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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

STRUCTURAL STEEL & TIMBER DESIGN III(SSD301C)

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this section are to introduce the student to the course material, explain whatis
expected of the student, and how the course will be evaluated.The study guide is aimed to direct the
learner through the contents of the syllabus by definingthe learning outcomes and leading the learner
through each section. There are a number oftypical examination questions covering each section
which is intended for self evaluation.

COURSE COMPOSITION:

The course material is divided into two parts:

MODULE 1: STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

This module consists of a study guide, a compulsory prescribed textbook and relevant SANScodes. The
study guide for this module contains brief highlight on each topic, specifying theobjectives and specific
outcomes. Students are directed to the prescribed book for the detailsof each topic.

MODULE 2: STRUCTURAL TIMBER DESIGN

This module consists of study notes and compulsory prescribed relevant SANS codes.

Using the course Material

To successfully complete the course, the following procedure is recommended.Work methodically


through each section in turn and make your own rough notes as you progress. Contact the mentor if you
are unable to clarify any important points.Once you are comfortable with the section, attempt the self
evaluation questions.Do not move onto the next section until you have mastered the present one.Do
not attempt and submit the assignment or project until you fully understand the coursematerials
required.

SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


MODULE 1

STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN Introduction

The primary objective of this part of the course is to introduce you to the basics of designing Structural
steel elements such as trusses, beams and columns. This part also covers the loading on structures
including the effects o wind. You will be lead through the theory behind each section before getting into
the actual design of the elements.

Course Format

The prescribed text is ideally suited to the course and should be followed closely together with the code
of practice when working through each section. The textbook indicates references to the code on the
right hand side of the page thus: [4.5.11] to enable the student to quickly refer to the relevant parts of
the code. There are self evaluation questions provided for each section which are typical examination
questions for which the final answers are given (but not the worked solution) verify your solution.

Prescribed text book:

Structural steel design to SANS10162:1-2005-1, Parrot, G.K, Shades Technical Publications. SA 2006
ISBN1-919858-13-X.

Relevant SANS codes and construction handbook.

South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit states design). The South African Institute of Steel
Construction.

SANS 10162-1:2005: The structural use of steel - Part 1: Limit-state design of hot-rolled steelwork. ISBN
0-626-16165-7.

SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE


SANS 10160: The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.

Further reading:

There is a wide variety of books available for structural steel design. The students must, however,
ensure that any book used for additional reading is based on the relevant codes of practice.

SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.1: LOADING & LIMIT STATE DESIGN

The correct determination of loads acting on a structure is obviously a critical component ofthe overall
design process as any error in load calculations will lead to errors in the effects ofload on the structure
and make element strength calculation meaningless.

1.1.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to ensure that the learner is able to determine the intensity ofloading on
structural elements and also provide an understanding of the limit-statesapproach to structural
design.

1.1.2 Specific Outcomes

At the end of this section the learner will be able to make a reasonable assessment of theintensity of
basic loads acting on structural elements. The learner will also have anunderstanding of Limit State
Design and be able to convert the loads calculated intoultimate and serviceability limit state values.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.2: ANALYSIS

This is basically a revision section since most of the material covered has previously beencovered in the
prerequisite subjects Applied Mechanics I and Theory of Structures II.The additional work looks at
the understanding of the analysis of frames specifically thesecond order effects resulting from sway of
the structure which is a design requirement of thecode of practice used.

1.2.1 Objectives

The primary of this section is to ensure that the learner is able to carry out the basic analysisof
structures (Statically determinate).

1.2.2 Specific Outcomes

At the end of this section the learner will be able to calculate the load effects on beams ofsupport
reactions, shear forces and bending moments, and the load effects on pin-jointedtrusses of axial forces
(tension and compression). Given the first order analysis calculated bycomputer, the learner will also be
able to determine the second order effect on framedstructures.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.3: CONNECTIONS

The type of connection used can affect the analysis and strength of a structural element whichmakes it
important to consider connection design before designing the elements themselves.

1.3.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to show the learner the different types of connections used instructural
steel and to provide the necessary equations to determine their strength.

1.3.2 Specific Outcomes

At the end of this section the learner will know of the different ways of connecting structuralsteel and
be able to determine the strength of bolted and welded connections.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.4: TIES & STRUTS


These structural elements generally make up trusses or girders and are used extensively
in practice for roofs and bridges. It is important to remember here that the strength of thesemembers is
also largely dependent on the type and strength of the connected ends.

1.4.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to derive and provide the learner with the equations necessaryto
determine the strength of members both in tension and compression.

1.4.2 Specific Outcomes

At the end of this section the learner will be able to determine the different modes of failureand
calculate the factored resistance of members subjected to a pure axial load either intension or
compression.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.5: BEAMS

Beams are used extensively in structural steel building frames where they provide the supportstructure
to the floors. It is very important to clearly understand that the compression flangeof a beam wants to
buckle laterally, and that the type of restraint offered has a large influenceon the strength of a beam.

1.5.1 Objectives

The objectives of this section are to give the learner an understanding of the behaviour
of beams and to provide him/her with the necessary information required to determine thestrength
(resistance) of hot-rolled steel beams and plate girders subjected to bending andshear effects of loading.

1.5.2 Specific Outcomes

At the end of this section the learner will understand and be able to take into account thevarious types
of restraint offered to a beam. The learner will be able to determine the factored bending resistance of
hot-rolled and welded plate girder beams as well as the factored shearresistance including the provision
and design of web stiffeners where required. The learnerwill also be able to check the serviceability limit
state of deflection.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1.6: COLUMNS

These elements are encountered often and are generally referred to as beam-columns. Thelearner will
already know how to determine the factored resistance for bending and axialforce independently, and
will now look at the interaction of these load effects.

1.6.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to demonstrate the effects of combined stresses acting on amember and
to enable the learner to assess the suitability of a given section subjected to thiscombined stress.

1.6.2 Specific Outcomes

At the end of this section the learner will be able to assess the strength and suitability ofstructural steel
elements that are subjected to a combination of bending moment about one or both axes together with
either axial compression or tension forces.

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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

SECTION 1: LOADING & LIMIT STATE DESIGNQUESTION 1. 1

The figure below shows the evaluation of part of a building frame. The frames are spaced at6. 5 m
centres over the length of the building. All columns are 254 x 107 H-section and
all beams are 356 x 171 x 67 I-sections. The structure is braced and all connections should beconsidered
as pinned (i.e. beams are simply supported). The floor consists of a 150 mmthick reinforced concrete
slab with applied finishes that amount to 1 kN/m

and is to beutilised for offices containing data processing equipment. The reactions at this floor
levelfrom columns A2 and B2 are given below:D

Column A2 25 kN 120 kNColumn B2 25kN 85kNDetermine the ultimate reaction of the base of column:
C1.
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SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

QUESTION 1. 2

The figure below shows the elevation of a sign board that is to be erected on Durbans beachfront.
The sign is required to withstand a wind force with a mean return period of 25years.(a)

Column A2 25 kN 120 kNColumn B2 25kN 85kNDetermine the ultimate reaction of the base of column:
C1.
Calculate the wind velocity pressure.(b)

Ignoring the self-weight of the sign and posts, calculate the maximum ultimatemoment that each post
would be subjected to as a result of the wind pressure.

QUESTION 1. 3

The figure below shows the line drawing representing a typical frame of a rectangular cladsteel building
with a mono-pitched roof. The structure is 25 m long with the frames at 5 mcentres. The building is to
be located at Durban international airport (site altitude 75 m) andwill be used as a repair workshop. The
interior of the building will be open plan and all fourwalls are equally permeable.