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FLOW IN PIPES

Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Reynolds Number

Entrance Region Flow

Pressure drops and head loss in Laminar flow in

circular pipes

Minor Losses in piping system

FLOW IN PIPES

pipes, Reynolds number, and Critical Reynolds

Number.

Explain friction loss in Laminar flow. Derive and

Explain Hagen - Poiseuille equation.

Explain and describe the important of Poiseuilles law

in Biomedical application.

Explain the important of laminar and turbulent flow

in biomedical engineering.

Solve problems about laminar and turbulent flow.

FLOW IN PIPES

classified as external or

internal.

We focus on internal

for flow in pipes.

Laminar & Turbulent Flow:

Laminar Flow

Fluid particles move along the smooth

path in laminas or layers, with one

layer sliding smoothly over an

adjacent layer.

Turbulent Flow

It is most common flow in engineering

practice. The fluid particles move in

very irregular paths, causing an

exchange of momentum from one

portion of the fluid to other portion.

8/1/2017 6

LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS

The flow appears to be

smooth and steady. The

stream has a fairly uniform

diameter and there is little or

no evidence of mixing of the

various parts of the stream.

The flow has very low

velocity highly ordered

motion

velocity highly disordered

motion. The elements of fluid

appear to be mixing chaotically

within the stream.

REYNOLDS NUMBER

How to distinguish Turbulent and Laminar in mathematics?

Osborne Reynolds manage to do that in 1880s.

Re = Inertia force / viscous force

Re = Fi /Fv = A v2 / ( v/D A) = v D /

Re = vD/

Where,

= fluid density ,

= fluid viscosity ,

D = pipe diameter and

V= average velocity of flow,

Re is the ratio of the inertial forces to viscous forces in the fluid.

Dimensionless - no UNITS.

REYNOLDS NUMBER

How to use it ?

Critical Reynolds Number flow become turbulent.

Larger Re Inertial is bigger than viscous, viscous cannot prevent the

random and rapid fluctuation of the fluids and vice versa.

Re= 2,200 Re=4,000

Re depends upon:

Various conditions of vibrations

Rough / F Smooth /F

8/1/2017 10

Our approach:

In engineering practice most flow

conditions are turbulent.

The pipe diameter is much larger than 25

mm.

Laminar flow is found only in viscous flow.

Laminar cases are studied because to

derive theories simple and accurate

relationship.

8/1/2017 11

Problems

Prob.1

Velocity =?, Re= 2000 (laminar)

Diameter of pipe = 25 mm (pipe)

= 10-6 m2/s

8/1/2017 12

Re = v D / = v D /

v = (Re ) / D

= (200010-6 ) / 0.025

= 0.08 m/s

v= 0.08 m/s

Problems:

cntd.

An oil (s=0.85, = 1.8 10-5 m2/s) flow in a 10 cm

diameter pipe at 0.50 L / s. Is the flow is turbulent

or laminar?

8/1/2017 14

Ans:

v = Q/ A

= (500cm 3/s ) / (3.41102 cm2 / 4)

= 6.73 cm/s

= 0.0637 m/s

Re = D v /

= (0.1 m 0.0637m/s) / (1.8 10-5 m2/s)

= 354

Since Re 2,000, the flow must be Laminar.

EXAMPLE 1REYNOLDS NUMBER

glycerine at 25C flows in a pipe with a 150-mm inside

diameter. The average velocity of flow is 3.6 m/s.

Laminar and Turbulent in Human

Blood

Most of human blood flow is laminar, having Re of 300

or less.

However, it is possible for turbulent to occur at very

high flow rates in the descending aorta, for example

in highly conditioned athletes. Sometimes it is also

common in pathological conditions (narrowed

(stenotic) arteries and across stenotic heart valves.

TURBULENT AND ITS EFFECT

Haemodynamic studies have shown that diseased cardiac

valves, whether stenosed or incompetent, create regions

of increased turbulence and shear stresses that are large

enough to damage the vascular endothelium leading to

endothelial dysfunction.

Endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from

the heart to the smallest capillary. These cells reduce

friction of the flow of blood allowing the fluid to be

pumped further and control of blood pressure.

A key feature of endothelial dysfunction is the inability of

arteries and arterioles to dilate fully in response to an

appropriate stimulis.

Laminar and Turbulent in the lungs

In the lungs, fully developed laminar flow probably

occurs only in very small airways with low Re.

