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FLOW IN PIPES

FLOW IN PIPES

Attention will be given on:


Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Reynolds Number
Entrance Region Flow
Pressure drops and head loss in Laminar flow in
circular pipes
Minor Losses in piping system
FLOW IN PIPES

Define and explain Laminar and turbulent flows in


pipes, Reynolds number, and Critical Reynolds
Number.
Explain friction loss in Laminar flow. Derive and
Explain Hagen - Poiseuille equation.
Explain and describe the important of Poiseuilles law
in Biomedical application.
Explain the important of laminar and turbulent flow
in biomedical engineering.
Solve problems about laminar and turbulent flow.
FLOW IN PIPES

Fluid flow can be


classified as external or
internal.

We focus on internal
for flow in pipes.
Laminar & Turbulent Flow:
Laminar Flow
Fluid particles move along the smooth
path in laminas or layers, with one
layer sliding smoothly over an
adjacent layer.
Turbulent Flow
It is most common flow in engineering
practice. The fluid particles move in
very irregular paths, causing an
exchange of momentum from one
portion of the fluid to other portion.

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LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS
The flow appears to be
smooth and steady. The
stream has a fairly uniform
diameter and there is little or
no evidence of mixing of the
various parts of the stream.
The flow has very low
velocity highly ordered
motion

The flow has a rather high


velocity highly disordered
motion. The elements of fluid
appear to be mixing chaotically
within the stream.
REYNOLDS NUMBER
How to distinguish Turbulent and Laminar in mathematics?
Osborne Reynolds manage to do that in 1880s.
Re = Inertia force / viscous force
Re = Fi /Fv = A v2 / ( v/D A) = v D /

Re = vD/
Where,
= fluid density ,
= fluid viscosity ,
D = pipe diameter and
V= average velocity of flow,
Re is the ratio of the inertial forces to viscous forces in the fluid.
Dimensionless - no UNITS.
REYNOLDS NUMBER
How to use it ?
Critical Reynolds Number flow become turbulent.
Larger Re Inertial is bigger than viscous, viscous cannot prevent the
random and rapid fluctuation of the fluids and vice versa.

Laminar /F (LCN) Transition (HCN) Turbulent / F


Re= 2,200 Re=4,000
Re depends upon:
Various conditions of vibrations

Re high Re medium Re low

Conversing /F Straight /F Diversing /F

Rough / F Smooth /F
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Our approach:
In engineering practice most flow
conditions are turbulent.
The pipe diameter is much larger than 25
mm.
Laminar flow is found only in viscous flow.
Laminar cases are studied because to
derive theories simple and accurate
relationship.

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Problems
Prob.1
Velocity =?, Re= 2000 (laminar)
Diameter of pipe = 25 mm (pipe)
= 10-6 m2/s

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Re = v D / = v D /
v = (Re ) / D
= (200010-6 ) / 0.025
= 0.08 m/s
v= 0.08 m/s
Problems:
cntd.
An oil (s=0.85, = 1.8 10-5 m2/s) flow in a 10 cm
diameter pipe at 0.50 L / s. Is the flow is turbulent
or laminar?

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Ans:
v = Q/ A
= (500cm 3/s ) / (3.41102 cm2 / 4)
= 6.73 cm/s
= 0.0637 m/s
Re = D v /
= (0.1 m 0.0637m/s) / (1.8 10-5 m2/s)
= 354
Since Re 2,000, the flow must be Laminar.
EXAMPLE 1REYNOLDS NUMBER

Determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent if


glycerine at 25C flows in a pipe with a 150-mm inside
diameter. The average velocity of flow is 3.6 m/s.
Laminar and Turbulent in Human
Blood
Most of human blood flow is laminar, having Re of 300
or less.
However, it is possible for turbulent to occur at very
high flow rates in the descending aorta, for example
in highly conditioned athletes. Sometimes it is also
common in pathological conditions (narrowed
(stenotic) arteries and across stenotic heart valves.
TURBULENT AND ITS EFFECT
Haemodynamic studies have shown that diseased cardiac
valves, whether stenosed or incompetent, create regions
of increased turbulence and shear stresses that are large
enough to damage the vascular endothelium leading to
endothelial dysfunction.
Endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from
the heart to the smallest capillary. These cells reduce
friction of the flow of blood allowing the fluid to be
pumped further and control of blood pressure.
A key feature of endothelial dysfunction is the inability of
arteries and arterioles to dilate fully in response to an
appropriate stimulis.
Laminar and Turbulent in the lungs
In the lungs, fully developed laminar flow probably
occurs only in very small airways with low Re.
When air flow at higher rates in larger diameter tubes,
like Trachea, the flow is often turbulent.
Much of the flow in intermediate sized airways will be
transitional flow.
ENTRANCE REGION
FLOW ENTERING CIRCULAR PIPE

