrade. – CBR/Effective CBR. – For rainfall < 1000 mm no need for soaking. use 600 MPa for design with PR of 0.5.25. – Sub-base – Unbound: strength in terms of resilient modulus: use empirical equation given in code – Bound: Elastic Modulus: E = 1000 x 7-day UCS [For 7 day UCS between 1. use 400 MPa] . if between 0.

strength in terms of resilient modulus – Bound: 4. .5-7 MPa in 7/28 days. Soil-cement: 0.70 MPa. and Poissons ratio of 0.35 – Bituminous mix: See table/ best practice is to measure using UTM. Lime-flyash: 1.4 MPa. – Aggregate Interlayer: 450 MPa. Poissons ratio of 0.Requirements – Base – Unbound: Use empirical equation from code. Take 50% of the value given by the previous equation – Modulus of rupture for fatigue analysis: cementitious: 1. VG 40 for > 30 msa. Modified binders can be used for extreme temperature and loading conditions.35 – Bitumen emulsion/foamed bitumen treated/RAP: Take 600 MPa.05 MPa. Poissons ratio of 0.35 – Binder: VG 30 for < 30 msa.

Models to be considered – Fatigue – Use 90% reliability equation when traffic > 30 msa .

Models to be considered – Rutting – Use higher viscosity graded bitumen or modified bitumen for limiting rutting and top-down cracking in bituminous layers .

Models to be considered – Cementitious base and sub-base: – Slow setting cement having low cement content should be preferred – Thickness of cement layer is first evaluated using fatigue due to cumulative standard axles – Further cumulative fatigue damage is used based on the stress ratio (similar to what we learned in concrete pavements) – Stresses are calculated using layered theory .