You are on page 1of 65


By-Product is an integral part of recovery type coke ovens. By-product sucks coke oven
gas from batteries maintaining the thermal regime in ovens and recovers valuables like
Tar and removal of impurities like H2S and ammonia; by means of physical and chemical
separation processes. Removal of these impurities gives clean Coke oven gas which can
be used for heating purpose in batteries and also by other consumers within JSW. There
are two independent by-product plants for Coke Oven 3 & 4. Specifications of Coke
Oven 3 & 4 plant are as follows

Product Coke Oven 3 Coke Oven 4

Coke 1491379 Ton/a 1958834 Ton/a

Tar 58500-64000 Ton/a 69000-74000 Ton/a

Sulphur 800-1500 Ton/a 800-2000 Ton/a

COG 82200 Nm3/hr 103500 Nm3/hr

Steam 5 -7Ton/h 6-8 Ton/h

In order to make raw coke oven gas suitable for use as a fuel gas at the coke oven
battery and elsewhere in the steelmaking facility the by-product plant must:

Cool the coke oven gas to condense out water vapor and contaminants
Remove tar aerosols to prevent gas line/equipment fouling and process
Remove ammonia to prevent gas line corrosion
Remove naphthalene to prevent gas line fouling by condensation
Remove hydrogen sulfide to meet emission regulations governing the
combustion of coke oven gas.

Coke Oven 3 & 4 by product plant is divided into following sections

1. Condensation/ETP/Blowing Section
2. Gas condensate pump house area
3. Desulphurization Unit
4. Ammonia Scrubbing/Distillation
5. Ammonia Decomposition Section

Area concerned with utilities

6. CWSS(Comprehensive Water Supply System) which includes a soft water station

7. Refrigeration Station
8. Compressor station

Water Treatment plant

9. Biological Oxidation & Dephenolization (BOD)Plant


Raw COG at
800C, -1.5 Kpa
-2.6 Kpa
Raw COG and
liquor from
Battery at 80 0C

250C, 500C, 220C,

Mixed -2.5 Kpa 10 Kpa
liquor to 12 Kpa
Gas Liquid Primary gas Electrostatic tar Pre cooling
Cooler Precipitator tower

Clean COG at
300C, 6 Kpa


Gas Holder
310C, 320C, 310C,
Flare Station 7 Kpa 8 Kpa 9 Kpa

Ammonia Ammonia Desulfurisation Desulfurisation

tower B towerA
Scrubbing tower B Scrubbing tower A

Fig 1
Gas flow in BPP is shown pictorially in fig 1. Gas is sucked from batteries by exhausters
located in Condensation/blowing/ETP area. Hence the area before Exhauster is always
under suction pressure. Gas from batteries first enters gas liquid separators where gas
and liquid streams are separated by density difference. Gas from top of gas liquid
separator then enters Primary gas coolers and then Electrostatic tar precipitators. Tar
with naphthalene is separated in these two equipments. Gas is then pressurized by
exhausters to Desulphurisation area where Hydrogen Sulphide is removed from gas by
wet oxidation process. Gas devoid of Hydrogen Sulphide enters Ammonia scrubbing
area where Ammonia from gas is removed by scrubbing. Clean gas then enters gas
holder which is a buffer system to hold gas and then pressurize further by boosters to
consumers within JSW. A part of gas before entering gas holder is sent to batteries for

Excess for
Coke Oven To
Batteries B.O.D
liquor tank

Gas liquor Liquor To external

Decanter Tar storage
Separator customer
Primary gas
Sludge To coal yard


Gas condensate


Exhauster To desulphurisationand
other areas

Fig 2
The liquid stream handling is pictorially represented in Fig 2. Condensate generated in
condensation/Blowing/ETP area along with the Liquid stream from gas liquid separators
is centralized into decanters. Decanters are settling tanks where three layers are
formed. Bottom-most is tar sludge which is scrapped out by means of a scrapper
arrangement and sent to coal mixing in conveyors. Central layer is tar which is
periodically drained out to settling tanks. Tar with moisture<4% is loaded in tar tankers
and sold out commercially. Topmost layer is Ammonia liquor or flushing liquor which is
pumped to battery gas cooling mains for Coke oven gas cooling immediately after
batteries. This is a closed cycle. The excess liquor generated in the circuit by means of
coal moisture is pumped to excess liquor distillation column situated in Desulphurization
area and waste water after distillation is sent to BOD for further treatment.

The ammonia generated in excess liquor distillation and Ammonia scrubbing area
distillation column is cracked to Nitrogen and Hydrogen in Ammonia decomposition
furnace. The heating media of furnace is coke oven gas. The tail gas which has high heat
value is used to generate steam in waste heat boiler connected to furnace. The steam
generated is added to steam network. The tail gas from furnace is vent to the
atmosphere by means of a chimney. Waste water from distillation columns is sent to
BOD (Waste water treatment plant). Treated water from BOD is pumped to quenching
ponds for coke quenching.

Utilities required to run by product area are shown below.

Name Unit Coke 3 Consumption Coke 4 consumption

Fresh Water m /hr 300 426.242
Steam Ton/h 46 48
Compressed air m /hr 3650 3980
Instrument air m /hr 1600 1600
Nitrogen m /hr 400 400

It is to be noted that Compressed air and Instrument air are generated in house in
compressor station of by product. The rest are taken from external sources. Utilities will
be dealt in detail in further sections.
Coke oven gas quality before and after as per design are shown below.


INLET (gm/Nm3) OUTLET (gm/Nm3)

NH3 7.8 0.1

H2S 5.01 0.2


NAPTHALENE 10.02 0.4

The raw gas composition of coke oven gas and few of its properties are mentioned

Raw Gas Composition

Component H2 CH4 CO CmHn CO2 N2 O2 Heat valve KJ/NM3 KCAL/NM3

% 56-60 23-27 5.-8 2. - 4 1.5 - 3 3. - 7 0.3-0.8 17000-18000 4200 - 4400

Spontaneous Ignition temperature: 640 -650 Deg C

Explosive Limit of Concentration : 4.7 36.9 % (vol)
Chemicals or consumables required in by product are mentioned below.
Chemical Use
NaoH It is used for conversion of fixed ammonia (Ammonia salts) into free
ammonia in flushing liquor distillation column for maximum
removal of ammonia.
PDS PDS (cobalt phthalocyanine sulfonate) act as a catalyst in the
process regeneration of desulphurisation solution.
Tannin Extract It acts as a catalyst accelerator.
Nickel Catalyst Catalyst for cracking of Ammonia in Decomposition furnace
Effluents generated in by product are mentioned in Table below.

Effluent Amount Treated in Destination

Ammonia waste water from 34 -40m3/hr BOD Quenching Pond
column C in Desulfurisation
Ammonia waste water from 30 - 50 m3/hr BOD Quenching Pond
column A/B from scrubbing
Tar Sludge from decanter 800 kg/day 800-1000 Coal mixing


It is the main and most important section in byproduct plant. Here raw coke oven gas is
sucked from batteries, Tar is removed along with naphthalene with other in process of
gas condensation by cooling gas below 22deg C and COG after pressurization sent to
further treatment stages. Major equipments here are Gas liquid separator (GLS),
Primary Gas Cooler (PGC), Electrostatic Tar Precipitator (ETP), Exhauster, Decanters, Gas
condensate pump house (GCPH).

