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**waveguides in fluids and solids
**

V. Pagneuxa)

Laboratoire d’Acoustique de l’Université du Maine, UMR CNRS 6613, Av. Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le

Mans Cedex 9, France

A. Maurelb)

Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, UMR CNRS 7587, Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie

Industrielles, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France

**共Received 23 May 2003; revised 11 June 2004; accepted 24 June 2004兲
**

Reciprocity, energy conservation, and time-reversal invariance are three general properties of the

wave fields that imply algebraic scattering matrix properties. In this paper, these scattering matrix

properties are established for waveguides when evanescent modes are taken into account. The

situations correspond to guided acoustic pressure waves in fluids and Lamb waves in solids treated

with the same formalism. The relations between the three properties verified by the scattering matrix

are then discussed, and it is found that, as soon as two properties are verified, the third is also

verified. © 2004 Acoustical Society of America. 关DOI: 10.1121/1.1786293兴

PACS numbers: 43.20.Fn, 43.20.Gp, 43.20.Mv 关MO兴 Pages: 1913–1920

**I. INTRODUCTION wave in a fluid with hard wall and the second case corre-
**

sponds to the guided propagation of either a scalar wave 共SH

A very convenient quantity to characterize the scattering wave兲 or a vectorial wave 共Lamb wave兲 in an elastic wave-

of a wave by a scattering region is the so-called scattering guide with free boundaries. We treat the waveguides in fluids

matrix 共S matrix兲. The versatility of this formulation is due and solids with the same formalism that appears to be useful

to the fact that it relates the outgoing wave to the ingoing to consider the S matrix.

wave directly, with respect to the scattering region, which are The plan of the paper is as follows. In Sec. II, we define

intuitive quantities.1– 4 The scattering problem is then to de- the scattering matrix for the waveguides. Then, the method

termine the S matrix and not to determine the wave field in used to project the acoustic fields on the waveguide modes is

the whole space.5,6 From an experimental point of view, the presented in Sec. III. In Sec. IV, we find the three properties

S matrix is a very convenient tool since the measurements verified by the S matrix due to reciprocity, time-reversal

have to be performed outside of the scattering region only symmetry, and energy conservation of the wave propagation,

and do not have to be intrusive. when evanescent modes are taken into account. Finally, in

In waveguides, when the interest is only in the far field Sec. V, we summarize the three properties and discuss the

of the scattering region, the S matrix is restricted to the relation between the three properties of the S matrix: we find

propagative components. Then, the fundamental properties that as soon as two properties are verified the third relation is

of the wave propagation 共i.e., reciprocity, energy conserva- automatically verified.

tion, and time-reversal symmetry兲 are very simply translated

into relationships verified by the S matrix.7 For instance, the

energy conservation implies that the S matrix is unitary with II. DEFINITION OF THE SCATTERING MATRIX

proper normalization. Besides their fundamental interest,

these algebraic properties of the S matrix can be very useful We consider the problem corresponding to Fig. 1. It con-

in experimental and numerical works, where they provide a sists of a bidimensional waveguide of longitudinal axis x

convenient way to check if the fundamental properties of the with constant height for x⭐0 and x⭓L. In the scattering

wave propagation are verified. Nevertheless, as soon as the region, 0⬍x⬍L, the waveguide is of variable height h(x).

near field is considered, the S matrix has to include the eva- The harmonic time dependence with pulsation is e ⫺i

nescent waves; such a need can exist for example if several and it will be omitted in the following.

scattering regions are taken into account and if they are close Outside of the scattering region, the wave fields can be

enough. Then, the usual properties of the S matrix, correct expressed as a sum over the transverse modes of the homo-

for the propagative waves only, are not correct anymore.8,9 geneous waveguide with coefficients depending on x. These

In this paper, we investigate the general relationships coefficients can be split into right-going components A and

verified by the S matrix with evanescent waves in the cases left-going components B, that is, A and B are vectors whose

of the propagation in 2D waveguides in fluids or solids. The components are the projections of the wave field on the wave

first case corresponds to the guided propagation of a scalar modes. For the sake of clarity, we note in the following AI

共respectively, BI ) at x⫽0 and AII 共respectively, BII ) at x

a兲

Electronic mail: vincent.pagneux@univ-lemans.fr ⫽L. We define ⌿in as the ingoing waves and ⌿out as the

b兲

Electronic mail: agnes.maurel@espci.fr outgoing waves, with respect to the scattering region

