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Important Topic for All Subject

Current Affairs

Core Issues

Kashmir Dispute
Israel Conflict
Water Disputes
Baluchistan Issue
Geo-Strategic position of Pakistan
Economic Potential of Central Asia and Western Interest
Kalabagh Dam
Gwadar Port and its strategic significance

National issues

Suggestions to manage political instability in Pakistan

How Pakistan can reduce foreign debt
Drone Attack and Its Implications
Terrorism/Extremism and Militancy in Tribal Areas
Corruption and Accountability in Pak
Pak Iran Gas Pipe Line Project
NFC Award and Provincial Autonomy
Demand for New Provinces
18th, 19th and 20th Amendments
Democracy in Pakistan
Energy Crisis
Sovereignty of Pakistan
Territorial Violation
Judicial Activism

International Issues

Oil Prices
World Economic Crisis
Global Warming
Syrian crisis
Iran nuclear technology
Water Crisis
AFPAK policy
Indian seat in Permanent Security Council and its implications on Pakistan
International Relation


(Kashmir issue, Junagarh Dispute, Sir Creek Dispute, Rann of Kutch, wars of 1965 and
1971, Siachin Conflict, Kargil issue, 26/11, Water dispute and Indus Basin Treaty,
insurgency at borders)

International Organizations


And Events that Changed World Politics.

World wars
Cold war
USSR invasion of Afghanistan
Afghan War
Great Game
9/11 incident and its impacts

Pak Affairs

Q.NO.1) Discuss critically the role of Silsalah (Orders)in the development and progress of
Muslim society in the Sub-Continent of Indo-Pakistan.

Q.NO.2) Critically examine the Muslim shift from militancy to education with a special
reference to the educational movements launched during the 19th century in South Asia.

Q.NO.3) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan believed in "Trinity of ideas" i.e loyalty, devotion and
aloofness. Discuss it in perspective of his reformation movement.

Q.NO.4) Describe the main content and relative importance of the Lucknow Pact and Delhi
Muslim Proposals and their respective impact on the subsequent political development in
India. OR Quaid-e-Azam was the ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity. Discuss it in
perspective of Lukhnow Pact and what future vision depicted from the pact?

Q.NO.5) Illustrate the role of Quaid-e-Azam for protecting the constitutional rights of
Muslims of the subcontinent from 1916-1933?

Q.NO.6) Can the Lahore Resolution be termed as the Magna Carta of Pakistan? Take a
position and support your argument by historical facts, if any.

Q.NO.7) The "Objective Resolution"(1949) satisfied both orthodox and modernists by

combining the features of Western and Islamic democracy. Discuss critically.

Q.NO.8) Local government system

Q.NO.9) Give a critical appraisal of the constitutional crises/crises initiated by the

controversial actions. Discuss and analyze its effects on the subsequent history of Pakistan.

Q.NO.10) Given the problems that Pakistan is facing today, what is your vision of Pakistan
in the year 2014? How, in your opinion, can be its internal and external problems solved?

Q.NO.11) Compare and contrast the resistance movement of East Pakistan with the present
movement of Baluchistan. Suggest remedies.

Q.NO.12) The location of Pakistan has given the strategic strength to the State. What are its
physical features and narrate its advantages and disadvantages.

Q.NO.13) Discuss and debate the diplomatic stance of Pakistan regarding war on terror .
How can it be improvised in the current geo-political situation?

Q.NO.14) The Constitution of Pakistan (1973) is the mouth piece of Islam. Discuss.

Q.NO.15) Critically evaluate the contribution made by missionaries in the growth of Muslim
society in the Sub-continent of Indo-Pak.

Q.NO.16) Assess the account for the problems which Quaid-e-Azam had to face as Governor
General of Pakistan

Q.NO.17) The twentieth century witnessed the war for oil. The twenty-first century will
witness the war for water. Examine the practical implications of this statement on situation
of Pakistan.

Ahmed Sirhandi
Shah Wali Ullah
Faraizi Movement
Deoband School of thought
Anjum himayat-e-Islam

Q.1) Western concept of human right, discuss human rights of Islam in the light of the
sermon of Hajjatul Widah?

Q.2) Importance of Akle-Halal. How unfair resources can be checked in the light of Islamic

Q.3) Distinguish between Din and Religion?

