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You are on page 1of 54

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional

Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.

Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi

Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos

employees. Any material contained in this document which is not

already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given,

or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part,

without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering

Services, Saudi Aramco.

File Reference: PCI10205 E.W. Reah on 875-0426

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

CONTENTS PAGE

POINT RELATIONSHIP FOR A LOOP .............................................................................. 1

Mathematical Method..................................................................................... 2

Test Method.................................................................................................... 2

Linear Loops................................................................................................... 3

Non-Linear Loops .......................................................................................... 5

ELEMENTS/ TRANSMITTERS .......................................................................................... 8

Primary Elements/Transmitters.................................................................................. 8

Temperature Transmitters............................................................................... 8

Flow Transmitters........................................................................................... 10

Linearizing Differential Producers ................................................................. 12

Linearizing With A Compensating Response................................................. 16

ELEMENTS .......................................................................................................................... 17

Linear Valves ............................................................................................................. 18

Equal Percentage Valves............................................................................................ 20

Actual Valve Characteristics...................................................................................... 23

Linearizing the Valve Characteristic .............................................................. 29

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Non-Linear Controllers .............................................................................................. 33

Linearizing Process Characteristic with a Non-Linear Controller .................. 35

Linearizing a Non-Linear Process - Non-Uniform Tank................................ 39

Heat Exchanger Process............................................................................................. 40

Linearizing Processes Whose Gain Varies Inversely With Load ................... 42

Example Of Finding The Steady State Gain Of A Process........................................ 43

Process............................................................................................................ 44

Transmitter ..................................................................................................... 46

Valve .............................................................................................................. 47

Steady State Open Loop Gain ........................................................................ 48

GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................... 49

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

RELATIONSHIP FOR A LOOP

Slope Method

Steady state gain is simply the slope of the input-output relationship of the element's response

curve when both the input and output are time invariant (do not vary with time).

SLOPE = K = A

B

= CONSTANT

OUTPUT

A K

INPUT INPUT

LINEAR ELEMENT

SLOPE = K

SLOPE CONSTANT

OUTPUT

INPUT INPUT

NON-LINEAR ELEMENT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Mathematical Method

Steady state gain can be determined by differentiating the equation that represents the

particular input/output relationship.

K = d(out)/d(input) @ S.S.

Test Method

To determine the steady state gain of an element, or a series of elements, introduce a time

invariant input (a step) to the element and observe the output. If the output becomes time

invariant ( a step), the steady state gain can be calculated as the ratio of the output step to the

input step.

B

A ELEMENT

INPUT OUTPUT

K = B/A

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Linear Loops

A particular loop is made up of a series of linear elements. The open loop steady state gain is

the product of all of the element's individual steady state gains. Look at the linear loop below.

Notice that each element has a linear input/output relationship. The controller's response

curve is drawn with a negative slope to assure overall increase-decrease and negative

feedback.

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Since the steady state gain of each element is the slope of the curve, we can represent the

input versus gain relationship for these elements (as well as for the loop) in the form of

horizontal lines.

(ADJUSTABLE)

K LOOP

A B C

K T

KV

KC

KP

As seen above the steady state gain for this loop is constant and does not vary with the input.

Constant gain at all operating points is a luxury. This loop can be tuned at any input, A, B, or

C, for a particular response (i.e. QAD). The only adjustment required is the controller gain

adjustment, which affects the loop gain and the damping. If the operating point changed,

tuning should hold; that is, we should get the same response at any other point. This loop

should be stable at all operating points.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Non-Linear Loops

If one of the elements in the loop exhibits a non-linear input/output relationship as shown

below, the entire loop becomes non-linear, compromising the capability to have a stable loop

at all operating points.

C

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

B

ADJUST

C

KLOOP

B

K T

KC

KP

KV

The steady state gain for this loop varies with the operating point. Where should this loop be

tuned? If the loop is tuned at point A for a particular response (QAD), the loop could become

unstable if the operating point were changed to points B or C where the gains are higher. On

the other hand, if the loop is tuned at point C for QAD, the response becomes sluggish at

points B or A. The usual choice is to tune the loop for the highest gain condition, point C,

and experience sluggish responses when the operating point changes.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Instead of tuning at the highest gain condition to be on the safe side, a better solution to the

non-linearity problem is to use a complementary linearizing element in the loop through

either the valve or other element. The objective of good control is to make the loop gain

independent of the operating point as much as possible. One way to achieve this is to

linearize the loop as shown in the following example. This effort is worthwhile even if the

result is not a perfect linear loop.