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116 (4), Pt. 1, October 2004 0001-4966/2004/116(4)/1913/8/$20.00 © 2004 Acoustical Society of America 1913

and CYi (i⫽0. G. October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes . from the right兲 X 0 F X ⫽ . Results can be reversal invariance. Acoust. the scattering matrix links together the outgoing s t waves ⌿out and the ingoing waves ⌿in at both extremities of ⫽ the scattering region t r ⌿out⫽S⌿in .2兲 CX0 X⫹CY0 Y⫽0. Pt. G. Modal decomposition The idea is to write the equations as an evolution equation 共with respect to the axis x of the waveguide兲 on X and Y that The scattering matrix S links together the right-going leads to a canonical eigenvalue problem in the transverse components and the left-going components through 共2. X and Y are scalar quantities defined by k n and are defined by 1914 J.Ỹ兲 are two solutions of normal to the wall兲. 4. correspond to the natural basis in a on the transverse modes. 10 in that it describes the evolution of a components B. p⫽0 for It can be noticed that both properties 1 and 2 involve the fluids or w⫽0 for solids on the walls.1兲 w⫽ 冉冊 u v B A is the displacement vector and 冉 冊 Then. 共2. Guided wave propagation in fluids and solids is consid. but here that 4-vector is suit. that formalism allows us to easily tackle the projection on the Lamb modes 共for propagation in solids兲. we expose the modal decomposition that permits For solids.2兲. Note that the scattering matrix could be 共3. X⫽ p and Y⫽p. and both properties are related to energy conservation. 共3.. this section. condition for a wall free of traction •n⫽0 on y⫽0 and y Properties 1 and 2 are demonstrated in Appendix B. boundary conditions. on the pressure p associated with boundary condition np ⫽0 on the walls y⫽0 and y⫽h(x) 共n denotes the vector where 共X.Y兲 and 共X̃. 共2. and and to other boundary conditions. It is shown in Appendix A that both sets of equations can Actually. TI 共respectively RII . this formulation is similar to the one presented us to define the right-going components A and left-going recently in Ref. de- ably split in two 2-vectors that permit one to project easily noted Xn (y) and Yn (y). Vol. . This is done working with two quantities X erty 1 would not. 116. 共3..1) in both cases are given in Appendix A. In Sec. Geometry of the waveguide. System 共1兲 共Property 1兲: F. The fluid case corresponds to the Helmholtz equation ⫹h ⬘ (Y"X̃⫺X"Ỹ)(h). and Y presented below. The transverse modes used in the decomposition.兲 are the Lamé’s constants. it will appear that property 1 is related to the time- tensor. They are associated with a wave number For fluids.1兲 with boundary condition 共3. 共2兲 共Property 2兲: (FY兩 Ỹ)⫹(X兩 GX̃)⫽(Y兩 FỸ)⫹(GX兩 X̃) ered. In addition to permitting a unified presentation.冉 冊 冉 冊 BI ⌿out⫽ II . Expressions of F. we use two prop- III. and 共. No. if the We choose to present both cases 共fluid and solid兲 in the walls were lined. property 2 is related to the reciprocity. In direction when transverse modes are sought as in Sec. Soc. 1. FIG. Here. For instance in the fluid case.2兲 and equation on the displacement vector w with the boundary (U兩 V)⫽ 兰 h(x) 0 U(x. x For solids. B. In the following. at y⫽0.11 uniform waveguide. where AI ⌿in⫽ II . where h ⬘ ⫽dh/dx. at y⫽h 共 x 兲 .2兲 the corresponding stress tensor. R and T are matrices linking ingoing and outgoing wave components. 共2.1) are real.g. stress-displacement 4-vector. where ⫽ⵜ•wI⫹ (ⵜw⫹ t ⵜw) denotes the stress IV. 1. property 2 would be conserved while prop- same formalism. TII ) corresponding to wave incident from the left 共respectively. Am. easily generalized to inhomogeneous media with variable . and CYi (i⫽0.3兲 with boundary conditions T RII 共 CX0 ⫹h ⬘ CX1 兲 X⫹ 共 CY0 ⫹h ⬘ CY1 兲 Y⫽0. CXi . ⫽h(x).1兲 冉 冊 I II x Y G 0 Y R T S⫽ I . The solid case corresponds to the Navier Eq. III B. e. CXi . they are 2-vectors X⫽ 冉冊 u t and Y⫽ 冉 冊 ⫺s v . used for the case of more than two terminating waveguides.y)dy denotes a bilinear form. S is defined with the reflection and transmission be written in the same generic form 冉 冊 冉 冊冉 冊 matrices RI .y)•V(x. FORMALISM erties of these matrices A.