When air flow at higher rates in larger diameter tubes,

like Trachea, the flow is often turbulent.

Much of the flow in intermediate sized airways will be

transitional flow.

ENTRANCE REGION

FLOW ENTERING CIRCULAR PIPE

are significance

The inviscid flow region Frictional effects are negligible and

velocity in radial directions is constant.

The region from the pipe inlet to the point at which the

boundary layer merges at the centreline is called the

Hydrodynamic Entrance Region, and the length is

Hydrodynamic Entry Length, Lh.

ENTRY LENGTH (LENGTH OF ENTRANCE REGION), Lh

Laminar flow,

Lh 0.05Re D D

Turbulent flow,

1/4

Lh 1.359Re D

For a pipe length over than 10D, entrance effect is negligible

and thus,

Lh 10D

FULLY DEVELOP FLOW IN ARTERIES

gives Xe=18D. This means that, an entrance length

equal to 18 pipe diameters is required for fully

developed flow in human system.

In human cardiovascular system, it is not common to

see fully developed flow in arteries. The vessels

continually branch, with the distance between

branches not often being greater than 18

diameters.

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

Assumptions:

Steady, laminar flow of incompressible liquid with constant

properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe

No acceleration since it is steady and fully develop.

No motion in the radial direction, velocity in radial direction is zero

We try to obtain the velocity profile and also a relation to the

friction factor.

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

sum the forces acting on that cylinder.

First, we will need to make some assumptions. Assume

that the flow is steady. This means that the flow is not

changing with time; that the derivative of flow rate with

respect to time is equal to zero.

dQ

0

dt

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

tube with a constant cross-section. This flow

condition is known as uniform flow. For steady

flows in long tubes with a constant cross-section,

the flow is fully developed and therefore, the

pressure gradient, dP/dx is constant.

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

The third assumption is that the fluid is Newtonian.

Newtonian flow is flow in which the shearing stress, t,

in the fluid is constant. In other words, the viscosity is

constant with respect to the shear rate, y, and the

whole process is carried out at a constant

temperature.

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

pipe with the downstream (to the right) being

positive.If the flow is unchanging with time, then

the sum of forces in the x dire<

P(r2) - (P + dP)(r2) 2rdx = 0

-dP(r2) = 2rdx

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

function of pressure gradient, dP/dx and radial position, r:

r dP

and 2 dx

Rtube dP

wall

2 dx

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE

From the definition of viscosity that the shear stress is

also related to the shear rate:

dV

dr

From the relation of shear stress, pressure drop and

velocity gradient

r dP dV

2 dx dr

Then producing differential equation with the variables

velocity,V and radius,r:

1 dP

dV rdr

2 dx

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE

The next step in the analysis is to solve the previous

differential equation, which gives the velocity of each

point in the tube as a function

of the radius, r:

2

1 dP r

V C1

2 dx r

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE

So far, in this analysis, we have made three

assumptions. First, steady flow (dQ/dt = 0); second,

fully developed tube (dP/dx is constant); and third,

viscosity is constant.

Now we make assumption four, which is the no slip

condition. This means V at the wall is zero when r

equals the radius of the tube. Therefore, set r = Rtube =

R and V=0 to solve for C1.

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE 2

1 dP r

0 C1

2 dx 2

2

1 dP R

C1

2 dx 2

The equation, which gives velocity as a function of radius, r, is then

1 dP 2 2

V [r R ]

4 dx

The final assumption is that the flow is laminar whereby this

parabolic velocity profile represents the velocity profile across a

constant cross section.

LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES; VELOCITY PROFILE

1 dP 2 2

V [r R ]

4 dx

The dP/dx must have ve value for pressure drops that cause a

positive velocity (pressure must decrease in the flow direction due to

the viscous effect). The maximum velocity will occur at the

centreline, where r=0.

remains constant in incompressible flow when the cross

sectional area of pipe is constant.

u max 2Vm

PRESSURE DROP

Pressure drop occurs as the fluid flows along straight lengths of

pipe and tubing. It causes pressure to decrease along the pipe

and they increase the amount of power that a pump must

deliver the fluid. It is caused by friction, changes in kinetic

energy, etc.

Friction may occur between the fluid & the pipe work, but friction

also occurs within the fluid as sliding between adjacent layers of

fluid takes place. The friction within the fluid is due to the fluids

viscosity.

low, and resistance to flow becomes almost totally dependant

on the viscosity of the fluid, this condition is known as Laminar

flow.