Technical specifications of Major equipments in Condensation/blowing and ETP area

are mentioned below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

PGC No.: 5 No.: 5
Height: 27.5 m Height: 31.497 m
2 2
Heat transfer area: 3828 m Heat transfer area: 5050 m
3 3
CWS flow: 5510 m /hr CWS flow: 7760 m /hr
3 3
RWS flow: 830 m /hr RWS flow: 1150 m /hr
ETP No.: 3 No.: 3
3 3
Capacity: 38000~46000 Nm /hr Capacity: 43000 ~ 52000 Nm /hr
Exhauster No.: 3 No.: 3
Motor: 800kw Motor: 900kw
3 3
Capactiy: 60000m /hr Capacity: 75000m /hr
Primary Gas Cooler

Coke oven gas to PGC at 80 0C
liquor, 800C
Raw Coke
oven gas and Cir water out, 43 0C
Gas Liquid
Liquor from
Battery at Cir water in, 35 0C
8 00C

Chilled water out, 23 0C

Tar mixed
Liquor to Excess
decanter at Chilled water in, 16 0C condensate
80 0C to decanter

Coke oven gas to Upper Lower

ETP at 25 0C condensate condensate
Pump Pump

Seal tank

Intermediate Condensate
Condensate Recycle
Tank Tank

Fig 3
First step in Raw COG treatment is separation of gas and liquor. From batteries raw coke
oven gas and liquor first enters GLS at around 80__ere gas and liquor separate out
based on density difference. Gas is sucked from top and liquor flows by gravity to
decanters. Gas then enters PGC which is a shell and tube counter-current heat
exchanger for removal of water vapor and other condensate like tar along with
naphthalene, hence reducing its volume to make gas more operable. Raw coke oven gas
enters PGC from top and exits from bottom. In PGC COG is in shell side and water is in
tube side. PGC has two sections for cooling. Top section is circulation cooling water
supply (CWS) which is supplied at 32C and bottom is refrigerated water supply (RWS)
which is supplied at 16C. At first section COG gas temperature drops to approx 45__
naphthalene and other vapors condense here; collected in seal pots; then overflows to
Intermediate Condensate tank and Condensate circulation tank. This condensate is
circulated in PGC to enhance removal of condensate and cleaning of tubes. Excess
condensate generated in system is pumped to decanters through GLS. A pictorial
representation of PGC with process parameters is shown in fig 3.

Operational Parameters

1. Gas temperature before Primary Gas Cooler=77-82c

2. Gas temperature after Primary gas cooler=21-23c
3. Circulation water entrance temperature at the upper section of primary Gas
4. Circulation water outlet temperature at the upper section of Primary Gas
5. Refrigeration water entrance temperature at the lower section of Primary Gas
6. Refrigeration water outlet temperature at the lower section of Primary Gas
7. Resistance of PGC under normal operation _ <
Electrostatic Tar Precipitators:

Electrostatic Tar Precipitator

High Tension Electric

Field from Transformers
Coke oven gas to
Steam Exhauster at 26 0C

FlushingLiquor at 80 C0

Coke oven gas from

PGC at 25 0C
Steam in

Condensateto decanter
Seal Pot

Fig 4
Traces of tar will be carried along with COG after PGC & these tar particles will
contaminate and disturb downstream processes and foul gas lines. After cooling in
PGCs COG enters ETP which works on the principle of ionization of impurities in strong
electric field. ETP consists of honeycomb like structure wherein negatively charged
electrodes hangs in between each honeycomb. When COG pass through ETP tar gets
ionized (at 40 to 50kV DC). When particles pass through this strong electric field they are
bombarded with electron coming out from negatively charged electrodes. They absorb
these electrons and become negatively charged. Tar and other impurities gets
negatively charged and repelled by electrodes and gets attracted to honeycomb shell.
There they transfer their charge to shell and become neutral again; subsequently
sticking on it. Eventually they fall down and are removed from ETP by the help of seal
pots. For insulation ceramic insulators are used on the top to support hanging charged
electrodes. This insulator is to be kept at around 80C to 120C using steam jacket
heating to avoid condensation on insulator surface. Nitrogen purging is also provided to
avoid gas and other contaminants access to insulator surface. These impurities can
cause insulator breakdown by discharging their high charge through them. ETP design
efficiency is 99.9%. An online Oxygen analyzer is also provided for continuous
monitoring of Oxygen percentage in COG. COG has Lower Explosive Limit at 5% and
Higher Explosive Limit at 36%. O2 level is monitored in COG so that it does not cross
safety limits and it is maintained below 1% to extend safety limits. A pictorial
representation of ETP with process parameters is shown in fig 4.

Operational Parameters

1. ETP insulation box temperature=90-140c

2. ETP current : 400 500mA
3. ETP voltage : 40- 50kV

Safety interlocks for ETP

Safety interlocks are provided in ETP because the equipment works at a high voltage. If
oxygen percentage reaches the explosive limit, then there is a chance of explosion
under a sparking atmosphere. Hence power supply of ETP should trip immediately if
oxygen percentage reaches explosive limit. Hence if:

High voltage (>60KV)

Oxygen content in COG >=0.8%
ETP power supply will trip
Power supply to be reinstated after repeated lab sampling for oxygen content <0.8%


Coke Oven gas

from ETP at
EmergencyOil 26 0 C
Coupler Gear Box

Motor Coke Oven gas

to DesulfurArea
at 50 0C
Oil at Oil at Exhauster
6 0 0C
4 00 C

Cir P
H Cir
Water Water
In E
out Coke Oven gas
to PGC header
(Cold Bypass )
Oil supply Condensateto
Return Cir
water in Cir Decanter
water Seal Pot

Fig 5
Coke oven gas enters Exhausters from ETP. Exhausters are the most critical equipment
in byproduct plant. Exhausters continuously keep sucking COG from GCM (Gas
Collecting Main) over batteries. It has direct control on GCM pressure and door
emission. Failure of exhauster will result immediate venting of large amount of Raw
COG. Exhauster assembly consists of a motor, hydraulic coupling, gear box, lubrication
system and blower. Exhauster is a variable speed double stage centrifugal blower. Speed
can be varied by hydraulic coupling. Area before exhauster is always under suction or
below atmospheric pressure and after exhauster under positive pressure. A bypass line
is provided for maintaining a constant value of suction in batteries. This bypass is called
cold gas bypass as it is relatively cooler than Gas before PGC. It connects exhauster
discharge header to PGC suction header. COG is recycled back for maintaining suction.
There are three exhausters each in coke 3 and 4; of which two will be in working and
one under standby condition anytime. A pictorial representation of Exhauster with
process parameters is shown in fig 5.

Operational Parameters

1. Current of exhauster <80A

2. Exhauster should not be run in critical speed (3200-3600rpm)

Safety interlocks for exhausters

For protection of Exhauster many safety interlocks are provided. This is to avoid any
major breakdown in exhauster system which otherwise would affect plant production
directly. Exhauster will immediately trip if any of the below mentioned parameters in
figure 6 are satisfied.