Linearization involves the following procedure.

Since the loop response overall had the following non-linear characteristic:

OUTPUT C

INPUT

OUTPUT

INPUT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The two curves complement each other resulting in an overall linear characteristic.

FUNCTION (B) CHARACTERISTIC (C) C A

OUTPUT

RESPONSE

CURVE (A) B

INPUT INPUT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

TRANSMITTERS

Primary Elements/Transmitters

Depending on the application the selection of the measuring system could involve choosing a

primary element and a transmitter or a transmitter system with an integral primary element.

The steady state analysis would require looking at the combined effect.

Temperature Transmitters

The most common industrial temperature applications involve one of the following

transmitter types.

The response curves of these transmitters (including elements) are shown below:

100 %

LINEAR DEVICES

T/C, RTD,

OUTPUT %

THERMISTOR

NON LINEAR

CLASS II FTS

0 INPUT

TEMP SPAN

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

T/C CLASS II FTS

RTD THERMISTORS

CLASS I FTS

CLASS III FTS

LINEAR NON-LINEAR

CLASS I FTS, CLASS III FTS

CLASS II FTS

KTT, T/C, RTD

KTT

CLASS II

THERMISTOR

Our main interest in this analysis is to determine whether a primary element transmitter

combination input/output relationship is close enough to linearity, that we can ignore its gain

versus operating point variations. We are not looking for perfect linearity, which is a

measurement issue and part of the accuracy statement for the device. In conclusion, we can

state the input/output relationship of an element/transmitter combination of RTD's, T/C's and

Class I and III FTS's are essentially linear in their normal operating ranges. Any small non

linearity, would only affect the measurement accuracy and would have minor consequences

on the transmitter gain and the control of the loop.

What about other temperature measuring devices such as pyrometers and thermistors whose

input/output relationships are inherently non-linear? When using such devices in a loop, it is

up to the user to determine if a device is linear or not. The trend today is for manufacturers to

linearize these devices by drawing compensating curves with the aid of microprocessors.

Frequently, these devices may be linear in a specific operating range.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Flow Transmitters

The most common industrial flow applications involve one of the following measuring

devices.

LINEAR DEVICES NON LINEAR DEVICES

Magnetic Flow Meters Orifice

Positive Displacement Meters Venturi

Vortex Meters Flow Nozzle

Turbine Meters Elbow Meters

Ultrasonic Target Meters

Rotameter Weirs

Coriolis Flumes

The linear devices provide an output which is linearly related to the flow rate. Depending on

the particular device the output could be mv., Volts, pulse frequency, or 4-20 ma dc. The

steady state gain of the linear devices is constant with flow.

LINEAR DEVICES

OUT

K

mv, freq, FT

ma dc

0 TO 100%

FLOW FLOW

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Industrially the most common approach for flow measurement involves differential producers,

of which the orifice plate is by far the most common device. Differential producers have

transmitter outputs that have a non-linear relationship to the flow rate.

0 TO 100%

h

H L

INPUT FLOW

OUTPUT h or P

FLOW (F)

F=K h

The output of the flow transmitter is linearly related to the differential produced. The

differential produced however is not linear to the flow rate and has the following relationship.

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE

P or h

FLOW, F

The gain of the flow transmitter can be evaluated from the orifice plate flow equations.

F = P

Using nondimensional fractional variables f = F/Fmax, h = Pmin / Pmax. The equation can

be written:

f= h

f2 = h

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

We can find the dimensionless (normalized) steady state gain of this transmitter by taking the

derivative dh/df.

K = dh/df = 2f

To convert this to a dimensional gain we multiply the expression by the input/output

relationship of the transmitter as shown.

K = 2f(100%/flow span)

As can be seen from the above expressions the gain of this transmitter is not constant and it

increases with the flow rate as shown.

K FT

f

The consequence of the gain variation of the orifice plate transmitter measuring system is that

this loop may not be stable at all operating points or flows.

If we have tuned the loop for a QAD response at 50% flow and the flow rate increases to

90%, the loop gain will increase, potentially resulting in an unstable response. If the flow rate

decreases the penalty would be a slower sluggish response. Neither condition is desirable.