8兲. PROPERTIES OF THE SCATTERING MATRIX 共4. ik n 冉 冊 冉 冊冉 冊 Xn Yn ⫽ 0 G F 0 Xn Yn .1) in 共3. 冉 冊 冉 冊 the idea is to use ⌿out ⫽S⌿Rin and to express ⌿out and ⌿Rin R R I I 0 J 0 J̃ J⫽ II .3兲 and the same for JII and J̃II . October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes 1915 . 1兲. and in type. The reciprocity relation corresponds to a relation be.Y兲 is a solution of 共3.1兲 and on the modes Xn and Yn . Eq. Reciprocity X̄⫽ 兺n 共 A n ⫺B n 兲 X n .5兲兴 are a In both cases. and priori distinct and we note in the following Xn␣ . then 共X̄. 共3. and Jn 关Eq.1兲 are real 共property 1兲.2兲 X共 x. Am.4兲 A.2兲 setting d x 共共 X兩 Ỹ兲 ⫺ 共 X̃兩 Y兲兲 h ⬘ ⫽0 CX0 Xn ⫹CY0 Yn ⫽0. n⬎0 evanescent modes.Ỹ兲 of 共3.5兲 and show below that this relation can be written 共4. Yn . We detail this calcu- By definition. Yn .1兲 can also be deduced from the the solid case. 共4.5兲 t AI JI B̃I ⫹ t BII JII ÃII ⫺ t BI JI ÃI ⫺ t AII JII B̃II ⫽0. usual integral representation of the reciprocity property. JM⫽ . According to the modal decomposition.3兲 共 XI 兩 ỸI 兲 ⫺ 共 X̃I 兩 YI 兲 ⫽ 共 XII 兩 ỸII 兲 ⫺ 共 X̃II 兩 YII 兲 . its expression can be found in Ref. J is a diagonal matrix 关Eq. 共3.Y兲 and 共X̃. 冉 冊 Jmn I J̃mn ⫽ 共 XIn 兩 Ym I 兲. is of interest because it permits one to easily project X and Y Here. case. and Jn on the cross section x if 共X.Ȳ兲 is also a solution of ⫽0.4兲 J. At each cross section. matrices F.7兲 冉冊 X Y XR ⫽X̄ solution⇒ R Y ⫽Ȳ solution. IV. 共3. 1.6兲 M has a more complicated structure. 共2. as illustrated in Sec.4兲 ⫽ 冉 冏冊冉冏 冊冉 冏冊冉冏 冊 x X Ỹ ⫹ X x Ỹ ⫺ x X̃ Y ⫺ X̃ x Y These modes are well known: they are proportional to the cosine functions12 in the fluid case and are the Lamb ⫹h ⬘ 共 XỸ⫺X̃Y兲共 h 兲 ⫽ 共 FY兩 Ỹ兲 ⫹ 共 X兩 GX̃兲 ⫺ 共 FỸ兩 Y兲 modes in the solid case13 共their expressions are given in Ap- ⫺ 共 X̃兩 GX兲 ⫹h ⬘ 共 XỸ⫺X̃Y兲共 h 兲 ⫽0. They are linked by a biorthogonality relation The result is deduced from property 2 since 共X. 共3. 共3.1兲. 共3. the time-reversal invariance is translated in the harmonic regime by I ⫽ 共 XIn 兩 Ym I 兲 ⫽J In ␦ mn .1兲. functions in the fluid case and to the Fraser’s biorthogonality where it is called a reciprocity theorem of the convolution relation in the solid case. This solution corresponds to the time-reversed solu- matrices tion. and Jn␣ CYi (i⫽0. this latter expression is equivalent to In the following. As a consequence. This comes from 共4. and Ȳ⫽ 兺n 共 A n ⫹B n 兲 Y n . X and Y are decomposed as JS⫺ t SJ⫽0.Ỹ兲 共 Xn 兩 Ym 兲 ⫽Jn ␦ nm . No. In the fluid lation below. the equalities (XR 兩 Yn ) tween two solutions 共X. fluid and solid. Acoust. we have 共3. Soc.8兲 with ⌿in as ⌿in⫽K(S)⌿in and ⌿out⫽L(S)⌿in. using the scattering matrix S.3兲 and the symmetry property of F and G when they nality 共3. 共4.YR ) in the following.2兲. With XR ⫽X̄ and YR ⫽Ȳ. Jn ⫽ik n . Using the modal decomposition 共3. L. using 共3. at y⫽0 and y⫽h 共 x 兲 . Time-reversal invariance nents A and B at x⫽0 and x⫽L 共Fig. CXi . Obviously.1兲–共3. Using the symmetry properties of the basis X⫺n ⫽ Eventually.1兲 with boundary conditions corresponding to Eq.7兲兴. G. noted (XR . 4. 11. It has 共3.2兲. This form of the reciprocity re- This relation corresponds to the orthogonality of the cosine lation is similar to the one found in Ref. Thus. Vol. B. Pt. ␣ ⫽I. which is the property of the scattering matrix induced by reciprocity of the propagation in the scattering region.2兲 has the same form with or without Y共 x..1兲 takes the form are applied to Xn and Yn : (FYn 兩 Ym )⫽(Yn 兩 FYm ) and (GXn 兩 Xm )⫽(Xn 兩 GXm ). 116. respectively. R R 0 J 0 J̃II the relation L(S)⫽SK(S) is deduced. we obtain ⫺Xn and Y⫺n ⫽Yn . V and detailed in Appendix C. J and M are such that To obtain a property for the S matrix from the time reversal. The S matrix is concerned with values of the compo. and YR ⫽ 兺n 共 A Rn ⫹B Rn 兲 Y n . the values of Xn . this biorthogonality relation can be easily demonstrated us. Here. 共3. Y␣n . thereafter.5兲. the reciprocity relation 共4.6兲 and the biorthogo- ing 共3. We ⫽(X̄兩 Yn ) and (YR 兩 Xn )⫽(Ȳ兩 Xn ) become.5兲 are solutions of 共3. k n is indexed by n⬎0 when it refers to a right-going wave and n⬍0 when it refers to a left-going t ⌿inJ⌿̃out⫺ t ⌿outJ⌿̃in⫽0. XR ⫽ 兺n 共 A Rn ⫺B Rn 兲 X n . wave. II. with ␣ ⫽I. 共4. pendix C兲. With Eqs.6兲 to be noted that Eq.y 兲 ⫽ 兺 共 A n共 x 兲 ⫹B n共 x 兲兲 Yn共 y 兲 . M is simply the identity matrix while in the solid case. 共3. The biorthogonality equation 共3. At these two x positions. we define the 共3.1兲–共3.Y兲 and 共X̃.y 兲 ⫽ 兺 n⬎0 共 A n 共 x 兲 ⫺B n 共 x 兲兲 Xn 共 y 兲 . Then. 15 in the fluid case. we have used J␣ ⫽ t J␣ . 共4.14 In the fluid case. 共3. II for Xn .