TISA-81520A(BEARING OF GEAR T>=85 OC) signal








Fig 6

Cokeoven gas to PGC at 80 0C

Raw Coke
oven gas and GASLIQUID
Liquor from SEPERATOR
Battery at Flushing Flushing Liquor to
8 00C Liquor to PGC, ETP at 800 C,
Batteries at 5 kg/cm2
Tar mixed 80 0C, 5 (Intermittent)
Liquor at 800 C kg/cm2
Ammonia Liquor
Tar RemainingAmmonia
Steam water to desulfur area
Tar Tank
Sludge Remaining
collector Ammonia Tank

Sludge to Steam
coal Steam
station Road
Intermediate tanker
TarTank Tar Storage

Fig 7

From Gas Liquid Separators liquor flows by gravity to decanters. Decanters separate
liquid based on decantation (density difference separation). Liquor enters in decanter
from one end. After decantation liquor separates out into three layers. Top most is
flushing liquor, middle is tar and bottom is sludge. Flushing liquor is over flown from top
by overflow weirs to recycle ammonia tanks. Flushing liquor is then pumped to batteries
for gas cooling in GCM by flushing liquor pumps and it is continuous & closed looped
circuit. Middle layer of tar is removed by telescopic valve to Intermediate Tar Tanks (IT
Tank). From IT tanks it is pumped to Tar Storage Tanks. Bottom layer of sludge is
removed by chain scrappers to sludge bunkers. This sludge is then sent to coal mixing
near hammer mill. Inherent moisture in coal and water addition increases the quantity
of flushing liquor continually. This increased amount is called excess ammonia liquor is
taken out from system and stored in Excess or Remaining Ammonia Tank. This excess
liquor is sent for distillation in excess Ammonia distillation column situated in
Desulphurization area. The vapor escaping out from top of all tanks and decanters in the
area is centralized to a gas washing column where ammonia vapor is washing counter
current with water and periodically concentrated ammonia water is pumped to BOD.
Every Pump in gas condensate pump house has a stand-by. A Diesel pump is provided
for flushing liquor circuit in case of power failure and other emergencies. A pictorial
representation of Gas condensate pump house with process parameters is shown in fig

Technical specifications of Major equipments in Gas condensate pump house area are
mentioned below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

Decanter No.: 4 No.: 5
3 3
Effective volume: 300m Effective volume: 300m
Scrapper speed: 3.755 m/h Scrapper speed: 3.755 m/h
Flushing liquor pumps 3 pumps, 200kw motor, 3 pumps, 200kw motor,
1481rpm, 792 m3/hr flow, 1485rpm, 792 m3/hr flow,
21.1A 22.2A
Diesel pump for flushing 1500 m3/hr, Diesel tank 1925 m3/hr, Diesel tank
liquor capacity-1200L capacity-1200L
Tar storage tanks Nos: 3 Nos: 4
3 3
Capacity 1200 m Capacity 1200 m

Operational Parameters

1. Flow of flushing liquor per batteries =250-350m/hr

2. Pressure of Flushing liquor =5-6Kg/cm
3. Recycle tank levels >65%
4. Tar moisture <4%
5. Specific gravity of tar 1.14-1.16
6. Total Suspended solids in flushing liquor <200g/l

Pre Cooling tower

Coke oven gas from Exhauster at 500 C

liquor,80 0C

Chilledwater out, 23 0C

Chilled water in, 160 C

to decanter

Coke oven gas to

DesulfurisationtowerA at 22 0C

Spray Liquid

Fig 8
Desulfurisation Area Coke oven gas to
at 320C
Coke oven gas from
Exhauster at 500 C Regenerated
Solution,32 C Sulfur Foam

Regeneration tank

COG at 220 C 1500 m3/hr

Pre Cooling tower Desulfurisation
Soft Water Tank
Chilled Sulfur
Air P
Water Pan
Compressor H

Waste Liquid
Circulation To coal Yard

Fig 9

Removal of H S2 from coke oven gas is done in desulphurization unit by wet oxidation
process. H S2 can corrode pipelines by forming corrosive mixture with moisture and
burning this gas produces SOxwhich are major source of air pollution.

Coke oven gas from Batteries first enters in PCT (pre-cooling tower) of
Desulphurization area pressurized by gas exhausters. It is a shell-tube type counter-
current heat exchanger similar to PGC. The cooling media here is Chilled water or
refrigerated water. Gas enters from top and exits from bottom. Chilled water will be in
counter direction. Gas temperature in PCT reduces to less than 25C from approx. 50C.
This temperature reduction is necessary to increase the H2S absorption in
Desulphurization towers and to condense any leftover traces of naphthalene and tar.
Condensate generated in PCT is recycled back in the system to clean tubes as well as
increase heat transfer efficiency. T A pictorial representation of PCT with process
parameters is shown in fig 8.he wet oxidation (Perox) process of sulphur recovery is
described below
Coke oven gas will be washed in series of two absorption columns (Desulphurization gas
towers in series) by lean ammonia oxide solution to absorb H2S from coke oven gas.
After absorption of H S2 from gas this desulphurization solution flows to solution tanks;
then pumped to Regeneration towers (2nos - parallel) after cooling in solution heat
exchangers by chilled water. Sulphur is extracted from regeneration tower top as foam
by oxidation process in presence of PDS and Tannin catalyst. Oxidation is done by
blowing Compressed air into solution from tower bottom. The addition of PDS and
tannin catalyst is done in solution tanks.
Foam is collected first in sulphur foam tanks which have an agitation system to
homogenize the mixture.
Homogenized sulphur foam is taken in centrifuge machine where in thick sulphur is
extracted by centrifugal action. Sulphur paste in packed in bags manually and sent for
land disposal.
Lean Sulphur solution from regeneration tower top flows back to Desulphurisation
towers for gas washing.

Pictorial representation Desulphurization area process flow along with important

parameters is shown in figure 9.

Important specifications of major equipments in Desulphurisation area are shown in

table below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

Desulphurisation tower No.: 2 No.: 2
Height: 37.32 m Height: 40.1 m
Dia: 6.4 m Dia: 6.8 m
Regeneration tower No.: 2 No.: 2
Height: 49.46 m Height: 51.5 m
Dia: 4.6 m Dia: 4.8 m
Solution circulation pumps Nos:3 Q=1150m3/hr, Nos:3 Q=1150m3/hr,
H=65m, 316Kw motor H=65m, 316Kw motor

Ammonia distillation column is installed in desulphurization area to treat excess

ammonia liquor generated from coal moisture and ammonia vapor from distillation
column can be used to maintain ammonia concentration in desulphurization solution
after condensing into liquid form. Under normal operation distilled ammonia vapor is
sent Ammonia decomposition furnace for cracking.
Caustic Soda NaOH is dozed in distillation column along with feed water to maintain pH
(to increase ammonia stripping by shifting equilibrium towards ammonia). Fixed
Ammonia in excess liqour is converted to free Ammonia which can be easily distilled in
distillation column.