Most applications involving differential producers use a compensating function to linearize

the flow transmitter and produce a constant loop gain at all flows.

Linearizing Differential Producers

There are two ways that can be used to linearize differential producers.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The following arrangements investigate the use of a square rooter to achieve linearization.

ORIFICE TRANSMITTER

FLOW PLATE

f INPUT h OUTPUT

OVERALL

100 RESPONSE

h OUT OUT

0

f h f

OVERALL

GAIN

K ORIFICE KT KOK T

f h f

In this arrangement without a square root extractor, the steady state gain is not constant but

varies with flow.

100%

K = 2fFlow Span

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Although the transmitter itself may be linear, the primary sensor in this case is not and the

combination of the two therefore results in a gain that is dependent on the input: in this case,

on flow. Obviously, the above will not be a consideration, if the primary sensor has a

constant gain.

Linearizing With A Square Root Extractor

Let us consider now, what we might be able to do to improve the non-linear response.

Investigating the addition of a square root extractor:

INPUT OUTPUT

The square root extractor has a non-linear input-output relationship resulting in a steady state

gain which varies with the input (h).

f= h K

h h

Output Input

f = C h

where C = is a constant

C C1

K = df / dh = =

2 h h

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The addition of a square root extractor to the orifice plate transmitter will effectively linearize

the measurement.

FLOW, f h FLOW

ORIFICE PLATE

AND TRANSMITTER h

INPUT OUTPUT

OVERALL

RESPONSE

h f= h f

f h h

OVERALL

GAIN

K ORIFICE, K (K O,T, ) (K )

TRANS

f h f

We can see that the resultant steady state gain for this loop is constant and independent of the

operating point. The function of a square root extractor is to linearize head flow devices. The

effect of linearization can also be seen from the response curves analysis.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

It is possible to linearize the differential producer (orifice plate) with a complementary

response curve.

In this approach, we try to find a curve (b) type function from one of the other elements in the

loop, i.e. the valve. We can see that a valve with an installed quick opening characteristic has

a curve (b) type function and can effectively linearize the orifice plate application.

The advantage of this approach is the elimination of the need for a square root extractor; the

disadvantage is that the loop will be operating with (Flow)2 information.

h

b

Where: Curve (a) represents the flow versus head relationship for the orifice plate; curve

(b) is the quick opening valve characteristic; and, curve (c) is the resulting linear

characteristic with a constant slope.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The valve is the most common final control element used in process control applications.

There are various types of valves with different characteristics. The most common

characteristics in use are the linear and equal percentage characteristics. Before looking at the

input/output relationship of the valve let us review some valve terminology.

( MANIPULATED VARIABLE )

OUTPUT - FLOW

Valve manufacturers conduct the following test in order to provide common baseline

information about their valves.

P

P = 1 PSI = CONSTANT

VALVE FULLY STROKED

WATER

AT 60F

Cv max = USGPM

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Cv is a capacity coefficient defined as: "The number of U. S. gpm of 60F water which will

flow through a wide-open valve with a pressure drop of 1 psi across the valve.

The actual valve characteristic will be the same as the manufacturer's characteristic only if the

pressure drop across the valve is constant. Valves are sized for varying flow rates, which

result in varying pressure drops across the valve. Thus, in most cases, the actual valve

characteristic is not the manufactured characteristic but is a function of the manufactured

characteristic and the pressure drop ratio Pmin/Pmax across the valve. The two most

common inherent valve characteristics that manufacturers sell are linear and equal percentage.

Linear Valves

Valves with a linear inherent characteristic produce a flow rate directly proportional to the

amount of valve plug travel throughout the travel range. For example, at 30% rated travel the

flow rate would be 30% of maximum flow; at 60% rated travel it would be 60% of maximum

flow.

f = K, m

f CONSTANT SLOPE

f = FRACTIONAL FLOW

m = FRACTIONAL OPENING

m

STEM POSITION

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

df % Dimensionless

KV = =

dm %

Flow Span with Units

= 100%

i.e.

Thus, if a valve truly exhibits a linear characteristic, its steady state is constant.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

A valve with an equal percentage characteristic will (for a given increment in stem travel)

produce a change in flow rate which may be expressed as a constant percent of the flow rate

at the time of the change. For example, if at 20% rated stem travel the flow rate was 5% and

at 30% rated stem travel the flow rate was 7.5%, then at 40% rated stem travel the flow rate

would increase to 11.3%. This represents a constant 50% flow increase at the time of the

change.