properties of J are given in Appendix cent modes. Using the definitions 共2. V. we have thus II 冉 冊 共 XI 兩 YI 兲 ⫺ 共 XI 兩 YI 兲 ⫽ 共 XII 兩 YII 兲 ⫺ 共 XII 兩 YII 兲 .1b兲 lations become 2J⌿Rin⫽Hp ⌿in⫹Hm ⌿out⫽ 共 Hp ⫹Hm S̄兲 ⌿in. B. we suppose that we have two procity relation and time-reversal invariance 关taking in the propagating modes k II II 1 and k 2 and we account for one eva- reciprocity relation 共X. 0 W ␣ ⫽ t A␣ 共 J̃␣ ⫺ t J̃␣ 兲 A␣ ⫺ t B␣ 共 J̃␣ ⫹ t J̃␣ 兲 A␣ k II 3 冉 冊 ⫹ t A␣ 共 J̃␣ ⫹ t J̃␣ 兲 B␣ ⫺ t B␣ 共 J̃␣ ⫺ t J̃␣ 兲 B␣ 共5. 共5. Time-reversal invariance: for ␣ ⫽I. R 2J⌿out ⫽Hm ⌿in⫹Hp ⌿out⫽ 共 Hm ⫹Hp S̄兲 ⌿in. and the en- 共 A Rn ⫹B Rn 兲 Jn ⫽ 兺 m⬎0 共 A m ⫹B m 兲共 Ym 兩 Xn 兲 . Let us assume that. Soc. at x⫽L. DISCUSSION 共 A Rn ⫺B Rn 兲 Jn ⫽ 兺 共 A m ⫺B m 兲共 Xm兩 Yn 兲 . 116. let us take an example in both cases. we obtain the energy conservation property for the k II 2 scattering matrix 0 Hm ⫹Hp S̄⫽ S共 Hp ⫹Hm S̄兲 . leads to Reciprocity relation: JS⫺ t SJ⫽0. II. lar case only. 1. we have only one propagating mode and one evanescent minating waveguides. ergy conservation lead to three relations on the scattering matrix S Summing and subtracting these relations. Hm ⫹Hp S̄⫽JSJ⫺1 共 Hp ⫹Hm S̄兲 . It would permit one nescent modes such that J I3 ⫽J I2 . II. the term in- reversal invariance property for the scattering matrix volving Hp in the energy conservation represents the energy flux carried by evanescent modes. at x⫽0. YR ⫽Ȳ) as solutions兴 nescent mode k 3 . Eq. To gain some hints of the structures of Hp and Hm .6兲 0 This relation can be expressed. one propagating mode J I1 C. taken into account by the Hp matrix. M takes the form 1916 J.Y兲 and (XR ⫽X̄. Structure of H m and H p Sec. Notably. but in the sca- evanescent modes is different from the version without eva. ␣ ⫽ 共 J̃␣ ⫹ t J̃␣ 兲 A␣ ⫹ 共 J̃␣ ⫺ t J̃␣ 兲 B␣ . 共5. 共4.6兲 can also be mode (J I1 purely imaginary兲 and we account for two eva- deduced from an integral representation. as the conser- k I2 vation of the energy flux proportional to W ␣ ⫽(X␣ 兩 Y␣ ) ⫺(X␣ 兩 Y␣ ) Hp ⫽2i 0 . ␣ ⫽ 共 J̃␣ ⫺ t J̃␣ 兲 A␣ ⫹ 共 J̃␣ ⫹ t J̃␣ 兲 B␣ . Am. and ⌿out⫽S̄⌿in have been used. 共4. we have one propagating As for the reciprocity relation.2兲 ⫽constant. 共4.6兲 to geometry with more than two ter. No. Hm ⫽JM⫺ t (JM).. the time-reversal invariance. In the fluid case. we assume that to generalize Eq. let us assume that we have. Energy conservation ⫽ jk I1 (k I1 real兲 and we account for one evanescent mode k I2 The energy conservation comes directly from the reci. Finally. for ␣ ⫽I. In this case. nescent modes because of the extra terms involving Hp 共see A.7兲 where Hp implies extra terms due to the presence of evanes. V兲. knowing that ⌿out R ⫽S⌿in R . t 共4. 共4. 4.2兲. 共5. m⬎0 We have seen in both cases 共fluid and solid兲 that the reciprocity relation. t t t Hm ⫽2i k II 1 . we obtain the time. Energy conservation: Hm ⫹Hp S̄⫽ t S共 Hp ⫹Hm S̄兲 . 共purely imaginary兲. Vol. at x⫽0 ( ␣ ⫽I) and at x⫽L ( ␣ ⫽II). In these relations. In the solid case. these re. at x⫽0. Acoust. k I1 This can be written 0 t ⌿inHm ⌿in⫹ ⌿inHp ⌿out⫺ ⌿outHp ⌿in⫺ ⌿outHm ⌿out⫽0. mode with a purely real J II 2 . October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes .1a兲 2J␣ AR. at x⫽L. 2J␣ BR.5兲 Note that the same kind of relations have been shown in This time-reversal invariance property of the S matrix with Ref. the presence of evanescent modes is Finally.1c兲 where Hp ⫽JM⫹ t (JM). 9 in the angular spectrum representation.1兲 and 共2. With M⫽I 共Appendix C兲. JSJ⫺1 共 Hp ⫹Hm S̄兲 ⫽Hm ⫹Hp S̄. Pt.

