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' Moles A fed to the first reactor

2. In terms of the conversion, the differential and integral forms of the reactor

design equations become:

T A BLE S2-l

Batch

CSTR

V = F Ao(Xout - Xin)

(-rA)out

(out dX

PFR V = FAoJx -

Xin - rA

out dJ(

PBR F dX I

W= FAo( --

AOdW= - r A

xm -r'A

ing graphical techniques can be used to size a CSTR and a plug-flow reactor.

A. Graphical Integration Using Levenspiel Plots

CSTR PFR

40 40

V= FAa X 0.8 FAo

-rA f

V = -=r;\ dX

30 30 0

F 3) 20 F

...M(dm

-rA ...M(dm 3) 20

-rA

10 10

0 L-----------------~--- OL----------------L----

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

Conversion, X Conversion, X

B. Numerical Integration

See Appendix A.4 for quadrature formulas such as the five-point quadrature

formula with t:J.X = 0.8/4 of five equally spaced points, x, = 0, x2= 0.2,

X3 = 0.4, X4 = 0.6, and X5 = 0.8.

Chapter 2 DVD-ROM Materials 65

-c=

v (S2-4)

v

DVD-ROM MATERIALS

Learning Resources

I. Summary Notes for Chapter 2

2. Web Module

A. Hippopotamus Digestive Sy tern

~ummary Note~

Autocatalytic Reaction

0 x, X

Conversion

Levensplel Plot for Autocatalytic Digestion '" a CSTR

A. Reactor Staging

Interactive

Computer Games

4. Solved Problems

A. CDP2-A8 More CSTR and PFR Calculations-No Memorization

FAQ [Frequently Asked Questions]

66 Conversion and Reactor Sizing Chapter 2

R2. 1 Modified Levenspie! Plots

For liquids and constant volume batch reactors, the mole balance equations

can be modified to

"C = (AOdCA

~olved Problems CA -rA

One can use this plot to study CSTRs, PFRs, and batch reactors. This material

using space time as a variable is given on the DVD-ROM.

R2.2 Space Times, 't, for a Number of Industrial Reactions

The subscript to each of the problem numbers indicates the level of difficulty: A, least

difficult; D, most difficult.

A= e B= C= + D= ++

I (a) Without referring back, make a List of the most important items you

'

Learned in this chapter.

'

(b) What do you believe was the overall purpose of the chapter?

1-lomewort Problems P2-2A (a) Revisit Examples 2-1 through 2-3. How would your answers change if

Before solvi ng the the flow rate, FAO were cut in half? If it were doubled? What conversion

problems, state or can be achieved in a 4.0 m3 PFR and in a 4.0 m3 CSTR?

sketch qualitatively (b) Revisit Example 2-4. How would your answers change if the two CSTRs

the expected results (one 0.82 m3 and the other 3.2 m3) were placed in parallel with the flow,

or trends.

FAO divided equally between the reactors.

(c) Revisit Example 2-5. (1) What would be the reactor volumes if the two

intermediate conversions were changed to 20% and 60%, respectively?

(2) What would be the conversions, X1, X2 , and X3 , if all the reactors had

the same volume of 100 dm 3 and were placed in the same order? (3)

What is the worst possible way to arrange the two CSTRs and one PFR?

Go to the Web site www.engr.ncsu.edu/leamingstyleslilsweb.html

(a) Take the Inventory of Learning Style test, and record your learning style

according to the Solomon/Felder inventory.

Global/Sequential _ _

Active/Reflective_ _

Visual/Verbal _ _

Sensing!Intui tive_ _

~

(b) After checking Appendix H.2 and on learning styles at

the end of the Chapter 2 Summary Notes on the DVD-ROM, suggest two

Lints ways to facilitate your learning style in each of the four categories listed.

ICG Staging. Load the Interactive Computer Game (ICG) from the

DVD-ROM or Web. Play this game and then record your performance num-

ber, wruch indicates your mastery of the material. Your professor has the key

to decode your performance number. Note: To play this game you must have

Windows 2000 or a later version.

ICG Reactor Staging Performance # - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Chapter 2 Questions and Problems 67

P2-Sc Inspector Sgt. Nigel Ambercromby of Scotland Yard. Worthless Chemical has

been making tirene (A) from butalane (B) (both dark liquids) using an 8.0 ft3

CSTR followed by a 3.1 ft 3 PFR. For an entering flow rate l.O ft 3/min, a con-

version of 81% is achieved using this arrangement. The Levenspiel plot is

shown in Figure P2-5c. One notes that the shape of which is a highly unusual

functionality never seen before in real practice and which we're unlikely to

see again (proprietary with Worthless Chemical).