The equal percentage valve as described above has an exponential characteristic.

f = R m-1

FRACTIONAL P = CONSTANT

FLOW

F / F MAX

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

f = Rm-1

Where R is the rangeability or turndown of the valve published by the manufacturer and

defined as

Maximum Controllable Flow

R = Minimum Controllable Flow

The equal percentage valve was designed to change the flow exponentially. Small change in

flow initially and large change of actual flow at the upper end of the stem travel.

The slope of the curve is the steady state gain and can be evaluated by differentiating the

equation

df lnR

dm = f

Where lnR is a constant which depends on the valve rangeability. Typical globe valve

rangeability is 50 and for this valve lnR = ln50 4

df

K = dm 4f Dimensionless Number

K

SLOPE OF LINE - 4 WHEN R = 50

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The dimensional form of the equal percentage valve can be evaluated by multiplying the

equation with the dimensional component

Fmax

K = (lnR) f 100

Looking at the steady state gain of this valve, it is obvious that there would be serious

instability problems if the gain variation was not compensated for.

One way that compensation can be achieved is to apply this valve to a process whose gain

varies in the opposite direction and, in effect, linearize the valve, i.e.

EFFECT

K VALVE = %

K PROCESS

K LOOP

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The valve characteristic describes the flow versus the stem position as a valve travels through

its stroke. The curve on which the valve actually operates depends on various factors and it is

not necessarily the manufactured characteristic. There are two characteristics to be concerned

with when analyzing valve curves. These are known as (1) Inherent or shelf characteristic,

and (2) Installed characteristic.

The characteristics described so far are the manufactured characteristics. These inherent or

shelf characteristics apply only to applications where the pressure drop across the valve stays

constant, in which case the installed characteristic of the valve will be the same as the inherent

characteristic.

In most applications the Pv across the valve is not constant but varies with the flow rates. As

the flow rates within the process vary, they produce different pressure drops through the

process piping and tubing. The consequence of this is that the P across the valve will have

to vary with process flows. The valve can be considered a variable pressure absorber that

takes up whatever pressure drop is not used up by the process.

The pressure variation across the valve will distort the valve curve. The amount of distortion

depends on the valve type and the pressure drop ratio across the valve. The installed valve

characteristic is the actual stem position versus flow that the valve operates on.

The choice of valve for constant gain, depends not only on the inherent valve characteristic

but also the Pmin/Pmax pressure ratio across the valve.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Let us investigate the cause of pressure variation across the valve in more detail. Consider the

following process:

PO PIN

SINK

PUMP

P P P V P P

P P

1 2

P V

P MAX

P MIN P P

PO PIN

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The process is made up of piping and tubing through which fluids flow. A flow rate increase

through this process will cause an increase in the pressure drop across the process, Pp. The

pump characteristic curve shows a decrease in outlet pressure Po, as the flow rate

increases(assuming a constant speed pump). If the sink pressure is constant, than the pressure

drop across the valve must vary with the flow rates. This flow rate variation in the process

causes the pressure drop across the valve to vary, altering the valve characteristic.

(Pv)max occurs at minimum flow

(Pv)min occurs at maximum flow

For a given valve, the ratio of the maximum to minimum pressure drop across the valve

dictates the actual installed valve characteristic.

PO PIN

PP P V PP

Q MIN

Q MAX

PVMAX

P VMIN

Note that as the flow changes from Qmax to Qmin the Pv changes from Pvmin to Pvmax.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Pvmax Qmin

An investigation of the effect of the pressure variation on the actual valve characteristic is

shown below:

P MIN

AS << 1

P MAX

P MIN

=1

P MAX

( P = C )

0

0 m

Pv min

At a P ratio of 1 the installed and inherent valve characteristics are the same.

v max

As the pressure ratio across the valve decreases, the installed characteristic of the valve shifts

towards the upper left becoming almost linear. In most processes the Pv is not constant, but

varies with flow, shifting the equal percentage characteristic towards linear.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

P MIN

AS << 1

P MAX

P MIN

=1

P MAX

( P = C )

0

0 m 1

The installed and inherent characteristics for the linear valve would be the same if the

pressure ratio were constant across the valve.