PRESSURE DROP IN LAMINAR FLOW

In laminar flow, the fluid seems to flow in several

layers, one on another as described in below figures.

Because of the viscosity, shear stress is created between the layers of fluid.

Overcoming the frictional forces produced by the shear stress (act

opposite direction to flow).

PRESSURE DROP IN LAMINAR FLOW

The pressure drop in laminar flow can be

expressed as below.

8LVm 32LVm

P P1 P 2

R2 D2

there is no frictions. It also mean that the pressure

drop depends entirely on the viscous effects.

PRESSURE DROP

8LVm 32LVm

P P1 P2 2

2

(1)

R D

The above equation is used to determine the pressure drop in

laminar flow. However, the following equation can be used to

determine the pressure drop for all cases of fully develop

internal flow (Laminar or Turbulent, Circular or non

circular pipes, Smooth or rough surfaces, Horizontal or

inclines) and known as Darcys equation.

2

L V

P f m (2)

D 2

8 w

Where friction factors, f can be defined as f

V 2 m

PRESSURE DROP IN LAMINAR

Both (1) and (2) equation can be used to determine the

pressure drop for circular pipe in laminar flow, equating

both, we find,

64

f

Re

The equation shows that for laminar flow the friction

factors is a function of Reynolds number only and

independent of surface roughness.

HEAD LOSS

In piping system analysis, P = gh express loss in

terms of pressure.

The pressure loss can also be expressed in terms of

length of water (m) which is

hL = PL/pg

It represents the additional height that the fluid need to

be raised by a pump to overcome the frictional losses

in the pipe.

MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE

Consider the steady,laminar flow in pipe

as shown in the above figure. R

radius,r and distance x and can be shown X

as u(r,x).

Since dQ/dt=0, conservation of mass

equation is applied, mass flow rate,dm/dt

and mean velocity,Vm relation can be

define as

m Vm A c u r, x dA c

.

Ac

MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE

Then Vm can be expressed as

Vm

Ac

u (r, x )dA c

Ac

u (r, x )2rdr 2

R

2 u (r, x )rdr (a )

A c R 2 R 0

constant through the flow direction, therefore,

u (r, x )

0 u u (r )

x

MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE

1 dP 2

u (r ) [ r R 2 ] ( b )

4 dx

From (a) and (b), the mean velocity then can be expressed as

R 2 dP

Vm ( c)

8 dx

From (c) and (d), the relation between mean velocity and velocity at any radius,

r2

u (r ) 2Vm (1 2 )

R

Mean velocity, Vm is at radius r=0, therefore

u max 2Vm

MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE

Combining the relation between Pressure Drop and Mean

velocity in laminar flow, we obtained the following

relationship.

(P1 P 2)R 2 (P1 P 2)D 2 PD 2

Vm

8L 32L 32L

The flow rate is

V VmAc R 2

8L 128L 128L

equation.

The equation is valid only for laminar flow (NR < 2000).

EXAMPLE 2 - ENERGY LOSS

flows 30 m through a 150-mm-diameter pipe with

an average velocity of 4.0 m/s.

First, we must determine whether the flow is

laminar or turbulent by evaluating the Reynolds

number:

EXAMPLE 2 - ENERGY LOSS

Darcys equation, we get

expressed in the units of the SI unit system.

Therefore, the resulting units for hL are m or Nm/N.

This means that 13.2 Nm of energy is lost by each

newton of the glycerine as it flows along the 30 m

of pipe.

POISEUILLES LAW AND AIR RESISTANCE IN PULMONARY

Although the air is not very viscous, there is a noticeable

resistance to the air flow. It causes the pressure drop

along the airway and it decrease in the direction of the

flow.

When air flows through relatively small diameters tubes as

in the terminal brochioles, the flow is laminar.

When it flows at higher rates in larger diameter tubes, like

the trachea, the flow is often turbulent.

Much of the flow in the intermediate sized airways can be

transitional flow which is difficult to predict either laminar

or turbulent.

POISEUILLES LAW AND AIR RESISTANCE IN PULMONARY

We learn about Poiseuilles law that relevant to laminar flow. This law

applies to air flow and also blood flow. The relation can be expressed as

below

P D 4

V

128L

Analogous to V=IR in electrical, Voltage drop,V similar to Pressure gradient,

P/L; electric current similar to flow rate and resistance to flow can be

expressed as

128

Re sis tan ce

D 4

Resistance is inversely related to the fourth power of the diameter, the

resistance in the airways is not predominantly in the smallest diameter

airways. Why? See next slide.