50

40

c

':.M (min)

30

-rA

20

10

Conversion , X

Reference Shelf R 1.3 Figure 1.2, except the feed and exit streams are at the

top.

There is a preheater upstream of the CSTR that heats the feed to 60C.

One morning the plant manager, Dr. Pakbed, arrived and found that the con-

version had dropped to approximately 24%. After inspecting the reactors, the

PFR was found to be working perfectly, but a dent was found in the CSTR ,

which may have been caused by something like a fork lift truck. He also notes

the CSTR, which normally makes a "woosh" sound, is not as noisy as it was

yesterday. The manager suspects foul play and calls in Sgt. Nigel Arnbercromby

from Scotland Yard. What are the first four questions Sgt. Ambercromby asks?

Make a list of all the things that cou ld cause the drop in conversion. Quantify

the possible explanations with numerical calculations where possible. Dr. Pak-

bed tells Sgt. Ambercromby that he must achieve a conversion greater that

50% to meet production schedules downstream. Sgt. Ambercromby says, "I

think I know how you could do this immediately." What does Ambercromby

have in mind? [With Dan Dixon, ChE 344 W'97.]

P2-6A Pure A is fed at a volumetric flow rate of 1000 dm 3/h and at a concentration

of 0.005 lb molldm 3 to an existing CSTR, which is connected in series to an

existing tubular reactor. If the volume of the CSTR is 1200 dm 3 and the tubu-

lar reactor volume is 600 dm 3 , what are the intermediate and final conversions

that can be achieved with the exi ting system? The reciprocal rate is plotted

in Figure P2-6A as a function of conversion for the conditions at which the

reaction is to be carried out.

68 Conversion and Reactor Sizing Chapter 2

A-Product

4000

3000

~(dm3 }

-rA

2000

0

Conversion , X

P2-7 8 You have two CSTRs and two PFRs, each with a volume of 2.0 m3. Use Fig-

ure 2-2B to calculate the conversion for each of the reactors in the following

arrangements.

(a) Two CSTRs in series.

(b) Two PFRs in series.

~all of Fame (c) Two CSTRs in parallel with the feed, FAO divided equally between the

two reactors.

{d) Two PFRs in parallel with the feed divided equally between the two reactors.

(e) Caution: This is a C level problem. A CSTR and a PFR in parallel with

the flow equally divided. Calculate the overall conversion, X0 v

. hF _ FAo_FAo X

Xov-_FAo-FACSTR-

FAO

F APFR

'W it ACSTR- 2 2 CSTR>

(g) A CSTR followed by a PFR.

(h) A PFR followed by two CSTRs. I this arrangement a good arrangement

or is there a better one?

P2-8 8 The irreversible gas phase nonelementary reaction

is at a temperature of 227C, a pressure of I 013 kPa, and its composition is

33.3% A and 66.7% B. Laboratory data taken under identical conditions are

as follows (note that at X = 0, - rA = 0.0000 l moUdm 3):

-r mol . ) x iO 3

--mm 0.010 0.005 0.002 0.001

A ( dm 3

(a) Estimate the volume of a plug-flow reactor required to achieve 30% con-

version of A for an entering volumetric flow rate of 2 m3/min .

(b) Estimate the volume of a CSTR required to take the effluent from the

plug-flow reactor (PFR) above and achieve 50% total conver ion (based

on species A fed to the PFR).

Chapter 2 Questions and Problems 69

(d) What is the volume of a si ngle plug-flow reactor necessary to achieve

60% conversion? 80% conversion?

(e) What is the volume of a single CSTR necessary to achieve 50% conversion?

(0 What is the volume of a second CSTR necessary to raise the conversion

from 50% to 60%?

(g) Plot the rate of reaction and conversion as a function of PFR volume.

(h) Give a critique of the magnitude of the answers to this problem.

P2-9 8 For the irreversible gas-phase reaction:

A~2B

the following correlation was determined from laboratory data (the initial con-

centration of A is 0.2 g mol/L):

10- 8 m3 S

For X~ 0.5: - - = 3.0--

-rA mol

10- 8 m3 S

For X?:0.5: -=3.0+10(X-0.5)--

-rA mol

The volumetric flow rate is 5 m3/s.

(a) Over what range of conversions are the plug-flow reactor and CSTR vol-

umes identical?

(b) What conversion will be achieved in a CSTR that has a volume of 90 L?

(c) What plug-flow reactor volume is necessary to achieve 70% conversion?