These relationships can be also helpful to works re- the form lated to time-reversal mirror in waveguides.1兲. we have 0 共 Hp ⫺ t SHm 兲 J̄⫺1 共 H̄m ⫹H̄p S兲 0 J I2 ⫽ 共 t SHp ⫺Hm 兲 J̄⫺1 共 H̄p ⫹H̄m S兲 .5b兲 We have demonstrated that as soon as two relations of Energy conservation: Hm ⫽ t SHm S̄. 4. and to 3D ge- erned by the equation 共3. 共5. when the modes are restricted to propagating components.. No. the third relation is also verified. 116. then time-reversal invariance and energy components. the third is also verified. we find Ha ⫽0 and Hb ⫽4J. October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes 1917 .1兲 can be used as a test of the corresponding physical time-reversal invariance.1兲 with boundary conditions 共3. To the best of our knowledge. 共5. It ometry. by construction.9兲 冉 冊 J II 2 共5. time-reversal. conservation are equivalent 共i. since in that case H p is zero. Reciprocity relation: JS⫺ t SJ⫽0.13兲 to It is shown in Appendix C that.2兲. so that Eq.e. Relations between reciprocity. Soc. we have 0 t SHa S⫺Ha ⫹ t SHb ⫺Hb S⫽0. the energy conservation is written M⫽ 1 0 . Then.7兲 1 Finally.3兲 1 共 Hp ⫺ t SHm 兲 S̄⫽ 共 t SHp ⫺Hm 兲 . 冉 冊 1 S̄J̄⫺1 共 Hp ⫹Hm S兲 ⫽J̄⫺1 共 Hm ⫹Hp S兲 . ity are verified. Pt. we obtain a simple 0 expression of Ha and Hb B. Thus.9兲 corresponds to the reciprocity relation. each equation in a numerical calculation.17 J. 共5.7兲 to eliminate S̄ yields a relation 冉 冊 between t S and S Thus. time-reversal invariance Besides. time-reversal invariance.5c兲 共5.12兲 A consequence of the results of the preceding section is that the three relationships on the S matrix can be simplified Hb ⫽2 共 JMM̄⫹ t 共 MM̄兲 J兲 . we implies energy conservation and vice versa兲. and reciproc- comes from time-reversal invariance and energy conserva. to test the energy conservation.4兲 with J I1 0 0 Ha ⫽Hp J̄⫺1 Hm ⫹Hm J̄⫺1 Hp . These results can be easily generalized to energy conservation other boundary conditions. 共5. even if the governing equa.8兲 Hp ⫽2 J I2 0 . in contrast to usual relations involving only the rigid walls or to the Navier equation for solids with traction propagating modes and assuming that one is in the far field free boundaries. The equation 共5. with evanescent modes taken into account. as it can be expected by a proper normalization. Hb ⫽Hp J̄⫺1 Hp ⫹Hm J̄⫺1 Hp . As a consequence.). reduces the number of tests that have to be conducted with plex conjugate of the time-reversal invariance is written in 共5. in both fluid and solid cases. J is diagonal. or the reciprocity of a scattering property. neous media 共 and variable for instance兲. we use the following procedure. They could be useful also to test the results of an It is clear that if the reciprocity relation is verified experiment if this latter is able to provide the evanescent (JSJ⫺1 ⫽ t S. 共5.5a兲 MM̄⫽I. to waveguide with inhomoge- So far it has been assumed that the propagation is gov. The com. 共5. and and the solid case. Am. Vol. the reciprocity property implies that VI. 共5. 共5.6兲 0 1 Then. Eq.. 共5. 共5.11兲 J II 1 Using that. 共5.1兲 are verified. 共5. Consequently.6兲 in 共5.10兲 Hm ⫽2 0 0 . 共5. using 共5. 1. Relationships without evanescent modes Ha ⫽2 共 JMM̄⫺ t 共 MM̄兲 J兲 .1兲 that are verified by the scattering matrix with eva- nescent modes. this is the first time that such general equations are found for the fluid case C. of the scattering region. region. To do that. in tions in the scattering region are unknown. They are exact whatever the distance from the scat- corresponds to the Helmholtz equation for fluids bounded by tering region. Nevertheless. CONCLUDING REMARKS S is symmetric and the energy conservation implies that S is The main results of this paper are the relationships in unitary.1兲 can be useful. Acoust. as soon as two physical properties among It is more difficult to prove that the reciprocity relation energy conservation. 共5. this tion. 共5. have shown that. Time-reversal invariance: Hm ⫽JSJ⫺1 Hm S̄.