Q.4) Importance of the concept of the Day of Judgment and explain the practical results of
this notion of the Private and Public life of the people?

Q.5) Ijtihad can play an important role in the establishment of Muslim Ummah and the
making of Humanity. Discuss.

Q.6) Islam pays a lot of stress on the circulation of money. Describe in the light of Zakat

Q.7) Concept of enlightened moderation.

Q.8) What is Motahida Qaumiyat/Pan-Islamism? What role Jamaluddin Afghani and Allama
Muhammad Iqbal played in order to achieve this goal?

Q.9) Human Dignity and how Islam recognized it. efforts to maintain the superiority of

Q.10) Importance Fasting (SAUM). Also explain its individual and collective benefits?

Q.11) Define Tauheed (Unity of Allah) and its effects on human life

Q.12) Significance of Jihad in the light of Quran and Sunnah? What are its kinds, principles
and conditions?

Q.13) Define and explain Judicio-Political System of Islam

Q.14) Problems of Ummah/humanity in the contemporary world and their solutions

Q.15) Concept of veil and freedom of women from Islamic point of view while analyzing the
law against veil in western countries.

Q.16) The Holy Quran is the fountain-head at all kind of knowledge

Q.17) Islam is a complete code of life. Discuss?

Q.18) Explain the economical rules of Islam in the light of Social Justice?

Q.19) Describe the necessity and importance of religion for man and its effects on human

Q.20) What do you mean by Shariah? Elaborate the different sources of Shariah?

Q.21) Collection and compilation of Quran.

Q.22) Islamic punishments are regarded as Savagery. Discuss?

Q.23) What moral values are given by the Deen-i-Islam? Can these values be changed
keeping in view the western ethical system?

Q.24) The application of Islamic Shariah is equal to man and woman, however, some
injunctions are only related to woman explain.

Q.25) What is Islamic concept of creation of the universe ? are the modern theories about
creation of the universe commensurate with the islamic point of view ?

English Essay

1-Pakistan is rich in natural resources but very poor in their management.(2010)

2-The Future of Democracy in Pakistan(.2009)

3-What are the hurdles in our way to becoming a truly independent state?(2011)

4- A Critical Analysis of Education Systems in Pakistan

5- Democracy is a culture rather than a process

6- U.N.O (most expected in 2014)

The future of UNO, Hopes and Hurdles (2009)

The U.N.O has failed to measure up to the demands of its charter.
The United Nations in the 21st Century: Obligations and Limitations(2012)

7 Status of women in Islam

Can women be equal to men in Pakistan?(2010)

Does Pakistan society regard woman as the angel in the house or source of all
Social and Economic Securities for Women in Islam(2012)
The traditional male role changed in the last 20 years.
Gender equality is a myth(2013)

8 Role & Power of Media in modern World

Free speech should have limitations(2013)
Truth is a rare commodity despite the freedom by the print and electronic

10 Pakistani War of terrorism

Pakistan's War on terror and its impact on our psyche and

politic.socio.economic fronts
Beggars cannot be choosers
The world politics stands more derisive than it was ever before due to the
specific imperialist designs(2010)
Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism(2010)

11 Social Networking

Modern day communication via social networks puts an end of true and sincere
The Emerging Power of Public Opinion(2012)


Section One


Is communication a reciprocal process?

Functions of Mass Communication
Concept and process of communication.
Barriers if communications. Do these barriers also exist in this modern
information age?
Importance of Mass Communication in this modern age
Essentials of effective communication
How do you define communication? With the help of different models describe
the process of communication
Evolution of the Muslim Press

Critically examine the role of Muslim press during Pakistan Movement.

Zimindar played very effective role against British imperialism. Discuss in
Give your evaluation of the role of print journalism in Pakistan?
Explain the difficulties faced by the Muslim Press during the movement of


Educational and news functions of journalism

Describe news, "which is the real soul of journalism"
Effects of different news on Pakistan Society
Functions and Values of News


Have newspapers lost their importance after the fast growth of cable
television and social media in Pakistan? Comment.

Role of Media

Critically analyze the watchdog and lapdog role of public and private TV
channels in Pakistan.
"Todays media has taken centre stage role in the daily life and society. Give
your comments on this statement in the light of media system dependence
Role of journalists in socio-economic development of the country like
Looking into the latest developments taking place in the field of journalism
determine the role of a journalist in the 21st century.