Pictorial representation Desulphurization area process flow along with important

parameters is shown in figure 10.
Excess Liquor distillation Unit
Ammoniavapor to
furnace at 900C

Cir water

Caustic soda
(48%) Tank

Excess Flushing
liquor from GC Steam
PumpHose at 80 0C

Cir water
SHE in
Tar Filter
to BOD

Waste water

Fig 10

Process Parameters

Inlet Gas Temperature before PCT : 48 53 deg c

Gas Temperature after PCT : 23 25 deg c
Gas temperature after Desulfurization area : 30 32 deg c
Pressure drop across Desulphurization towers <1kPa
Lean ammonia circulation rate/ gas tower: 1000 1300 m3/hr
Air supplied / regeneration tower : 1400 1600 m3/hr
Reactions in desulphurization Towers are as follows

NH3+ H O
2 = NH OH4

H2S + NH 4OH = NH HS
4 +HO 2

NH4OH + HCN = NH 4CN + H O 2

4 3

NH4HS + NH 4HCO +3 (X-1)S = (NH4) 2S +x CO +2 H O2

Reactions in regeneration tower as follows

NH4HS + O 2= S_E, OH 4

(NH4) 2Sx + O =2 S _E,

x OH

Desulphurization Solution Composition

Ph = 8- 9
Ammonia > 10g/l
PDS =10-30 ppm
Tannin Extract = 70-100 ppm
Suspended Sulphur < 1g/l
Total salts (NH^K__E,^_E__

Important process parameters in Distillation Column C

Ammonia feed flow 28-32 m3/hr in coke3 and 30-35 m3/hr in coke 4
Top temperature: 98-100 deg C
Top pressure: < 15 kPa
Steam Flow rate: 5-8 t/hr
Column level: 30-45 %

Reactions in Distillation Column C

Free Ammonia Removal at 100c

Fixed Ammonia Removal at 100c



Ammonia content in waste water after distillation <200g/l


Ammonia vapor to
Clean COG at furnace at 900C
3 00C

water Cir
Soft water,
r S
2 5 m3/hr 98 0C
/h H
m E Waste water to
0 BOD, 22 m3/hr
3 r
/ Waste water,
r 3
/ 70 m3/hr
3 0
m 0
COG from DS 5 3
at 320C Scrubber A Chill S
Scrubber B Steam
water H S
H Steam
1 0 30C

r S
Cir S
/h H
3 water H
m Circulating E
Circulating E
5 Ammonia
9 Ammonia
Tank B
Tank A
Raw 95 m3/hr
Tank A

Fig 11
Removal of Ammonia from coke oven gas is done in Ammonia scrubbing unit by water
wash process described below:

Coke oven gas will be washed in series of two absorption columns (Ammonia scrubbing
gas towers) which are in series by lean ammonia solution to absorb NH3 from coke oven
Counter current water wash process is carried out in each towers. Gas enters from
bottom and liquor from top.
Along with normal circulating lean Ammonia, Waste water from distillation column and
Soft water is used in final cleaning section to remove ammonia and naphthalene in
second Ammonia scrubber.
Concentrated ammonia liquor is distilled in a distillation column to remove ammonia
from liquor
Ammonia vapor is sent to decomposition furnace and waste water is sent to scrubbing
towers and BOD plant.

Pictorial representation Ammonia Scrubbing area process flow along with important
parameters is shown in figure 11.

Important specifications of major equipments in Ammonia Scrubbing area are shown

in table below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

Ammonia Scrubbing Nos.: 2 Nos: 2
column Dia: 5.4 m Dia: 5.6 m
Height: tower A 35.22 m Tower A: 32.17m
Tower B 38.19 m Tower B: 36.39 m
Ammonia circulation Nos: 3 Nos: 3
pumps Capacity Q=400m3/hr, Capacity Q=400m3/hr,
Head H=75m, 37Kw motor Head H=75m, 37Kw motor

Process Parameters

Inlet Gas Temperature to Ammonia scrubbing area: 30 325 deg c

Gas temperature after Ammonia scrubbing area : 27 30 deg c
Lean ammonia circulation rate/ gas tower: 300 350 m3/hr
Ammonia liquor feed to distillation column : 95 (coke3) 115 ( coke4) m3/hr
Effluent from distillation column to BOD : 25 (coke3) 50 ( coke4)m3/hr
Ammonia vapor temperature to decomposition furnace : 89 91 deg c
Pressure drop across Scrubber towers<1kPa

Operational Parameters of Distillation column in scrubbing area

Top pressure: < 12 kPa

Steam Flow rate: 17-20 t/hr
Column level: 40-50 %


In Scrubbing Towers: (At low temperature)


In Distillation Column A/B: (At 100 deg C)


Ammonia content in waste water after Distillation : <200 mg/l


The ammonia vapors from distillation column A/B and C at 85-95C enters ammonia
decomposition furnace and under the high temperature and action of nickel catalyst,
the nitrogen compounds such as NH 3 and HCN etc is reduced and decomposed and
become N2and H and
2 CO. The reaction is as follows:

NH3_ E2 + 1.5H 2
HCN _ 2E + 1.5H2 + CO

The gas having high temperature, about 900C containing N ,2H , CO 2 and CO 2
generated after reaction is called tail gas. Tail gas is first cooled to 270-300C through
waste heat boiler. The recovered heat produces saturated steam of 0.4-0.6Mpa which is
sent to main steam line network. Tail gas from waste heat boiler is cooled further to
190-210C by pre-heater of boiler water and finally cooled to 80C with circulating
cooling water in tail gas cooler. Cooled tail gas is vent to atmosphere through a chimney.

The heating media in Ammonia decomposition furnace is Coke oven gas. Air flow rate in
the furnace is maintained slightly below theoretical air requirement to avoid the
generation of NO 2and H O.
2 Air is provided by air-blower after preheating by steam to
120-130C in air pre-heater heat exchanger

The soft water needed by waste heat boiler is generated in Soft water plant. Initially
soft water enters a Deaerator where it is preheated with the steam at low pressure of
0.2Mpa through direct heating to remove dissolved gases and Oxygen. Then it enters in
waste heat boiler drum. The steam produced is sent to low pressure steam pipe
network and blow down is discharged to submerged tank.

Pictorial representation Ammonia Decomposition area process flow along with

important parameters is shown in figure 12.

