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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

The Structure of Plasma Membrane Fluid Mosaic Model


Composed of phospholipid and
proteins
Each phospholipid consists of
polar head that is hydrophilic
and non-polar tail which is
hydrophobic
Carrier protein and pore protein allow bigger The phospholipids are arranged
polar molecules and charged particle to pass in a double layer phospholipid
through bilayer
Glycoprotein acts as marker for cell The proteins are not rigid but
recognition form a dynamic and fluid
Cholesterol helps to maintain the membrane structure
fluidity of the cell They float freely in the
phospholipid bilayer
The proteins and the
phospholipids are free to move
sideways within the membrane
and this causes the membrane
to have a fluid characteristic
Permeability of plasma membrane Plasma membrane is partially
permeable, it means only
certain substance can pass
through

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

This is mainly due to the


selective barrier of phospholipid
and specific transport protein
Factors that determine which substance can pass Size (large size usually cannot
through the plasma membrane pass through)
Polarity (Polar molecule cannot
pass through the phospholipid
bilayer, it needs specific carrier
protein. Non-polar molecules
can dissolve into the
phospholipid bilayer)
Type of transport What particles?
Simple diffusion Lipid soluble substance such as
fatty acids, glycerol, vitamin
ADEK
Small uncharged molecules
such as oxygen, carbon dioxide

Used in:
Intake of oxygen and removal of
Simple diffusion is the net movement of particles carbon dioxide in the alveolus
from region of high concentration to a region of Diffusion of water out of the
low concentration. leaves through stomata

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Facilitated diffusion What particles?


Charged ions such as K+ and
Cl- can diffuse through pore
protein
Large lipid insoluble molecules
such as glucose and amino
acids diffuse through carrier
protein

It is similar as simple diffusion but with the aid of


carrier protein and pore proteins.
Molecules such as glucose move towards
the binding sites of specific carrier proteins
The molecules bind to specific site of carrier
protein
The carrier protein change shape to pass
through the carrier protein
The carrier protein returns to its original
shape

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Active Transport What particles?


Charged ions and larger polar
molecules such as glucose and
amino acid

Used in:
Active transport is the movement of particle Sodium-potassium pump for
against concentration gradient. It requires carrier impulse transmission
protein and energy. Absorption of glucose and
The concentration of sodium ions is higher amino acids in intestine
on the outside of the cell Selectively reabsorption in
The sodium ions approach and bind to the kidney
specific site of carrier protein Absorption of mineral ions in
ATP molecule is split into the ADP and the plant root hair cells
energy released causes the carrier protein to
change shape
This cause the sodium ions to pass through
the carrier protein

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Facilitated Diffusion VS Active Transport


Facilitated diffusion Active Transport
Molecules move down the concentration
gradient
Molecules move through carrier protein
only
Occurs until a dynamic equilibrium is
reached
Energy needed
Not affected by inhibitors
Dependent on cellular respiration

Osmosis
1. Osmosis is the movement of water
molecules from a region of low solute
concentration to a region of high solute
concentration (or from high water
potential to low water potential) through
a semi-permeable membrane.
2. When a substance such as sugar
dissolves in water, the sugar molecules
attract some of the water molecules and
stop them moving freely. This, in
effect, reduces the concentration of
water molecules.

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

3. In Figure 3.14 the sugar molecules on the right have captured half the water
molecules. There are more free water molecules on the left of the membrane
than on the right, so water will diffuse more rapidly from left to right across
the membrane than from right to left.

Investigation of Osmosis

Suggest and explain the water level of


capillary tube after 15 minutes.

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Hypotonic, Hypertonic and Isotonic Solutions


1. Isotonic is when two solutions are in the same solute concentrations.
2. Hypertonic is when solution A has a higher solute concentration than solution B.
3. Hypotonic is when solution A has a lower solute concentration than solution B.