Boundary layer region - Viscous effects and the velocity changes


are significance
The inviscid flow region Frictional effects are negligible and
velocity in radial directions is constant.
The region from the pipe inlet to the point at which the
boundary layer merges at the centreline is called the
Hydrodynamic Entrance Region, and the length is
Hydrodynamic Entry Length, Lh.
ENTRY LENGTH (LENGTH OF ENTRANCE REGION), Lh

Laminar flow,

Lh 0.05Re D D

Turbulent flow,
1/4
Lh 1.359Re D
For a pipe length over than 10D, entrance effect is negligible
and thus,
Lh 10D
FULLY DEVELOP FLOW IN ARTERIES

If we consider Re = 300, then the previous equation


gives Xe=18D. This means that, an entrance length
equal to 18 pipe diameters is required for fully
developed flow in human system.
In human cardiovascular system, it is not common to
see fully developed flow in arteries. The vessels
continually branch, with the distance between
branches not often being greater than 18
diameters.
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

Assumptions:
Steady, laminar flow of incompressible liquid with constant
properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe
No acceleration since it is steady and fully develop.
No motion in the radial direction, velocity in radial direction is zero
We try to obtain the velocity profile and also a relation to the
friction factor.
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

Consider a free-body diagram of the cylinder of fluid and


sum the forces acting on that cylinder.
First, we will need to make some assumptions. Assume
that the flow is steady. This means that the flow is not
changing with time; that the derivative of flow rate with
respect to time is equal to zero.
dQ
0
dt
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

Second, assume that the flow is through a long


tube with a constant cross-section. This flow
condition is known as uniform flow. For steady
flows in long tubes with a constant cross-section,
the flow is fully developed and therefore, the
pressure gradient, dP/dx is constant.
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES
The third assumption is that the fluid is Newtonian.
Newtonian flow is flow in which the shearing stress, t,
in the fluid is constant. In other words, the viscosity is
constant with respect to the shear rate, y, and the
whole process is carried out at a constant
temperature.
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

Now let the x direction be the axial direction of the


pipe with the downstream (to the right) being
positive.If the flow is unchanging with time, then
the sum of forces in the x dire<
P(r2) - (P + dP)(r2) 2rdx = 0

Solve Eq. (1.1) and the result is


-dP(r2) = 2rdx
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES

The result from a simple force balance is shear stress as a


function of pressure gradient, dP/dx and radial position, r:

r dP

and 2 dx

Rtube dP
wall
2 dx
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE
From the definition of viscosity that the shear stress is
also related to the shear rate:
dV

dr
From the relation of shear stress, pressure drop and
velocity gradient
r dP dV

2 dx dr
Then producing differential equation with the variables
velocity,V and radius,r:
1 dP
dV rdr
2 dx
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE
The next step in the analysis is to solve the previous
differential equation, which gives the velocity of each
point in the tube as a function
of the radius, r:

2
1 dP r
V C1
2 dx r
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE
So far, in this analysis, we have made three
assumptions. First, steady flow (dQ/dt = 0); second,
fully developed tube (dP/dx is constant); and third,
viscosity is constant.
Now we make assumption four, which is the no slip
condition. This means V at the wall is zero when r
equals the radius of the tube. Therefore, set r = Rtube =
R and V=0 to solve for C1.
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPE 2
1 dP r
0 C1
2 dx 2
2
1 dP R
C1
2 dx 2
The equation, which gives velocity as a function of radius, r, is then

1 dP 2 2
V [r R ]
4 dx
The final assumption is that the flow is laminar whereby this
parabolic velocity profile represents the velocity profile across a
constant cross section.
LAMINAR FLOW IN PIPES; VELOCITY PROFILE
1 dP 2 2
V [r R ]
4 dx
The dP/dx must have ve value for pressure drops that cause a
positive velocity (pressure must decrease in the flow direction due to
the viscous effect). The maximum velocity will occur at the
centreline, where r=0.