POISEUILLES LAW AND AIR

RESISTANCE IN PULMONARY

numerous. Therefore the smaller bronchioles contribute

relatively little resistance because of their increased

numbers.

The major site of airway resistance is the medium-sized

bronchi.

Airways with less than 2mm diameter only contribute

about 20% of air resistance.

25 -40% is contributed by upper airways including the

mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx and trachea.

FRICTION LOSS IN TURBULENT FLOW

flow. It depends on the surface roughness of the pipe as well as

Reynolds number (IN LAMINAR, LOSSES ONLY DEPEND ON THE

REYNOLD NUMBER)

The , the average wall roughness can be obtained from tables

(experiment has been conducted to determine the value). The average

value is for new and clean pipe.

FRICTION LOSS IN TURBULENT FLOW

MOODY DIAGRAM FOR TURBULENT FLOW

One of the most widely used methods for evaluating the friction

factor employs the Moody diagram shown below.

MOODY DIAGRAM IMPORTANT OBSERVATION

of flow, as the relative

roughness is increased,

the friction factor f

decreases.

the friction factor f

decreases with increasing

Reynolds number until the

zone of complete

turbulence is reached.

MOODY DIAGRAM

in the shaded area (

2300<Re<4000)

The friction factors alternate

between laminar and

turbulent flow.

MOODY DIAGRAM

turbulence, the Reynolds

number has no effect on the

friction factor.

As the relative roughness

increases, the value of the

Reynolds number at which the

zone of complete turbulence

begins also increases.

The friction factor is a minimum

for a smooth pipe (but still not

zero because of the no-slip

condition) and increases with

roughness.

READING THE MOODY DIAGRAM

Check your ability to read the Moody diagram correctly by

verifying the following values for friction factors for the given

values of Reynolds number and relative roughness, using Fig.

8.6:

USE OF THE MOODY DIAGRAM

Why do we need the Moody diagram?

The Moody diagram is used to help determine the value of

the friction factor, f for turbulent flow.

How ?

First determine the value of the Reynolds number

(calculations),

Then determine the relative roughness (dividing Diameter of

the pipe to the pipe roughness).

Therefore, the basic data required are:

1. The pipe inside diameter,

2. The pipe material,

3. The flow velocity, and the kind of fluid and its temperature, from

which the viscosity can be found.

EXAMPLE 3- MOODY DIAGRAM

flowing at 9.14 m/s in an uncoated ductile iron pipe

having an inside diameter of 25 mm.

determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent:

m2/s. We now have

EXAMPLE 3- MOODY DIAGRAM

roughness must be evaluated. From Table 8.2

we find = 2.4 x 104 m. Then, the relative

roughness is

of the Moody diagram:

EXAMPLE 3- MOODY DIAGRAM

is reached. Because 104 is so close to 100, that

curve can be used.

0.038.

EXAMPLE 4 MOODY DIAGRAM

25C is flowing at 5.3 m/s in a standard 1.5-in

Schedule 80 steel pipe.

equation

Also, for a 1.5in Schedule 80 pipe, D = 0.0381

m. Then we have

EXAMPLE 4 MOODY DIAGRAM

From Fig. 8.6, f = 0.0225. You must interpolate on both

NR and D/ to determine this value, and you should

expect some variation. However, you should be able to

read the value of the friction factor f within 0.0005

in this portion of the graph.

MINOR LOSSES IN PIPES

as fluid flow through devices as

enlargements and contractions in the

size of paths.

It is called minor losses since the energy

losses is small in comparison with the

energy losses due to friction in long,

straight section pipes.

Sudden Enlargement

As a fluid flows from a smaller pipe into a larger pipe

through a sudden enlargement, its velocity abruptly

decreases, causing turbulence, which generates an energy

loss.

Figure below shows the sudden enlargement.

SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

ahead of the enlargement.

By making some simplifying assumptions about the

character of the flow stream as it expands through the

sudden enlargement, it is possible to analytically predict the

value of K from the following equation:

SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

Fig below shows the resistance coefficientsudden enlargement.

SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

Table below shows the resistance coefficientsudden

enlargement

EXAMPLE 5 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

L/min of water flows through a sudden

enlargement from a 1-in copper tube (Type K) to

a 3-in tube (Type K). See Appendix H for tube

dimensions.

EXAMPLE 5 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

of the enlargement and 2 for the section

downstream from the enlargement, we get

EXAMPLE 5 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

needed. We find that

coefficient Sudden enlargement ), K = 10.2.

Then we have

dissipated from each Newton of water that flows

through the sudden enlargement.

EXAMPLE 6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

Determine the difference between the pressure

ahead of a sudden enlargement and the

pressure downstream from the enlargement.

Use the data from Example 5.

EXAMPLE 6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

if it were vertical, the distance between points 1

and 2 is typically so small that it is considered

negligible. Now, calculating the velocity in the

larger pipe, we get

EXAMPLE 6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

from Example Problem 10.1, we have

ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

abrupt than the square-edged sudden enlargement, the energy

loss is reduced.

This is normally done by placing a conical section between the

two pipes as shown in the below figure.

ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

Compare gradual enlargement (left) to sudden

enlargement (right).

ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

from

ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

not include the loss due to friction at the

walls of the transition.

For relatively steep cone angles, the length of

the transition is short and therefore the wall

friction loss is negligible.

EXAMPLE 7 - GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

L/min of water flows from a 1-in copper tube

(Type K) into a 3-in copper tube (Type K)

through a gradual enlargement having an

included cone angle of 30 degrees.

EXAMPLE 7 - GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

From Graph (Resistance coefficient gradual

enlargement), we find that K = 0.48. Then we

have

described in Example 5, the energy loss

decreases by 33 % when 30 degrees the

gradual enlargement is used.

DIFFUSER

Another term for an enlargement is a diffuser.

The function of a diffuser is to convert kinetic energy

(represented by velocity head) to pressure energy

(represented by the pressure head) by decelerating

the fluid as it flows from the smaller to the larger

pipe.

The theoretical maximum pressure after the expansion

could be computed from Bernoullis equation,

DIFFUSER

If the diffuser is in a horizontal plane, the elevation terms

can be cancelled out.

Then the pressure increase across the ideal diffuser is

In a real diffuser, energy losses do occur and the general

energy equation must be used:

SUDDEN CONTRACTION

that sketched in Fig. 10.6, is calculated from

from the contraction.

Figure 10.8 illustrates what happens as the flow

stream converges. The lines in the figure represent the

paths of various parts of the flow stream called

streamlines.

RESISTANCE COEFFICIENT - SUDDEN CONTRACTION

SUDDEN CONTRACTION

SUDDEN CONTRACTION

contraction

EXAMPLE 8 SUDDEN CONTRACTION

Determine the energy loss that will occur as 100

L/min of water flows from a 3-in copper tube

(Type K) into a 1-in copper tube (Type K)

through a sudden contraction.

Head lost is

EXAMPLE 8 SUDDEN CONTRACTION

GRADUAL CONTRACTION

substantially by making the contraction more gradual.

The following figure shows such a gradual contraction,

formed by a conical section between the two

diameters with sharp breaks at the junctions.

GRADUAL CONTRACTION

The following Figure shows the data (from Reference 8) for the

resistance coefficient versus the diameter ratio for several values of

the cone angle.

contraction decreases, the

resistance coefficient

actually increases

The reason is that the

data include the effects of

both the local turbulence

caused by flow separation

and pipe friction.

For the smaller cone

angles, the transition

between the two

diameters is very long,

which increases the

friction losses.

GRADUAL CONTRACTION

GRADUAL CONTRACTION

and D1/D2 = 2.0, the value of K decreases from approximately 0.27

to 0.10 with a radius of only 0.05(D2) where D2 is the inside

diameter of the smaller pipe.

CONTRACTION-ENTRANCE LOSS

A special case of a contraction occurs when a fluid

flows from a relatively large reservoir or tank into a

pipe.

The fluid must accelerate from a negligible velocity to

the flow velocity in the pipe.

The ease with which the acceleration is accomplished

determines the amount of energy loss, and therefore

the value of the entrance resistance coefficient is

dependent on the geometry of the entrance.

CONTRACTION - ENTRANCE LOSS

The following figure shows four different configurations and the suggested

value of K for each.

EXAMPLE 9 - CONTRACTION-ENTRANCE LOSS

/min of water flows from a reservoir into a 1-in

copper tube (Type K) (a) through an inward-

projecting tube and (b) through a well rounded

inlet.