AmmoniaDecomposition Unit

Decomposed gas to
AmmoniaVapour at
90 C, 20 %conc
80 0C

CokeOven Gas at Decomposed CirWaterin

20 Kpa, 700 C gas cooler
at 350 C
10 000 C, Steam at 5 TPH, CirWater out
15 kpa 18 00C, 5 Kg/cm2
Airat 27 Kpa,
16 00C
600 C
Steam NickelCatalyst pre heater
115 0C
Bed at 900 C 0 Steam
Air Drum
Pre heater Decomposed gas at
3 00 0C,
Soft Water
Decomposed water at 1000 C
Airat 25 Kpa, gas at 8500 C Steam
60 C
Waste heat Boiler Deoxidizer

Fig 12
Important specifications of major equipments in Ammonia Decomposition area are
shown in table below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

Ammonia Decomposition Dia: 3.6 m Dia: 3.6 m
furnace Nickel Catalyst bed height Nickel Catalyst bed height
along with suppoting along with suppoting
material (Molybdenum): material (Molybdenum):
2.5m 2.5m
Waste heat boiler Capacity: 5TPH, Pressure: Capacity: 7TPH, Pressure:
5kg/cm2 5kg/cm2

Process Parameters

Inlet ammonia vapor temperature - 90 deg C

Pre heating zone temperature - 1000 deg C
Reaction zone temperature - 950 deg c
Steam production - 5TPH (5 bar and 180 deg C) in coke 3,
(7TPHbar and 180 deg C) in coke 4
Waste heat boiler outlet temperature - 300 deg C
Decomposed gas outlet temperature - 80 deg C
Pre heating zone pressure < 10 Kpa
Pressure of Air entering the furnace - 25-35 Kpa
Pressure of Gas entering the Furnace - 30-32 Kpa

Reactions in Decomposition unit

Catalyst : Nickel
2NH3 N2+3H2 (At 1000 deg C)
HCN+H2O 1.5H2+0.5N2+CO (At 1000 deg C)

Decomposed Gas Composition:

Flow : 10555 13820 Nm3/hr
Nitrogen : 34.2 %
Carbon dioxide : 6.4 %
Hydrogen : 14.2 %
Water Vapor : 45.2 %
Safety interlocks for Ammonia Decomposition furnace

Ammonia decomposition furnace is operated at high temperature. Coke oven gas is also
involved in the combustion reaction along with air. Hence there is every possibility of
development of explosive mixture in the furnace. For this purpose following interlocks
are provided for shutting off Gas, air and ammonia vapor valves on Auto mode:

Low Gas pressure : <8 KPa

Low Air pressure : <5 KPa
High top temperature : > _c
Low top temperature : <_c
Low level of Boiler drum : <20%

Recovery type coke ovens require large quantums of water for various types of
processes. Quality of water is maintained and continuously monitored for efficient
operation and long lasting life of equipments. CWSS supplies circulation cooling water,
soft water, refrigerated water and fire fighting water throughout the plant for different
purposes. CWSS has 5 sub-sections.

a. Water Pump House

b. Sumps
c. Soft water plant
d. Cooling tower
e. Filters

Water pump house

Water pump house is a pumping station. All these pumps are divided into four groups.
Figure 13

Figure 14

Schematic diagram of coke 3 and coke 4 water pump house circuit is shown in figure 13
and 14 respectively.
Important specifications of major pumps in water pump house area is shown in Table

Groups Type Coke 3 Coke 4

Group 1 Production & Fire fighting Pump 1 and 2 - Pump Capacity Pump 1 and 2 -
Pump Q = 216 m /hr, H=55 m Pump Capacity
Motor Capacity P = 75 kW, V Q = 360 m /hr, H=55 m
=415 V Motor Capacity
P = 75 kW, V =415 V
Pump 2 to 6 - Pump Capacity
Q = 70~100~130 m /hr Pump 2 to 6
H = 54~50~42 m Pump Capacity
Motor Capacity P = 22 KW, V Q = 70~100~130 m /hr
= 415 V H = 54~50~42 m

Motor Capacity
P = 22 KW, V = 415 V

Group 2 Cooling water for Chillers P7 to P10 P7 to P11

Pump Capacity Pump capacity
3 3
Q = 70~100~130 m /hr Q = 820~1080~1224 m /hr
H = 54~50~42 m H = 59~55~47 m
Motor Capacity Motor capacity
P = 22 KW, V = 415 V P = 220 kW, V = 6600 V.

Group 3 Circulation cooling water P11 to P14 P12 to P16

Pump capacity Circulation
Q = 820~1080~1224 m /hr Pump capacity
H = 59~55~47 m Q= 820~1080~1224 m /hr
Motor capacity H = 59~55~47 m
P = 220 kW, V = 6600 V Motor capacity
P = 220 kW, V = 6600 V.

Group 4 Refrigerated water P15 to P17 P17 to P19

Pump capacity Pump capacity
3 3
Q = 900m /hr Q = 1200m /hr
H = 70m H = 65m
Motor capacity Motor capacity
P =280 kW, V = 6600 V P =280 kW, V = 6600 V
1. Production Pump - It is an open loop system. These pumps supply water open end uses
like dedusting, water seal pots, coal moisture addition, gardening etc in coke 3. There
are three underground sumps in all for the circuit.

2. Chiller Cooling Water pumps - It is a closed loop system. These pumps supply cooling
water to Chiller. Its a secondary cooling system in chillers. The circuit has a cooling
tower and one underground sump. Schematic diagram of Group 2 circuit is shown in
figure 15.

Fig 15
3. Circulating Cooling water Pumps - It is a closed loop system . It supplies circulation
cooling water to major equipments like PGC, Exhauster, Ground de-dusting, Distillation
column, various heat exchanger etc. The circuit has 3 cooling towers and an
underground sump. Schematic diagram of Group 3 circuit is shown in figure 16.

Circulation Cooing water circuit

Fig 16
4. Refrigerated water Pumps - It is a closed loop system. It supplies refrigerated water to
various heat exchangers like PGC, PCT, Solution heat exchanger etc.

Refrigerated water circuit

Fig 17

NOTE: Fire fighting lines of coke 3 and 4 are run by a separate fire fighting pump house
located in coke 4. It has two small jockey pumps, 2 higher capacity pumps and a diesel
pump for emergencies. The specifications are given in table below

Pump type Specifications

Smaller jockey pumps Capacity Q=11m3/hr, Head H=80m, 20HP
Higher capacity pumps Capacity Q=273m3/hr, Head H=80m,
Diesel pump Capacity Q=273m3/hr, Head H=80m,

Sumps are underground storage tanks for different groups of water. In coke oven 3
there are four separate sumps for all four groups. Fire fighting system is separate in
coke 4, hence it has 2nos separate independent sumps. In coke oven 3 there two fresh
water pools which are connected to Group 1 by an underground valve.

Important specifications of major pumps in water pump house area is shown in Table

Group Coke 3 Coke 4

Fresh water Pool 2nos 900m each -
Fire fighting sump - 2nos 800m each
3 3
Fire fighting sump group 1 396m 396m
3 3
Cooling water sump Group 2 422.4m 422.4m
3 3
Circulation cooling water sump Group 3 1681.2m 1681.2m
3 3
Chilled water sump Group 4 233m 233m

Soft water plant

To meet requirements of soft water in various processes there is a soft water plant
which converts raw water into soft water by ion exchange process. In coke 3 soft water
plant there is a raw water tank to take water from utility, 3 feed water pumps, 3
backwash water pumps, 2 multi grade filters, 2 activated carbon filter, 2 water softener,
1 soft water tank and 2 soft water pumps. Whole plant is divided into two streams of
equal capacities. These streams are termed as stream A & B. raw water from raw water
tank is feed to Multi grade filter via raw water feed pumps. After removal of dirt
through MGF this filtered water enters into ACF. Activated carbon absorbs color and
odor if any. The cleaned water enters into water softener. In water softeners there is Na
based ion exchange resin. When clean water passes through the resin hardness causing
ions like calcium and magnesium in replaced by Na ion, generating soft water. Soft
water then enters soft water tank and finally pumped to various process requirements,
Consumption mainly being in Ammonia scrubbing tower and waste heat boiler in
Ammonia Decomposition.