Pv min

As the P decreases, becoming less than 1, the valve characteristic shifts,

v max

approaching a quick-opening characteristic.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The actual valve characteristic can be plotted from the following equation.

F 1

f=F =

max Pmin 1

1 + P 2 - 1

max a

where f = Fractional flow through valve when installed

a = Fractional valve opening

m = Valve stem position

and a = m For a linear valve

We notice from the above equation that the flow through the valve, "f" will be different for a

Pv min

particular opening, "a" depending on the ratio of P and the inherent valve

v max

characteristic.

In summation, if we know the maximum and minimum pressures that the valve will be

subjected to, we can select the inherent valve characteristics so that we will get the desired

installed valve characteristic.

For example if we need a linear valve we choose a linear inherent characteristic if Pv =

Constant or an equal percentage inherent characteristic if Pv Constant. The choice

frequently is an inherent equal percentage valve shifted towards a linear characteristic.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

If Pv is constant and an equal percentage valve were installed we would end up with a non-

linear response. We might be able to compensate for this by introducing a complementing,

non-linearity into the loop, rather than buying a new valve. This non-linearity might be in the

form of a square root extractor in series with the controller output.

m

OUTPUT OF

CONTROLLER

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Linearization can also be accomplished in various other related approaches using what are

known as function generators, f(x)

Function generators are curve drawers and have been available as analog products with

limited capabilities. Today, digital function generators can draw curves of any shape with

relative ease.

The general objective of the curve drawn is to linearize the function and make the steady state

gain constant. As shown below, a divider is used to characterize an equal percentage valve.

FROM

CONTROLLER TO VALVE

INPUT

DIVIDER OUTPUT VALVE OR

POSITIONER

DIVIDER

CHARACTERISTIC

OUTPUT

OVERALL

CHARACTERISTIC

VALVE

CHARACTERISTIC

INPUT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Instead of a divider a function generator, f(x), may be used to draw any curve necessary to

linearize a valve and achieve a linear input/output relationship and constant gain.

FROM OUTPUT

CONTROLLER TO VALVE

(x)

VALVE OR

POSITIONER

In some applications the valve positioner may have a cam which can be characterized to any

function required for linearization.

In digital applications the output can be characterized directly on the output side of the

controller algorithm, allowing the user to draw any curve necessary to linearize the valve.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Linear Controllers

The magnitude of the gain of a three-mode linear PID controller is:

1

2

G 100 2D 2

= PB 1 + -

2I

The gain of this controller depends on the PID values set in the controller.

The integral and derivative settings affect mainly the dynamic gain, while the PB adjustment

affects the steady state gain.

The input/output relationship of this controller is as shown below:

m (OUTPUT )

e ( INPUT )

The steady state gain of this controller is as shown below: (assuming the proportional is the

steady state contribution)

m 100

K = e = PB = Constant

100

K =

PB

INPUT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Non-Linear Controllers

As electronic controllers were introduced, it was possible to build non-linear PID controllers.

Today this function is available in various electronic and digital products. In some

applications it is not desirable to have a constant gain controller. This is specially so for

processes whose gain varies substantially with the operating point such as pH.

Non-linear controllers were designed to handle these kind of processes. They were set up to

have low gain in the high-gain region of the process and high gain in the low-gain region of

the process. An example of this is the three-piece, non-linear controller shown below:

DEAD BAND

( ADJUSTABLE )

40

CHANGE IN CONTROLLER OUTPUT, PERCENT

DEAD BAND 0%

20

MINIMUM

GAIN 0.02

+

_0

20 MAXIMUM

GAIN 0.2

40

40 20 0 20 40

DEVIATION FROM SETPOINT, PERCENT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The adjustable dead band allowed customization of this controller to the process

requirements. Varying the dead band was a form of rudimentary adaptation.

The steady state of this controller varies with the operating point as follows:

NORMAL GAIN

PB

LOW GAIN

- ERROR + ERROR

SETPOINT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The most common application of the non-linear controller is in analytical pH loops. In the

application shown, the low gain portion of the controller is adjusted through the dead band to

correspond to the high gain portion of the pH process, effectively linearizing the loop.