In fluid flow, it is convenient to work with average velocity which


remains constant in incompressible flow when the cross
sectional area of pipe is constant.

u max 2Vm
PRESSURE DROP
Pressure drop occurs as the fluid flows along straight lengths of
pipe and tubing. It causes pressure to decrease along the pipe
and they increase the amount of power that a pump must
deliver the fluid. It is caused by friction, changes in kinetic
energy, etc.
Friction may occur between the fluid & the pipe work, but friction
also occurs within the fluid as sliding between adjacent layers of
fluid takes place. The friction within the fluid is due to the fluids
viscosity.

When fluids have a high viscosity, the speed of flow tends to be


low, and resistance to flow becomes almost totally dependant
on the viscosity of the fluid, this condition is known as Laminar
flow.
PRESSURE DROP IN LAMINAR FLOW
In laminar flow, the fluid seems to flow in several
layers, one on another as described in below figures.

Because of the viscosity, shear stress is created between the layers of fluid.

WHY ENERGY IS LOST ???


Overcoming the frictional forces produced by the shear stress (act
opposite direction to flow).
PRESSURE DROP IN LAMINAR FLOW
The pressure drop in laminar flow can be
expressed as below.

8LVm 32LVm
P P1 P 2
R2 D2

Pressure drop will be 0 if the viscosity is 0, when


there is no frictions. It also mean that the pressure
drop depends entirely on the viscous effects.
PRESSURE DROP
8LVm 32LVm
P P1 P2 2
2
(1)
R D
The above equation is used to determine the pressure drop in
laminar flow. However, the following equation can be used to
determine the pressure drop for all cases of fully develop
internal flow (Laminar or Turbulent, Circular or non
circular pipes, Smooth or rough surfaces, Horizontal or
inclines) and known as Darcys equation.
2
L V
P f m (2)
D 2
8 w
Where friction factors, f can be defined as f
V 2 m
PRESSURE DROP IN LAMINAR
Both (1) and (2) equation can be used to determine the
pressure drop for circular pipe in laminar flow, equating
both, we find,
64
f
Re
The equation shows that for laminar flow the friction
factors is a function of Reynolds number only and
independent of surface roughness.
HEAD LOSS
In piping system analysis, P = gh express loss in
terms of pressure.
The pressure loss can also be expressed in terms of
length of water (m) which is
hL = PL/pg
It represents the additional height that the fluid need to
be raised by a pump to overcome the frictional losses
in the pipe.
MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE
Consider the steady,laminar flow in pipe
as shown in the above figure. R

The velocity of the fluid is the function of


radius,r and distance x and can be shown X
as u(r,x).
Since dQ/dt=0, conservation of mass
equation is applied, mass flow rate,dm/dt
and mean velocity,Vm relation can be
define as

m Vm A c u r, x dA c
.

Ac
MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE
Then Vm can be expressed as

Vm

Ac
u (r, x )dA c


Ac
u (r, x )2rdr 2
R
2 u (r, x )rdr (a )
A c R 2 R 0

For fully developed flow in pipe, the velocity is


constant through the flow direction, therefore,
u (r, x )
0 u u (r )
x
MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE

Thus velocity can be expressed as


1 dP 2
u (r ) [ r R 2 ] ( b )
4 dx
From (a) and (b), the mean velocity then can be expressed as

R 2 dP
Vm ( c)
8 dx
From (c) and (d), the relation between mean velocity and velocity at any radius,
r2
u (r ) 2Vm (1 2 )
R
Mean velocity, Vm is at radius r=0, therefore

u max 2Vm
MEAN VELOCITY AND FLOW RATE
Combining the relation between Pressure Drop and Mean
velocity in laminar flow, we obtained the following
relationship.
(P1 P 2)R 2 (P1 P 2)D 2 PD 2
Vm
8L 32L 32L
The flow rate is

(P1 P 2)R 2 (P1 P 2)D4 PD4


V VmAc R 2
8L 128L 128L

This relationship is known as the HagenPoiseuille


equation.
The equation is valid only for laminar flow (NR < 2000).
EXAMPLE 2 - ENERGY LOSS

Determine the energy loss if glycerine at 25C


flows 30 m through a 150-mm-diameter pipe with
an average velocity of 4.0 m/s.
First, we must determine whether the flow is
laminar or turbulent by evaluating the Reynolds
number:

From Appendix B, we find that for glycerin at 25C


EXAMPLE 2 - ENERGY LOSS

Because NR < 2000, the flow is laminar. Using


Darcys equation, we get

Notice that each term in each equation is


expressed in the units of the SI unit system.
Therefore, the resulting units for hL are m or Nm/N.
This means that 13.2 Nm of energy is lost by each
newton of the glycerine as it flows along the 30 m
of pipe.
POISEUILLES LAW AND AIR RESISTANCE IN PULMONARY

When we breathe air flows through trachea to the lungs.