EXAMPLE 9 - CONTRACTION-ENTRANCE LOSS

we have

have

RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

globe valves, angle valves, gate valves, butterfly valves,

any of several types of check valves, and many more.

RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

However, the method of determining the resistance coefficient K is

different. The value of K is reported in the form

The term fT is the friction factor in the pipe to which the valve or

fitting is connected, taken to be in the zone of complete

turbulence.

Le is the length of straight pipe of the same nominal diameter as the

valve that would have the same resistant as the valve, called the

equivalent length.

D is the actual inside diameter of the pipe.

RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

length of pipe for a valve and combine that value with

the actual length of pipe.

Equation (108) can be solved for Le

expressed as equivalent length in pipe diameters, Le>D.

RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

The following table shows the friction factor in zone of

complete turbulence for new, clean, commercial steel

pipe

HOW TO CALCULATE ENERGY LOSS FOR VALVE AND FITTINGS?

v2

h L K( )

2g

Le

K( )f T

D

For new and clean steel pipe, (Le/D) and fT are obtained from their

respective table, then calculate K value.

For material other than steel, the pipe wall roughness, is determined from

table Pipe Roughness Design value (see slide 40). Then, compute D/

and use the Moody diagram to determine fT in the zone of complete

turbulent.

The velocity can be obtained from continuity principle, Q=vA.

EXAMPLE 10 CALCULATE THE EQUIVALENT LENGTH

open globe valve placed in a 6-in Schedule 40

steel pipe.

length ratio for a fully open globe valve is 340.

From Table 10.5 we find fT = 0.016 for a 6-in pipe.

Then,

EXAMPLE 10 CALCULATE THE EQUIVALENT LENGTH

equivalent length

EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

valve placed in a 4-in Schedule 40 steel pipe carrying

0.0252 m3/s of oil (sg = 0.87)

determine the pressure drop, the energy equation should

be written for the flow between points 1 and 2:

EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

valve only. The pressure drop is the difference

between p1 and p2. Solving the energy equation

for this difference gives

EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

valve,

Le/D = 340.

EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

kPa as it flows through the valve. Also, an

energy loss of 2.802 m is dissipated as heat

from each pound of oil that flows through the

valve.

EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE (NON

STEEL)

Calculate the energy loss for the flow of 500 m3/h of water through a

standard tee connected to a 6-in uncoated ductile iron pipe. The

flow is through the branch.

PIPE BENDS

The following figure shows that the minimum resistance for a 90 bend

occurs when the ratio r/D is approximately three.

PIPE BENDS

The following figure shows a 90 bend.

PIPE BENDS

The following figure shows a 90 bend pipe.

If Ro is the radius to the outside of the bend, Ri is the radius to

the inside of the bend and Do is the outside diameter of the pipe

or tube. The radius to the centerline of the pipe or tube called

mean radius, r can be expressed as

EXAMPLE 12 - PIPE BENDS

from 1.25in drawn steel tubing with a wall

thickness of 0.083 in. Several 90 bends are

required to fit the tubes to the other equipment in

the system. The specifications call for the radius to

the inside of each bend to be 200 mm.

When the system carries 160 L /min of propane at

25C, compute the energy loss to each bend.

EXAMPLE 12- PIPE BENDS

The radius r must be computed from

the tube as found from Appendix G.

Completion of the calculation gives

EXAMPLE 12- PIPE BENDS

We now must compute the velocity to complete the

evaluation of the energy loss from Darcys equation:

EXAMPLE 12- PIPE BENDS

Then, we can find fT = 0.0108 from the Moody diagram

(Fig. 8.6) in the zone of complete turbulence. Then

BEND AT ANGLES OTHER THAN 90

Reference 2 recommends the

following formula for

computing the resistance

factor K for bends at angles

other than 90

one 90 bend found from right

table.

EXAMPLE 13 BEND OTHER THAN 90 DEG

drawn steel tubing described in Example Problem

10.10 is coiled for 4.5 revolutions to make a heat

exchanger. The inside radius of the bend is the

same 200 mm used earlier and the other

conditions are the same.

Problem 10.10.

EXAMPLE 13 BEND OTHER THAN 90 DEG

complete coil using Eq. (1010). Note that each

revolution in the coil contains four 90 bends.

Then,

EXAMPLE 13 BEND OTHER THAN 90 DEG

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