DEAD

BAND

P H PROCESS

NON LINEAR

PH CONTROLLER

REAGENT

K Cont X K Proc

INPUT

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Most processes in the various Saudi Aramco applications are non-linear to some degree. The

non-linearity could be due to the process capacity, which makes the loop gain a function of

load, or operating point.

Common examples of capacity dominant processes characterized by a single dominant

capacity could be a level tank or a heat exchanger.

Level Process

H

FIN

LT

F OUT = LOAD

FIN H = LEVEL

TANK

K Tank = H

F IN

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The amount of increase of level will depend on the Fout or load.

FOUT = 0

FOUT = 50%

FOUT = 75%

FIN IN OUT

LEVEL TANK H

The different outputs depend on the particular load; thus, the steady state gain of this process

depends on the load.

H

KTank =

Fin Fout = Constant

For this process the gain is inversely related to load.

1

KTank Fout

From this relationship, we can conclude that the gain of this process is high at low loads and

goes to a minimum value at high loads.

K TANK

FOUT ( LOAD )

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

The steady state gain versus load relationship gets further distorted for a non-uniform tank,

i.e., a boiler drum interface application or any cylindrical shaped tank as shown below.

H

KTank =

Fi

FIN

LT r3

r2

H

r1

Fi

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

We should recognize, that due to the shape of the tank the change in level, H, for a given

change in inflow, Fi, varies with the level (set point) of the tank. In this case we might be able

to introduce a complementary non-linearity to the output of the level transmitter in an attempt

to linearize the overall response of the process.

SIGNAL

CHARACTERIZER H

CHARACTERIZER

(x)

LT H

PROCESS

OVERALL

LINEAR

The addition of the signal characterizer f(x) linearizes the tank response and makes the tank

equivalent to a uniform tank. We still have a steady state gain for the tank inversely related to

the load that we still need to address to.

1

KTank Load

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

FSTEAM

FW, T 2

FW, T 1

In this process the input is FSteam and the output is T2. The major loads on this process are

Fw and T1.

LOAD = 25%

LOAD = 50%

F STEAM LOAD = 75%

IN OUT, T2

HEAT

EXCHANGER

If we increase the input to the heat exchanger FS, we see an increase in the output T2. The

amount of increase in T2 will inversely depend on the load.

T2

KHeat Exchanger =

FS F w, T1 are constant

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

1

KHeat Exchanger Load

K HEAT

EXCH

B

C

LOAD, Fw or T1

This once-through type capacity process also exhibits a steady state gain that is high at low

load and decreases at high load.

Assuming that all the other elements in this loop have constant loop gain, to what load

condition should we tune this loop?

If we are conservative, and tune at point A, the highest gain area, we will have optimum

response only at low loads or low production rates. At points B or C, the response would be a

safe, overdamped response but not very efficient as it will take a long time to reach steady

state after an upset.

If, on the other hand we decide to tune at point B or C at the low gain area, the danger would

be that the loop will go unstable at low loads. This is not an acceptable outcome. Remember

the purpose of control is to maintain stability at all times. If no other alternative is available,

loop response will have to be sacrificed by tuning the loop at the highest gain.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

We have already seen the solution to this problem during the discussion of the equal

percentage valve. The solution was an inherent equal percentage valve characteristic.

Other solutions:

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Look at the following example to further analyze steady state gain of a process. Everything

external to the controller including the transmitter and final actuator will be considered as part

of the process.

TC r

STEAM

HEADER TT

FS ( INPUT )

TEMPERATURE

( OUTPUT )

PRODUCT

HOT WATER

COLD WATER

CONDENSATE

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

In this example, we will investigate the steady state gain of each element in order to determine

the steady state gain of the loop.

Process

PROCESS HEAT EXCHANGER

INPUT TO PROCESS STEAM FLOW

OUTPUT OF PROCESS HOT WATER TEMPERATURE

To determine the steady state gain of this process we decide to perform a test. At the

operating point we step up the input to the process by changing the steam flow a small

amount i. e. by 1,000 LB/HR and record the resulting output change in temperature.

38,000 LB/HR

193F

STEAM

A PROCESS B

FLOW

INPUT OUTPUT

37,000 LB/HR 190F

Temp Span 3F

Kprocess = (out)/ (in) = B/A = =

Steam Flow Span 1000 LB/HR

F

= 3x10 -3

LB/HR

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

To simplify the example, let us assume this process is linear within the following operating

range.