(d) What CSTR reactor volume is required if effluent from the plug-flow

reactor in part (c) is fed to a CSTR to raise the conversion to 90%?

(e) If the reaction is carried out in a constant-pressure batch reactor in which

pure A is fed to the reactor, what length of time is necessary to achieve

40 % conversion?

(0 Plot the rate of reaction and conversion a a function of PFR volume.

(g) Critique the answers to this problem.

P2-10 8 The adiabatic exothermic irreversible gas-phase reaction

2A + B - - - - 7 2C

is to be carried out in a flow reactor for an equimolar feed of A and B. A

Levenspiel plot for this reaction is shown in Figure P2-10 8 .

500.000

400.000

FAo

- rA 300.000

(m3) 200.000

100.000

0

0 0.3 0.6 0.9

X

Figure P2-10 8 Levenspiel plot.

70 Conversion and Reactor Sizing Chapter 2

(b) What CSTR vol ume is necessary to achieve 50% conversion?

(c) What is the volume of a second CSTR added in series to the first CSTR

(Part b) necessary to achieve an overall conversion of 70%?

(d) What PFR volume must be added to the first CSTR (Part b) to raise the

conversion to 80%?

(e) What conversion can be achieved in a 6 x l04 m3 CSTR and also in a

6 x 104 m3 PFR?

(0 Think critically (cf. Table P-1 , page xiv) to critique the answers (num-

bers) to this problem.

P2-11 0 Don ' t calcu late anything. Just go home and relax.

P2-12 8 The curve shown in Figure 2-1 is typical of a reaction carried out isothermally,

and the curve shown in Figure P2-l2 8 is typical of a gas-solid catalytic exo-

thermic reaction carried out adiabatically.

60

50

40

-rA

.2 .4 .6

Conversion, X

(a) Assuming that you have a fluidized CSTR and a PBR containing equal

weights of catalyst, how shou ld they be arranged for this adiabatic reac-

tion? In each case, u e the smallest amount of catalyst weight and still

achieve 80% conversion.

(b) What is the catalyst weight necessary to achieve 80% conversion in a flu-

Fluidized

catalyst idized CSTR?

ptlltfl

(c) What fluidized CSTR weight is necessary to achieve 40% conversion?

(d) What PBR weight is necessary to achieve 80% conversion?

(e) What PBR weight is necessary to achieve 40% conversion?

(0 Plot the rate of reaction and conversion as a function of PBR catalyst

weight, W

Additional information: FAa = 2 molls.

Read the "Chemical Reaction Engineering of Hippopotamus Stomach" on the

DVD-ROM or on the Web.

(a) Write five entences summarizing what you learned from the module.

(b) Work problems (1) and (2) on the hippo module.

Chapter 2 Questions and Problems 71

(c) The hippo has picked up a river fungus, and now the effective volume of

the CSTR stomach compartment is only 0.2 m3. The hippo needs 30%

conversion to survive? Will the hippo survive?

(d) The hippo had to have surgery to remove a blockage. Unfortunately, the

surgeon, Dr. No, accidentally reversed the CSTR and the PFR during the

operation. Oops!! What will be the conversion with the new digestive

arrangement? Can the hippo survive?

P2-14A What is wrong with this solution? An adiabatic liquid pha e exothermic

reaction is to be carried out in a 25 dm 3 CSTR. The entering molar flow rate

of A times the reciprocal of the rate of reaction is shown below in Figure

P2-14A(a) as a function of conversion.

(a) (b)

50 50

40 40

FAO

-r. 30 -r. 30

3 3

(dm ) 20 (dm ) 20

10 10

X X

Solution

We are given FAo vs. X and that the volume is 25 dm 3 . We need to find the

-rA

X such that area of the CSTR rectangle (X ~~:) = 25 dm 3

. This is the trial

Let's calculate the area in the rectangle with the conversion at the min-

imum and see if it matches the volume of 25 dm 3 given in the problem state-

ment at the minimum.

It matches!! Therefore X= 0.5.

72 Conversion and Reactor Sizing Chapter 2

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Further discussion of the proper staging of reactors in series for various rate laws, in

which a plot of -lirA versus X is given, is presented in

BURGESS, THORNTON W., The Adventures of Poor Mrs. Quack, New York:

Dover Publications, Inc., 1917.

KARRAss, CHESTER L., Effective Negotiating: Workbook and Discussion Guide,

Beverly Hill, CA: Karrass Ltd., 2004.

LEVENSP!EL, 0 ., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley,

1999, Chapter 6, pp. 139-156.

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