Private TV Channels

Evaluate critically the performance of private T.V channels in Pakistan

Discuss the role of private TV Channels in political and social mobilization
after their inception in and after 2002 in Pakistan.
survey the development of electronic media in Pakistan?

Media and Ethics/Freedom

Ethical issues associated with online journalism and its remedies

Importance of peoples participation in the process of development and
subsequent role of mass media
The mass media in Pakistan are confronting many problems Please
Considering that Media are given greater importance, describe the freedom of
In spite of being highly potential and popular medium, Television in Pakistan
has failed to play a key role in national development and to promote our
values and culture. Make critical analysis.


"FM radio channels have revolutionized the broadcast landscape in Pakistani and have
become one of the preferred sources of entertainment for youngsters", give your arguments
for or against this statement.

Section Two

Magazine Journalism

Role of Magazine Journalism in Pakistan

What are the functions and scope of magazines in our society?
Survey the status of Magazine Journalism in Pakistan?
Magazine Journalism its scope and social aspects.
Magazine journalism (Short Note)


How does Advertising influence society?

Latest trends and practices in society and the principles of successful
Survey the development of Advertising in Pakistan
Define Advertising?
Principles of successful advertising
Describe the social and economic aspects of advertising.
What do you know about advertising? Explain its functions and importance in
the modern age.
advertising is spinal cord of any media organization. Discuss.


Describe the need and significance of editorial.

Describe the major types of editorial perform for its readers?
What function does an editorial perform for its readers?

Public Relation

Present status of Public Relations Practice in Pakistan

difference between Public Relation Officer and Personal Assistant?
Mention the role and responsibilities of a good P.R.O
Purpose and scope of Public Relation in any organization?
Public relations manipulate the news. Comment in detail.
"Public Relations are actually Image Building activity". Explain in detail.

Freedom of Media and Ethics

Describe an ideal Press Code of Ethics for Pakistan Journalists.

Freedom of Press and Responsibility is two common issues in the field of
journalism. Discuss and evaluate the case of Pakistan regarding these
In a globalized world, discuss and evaluate the concepts of "Free Press" and
"Responsibility" in the developing and developed societies.
Press freedom and responsibility go hand in hand in a democratic society.
Media laws in Pakistan are hindrance in the way of free media. Give your
arguments for or against the comment keeping in view the current laws and
ordinances relating to electronic media in Pakistan.


explain the historical perspective of journalism in subcontinent

In the light of Karl Marx media theory: analyze the role of at least 3 TV
channels with the special reference of flood disaster. What is national
development? And how media can play role in national development
Describe the criteria and parameters of selecting and structuring the news.
Differentiate news components from news values
How Print Media is so important in Pakistan society after the development of
electronic Media? Argue in detail
Critically evaluate socio-economic impact of mobile package advertisements
on Pakistani youth.

Short Note

Press release
Non-verbal communication
Code of ethics for print media

Geography Paper II

Environmentalism & Possibilism

Define Possibilism
How far has man changed the environment in his favor?
Natural environment affects human activities or Human activities affect the
natural environment.
Man-environmental relationship in the light of Physical Determinism and

World Population Distribution

What is meant by population growth?

Compare the pattern of population growth between the more developed
countries (MDCS) and less developed countries (LDCS) since 1950?
Present the spatial distribution of population over the globe
Which factors affect the distribution of population in the world?
Population/Resource regions

kinds of migration and

Effects of intra-urban migration.
forced migration across international borders has become exceedingly
widespread during the recent past. Discuss?
Define urbanization.
Critical assessment of process of urbanization in Pakistan since its inception
Compare different urban and rural landscapes with which you are familiar.
Rural to Urban Migration in Pakistan
Causes of rural-urban migration in the world.