The Effects of Hypotonic, Hypertonic and Isotonic Solutions on Plant Cells and
Animal Cells
Isotonic - [Solute] (external solution) = [Solute] (cell sap/cell)
- [H2O] (external solution) = [H2O] (cell sap/cell)
- Water diffuse into and out of the cell at equal rates
- Net movement of water is zero.
- No change in size.
Hypertonic - [Solute] (external solution) > [Solute] (cell sap/cell)
- [H2O] (external solution) < [H2O] (cell sap/cell)
- Water diffuses out of the cell by osmosis.
- Cell will shrink.
Plasmolysis for plant cell; crenation for animal cell
Hypotonic - [Solute] (external solution) < [Solute] (cell sap/cell)
- [H2O] (external solution) > [H2O] (cell sap/cell)
- Water diffuses into the cell by osmosis.
- Cell will expand.
Turgid for plant cell (will not burst because of the cell wall) and dynamic
equilibrium is reached.
Cell lysis (bursting) for animal cell

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Determining the concentration of an external solution which is


isotonic to the cell sap of plant cells

Problem Statement: What is the concentration of an external solution


which is isotonic to the cell sap of plant cells?

Hypothesis: The concentration of the solution which is isotonic to the cell


sap of the plant cells has no effect on the mass and size of plant cells

Manipulated variable: Concentration of sucrose solutions

Responding variable: Mass of potato strips

Constant Variable: Surrounding temperature and time

Materials: A freshly cut potato, distilled water, 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M,
0.5M and 0.6M sucrose solutions and tissue paper

Apparatus: A razor blade, a cork borer, Petri dishes, forceps, a ruler, 50ml
beaker and an electronic balance.

Procedure

1. Seven Petri dishes are prepared and labelled A to G.


2. Each beaker is filled respectively with the following solutions
A: Distilled water
B: 0.1 M sucrose solution
C: 0.2 M sucrose solution
D: 0.3 M sucrose solution
E: 0.4 M sucrose solution
F: 0.5 M sucrose solution
G: 0.6 M sucrose solution
3. A medium sized cork borer is pushed through a large potato.
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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

4. The potato tissue is removed from the cork borer


5. It is then cut into a cylindrical strip 50mm long.
6. Step 3 to 5 are repeated to prepare another six cylindrical strips of the
same length
7. Each strip is wiped dry with a piece of tissue paper.
8. The mass of each potato strip is weighed and recorded.
9. Each strip of potato is then placed in a Petri dish
10. The strips of potato must be covered completely in the solution.
11. After soaking for an hour, each strip is removed from its respective Petri
dish and wiped dry. The mass of each strip is weighed again and recorded
in the table below

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Tabulation of Data
Solution Mass of the strip of Difference in Percentage
potato (g) mass difference in
Initial Final mass
Distilled water
0.1M sucrose solution
0.2M sucrose solution
0.3M sucrose solution
0.4M sucrose solution
0.5M sucrose solution
0.6M sucrose solution

Graph of percentage change in mass against concentration of sucrose solution.

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

The Effect of different type of solution on plant tissue

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Osmosis in Daily Life


Wilting in plants When excess fertilizer is added to the soil,
fertilizer dissolve into the soil water
Soil water becomes hypertonic against the
cell sap of the root hair cells
Water diffuses out of the plant cells by
osmosis
The cells become plasmolysed
Wilting occurs
Food preservation with salts The salt solution is hypertonic to the tissue
and sugar Water leaves the food tissue and enter the
salt solution by osmosis
The food become dehydrated and the cells
crenate
Bacterial cannot grow in dehydrated food
At the same time, bacterial cells are crenated
too
Food preservation with Vinegar contain ethanoic acid molecules
vinegar Ethanoic acid diffuse into the tissue of foods
The tissue of food become acidic
Low pH inhibits enzyme reaction of bacteria
hence bacteria cannot grow

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Form 4 Biology Chapter 3 Movement of Substance Across the Plasma Membrane

Kedah 2013

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SBP 2014

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SBP 2012

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SBP 2015

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Johor 2010

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Pahang 2015

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SBP 2016

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SBP 2009

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MRSM 2016

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0610/33/O/N/14

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0610/33/O/N/11

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0610/32/M/J/15

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0610/32/O/N/13

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0610/33/O/N/13

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0610/33/O/N/13

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0610/33/M/J/15

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0610/11/M/J/15

0610/12/M/J/15

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