共A3兲 and the same with h ⬘ ⫽0 at y⫽0. 共A1兲 2 c 2 y 0 where p denotes the acoustic pressure and c the acoustic 1 ⫺ wave speed in the considered fluid. Fluid case 0 2  ⫺ 2 ⫹ ␣ 冉冊 We start from the Helmholtz equation y X y2 ⫽ 2 x Y ⵜ 2 p⫹ p⫽0.. 共A1兲 takes the form ⫺h ⬘ ⫺ ␣ 冉 冊冊冉 冊 0 y X 冉冊 x Y ⫽ 0 ⫺ 冉 2 y 2 ⫹ 2 /c 2 X Y . the elasticity equation can be written 0 ⫺1 ⫺ ␣ y ⫺ 2 冉冊 u v ⫽div . 4. at y⫽h 共 x 兲 冉 and F⫽ . the boundary condition np⫽0 共with n the normal to the wall兲 can be written ⫻ 冉冊 X Y . 116. at y⫽0. 共A8兲 ⫺h ⬘ 共 x 兲 p⫹ p⫽0. h⬘ 0 y 0 1 X⫹ Y⫽0 at y⫽h 共 x 兲 . 共. where 0 0 冦 s⫽ v ⫹ 共 ⫹2 兲 u. where 共X. Boundary condition of a wall free of traction •n⫽0 共n de- 1. 共A5兲–共A6兲 take the form 共 GX兩 X̃兲 ⫽ 共 X兩 GX̃兲 . In an x-axis waveguide y of height h(x). CX0 ⫽ . G⫽ . APPENDIX B: PROPERTIES OF F AND G y x ⫽ 冉 冊 s t t r . and tensor. x 冊 Property 1 is obviously verified in both fluid and solid cases. CY0 ⫽ . r⫽ 共 ⫹2 兲 v ⫹ u. To obtain property 2. Solid case 冉 冊 0 0 With (u. detailed below. we calculate the products 共FY兩Ỹ兲 y x and 共GX兩X̃兲. G⫽1. at y⫽h 共 x 兲 . t⫽0. Soc. r⫽0 at y⫽0. 冢 冣 APPENDIX A: EVOLUTION EQUATIONS IN  WAVEGUIDES ⫺ ⫺ y 冉 冊 1. Pt. CY0 ⫽ / y. v ) the vector of displacements and the stress 0 0 CX1 ⫽ . 共A5兲 CY1 ⫽ 冉 冊 1 0 . 1 0 0 ⫺ y 冉 冊 2. 共A7兲 共 FY兩 Ỹ兲 ⫽ 共 Y兩 FỸ兲 ⫹h ⬘ 共 YX̃⫺XỸ兲共 h 兲 . as where denotes the density. 共A9兲 冉 冊冊 1 0 We thus identify and the boundary condition 共A2兲  ⫺ ⫺ y ⫺h ⬘ X⫹ Y⫽0. With X⫽( / x)p and Y⫽p. y 0 1 CX1 ⫽⫺1. y 2  ⫺ ⫹ ␣ 2 共A4兲 y y2 冉 冊 Y⫽0.兲 the Lamé’s constants. at y⫽0. with ␣⫽4共⫹兲/共⫹2兲 and ⫽/共⫹2兲. the expressions of F and G being given in Appendix A. With r x y 共A2兲 ⫽ ␣ ( / y) v ⫹  s. and CY1 ⫽0. Am. Acoust. October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes . Vol. We have to distinguish here the fluid and solid cases. boundary conditions 共A7兲 can be written 冉 冊 冉 冊 p⫽0.Ỹ兲 verify relations 共A8兲– 共A6兲 共A9兲. No. 1. ⫺h ⬘ t⫹r⫽0 at y⫽h 共 x 兲 . with t⫽ 冉 y u⫹ v .Y兲 and 共X̃. Fluid case notes the normal to the wall兲 in an x-axis waveguide of height h(x) can be written It is obvious to see from the expressions of F and G given in Appendix A that ⫺h ⬘ s⫹t⫽0. With X⫽( ut ) and Y⫽( ⫺s v ). y 冉 冊 2 We thus identify F⫽⫺ 关 ( 2 / y 2 )⫹ 2 /c 2 兴 . 1918 J. CX0 ⫽0.