Although the air is not very viscous, there is a noticeable
resistance to the air flow. It causes the pressure drop
along the airway and it decrease in the direction of the
flow.
When air flows through relatively small diameters tubes as
in the terminal brochioles, the flow is laminar.
When it flows at higher rates in larger diameter tubes, like
the trachea, the flow is often turbulent.
Much of the flow in the intermediate sized airways can be
transitional flow which is difficult to predict either laminar
or turbulent.
POISEUILLES LAW AND AIR RESISTANCE IN PULMONARY

We learn about Poiseuilles law that relevant to laminar flow. This law
applies to air flow and also blood flow. The relation can be expressed as
below
P D 4
V
128L
Analogous to V=IR in electrical, Voltage drop,V similar to Pressure gradient,
P/L; electric current similar to flow rate and resistance to flow can be
expressed as
128
Re sis tan ce
D 4
Resistance is inversely related to the fourth power of the diameter, the
resistance in the airways is not predominantly in the smallest diameter
airways. Why? See next slide.
POISEUILLES LAW AND AIR
RESISTANCE IN PULMONARY

Airways branches and become narrower, but they are also


numerous. Therefore the smaller bronchioles contribute
relatively little resistance because of their increased
numbers.
The major site of airway resistance is the medium-sized
bronchi.
Airways with less than 2mm diameter only contribute
about 20% of air resistance.
25 -40% is contributed by upper airways including the
mouth, nose, pharynx, larynx and trachea.
FRICTION LOSS IN TURBULENT FLOW

Using Darcy equations we can calculate the friction losses in turbulent


flow. It depends on the surface roughness of the pipe as well as
Reynolds number (IN LAMINAR, LOSSES ONLY DEPEND ON THE
REYNOLD NUMBER)
The , the average wall roughness can be obtained from tables
(experiment has been conducted to determine the value). The average
value is for new and clean pipe.
FRICTION LOSS IN TURBULENT FLOW

Roughness value, for new and clean pipe


MOODY DIAGRAM FOR TURBULENT FLOW

One of the most widely used methods for evaluating the friction
factor employs the Moody diagram shown below.
MOODY DIAGRAM IMPORTANT OBSERVATION

For a given Reynolds number


of flow, as the relative
roughness is increased,
the friction factor f
decreases.

For a given relative roughness ,


the friction factor f
decreases with increasing
Reynolds number until the
zone of complete
turbulence is reached.
MOODY DIAGRAM

The transition region is shown


in the shaded area (
2300<Re<4000)
The friction factors alternate
between laminar and
turbulent flow.
MOODY DIAGRAM

Within the zone of complete


turbulence, the Reynolds
number has no effect on the
friction factor.
As the relative roughness
increases, the value of the
Reynolds number at which the
zone of complete turbulence
begins also increases.
The friction factor is a minimum
for a smooth pipe (but still not
zero because of the no-slip
condition) and increases with
roughness.
READING THE MOODY DIAGRAM
Check your ability to read the Moody diagram correctly by
verifying the following values for friction factors for the given
values of Reynolds number and relative roughness, using Fig.
8.6:
USE OF THE MOODY DIAGRAM
Why do we need the Moody diagram?
The Moody diagram is used to help determine the value of
the friction factor, f for turbulent flow.
How ?
First determine the value of the Reynolds number
(calculations),
Then determine the relative roughness (dividing Diameter of
the pipe to the pipe roughness).
Therefore, the basic data required are:
1. The pipe inside diameter,
2. The pipe material,
3. The flow velocity, and the kind of fluid and its temperature, from
which the viscosity can be found.
EXAMPLE 3- MOODY DIAGRAM

Determine the friction factor f if water at 70C is


flowing at 9.14 m/s in an uncoated ductile iron pipe
having an inside diameter of 25 mm.

