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12 views55 pagesprinsip dari pengadukan cepat dan pengadukan lambat

Aug 18, 2017

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prinsip dari pengadukan cepat dan pengadukan lambat

© All Rights Reserved

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prinsip dari pengadukan cepat dan pengadukan lambat

© All Rights Reserved

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1. Mixing

Is a unit operation that distributes the components of two

or more materials among the materials producing in the

end a single blend of the components. Mixing is

accomplished through agitation.

Type of mixers:

rotational (rotational elements)

pneumatic (gas or air bubbles)

hydraulic (flowing of water)

2. Flocculation

Is a unit operation aimed at enlarging small particles

through a very slow agitation. Flocculation is

accomplished through the use of large paddles.

Mixing

A. Rotational Mixers

Impellers are used in rotation mixing. Types of impellers are (Fig

6.2):

a. propellers

standard three-blade

guarded

weedless

b. Paddles

flat paddle

c. Turbines

straight blade

curved blade

vaned-disk

shrouded blade

Flow Pattern in Rotational Mixers (Fig

6.3)

fluid is thrown towards the wall

fluid is deflected up and down

rate)

putting the agitator eccentric to the vessel

using a side entrance to the vessel

Power Dissipation in Rotational Mixers

P = power dissipated

N = rotational speed

Da = diameter of impeller

g = acceleration due to gravity

= absolute viscosity

= mass density

If Re 10

P K L N 2 Da3

NDa

Re

At high Re

P KT N D 3 5

a

Dt = Diameter of Vessel; W = Width of Paddle; J= Width of baffle

Example 6.1

B. Criteria for Effective Mixing

P

G

V

V = volume of tank

P = power dissipated

= absolute viscosity

G Criteria Values for Effective Mixing

t0 (seconds) G (s-1)

10 20 1500 950

20 30 950 850

30 40 850 750

C. Pneumatic Mixers

This is accomplished using diffused aerators (Fig

6.7)

porous ceramic tube

coarse bubble

open pipe

perforated pipe

fine bubble

saran wrapped tube

diffused aeration schematic

Pneumatic mixing power = function (number of bubbles

formed)

Pi Qi h

n

Pa Vb 0 b

n = number of bubbles

Pi = input pressure to the unit

Qi = input flow to the unit

Pa = atmospheric pressure

b = average rise velocity of bubbles

h = depth of submergence of air diffuser

Vb0 = average volume of bubble at surface

b is described in terms of

three dimensionless g 4

G1

quantities, G1, G2 and Re Pi 3

G1 = Peebles number G2

4

g r b Pi

4 3

G2 = Garber number 3

Re

2 Pi b r

r = average radius of

bubbles

b

2 r Pi

Re 2

9

0.52

b 0.33 g 0.75 Pi

r

1.28

2 Re 4.02G 2.214

1

0.50

b 1.35 4.02G 1

2.214

Re 3.10G 1

0.25

Pi r

0.25

g

b 1.53 3.10G 1

0.25

Re G2

Pi

Power Dissipation in Pneumatic Mixers

Pa h l

P PiQi ln

Pa

l = specific weight of water

Example 6.2

D. Hydraulic Mixers

This is accomplished by the use of energy of a

flowing fluid to create the power dissipation

required for mixing. Types of hydraulic mixers

include:

hydraulic jump mixer

weir mixer

Power Dissipation in Hydraulic Mixers

P Qh f

Q = flow rate

= specific weight

For hydraulic jump (Fig 6.9)

2 2

V V

1

y1 h f y2 2

2g 2g

y2 y1 q y2 y1 2 gy

2 2

y 2

hf 2 2

1 2

2 gy y

1 2

Using the momentum equation

F t cv dv A .n dA

y1 12

y2 1 8 1

2 gy1

Q 2

Q y2 y1 y2 y1 2 gy1 y2

2 2

W

P

hydraulic jump 2 gy12 y22

V jump y1 y2 LW

1

2

V jump

t0

1

y1 y2 LW

Q 2Q

L 6 y2

V jump 3 y2W y1 y2

t0

3 y2W

y1 y2

Q

Examples 6.3 and 6.4

For weirs (Fig 6.10)

hf H H D

H = head over the weir crest

HD = drop provided from weir crest to surface of

the water below

Then

P Qh f Q H H D

Examples 6.5 and 6.6

Flocculators

Agitation in flocculation involves gentle motion of the

fluid to induce agglomeration of smaller particles into

larger flocs

Small flocs build into larger sizes until a point reached

where the size can not go on increasing (critical size)

Critical size depends on:

Detention time (larger detention time produce larger critical

sizes)

Velocity gradient (larger velocity gradients produce smaller

critical sizes)

Critical values for effective flocculation are expressed in

terms of:

Gt0 and

G

Critical Values for Effective Flocculation

colored

High turbidity 70 - 150 80,000 190,000

Compartments vary in size (from

smaller to larger)

G decreases instead

As flow gets larger, rotation of

paddle must be made slower to

avoid breaking up the flocs

The number of blades decrease

also as water moves from

compartment to another

If FD is drag by water on the blade

and FD is also the push of the

blade upon the water

Due to that, water will move at a

velocity p equal to the velocity of

blade

Since paddle is rotating, (p) is a

tangential velocity

p rp

rp = radial distance to rotational axis

= angular rotation (radians / time)

C D Ap l 2

FD

p

2

CD = drag coefficient

Ap = projected area of blade in the direction of its

motion

= mass density of water

i 2

i 3

Pblade C D Ap

p

p C D Ap p

2 2

i 3p i a 3pt

P Pblade CD Ap CD Apt

2 2

Apt = sum of projected area of blade

pt = blade tip velocity

Due to location of blades, there will be several ps

To use one velocity, pt, is used multiplied by a factor

(a), [ a = 0.75 ]

G and Gt0 are to be checked to see if the flocculator

performs at conditions of effective flocculation

Paddle tip velocity should be less than 1.0 m/sec

CD is a function (Re)

D p

Re

p = blade velocity

= kinematic viscosity

For one single blade at Re = 105

b

C D 0.008 1.13

D

CD = for multiple blades must be determined

Example 6.7

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