共ii兲 Evanescent modes that correspond to complex wave number k n with a nonzero real part give a imaginary Jn with nonzero imaginary part. Solid case 0 0 0 J4 For the sake of clarity. y n verified.. Acoust. for purely imaginary wave 共 Xn 兩 Ym 兲 ⫽ 共 Xn 兩 Ȳm 兲 ⫽ik n ␦ nm . used to calculate (Xn 兩 Ȳm ). it is nonzero for n⫽m. Indeed. considering k n⫹1 . Finally. J1 0 0 0 fined in 共3. 1.8兲. V n⫽ ⫺ik n n . which constitutes property 2. in this case. Then. 116. Symmetrically. ␣n ⫺4k 2n  n sinh共  n h 兲 cosh共 ␣ n h 兲 ⫽0. The dispersion rela- which are valid for any vectors X. Pt. We refer to a previous paper where Jn has been explicitly calculated11 and we summarize below the main results we Consequently. Ỹ. Such a mode with k n APPENDIX C: TRANSVERSE MODES AND wave number can be associated with another one such STRUCTURE OF THE M MATRIX that k m ⫽⫺k n . 共C1兲 For complex k n with nonzero real part (k n⫹1 ⫽⫺k̄ n ). In this case. and three evanescent T V 16兲. Subtracting these two relations. 共 GX兩 X̃兲 ⫽ 共 X兩 GX̃兲 ⫹ 关 X 2 X̃ 1 ⫺X 1 X̃ 2 兴 h0 . Y. Soc. only symmetric Lamb modes are where we have considered a propagating mode with wave presented 共for antisymmetric modes.3兲 with boundary imaginary wave number give a real value for Jn . 4. the latter product is nonzero only when k̄ m ⫽⫾k n .4兲 are 共for 兩 n 兩 ⭓1) The relation 共for right-going modes兲 (Xn 兩 Ym )⫽Jn ␦ mn is Yn 共 y 兲 ⫽ 冑 2⫺ ␦ n1 h cos 冉 共 n⫺1 兲 y h . y n 共 FY兩 Ỹ兲 ⫽ 共 Y兩 FỸ兲 ⫹ Y 2 ⫺  Ỹ 1 ⫹ ␣ Ỹ y 2 defined with the scalar potential n ⫽(k 2n 冉 冊册 ⫹ ␣ n )cosh(ny)sinh(␣nh) and the potential vector (0. 1. Y.obtained simply by integration by parts and by using 共A4兲. X̃. Vol. we finally write these relations 共 ␣ 2n ⫹k 2n 兲 2 sinh共 ␣ n h 兲 cosh共  n h 兲 共 FY兩 Ỹ兲 ⫽ 共 Y兩 FỸ兲 ⫹h ⬘ 共 Y 2 X̃ 2 ⫺X 2 Ỹ 2 兲共 h 兲 . 共C4兲 共 GX兩 X̃兲 ⫽ 共 X兩 GX̃兲 ⫺h ⬘ 共 Y 1 X̃ 1 ⫺X 1 Ỹ 1 兲共 h 兲 . We denote here (Z 1 . associated with wave number k n . The structure of the 冉 冊 matrix (Xn 兩 Ȳm ) is thus the following: from which it is easy to deduce that M⫽I. Property 2 is then clearly U n ⫽ik n n ⫹ . k t ⫽ /c t ⫽( / ) 1/2 . we have can extract from its calculation 共results are considered for right-going waves. n ). with n (x. it is nonzero again for n⫽m. Jn is purely imaginary. it is Thus. 冊 Xn 共 y 兲 ⫽ik n Yn . Solid case 共C3兲 S n ⫽ ⫺ 共 k 2n ⫹2  2n ⫺ ␣ 2n 兲 n ⫹2ik n .  n ⫽(k 2n ⫺k 2l ) 1/2. Xn ⫽( Un ) and Yn ⫽( ⫺Sn ). where modes: two are associated with k 2 and k 3 ⫽⫺k 2 with non- n n J. solutions of 共3. Fluid case 共iii兲 Finally. with Ȳm ⫽Y(k̄ m ). ⫺X"Ỹ兲共 h 兲 . evanescent modes associated with purely The transverse modes. Ỹ. 2 h ⫺Ỹ 2 ⫺  Y 1 ⫹ ␣ Y . and k l ⫽ /c l ⫽( /(⫹2 )) 1/2 . 共C5兲 0 J3 ⫽J̄2 0 0 2. X̃. Am. we calculate for n⭓1 nonzero for m⫽n⫹1. 共C2兲 number. number k 1 (J1 is purely imaginary兲. for real wave number 共propagating modes兲. No. The structure of the spectrum in the solid case is quite more complicated than in the fluid case. We can calculate by integrating by parts 冋 冉 冊 T n ⫽ 2ik n ⫹ 共 k 2n ⫹ ␣ 2n 兲 n . where M is de. 0 0 J2 0 .0. tion for symmetric modes is of the form16 ary conditions 共A9兲. Thus. we have Jm ⫽Jn and we choose a numbering such that m⫽n⫹1.Z 2 ) the two components of a vector y n 冋 册 Z⫽X. see for instance Ref. October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes 1919 . 共 FY兩 Ỹ兲 ⫹ 共 X兩 GX̃兲 ⫽ 共 Y兩 FỸ兲 ⫹ 共 GX兩 X̃兲 ⫹h ⬘ 共 Y"X̃ Imag(k n )⭓0 in convention e ⫺i ). it is nonzero for m⫽n⫺1.y)⫽⫺2ik n  n sinh(␣ny)sinh(nh) and with ␣ n y 2 0 ⫽(k 2n ⫺k 2t ) 1/2. conditions 共3. Using the bound. 共B1兲 共i兲 Propagating modes correspond to real wave number k n . y n 冋 册 2.