The Reynolds number must first be evaluated to


determine whether the flow is laminar or turbulent:

Here D=0.025 m and kinematic viscosity=4.11x107


m2/s. We now have
EXAMPLE 3- MOODY DIAGRAM

Thus, the flow is turbulent. Now the relative


roughness must be evaluated. From Table 8.2
we find = 2.4 x 104 m. Then, the relative
roughness is

The steps are as follows:

1. Locate the Reynolds number on the abscissa


of the Moody diagram:
EXAMPLE 3- MOODY DIAGRAM

2. Project vertically until the curve for D/ = 104


is reached. Because 104 is so close to 100, that
curve can be used.

3. Project horizontally to the left, and read f =


0.038.
EXAMPLE 4 MOODY DIAGRAM

Determine the friction factor f if ethyl alcohol at


25C is flowing at 5.3 m/s in a standard 1.5-in
Schedule 80 steel pipe.

Evaluating the Reynolds number, we use the


equation

Given, = 787 kg/m3 and =1.00 x 103 Pas.


Also, for a 1.5in Schedule 80 pipe, D = 0.0381
m. Then we have
EXAMPLE 4 MOODY DIAGRAM
From Fig. 8.6, f = 0.0225. You must interpolate on both
NR and D/ to determine this value, and you should
expect some variation. However, you should be able to
read the value of the friction factor f within 0.0005
in this portion of the graph.
MINOR LOSSES IN PIPES

The amount of energy losses that occurs


as fluid flow through devices as
enlargements and contractions in the
size of paths.
It is called minor losses since the energy
losses is small in comparison with the
energy losses due to friction in long,
straight section pipes.
Sudden Enlargement
As a fluid flows from a smaller pipe into a larger pipe
through a sudden enlargement, its velocity abruptly
decreases, causing turbulence, which generates an energy
loss.
Figure below shows the sudden enlargement.
SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

The minor loss is calculated from the equation

where v1 is the average velocity of flow in the smaller pipe


ahead of the enlargement.
By making some simplifying assumptions about the
character of the flow stream as it expands through the
sudden enlargement, it is possible to analytically predict the
value of K from the following equation:
SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT
Fig below shows the resistance coefficientsudden enlargement.
SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT
Table below shows the resistance coefficientsudden
enlargement
EXAMPLE 5 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

Determine the energy loss that will occur as 100


L/min of water flows through a sudden
enlargement from a 1-in copper tube (Type K) to
a 3-in tube (Type K). See Appendix H for tube
dimensions.
EXAMPLE 5 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

Using the subscript 1 for the section just ahead


of the enlargement and 2 for the section
downstream from the enlargement, we get
EXAMPLE 5 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

To find a value for K, the diameter ratio is


needed. We find that

Try to obtained from graph( Resistance


coefficient Sudden enlargement ), K = 10.2.
Then we have

This result indicates that 0.40 Nm of energy is


dissipated from each Newton of water that flows
through the sudden enlargement.
EXAMPLE 6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT
Determine the difference between the pressure
ahead of a sudden enlargement and the
pressure downstream from the enlargement.
Use the data from Example 5.

First, we write the energy equation:


EXAMPLE 6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

If the enlargement is horizontal, z2 z1 = 0. Even


if it were vertical, the distance between points 1
and 2 is typically so small that it is considered
negligible. Now, calculating the velocity in the
larger pipe, we get
EXAMPLE 6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

Using = 9.81 kN/m3 for water and hL = 0.40m


from Example Problem 10.1, we have

Therefore, p2 is 1.51 kPa greater than p1.


ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

If the transition from a smaller to a larger pipe can be made less


abrupt than the square-edged sudden enlargement, the energy
loss is reduced.
This is normally done by placing a conical section between the
two pipes as shown in the below figure.
ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT
Compare gradual enlargement (left) to sudden
enlargement (right).
ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

The energy loss for a gradual enlargement is calculated


from

Data for various values are given below


ENERGY LOST IN GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

The energy loss calculated from previous does


not include the loss due to friction at the
walls of the transition.
For relatively steep cone angles, the length of
the transition is short and therefore the wall
friction loss is negligible.
EXAMPLE 7 - GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT

Determine the energy loss that will occur as 100


L/min of water flows from a 1-in copper tube
(Type K) into a 3-in copper tube (Type K)
through a gradual enlargement having an
included cone angle of 30 degrees.
EXAMPLE 7 - GRADUAL ENLARGEMENT
From Graph (Resistance coefficient gradual
enlargement), we find that K = 0.48. Then we
have

Compared with the sudden enlargement


described in Example 5, the energy loss
decreases by 33 % when 30 degrees the
gradual enlargement is used.
DIFFUSER
Another term for an enlargement is a diffuser.
The function of a diffuser is to convert kinetic energy
(represented by velocity head) to pressure energy
(represented by the pressure head) by decelerating
the fluid as it flows from the smaller to the larger
pipe.
The theoretical maximum pressure after the expansion
could be computed from Bernoullis equation,
DIFFUSER
If the diffuser is in a horizontal plane, the elevation terms
can be cancelled out.
Then the pressure increase across the ideal diffuser is

This is often called pressure recovery.