When water softens all Na ions from resin is replaced by Ca and Mg ions with time. So
after a period of time regeneration the resin is required. Regeneration is done by
passing NaCl solution through resin. During regeneration all Ca and Mg ions are again
replaced back by Na ion.
Water softening reactions

Ca(HCO3) 2+2NaR CaR2+2NaHCO 3

MgSO4+ 2NaR MgR2+ Na SO
2 4

Mg(HCO3) 2+2NaR MgR2+ 2NaHCO 3

CaSO4+ 2NaR CaR2+ Na SO

2 4

Regeneration reactions

2NaCl + CaR2 2NaR + CaCl2

2NaCl + MgR2 2NaR + MgCl2

Ion exchange method of water softening

2+ 2+
Hard water contain Ca and Mg ions.
Ion-exchange resin contain sodium ions (Na ) that are electro statically bound and
2+ 2+
readily replaced by hardness ions such as Ca and Mg . Ion exchange resins are
organic polymer containing anionic functional groups to which the Na is bound.

Soft Water Plant

Important specifications of major pumps in soft water pump house area is shown in
Table below.

Specification Coke 3 Coke 4

No of softners 2nos 6nos
Soft water pumps 2nos 4nos(2 lower and 2 higher
Capacity : 45m /hr capacity pumps)
Power : 25HP Lower Capacity : 50m /hr
Head : 60m Head : 50m
Voltage : 415V 15kw
Higher capacity : 60m /hr
Head : 90m

Backwash pumps Capacity : 283m /hr NA
Power : 30HP
Head : 15m
Voltage : 415V


Note: Soft water station of coke 4 has disc filetr system instead of Multi grade and
Activated carbon filters as shown figure below
Cooling towers

Cooling towers are used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling
towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the
working fluid to near the wet-bulb temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working
fluid to near the dry-bulb temperature.

Coke 3 houses 4nos of cooling towers, and coke 4 has 6. Details and specification are
mentioned below in Table below.

Specifications Coke 3 Coke 4

Group 2 1 _ c 2noS, Temperature drop
Motor capacity: 110kW _ c ,
Motor capacity: 110kW
Group 3 3 _ c 4nos, Temperature drop
Motor capacity: 90kW _ c,
Motor capacity: 90kW
Parts Of Cooling Tower

Frame and casing: concrete design, have support for fan, motor etc.
Fill: cooling tower have plastic packing to increase water air contact area to
increase heat transfer.
Basin: to collect cooled water which is connected to sumps.

Nozzles: these nozzles uniformly distribute water on the plastic packing.

Fan: a propeller type fan is provided to induce the draft in cooling tower for heat

Filter House

Continuous Removal of dirt and suspended materials from circulation water is

necessary. This is done by Side stream Multi grade filters in coke 3 and combination of
Multi grade filters and Hydac screen filters in coke 4. The specifications are mentioned
table below.

Specifications Coke 3 Coke 4

Group 2 2 no, Capacity 100m3/hr 2nos Hydac filters, Capacity
each 150m3/hr each
Group 3 3nos, Capacity 100m3/hr 2nos Hydac filters, Capacity
each 400m3/hr each and 1 MGF,
Capacity 100m3/hr
After a period of time backwash of these filters are necessary to remove deposited
impurities which is done twice for each filter in each shift. Inlet to filters are from outlet
of respective group pumps and oulet goes to cooling towers.

Pressure sand filters in coke 3

Hydac Filters in coke 4

Some of the important water treatment parameters to be maintained are mentioned
in table below

Parameter Norm Unit Brief Idea

pH is the measure of acidity or bascity of the aqueous solution.

7.5 to It is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
8.5 in aqueous solution. If pH is high it will cause scaling in system
and if it is lower then it will cause corrosion in the system.

Conductivity <2000 ^ It is the measure of conductivity through ionic charge carriers.

TDS is a measure of the combined content of organic and

inorganic substances contained in a liquid in molecular,
TDS <1300 ppm
ionized, colloidal and suspension. Or which cannot be filtered
by ordinary filters. In general it is 65% of the conductivity.

Hardness is the property of hard water to form scale with soap

2+ 2+
which is caused by metal cations generally Ca and Mg ions.
TH <450 ppm
It will cause scale formation in water pipes, heat exchangers,
cooling tower etc.
Hardness caused by Ca ion is termed as Calcium Hardness. It
CaH <300 ppm cause permanent hardness. In general it is 60% of total

Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by

particles(suspended particles) that are generally invisible to
Turbidity <30 NTU
the naked eyes which are seperable by filters. Nusselt Turbidity

Alkalinity is the measure of the ability of a solution to

neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or
bicarbonate. The alkalinity is equal to the stoichiometric sum
Palk <10 ppm 2- - -
of the bases in solution. It includes CO3 , HCO3, OH ions.
2- -
Phenolphthalein alkalinity includes CO3 and HCO 3(if pH is
greater than 8.2 then it starts).
2- - -
Methyl Orange alkalinity includes CO3 , HCO3, OH (if
Malk <200 ppm
4.2<pH<8.2 then it will start)
Chlorides is the concentration of chlorides ions in water. More
Chlorides <150 ppm the concentration of Chlorides more will be the corrsion. It act
as catalyst in corrosion reactions.

Phosphate is added in water to reduce electrochemical

Phosphate 3 to 5 ppm reaction which may cause scale formation. It form a layer on
scales which prevent its deposition in water system.

Zinc to ppm Zinc is added in water to reduce electrochemical reaction
0.35 which may cause corrosion.

COC is cycles of concentration which is calculated as the ratio

of desired parameter in circulation water to parameter in
COC 5 No's
make up water. If COC is higher then circulation water quality
is good.

The Ryznar stability Index uses a database of scale thickness

measurements in water system to predict the effect of water

3 Count/
TBC <10
ml Total Bacteria Count

SRB <10
100ml Sulphate Reducing Bacteria

<2 mpy
rate mille per year


For cooling of COG and process liquor for maximum removal of impurities a cooling
media below ambient temperature is required. This is provided by Refrigeration station
or chillers in the form of chilled or refrigerated water. There are three chillers which
work on vapor compression cycle. LiBr is thechilling media. Group 4 water is pumped
from pump house in CWSS to chillers where in it is refrigerated to specific set point and
then sent to byproduct plant for cooling of COG and other process water below ambient
temperature in heat exchangers.
Important specifications of refrigeration system is shown in Table below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

Chiller unit Installed: 3 nos. Installed: 4 nos.
Working: 3 nos. Working: 4 nos.
CoolingCapacity: 4071 KW CoolingCapacity: 4071 KW
(1Kilowatt=0.2843 RT) (1Kilowatt=0.2843 RT)
Chilled water flow rate: 500m3/hr for each Chilled water flow rate: 500m3/hr for each
chiller. chiller .
Cooling water flow rate: 765-800 m3/hr. Cooling water flow rate: 765-800 m3/hr.
Rated steam pressure: 5.5 kg/cm2 Rated steam pressure: 5.5 kg/cm2
Max. Steam consumption: 4646kg/hr. Max. Steam consumption: 5019kg/hr.
Rated power input: 10.3 kW. Rated power input: 12 kW.