1920 J. and N. Pereyra. Newton. 2. Vol. Théorie des guides d’ondes Electromagnétiques 共Eyrolles. H. elastic waveguides. we would have 9 R. Viktorov. London. Pt. Hudde and U. 290–317 共1988兲. A. ‘‘Scattering matrix for elastic waves.’’ Proc. Theoretical Acoustics 共McGraw Hill. No. ‘‘Macroscopic approach to multi- channel disordered conductors. Soc. October 2004 Pagneux and Maurel: Scattering matrix with evanescent modes . identity matrices for real or purely imaginary wavenumbers 8 C. Phys. Roux. Vassalo. 917–931 共1999兲. Ser. 16 4 V. 59. London. A 458. Varatharajulu and Y. 215–216 共1976兲. It contains blocks of P. ‘‘Orthogonality relation for the Rayleigh–Lamb modes of 3 H. 1913–1930 共2002兲. 1967兲. 2. Sáenz. Acoust. Letens. 94. W. R. Am.’’ Proc. Chap. I. New York.-J. Pagneux and A.’’ Ann. 1985兲.. Ser. 4. 5 17 L. 116. 1. tions 共Plenum. J. 60共3兲. New York.zero real part and one is associated with a purely imaginary 6 R. P. ods for long range propagation in an acoustic waveguide with repeated 14 boundary deformations. G. 0127121–0127127 0 0 1 0 共2000兲. 3508 –3518 共1996兲. J. wave number k 4 (J4 is real兲. A. vectors: A comparison. Wave Propagation in Elastic Solids 共North-Holland. Fink. W. Am. 1811–1813 共1997兲. ‘‘Variational principles for the acoustic 1952兲. 共C6兲 10 M⫽ . A 62.8兲. 70.’’ Phys. Am. 15 nonrigid wall in a lossless circular duct. J. A. 冉 冊 numbers. Acoust. New York. E. guide.-H. A. Am. 2 13 J. Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles 共McGraw-Hill. ‘‘Lamb wave propagation in inhomogeneous An important property of M is that M2 ⫽I with M̄⫽M. Rayleigh and Lamb Waves: Physical Theory and Applica- Theory.’’ J. Rev. 100. ‘‘Reci- procity. ‘‘Coupled Rayleigh surface in a slowly 0 1 0 0 varying elastic waveguide. and blocks of the form ( 10 01 ) for two complex conjugate wave Paris. I. Roman. and M. Wapenaar. Mello. Landau and E. Acoust.’’ J. Greffet. Rev. Acoust. Kumar. Pao. A 455. 1445–1458 共1954兲. ‘‘Scattering matrix and boundary integral equation meth- Amsterdam. 1 12 P. Dawson. 90共3兲. Soc. 78共5兲. 0 0 0 1 11 V. C. 1966兲. Ingard. 1965兲. Achenbach.’’ Phys. Nieto-Vesperinas.’’ Appl. Carminati. T.’’ J. Oxford. D. Lifshitz. Soc. In the previous example. Acoust. Soc. Soc. Maurel. ‘‘Reciprocity theorems for two-way and one-way wave 1826 –1837 共1985兲.’’ J. 181共2兲. M. Quantum Mechanics (Non-relativistic P. S. ‘‘Scattering matrix of a discontinuity with a vibration of a plate. D. Gerjuoy and D. Acoust. B. 7 We can now define the M in 共3. and time-reversal symmetry of the S-matrix of fields 1 0 0 0 containing evanescent components. 556 –566 共1976兲.’’ J. Soc. Saxon. Am. Lett. Phys. Soc. B. field. Morse and U. Fraser. Am. 1987兲. ‘‘Time reversal in an ultrasonic wave- Theory) 共Pergamon. Soc. Harris. R. Vol. Folguera and G. 1560–1574 共1991兲. unitarity. P. and M.

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