In a real diffuser, energy losses do occur and the general
energy equation must be used:
SUDDEN CONTRACTION

The energy loss due to a sudden contraction, such as


that sketched in Fig. 10.6, is calculated from

where v2 is the velocity in the small pipe downstream


from the contraction.
Figure 10.8 illustrates what happens as the flow
stream converges. The lines in the figure represent the
paths of various parts of the flow stream called
streamlines.
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENT - SUDDEN CONTRACTION
SUDDEN CONTRACTION
SUDDEN CONTRACTION

The following table shows the resistance coefficientsudden


contraction
EXAMPLE 8 SUDDEN CONTRACTION
Determine the energy loss that will occur as 100
L/min of water flows from a 3-in copper tube
(Type K) into a 1-in copper tube (Type K)
through a sudden contraction.

Head lost is

For the copper tube,


EXAMPLE 8 SUDDEN CONTRACTION

From graph, K = 0.42. Then we have


GRADUAL CONTRACTION

The energy loss in a contraction can be decreased


substantially by making the contraction more gradual.
The following figure shows such a gradual contraction,
formed by a conical section between the two
diameters with sharp breaks at the junctions.
GRADUAL CONTRACTION
The following Figure shows the data (from Reference 8) for the
resistance coefficient versus the diameter ratio for several values of
the cone angle.

As the cone angle of the


contraction decreases, the
resistance coefficient
actually increases
The reason is that the
data include the effects of
both the local turbulence
caused by flow separation
and pipe friction.
For the smaller cone
angles, the transition
between the two
diameters is very long,
which increases the
friction losses.
GRADUAL CONTRACTION
GRADUAL CONTRACTION

The following figure shows a contraction with a 120 included angle


and D1/D2 = 2.0, the value of K decreases from approximately 0.27
to 0.10 with a radius of only 0.05(D2) where D2 is the inside
diameter of the smaller pipe.
CONTRACTION-ENTRANCE LOSS
A special case of a contraction occurs when a fluid
flows from a relatively large reservoir or tank into a
pipe.
The fluid must accelerate from a negligible velocity to
the flow velocity in the pipe.
The ease with which the acceleration is accomplished
determines the amount of energy loss, and therefore
the value of the entrance resistance coefficient is
dependent on the geometry of the entrance.
CONTRACTION - ENTRANCE LOSS
The following figure shows four different configurations and the suggested
value of K for each.
EXAMPLE 9 - CONTRACTION-ENTRANCE LOSS

Determine the energy loss that will occur as 100 L


/min of water flows from a reservoir into a 1-in
copper tube (Type K) (a) through an inward-
projecting tube and (b) through a well rounded
inlet.

Part (a): For the tube,


EXAMPLE 9 - CONTRACTION-ENTRANCE LOSS

For an inward-projecting entrance, K = 1.0. Then


we have

For well rounded entrance, K = 0.04. Then we


have
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

Valves are used to control the amount of flow and may be


globe valves, angle valves, gate valves, butterfly valves,
any of several types of check valves, and many more.
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS
However, the method of determining the resistance coefficient K is
different. The value of K is reported in the form

The term fT is the friction factor in the pipe to which the valve or
fitting is connected, taken to be in the zone of complete
turbulence.
Le is the length of straight pipe of the same nominal diameter as the
valve that would have the same resistant as the valve, called the
equivalent length.
D is the actual inside diameter of the pipe.
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS

Some system designers prefer to compute the equivalent


length of pipe for a valve and combine that value with
the actual length of pipe.
Equation (108) can be solved for Le

Table 10.4 shows the resistance in valves and fittings


expressed as equivalent length in pipe diameters, Le>D.
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS
RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES AND FITTINGS
The following table shows the friction factor in zone of
complete turbulence for new, clean, commercial steel
pipe
HOW TO CALCULATE ENERGY LOSS FOR VALVE AND FITTINGS?