205

OUTLET

TEMP (F)

160

30,000 45,000

FSTEAM (LB/HR)

KProc = Steam Flow Span = 15000 LB/HR = 3 x 10-3 LB/HR

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Transmitter

The temperature transmitter for this application has a linear input/output relationship and is

calibrated for the following operating range:

INPUT TO TRANSMITTER TEMPERATURE SPAN

OUTPUT OF TRANSMITTER 0 TO 100%

Output Span

KT = Input Span

100%

= 45F

= 2.222 %/F

100%

OUTPUT

0

160F INPUT 205F

SPAN

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

Valve

The valve for this application operates linearly in the selected range.

INPUT TO VALVE STEM POSITION

OUTPUT OF VALVE STEAM FLOW

Steam Flow Span

KV = Input Span

15000 LB/HR

= 100%

150 LB/HR

= %

45,000

STEAM

FLOW

LB/HR

30,000

0 INPUT 100%

SPAN

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

KLoop = KPKTKV KCont

KLoop

KCont = KPKTKV

-3 F 2.222%150 LB/HR

= 3 x 10 LB/HR F %

KLoop

KCont = 1.0 Dimensionless

The steady state open loop gain must be a dimensionless number. This is because of the fact

that the units of one element complement the units of another element around the loop. In the

heat exchanger example, the product of the steady state gains of the elements external to the

controller, (besides being dimensionless) was equal to 1.0. In actual process applications, it

would be extremely unlikely that the gain of the elements external to the controller would be

equal 1.0. If this was the case, (neglecting dynamic considerations) all loops would oscillate

uniformly with a PB of 100% and will achieve QAD at a PB of 200%. We know from

experience that this is seldom the case for the following reason.

A gain of one has the following implications: (A) The input and output spans of all the

elements in the loop must complement each other perfectly. That is, the output span of one

element is exactly the input span of another element throughout the entire loop. (B) The gain

of all the elements is constant throughout their operating range or we have perfectly linearized

the loop.

It is extremely unlikely that these two conditions will co-exist in an actual application. In a

real life application, the heat exchanger process, is not linear: its gain varies with load; the

spans may not perfectly complement each other, and there are dynamic concerns that affect

the gain. All these will have to be accounted for and addressed in the remaining modules in

this course.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

GLOSSARY

compensate for the corresponding variations in the properties of

the process.

control valve A final controlling element, through which a fluid passes, which

adjusts the size of flow passage as directed by a signal from a

controller to modify the rate of flow of the fluid.

equal percentage An inherent flow characteristic which for equal increments of

flow characteristic rated travel, ideally will give equal percentage changes of the

existing flow.

feedforward control Control in which information concerning one or more conditions

that can disturb the controlled variable is converted, outside of

any feedback loop, into corrective action to minimize deviations

of the controlled variable.

final control element Component of a control system (such as a valve) which directly

regulates the flow of energy or material to the process.

flow characteristic Relationship between flow through the valve and percent rated

travel as the latter is varied from 0 to 100 percent. This is a

special term. It should always be designated as either inherent

flow characteristic or installed flow characteristic.

inherent flow Flow characteristic when constant pressure drop is maintained

characteristic across the valve.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

rangeability from the specified inherent flow characteristic does not exceed

some stated limit. (A control valve that adequately controls even

when flow increases to 100 times the minimum controllable flow

has a rangeability of 100 to 1. Rangeability might also be

expressed as the ratio of the maximum to minimum controllable

flow coefficients.)

installed flow Flow characteristic when pressure drop across the valve varies as

characteristic dictated by flow and related conditions in the system in which

the valve is installed.

linear flow An inherent flow characteristic which can be represented ideally

characteristic by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow versus percent

rated travel. (Equal increments of travel yield equal increments

of flow at a constant pressure drop.)

linearity The nearness with which the plot of a signal or other variable

plotted against a prescribed linear scale approximates a straight

line.

quick opening flow An inherent flow characteristic in which there is maximum flow

characteristic with minimum travel.

stability That desirable condition in which input and output are in balance

and will remain so unless subjected to external disturbances.

steady state A characteristic of a condition, such as value, rate, periodicity, or

amplitude, exhibiting only negligible change over an arbitrary,

long period of time.

Engineering Encyclopedia Instrumentation

Steady State Gains

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