Basic Cooling Principle

Fig 18

1. High temp generator (HTG)

2. Low temp generator (LTG)
3. Condenser
4. Evaporator
5. Absorber
6. High temp. heat exchanger (HTHE)
7. Low temp. heat exchanger (LTHE)
8. Condensed w. heat exchanger
9. Solution pump
10. Refrigerant pump


Solution Pump:- Dilute LiBr solution is collected in the bottom of absorber shell. From here
solution pump moves solution through a shell and tube heat exchanger for preheating.

Generator:- After exiting heat exchanger, dilute solution moves into upper shell. The
solution surrounds a bundle of tubes which carries steam. The steam transfer heats into
pool of dilute LiBr solution .The solution boils refrigerant vapor upward into the condenser
& leaving behind concentrated solution LiBr. Concentrated LiBr solution moves down to
heat exchanger where it is cooled by weak solution being pumped to generator.

Condenser:-The refrigerant vapor migrates through mist eliminators to the condenser

tube bundle. The refrigerant vapor condenses on the tubes. The heat is removed by cooling
water which moves through inside of tubes. As the refrigerant condenses, it collects in the
trough at the bottom of condenser.

Evaporator:-The refrigerant liquid moves from the condenser to the evaporator and is
sprayed over the evaporator tube bundle. Due to the extreme vacuum of lower shell ( 6
mm Hg) 0.8 Kpa the refrigerant liquid boils at 40 C, creating the refrigerant effect.

Absorber:- As the refrigerant vapor migrates to the absorber from the evaporator, strong
LiBr solution from generator is sprayed over the top of absorber tube bundle. The strong
LiBr solution always pulls refrigerant vapor into solution, creating extreme vacuum in
evaporator. The absorption of refrigerant vapor into LiBr generates heat which is removed
by cooling water. Now dilute LiBr solution collects in the bottom of lower shell where it
flows down to solution pump.
Working Principle

Cooling principle: heat source heats LiBr solution to produce vapor which enters into
condenser and becomes refrigerant water.
Heating principle: heat source heats LiBr solution to produce vapor which heats the
heating water in copper tubes & becomes condensed water .The condensed water
returns to HTG, is being heated to start this process all over again.


There are two types of air.

1. Compressed air
2. Instrument air

1. Compressed air:
It is used in regeneration towers in desulphurisation area

2. Instrument air:
It is used in pneumatic instruments operation and Ground de-dusting station.

In our plant we have Screw air compressors. The specification are shown in table below.

Description Coke 3 Coke 4

Compressed air 3nos, capacity 32m/min, 3nos, capacity 32m/min,
5-8kg/cm2 outlet pressure 5-8kg/cm2 outlet pressure
Instrument air 2nos, capacity 42m/min, 3nos, capacity 42m/min,
5-7kg/cm2 outlet pressure 5-7kg/cm2 outlet pressure
Instrument air drier 2nos, capacity 42m/min 3nos, capacity 42m/min




Saturated steam at 5kgm/cm2 is utilized in BPP.

It is used in
Distillation columns for stripping purpose
For steaming of seal pots.
Purging of equipments
Cleaning of equipments.
Produce water vapor in Absorption cycle in chiller station
ETP insulator boxes to avoid tar deposition on ceramic insulators
Major consumers and quantity is mentioned in table below

Area/Equipment Coke 3 (TPH) Coke 4 (TPH)

Distillation column A/B 21 23
Distillation column C 6 7
Refrigeration station 12 10
Steaming of equipments and seal pots 7 8
Total 46 48

Steam flow diagram

Fig 19

Nitrogen at 5-6kgm/cm2 is utilized in BPP.

It is used in

Purging & prevention of CO gas intrusion in insulators of ETP.

Emergency Purging if required in gas pipelines and equipments.
Cooling of flame detector sensors in Ammonia decomposition furnace.



In coke oven wastewater is generated during the gas cleaning process. This wastewater
contains highly polluted, which cannot be discharged as it is in to our atmosphere. To
treat the polluted water and bring down the pollutants within C.P.C.B. (Central Pollution
Control Board) & K.P.C.B. (Karnataka Pollution Control Board) norms in our Coke Oven
plant we have a treatment unit named BOD plant (Biological Oxidation & De-
penalization plant).
In brief the BOD plant is designed to treat wastewater in three stages.

In primary treatment the wastewater is used to remove light oil, heavy oil and oil
emulsion by physical and chemical methods. In biological treatment the first stage is
anaerobic treatment. In anaerobic treatment the aromatic and cyclic compounds are
decomposed by anaerobic microbes to simpler molecular compounds which are
degradable in next stages that are anoxic and aerobic pools. The next stage is pre
denitrification stage in which the denitrifying bacteria cultures denitrifies the NO 3 and
NO2 by using organic compounds and take out oxygen for oxidation of organic
compounds and liberate N2 and CO 2 gas. Next stage is nitrification stage in which
aerobic bacteria in presence of O decompose
2 organic compounds to CO and
2 H O and

also convert sulphide to SO2& NH to

3 nitrates.

Our nitrification and denitrification process is an activated sludge suspended

growth process in which sludge is in the form of suspension. Some amount of activated
sludge is recycled back to the system after clarifier as sludge return to Aerobic pool.
After nitrification stage there is another type aeration stage. This is called FFR or fixed
film reactor. After this the treated waste water enters in Final stage in which final
treated water is coagulated and clarified in Coagulation reactors & final clarifiers. Then
after filtering this treated water through filters and we get final BOD plant effluent or
treated water free from TSS, odor and color.

he major
major source
source of
of wastewater
b el o w :

3 3
SOURCE (M /hr) (M /hr)
Waste water from scrubbing column (COLUMNA/B) 35.23 41.00
comes by pumping
Waste water from excess ammonia distillation (COLUMN 35.00 40.00
C) comes by pumping
Plant gas seal pot condensate, vapour condensate 19.41 37.91

Exhaust gas washing column 5.00 5.00

Total 95.64 123.91

Process Flow:

Whole technology of BOD plant is supplied by MECC, China. BOD process can be divided
into three categories

1. Physiochemical treatment.
1) Sewage Lifting Pool
2) Inclined tube Oil Removing Pool
3) Air Floatation Pool
2. Biological treatment
1) Regulation Pool
2) Anaerobic Reactor
3) Anoxic Pool
4) Aerobic Pool
5) Intermediate Sedimentation Tank
6) Contact Oxidation Pool
3. Final treatment
1) Coagulation Reactor
2) Final Sedimentation Tank
3) Filtration
Plant is divided into two streams, these two s termed as A and B stream. In BOD plant
the process can be explained in flow diagram as follows






















Fig 20
Technical parameters

Design Inlet parameters after regulation pool as follows:

Parameter BOD 3 BOD 4
COD 1500-3000 1500-3000
V.Phenol 500-650 400-800
Cyanide 8-20 8-20
BOD 5 600-1300 600-1300
Oil 200-300 200-300
Sulphide 20-50 20-50
Suspended Solids 100-350 100-350
NH3-N 150-250 150-250
All units in mg/l

After treatment our BOD plant effluent or treated water parameters should within these
limits. These are C.P.C.B. norms

All parameters have mg/l as units.