Pakistan Social, Human and Economic Geography

Draw a map of Pakistan and show physical features in it.

importance of Pakistan in the current geo-polity pertinent to Global Affairs
In what ways does the import and export trade of Pakistan differ from that of
her western neighbors?
Throw light on Pakistans transportation Network
Pakistans strategic Importance

Industrial Revolution and Industrialization

Q.1 Describe Industrial Revolution. How far it has helped in economic

development as well as increasing economy disparity in the world?
Q.2 Summarize Western Europes historic contribution to the development of
the present world economy.
Q.3 Bring out the importance of the manufacturing belt of USA. What effects
does the Appalachia area have on the rest of the country?
Q.4 What is the importance of iron and steel industry? How it plays a major
role in the development of any country?

Geography of South Asia

Q.1 Explain Geographical requirements, distribution and production of cotton

in South Asia.
Q.2 Give an account of power resources of South Asia with special reference
to Pakistan.
Q.3 "South Asia has many places where people are few and few places where
people are very many". Discuss.
Q.4 Production and trade of rice in the world with specific reference to south
Q.5 Grain farming in South Asia. Did you notice agriculture change in the
region recently?
Q.6 The River basins and Coastal Plains of South Asia are reckoned as one of
the densely populated areas of the world. Discuss.
Q.7 Agriculture sector is the linchpin of the economy of South Asia. Discuss
in detail with special reference to Pakistan.
Q.8 Major Industries of South Asia based on Non-Metallic minerals.

Oil Politics

Q.1 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of dependence on oil

production by countries of SW Asia and North Africa.
Q.2 Give an account of the Petroleum production in Middle East. Also throw
light on its economic and political importance.


Q.1 To what extent are water resources likely to act as a limit to economic
development in Pakistan?
Q.2 A population map of Asia shows that most people live on or near the river
basins and coasts. Give reasons for this distribution.
Q.3 Fresh water shortage is a future threat for Pakistan. Discuss


Q.1 Name the chief agricultural products of South Asia and indicate the chief
producing areas on a sketch map.
Q.2 Account for the recent floods in the Indus basin and its impact on
agricultural lands and their productivity.


Q.1 Define Resources. Give most workable classification of resources citing

explicit examples
Q.2 "Economic geography is the study of location, distribution and use of
scarce resources". Discuss.
Cultural Diffusion

Q.1 What is meant by cultural diffusion?

Q.2 How is the culture of an area affected by landscape

Economic Activities

Q.1 Delineate the hierarchy of economic activities. Give a detailed account of any ONE of
the secondary activities in the world?


Q.1 Is there any relation between the 'Holy Quran and Geography? Explain
your ideas in detail.
Q.2 Analytical essay on the politico-economic relationship between MDCS and
Q.3 How did settlements originate in the world? Describe the central place
Q.4 Compare the economic and social geographies of the Central Asian

Short Notes

Shifting cultivation
Tourism in Pakistan
Manufacturing industries in China
Fisheries in Japan
Recent Trends in International Relations within SAARC
World's major fishing grounds
Trade patterns in China
Singapore--Her Economic success
Urbanization in Latin America.
Gwadar Port
International Trade Pattern
Environmental and Economic importance of Forests
The green Revolution
The Golden Corridor
Energy crisis in Pakistan
Geography Paper One

Weathering, Erosion and Mass Wasting

Differentiate between weathering, mass wasting and erosion.

Classification of mass wasting types and their areas of occurrence
Evaluate physical weathering and its occurrences in different climate areas
Provide a brief account of fluvial cycle of erosion


What do you know about major landforms?

Landforms produced by the glaciers OR Present glaciated morphology through
various stages.
Action of the river in its youth, maturity, and old age.
Outline the processes by which a river produces various Land features
describing its mode of transportation.
Wind produces a variety of interesting sequential landforms both erosional
and depositional'. Discuss.

Ocean (Current, Importance and Salinity)

what are the Oceans movements

Discuss the Currents of the Pacific Ocean.
Introduce Atlantic Ocean with its flows configuration as unique phenomena.
Sketch a map of Indian Ocean Currents. Bring out the influence of monsoon
on currents of the North Indian Ocean.
Ocean currents influence the climate, resources and economies of many
countries. Elaborate this statement and give examples.
Describe the factors contributing to the origin of ocean currents.
Distinguish b/w North Indian Ocean and South Indian Ocean currents
Describe in details the distribution of salinity in the Ocean


What are the major types of Map Projections?