Energy loss is determined by using the following equation


v2
h L K( )
2g

K is determined from the following formula


Le
K( )f T
D
For new and clean steel pipe, (Le/D) and fT are obtained from their
respective table, then calculate K value.
For material other than steel, the pipe wall roughness, is determined from
table Pipe Roughness Design value (see slide 40). Then, compute D/
and use the Moody diagram to determine fT in the zone of complete
turbulent.
The velocity can be obtained from continuity principle, Q=vA.
EXAMPLE 10 CALCULATE THE EQUIVALENT LENGTH

Determine the resistance coefficient K for a fully


open globe valve placed in a 6-in Schedule 40
steel pipe.

From Table 10.4 we find that the equivalent-


length ratio for a fully open globe valve is 340.
From Table 10.5 we find fT = 0.016 for a 6-in pipe.
Then,
EXAMPLE 10 CALCULATE THE EQUIVALENT LENGTH

Using D=0.154 m for the pipe, we find the


equivalent length
EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

Calculate the pressure drop across a fully open globe


valve placed in a 4-in Schedule 40 steel pipe carrying
0.0252 m3/s of oil (sg = 0.87)

A sketch of the installation is shown in Fig. 10.24. To


determine the pressure drop, the energy equation should
be written for the flow between points 1 and 2:
EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

The energy loss hL is the minor loss due to the


valve only. The pressure drop is the difference
between p1 and p2. Solving the energy equation
for this difference gives

But z1 = z2 and v1 = v2. Then we have


EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

For the pipe,

From Table 10.5 we find fT = 0.017 and for global


valve,
Le/D = 340.
EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE

For the oil,

Therefore, the pressure in the oil drops by 23.9


kPa as it flows through the valve. Also, an
energy loss of 2.802 m is dissipated as heat
from each pound of oil that flows through the
valve.
EXAMPLE 11-PRESSURE DROP ACROSS VALVE (NON
STEEL)

Calculate the energy loss for the flow of 500 m3/h of water through a
standard tee connected to a 6-in uncoated ductile iron pipe. The
flow is through the branch.

Use the Procedure for Computing the Energy Loss.


PIPE BENDS
The following figure shows that the minimum resistance for a 90 bend
occurs when the ratio r/D is approximately three.
PIPE BENDS
The following figure shows a 90 bend.
PIPE BENDS
The following figure shows a 90 bend pipe.
If Ro is the radius to the outside of the bend, Ri is the radius to
the inside of the bend and Do is the outside diameter of the pipe
or tube. The radius to the centerline of the pipe or tube called
mean radius, r can be expressed as
EXAMPLE 12 - PIPE BENDS

A distribution system for liquid propane is made


from 1.25in drawn steel tubing with a wall
thickness of 0.083 in. Several 90 bends are
required to fit the tubes to the other equipment in
the system. The specifications call for the radius to
the inside of each bend to be 200 mm.
When the system carries 160 L /min of propane at
25C, compute the energy loss to each bend.
EXAMPLE 12- PIPE BENDS
The radius r must be computed from

where Do = 31.75mm, the outside diameter of


the tube as found from Appendix G.
Completion of the calculation gives
EXAMPLE 12- PIPE BENDS
We now must compute the velocity to complete the
evaluation of the energy loss from Darcys equation:

The relative roughness is


EXAMPLE 12- PIPE BENDS
Then, we can find fT = 0.0108 from the Moody diagram
(Fig. 8.6) in the zone of complete turbulence. Then

Now the energy loss can be computed:


BEND AT ANGLES OTHER THAN 90
Reference 2 recommends the
following formula for
computing the resistance
factor K for bends at angles
other than 90

where K is the resistance for


one 90 bend found from right
table.
EXAMPLE 13 BEND OTHER THAN 90 DEG

Evaluate the energy loss that would occur if the


drawn steel tubing described in Example Problem
10.10 is coiled for 4.5 revolutions to make a heat
exchanger. The inside radius of the bend is the
same 200 mm used earlier and the other
conditions are the same.

Lets start by bringing some data from Example


Problem 10.10.
EXAMPLE 13 BEND OTHER THAN 90 DEG

Now we can compute the value of KB for the


complete coil using Eq. (1010). Note that each
revolution in the coil contains four 90 bends.
Then,

The total bend resistance is


EXAMPLE 13 BEND OTHER THAN 90 DEG

Then the energy loss is found from