Discuss different types of Conical Projection and discuss their merits and
Merits of dot method while handling demographic data of Pakistan
Distinction between large-scale, medium-scale and small-scale maps
Topographical maps
Ariel Photography

Various types of local winds

Formation and characteristics of the Mountain and Valley winds.


what is a rock?
Classify rocks and discuss their formation
Characteristics of Rocks
Types of Rocks
Scientific definition of rock
Highlight the process and degree of metamorphism
Rock cycle in connection with its reincarnation

Earth Quakes and Earth Structure

Earthquake waves had helped scientist to know about the interior of the
Earth. Discuss
Describe internal structure of the earth
Write an essay on earthquake.
Ways in which earthquake can be managed

Moon Soon

Silent features of monsoon type of climate.

What impact does Monsoon have on millions living in the South Asia?

Plate Tectonic

young fold mountain building process with the help of moving Lithosphere
Plate Theory.
Plate Tectonic Theory

Climatic Regions (Important)

salient features of Western European type of climate with its impact on

experiencing societies.
Discuss Mediterranean climatic region with its dominating characteristics.
Characteristics of the climate type along with the associated economic
activities. Characteristics of Monsoon Climatic Region
Where can we find the tropical rainforest?
Influence of climate factors on distribution of natural vegetation


What causes the rise and fall of tides?

What celestial bodies are most important in determining tides?
Original concept of air masses and present principal air masses.
Define insulation; discuss the distribution of temperature on the surface of
Earth and reasons for its variation.
Detailed description of the earth's interior with the help of diagrams

Short Notes

Block Mountains
International dateline
Synoptic charts
Planetary winds
trends in January isotherm
Choice of projections

Public Administration CSS 2014

Planning Machinery of Pakistan

What is planning?
Disadvantages of planning called potential disadvantages
Relationship among the six steps in the planning process
Project planning in the government of Pakistan and how does it extend to the
provinces and local governments
Planning Machinery in Pakistan.

Public Administration, its Nature and Scope

Public administration refers to the implementation of public policy. Discuss

Define Public Amin
Explain and justify your definition in comparison with various other competing
definitions of Public Admin
Public Administration v/s Business Administration
Short essay on the intellectual history of Public Administration
"PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION is nothing less than the whole government in
action". Discuss nature of public administration
General problems comprising the elements of public administration


Role of social media in implementing public accountability in the developing

Accountability and Control essential aspects of Public Administration. Discuss
Suggest means for strengthening the system of administrative accountability
in Pakistan.
Salient features of National Accountability Strategy as prepared by the NAB


Transactional and transformational leadership styles are suggested for

political leader. Which one is better for Pakistan and why
Styles of leadership
What style of leader you prefer and why?


Difference between power and authority

Role of power in the control process


What is Bureaucracy?
Critically examine the Weberian model of bureaucracy.
Do you think its characteristics are still relevant to changing Public
Max Webers concept of ideal type of bureaucracy.
How does it differ from the existing public bureaucracy in Pakistan?
Evaluate Taylor's scientific management & Weber's ideal bureaucracy &
Bureaucracy and Democracy are antithetical. Discuss
Bureaucracy as an agent of change but why its lacking in this respect in

Management Theories
Compare and contrast Taylor's Management and Human Relations
'New Public Management' different mechanisms used in pursuing NPM goals in
Analyze McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y.
Explain the concept of motivation giving reference to Maslows hierarchy of
needs theory
Compare & Contrast the Bureaucratic model with new public management
Discuss human relation movement with particular emphasis on the Hawthorne
Explain the principle of scientific management


Performance budgeting, its merits, limitations and difficulties.

Explain the governments budgetary system. Is it an inherently political

Good Governance

Explain the concept of Good Governance.

How can good governance ensure efficient and effective public service
delivery at the grass roots level in Pakistan?
The role of public admin in good governance particularly with reference to

Local Governments

new administrative setup under Local Government Ordinance 2001.How far it

affected the efficiency of Bureaucracy
Devolution Programme. Highlight its strength and weaknesses.


What is the importance of Public Private Partnership in Effective Governance?

Discuss the concept of Public Private Partnership with example from Pakistan.
How and why governments implement public programmes by hiring the
private sector to do work for them.

Public Personnel Management in Pakistan.

Recruitment and training process of Central and Provincial Service

The CSP officers were accused of harboring a colonial mentality, of being little
more "Brown Englishmen's in the conduct of duties .Do you agree?
The excessive zeal for scientific management which arose as a corollary to the
merit system has produced adverse effect on administration but civil service
has become synonymous to merit system. Describe briefly the merit system
and its advantages.


Communication issues of the Citizen-Government relationship in Pakistan

interference of HALLO EFFECT and STEREOTYPING in the recruitment of
knowledge workers
Parliamentary oversight of the executive is an important aspect of any
democratic system. How is this role being exercised by the Parliament in
Pakistan? What recommendations would you suggest for making this role
more effective?
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a contemporary approach to
managing people in business org. What are the salient features of HRM
model? Do you think this model is being applied to reform personnel system
in Pak?
Discuss the functions and organizational structure of federal govt of Pak
including administrative relations between federal ministries and federal
bodies such as commissions, authorities, boards & state-owned enterprises
"Work is accomplished by the employees who have not yet reached their level
of incompetence." Explain in the light of structure and operation of hierarchies
in government.

Short Notes

Ecology of Bureaucracy
E-government in Pakistan
Judicial Remedy
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Problems of co-ordination in public administration in Pakistan.
The organization of Federal and Provincial government in Pakistan
Administrative Law


Karl Marxs Social Conflict in Capitist Society.

"Theory of Labour" given by Karl Marx.
"Evolutionary Theory" given by Ibn-i-Khaldun.
Auguste Compte as Father of Sociology.

Research Methodology

What is hypothesis?
How to conduct a Research?
What is "Social Research?
Important steps of inducting social research
What is a research design?
What type of research design can use for studying the problems of drug
addiction and juvenile delinquency in Pakistan?


Types of Migration
Define urban sprawling
Urbanization as a process
Urbanization and future of major cities in Pakistan in the lights of security
situation and terrorism
Migration as a social phenomenon.
Internal migration
Rural-Urban convergence and the future of cities in Pakistan

Social Change

What is Social Change?

Accelerating and decelerating factors of social change
Process of social change in group behavior
Role of media in social and cultural change in Pakistan


Nature and genesis of institutions along with the change taking place in
Pakistani family.
Changing family pattern, its causes and consequences.
Discuss the status of elderly people in Pakistani society.
Class and Caste

Define and differentiate between caste and class. Discuss the dynamics of
classes in the existing feudal system.
Role of Biradri/Caste system is playing in decision making on political issues
especially local bodies elections in rural areas of Pakistan
How this biradri-based political organization influences the community
development process

Social Problem

Define Social problem

Causes of drug abuse in Pakistan.
Poverty in Pakistan


Define the term Community

important characteristics of rural and urban community


Individual is product of society and culture. Dicuss

Different methods of socialization
Process of Socialization
Define social institution.
Significance of family, religion and education as institutions in the process of
What are different theories about origin of society?
Advantages of socialization?
Is Socialization process applicable to the adults?


Differentiate between Primary and Secondary Groups,

Character of Primary Relations

Short Notes
Social Mobility
Conflict Theory
Social Status
Culture diffusion

History of USA


George Washington (Most expected)

John F. Kennedy
Harry S. Truman
Woodrow Wilson

Question on Nixon, Jefferson and Jackson is least expected because last two years main
yahi poochai gai hain

War of Independence OR Causes of Colonization

War of 1812
Salient features of American foreign policy since World War II

Civil war last year a chukka hai so there are hardly any chances for civil war


Great Depression
Missouri Compromise
Blacks and Women Rights Movements in America
FDR and the New Deal
struggle between the Federalists and anti-Federalist
Manifest Destiny/Westward Expansion

Constitution(very Important b/c last 2 saal se koi sawal nah9i ayia constitution par)

American Constitution is a system of checks and balances.

Flaws in the Articles of Confederation
Salient features of the present constitution of the United States of America

Current Issues

Changing scenario of Pak-US Relation

US Drone Attacks with reference to Pak-US Relation
Note: This is the portion where examiner can ask any thing (World war, Cold war, Great
Game and US policies to dominate and be The World Leader must be well read and

Short Notes

Evolution of Muslim Community in the USA

The Monroe Doctrine
Malcolm X
Compromise of 1850
Jays Treaty

Note:- This is not a guess paper but the most important topics whichshould be prepared