Details of the tanks in BOD:

Name of the pool Symbol BOD# 3 BOD #4

Sewage lifting pool A 12*4.5*5= 270 m 12*4.5*5= 270 m

Inclined oil B 159.37= 976.5 m 159.37=976.5 m

removing pool

Air floatation pool C 10.32.662.3 = 10.32.662.3

Regulation pool D 22.5106=1350 m 22.5106=1350 m

Anaerobic lifting P 636 =108 m 636=108 m

3 3
Anaerobic reactor Q _ ___ __ ___ _

Anoxic pool E 3096=1620 m 4096=2160 m

Aerobic pool F 3013.26=2376 m 4013.26=3168 m

Nitration Back- O 636 =108 m 636 =108 m

flow Well

Intermediate G 718.53 m 718.53 m


Contact Oxidation H 12.510.24.95=631.125 m 12.510.24.95=631.125

Pool m

Coagulation S 171 m 171 m


Final I 718.53 718.53


Drain Sump 1107 m 24*12*4.2= 1209.6 m

Treated Sump L 189 m 7.5*6*4.2= 189 m

Filter R 40 m/hr 75 m/hr

Details of chemicals used in the BOD plant:

S.No. Name of the chemical Area of use Purpose

1 SPFS (Solid Poly Ferric Sulphate) a) Air floatation pool Coagulant
b) Coagulation reactor

2 Anionic Polyacrylamide a) Air floatation pool Flocculent

b) Coagulation reactor

3 Cationic Polyacrylamide Filter press Unit De-hydrating the


4 Mono sodium phosphate a) Regulation pool As a P source to

b) Aerobic pool maintain C:N:P

5 Sodium Carbonate Aerobic pool To maintain pH

between 7 to 7.5.

Detail Process Description:

Physiochemical treatment:

Physiochemical treatment is mainly to remove the oils from the incoming wastewater.
Treatment includes sewage lifting pool, oil removing pool and air floatation pool.

Sewage lifting pool:

The incoming water to Sewage Lifting Pool is from various sections are as follows
Desulphurization area gas condensate
Ammonia Scrubbing/ Distillation /Decomposition area blow down and
condensate water
Gas Flaring System seal water

From all these areas wastewater comes by gravity to the sewage lifting pool.

This pool is an underground storage tank. There are total 5 pumps to lift this sewage
water to BOD water system. Pump P 01 and P 02 are high discharge pumps which pump
sewage water to Drain water sump (L Pool). The other 3 pumps P 03, P 04, P 06 are low
discharge pump which pump water to oil removing pool.

Oil Removing Pool:

The ORP is a gravity separation device designed to separate oil from water on basis of
their density difference. The design of the separator is based on the specific gravity
difference between the oil and the wastewater .Based on that design criterion, most of
the suspended solids and heavy oil will settle to the bottom of the ORP as a sediment
layer, the light oil will rise to top of the separator, and the wastewater will be the middle
layer between the light oil on top and the solids and heavy oil on the bottom. Oil layer
on the top is removed by use of scrapper and heavy oil is drained from the bottom of
the tank.

This pool divided into four tanks out of which two tanks are used for waste water of
distillation column C and other two are used for the Waste water from the Distillation
columns A/B. In the inclined tube oil removing pool honey comb type plastic packing is
provided which is inclined to facilitate heavy oil separation. Two oil scrappers are
provided on the top of the tanks to scrap the light oil layer. The Wastewater from
ammonia scrubbing and desulphurization area enters from opposite sides. There is a
provision of steaming to prevent the tar to solidify and choke the drain lines.

Our waste water consists of light oil and heavy oil. Heavy oil basically consists of Tar.
Due to gravity the heavy oil settles in the inclined tube and is drained in tanks provided
below. Light oil consist Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene. Periodically the oil scrapper is
used to scrap oil which floats on the surface.

Air Floatation Pool:

Air flotation device is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewater by the
removal of suspended matter such as emulsified oil or solids. The removal of oil is
achieved by air bubbles in the waste water through aerators. The released air forms tiny
bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing the suspended matter to float
to the surface of the water where it may then be removed by a skimming device or

Air Floatation pool consists of five parts:

a. Mixing chamber
b. Aerators
c. Floatation chamber
d. Scrapper
e. Emulsion chamber

The coagulant SPFS is dosed in the outlet of oil removing pool. In floatation pool inlet
dosing of the flocculent anionic PAM (Poly Acryl Amide) For the purpose of mixing a
mixer or agitator is provided in the mixing chamber. Due to mixing of flocculent flocs
formation take place in mixing chamber; and then these flocs over flow with waste
water to next chamber. From this chamber the waste water enters in aerator chamber
from bottom. In aerator chamber for the purpose of aeration two aerators are provided.
The aerator produce tiny air bubbles from the bottom which entrapped in the flocs and
then brings flocs on the top as an emulsion layer. These flocs then over flow to
floatation chamber and waste water enter in floatation chamber. In floatation chamber
this top layer is scrapped by using scrapper to emulsion chamber and waste water over
flow to outlet of pool through adjustable weir.

In BOD there are two air floatation pools termed as air floatation pool A and air
floatation pool B. In which there are total two mixers, four aerators and two scrappers

Biological treatment:

The organic material present in the wastewater biological degraded in this treatment.

Regulation pool:

The influent water to the plant can vary both in quantity and the amount of
chemical present. Hence all waste water plants are provided with a regulation pool
where the flow and quality can be regulated. In BOD plant two regulation pools one in
each parallel stream. The waste water from air floatation pool comes to regulation pool
by gravity. Each pool is equipped with 5 submersible mixers for maintaining the
homogeneity. Dosing lines are provided to dose Mono Sodium Phosphate and Sodium
Carbonate which act as nutrient for proper bacterial growth and to maintain pH
respectively. Provision for addition of water to dilute the feed is also there.
Anaerobic reactors:

This is the first stage of biological treatment. It is a cylindrical type reactor in

which waste water enters from the bottom and treated water overflow from the top of
the tank. Thread like packing is provided inside the tanks on which provides area for
bacterial growth. One circulation tank is provided with a pump which continuously re-
circulates the suspended anaerobic sludge from top to bottom. In anaerobic treatment
the aromatic and cyclic compounds are decomposed by anaerobic microbes to simpler
molecular compounds which are readily degradable in next stages that are anoxic and
aerobic pools. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) must to less than 0.2 for anaerobic process.

In our Coke 3 BOD plant total six anaerobic reactors are provided. Three reactors for
stream A and three reactors for stream B which all run in parallel. And for Coke 4 BOD
total eight anaerobic reactors are provided. Four reactors for stream A and four reactors
for stream which all run in parallel.
Anoxic Pool:

There are two anoxic pools, Anoxic pool A and Anoxic pool B. It is a simple rectangular
tank provided with submersible mixers (for keeping activated sludge in suspension
form). In coke 3 there are 5 mixers in each stream and in coke 4 there are 7 in each
stream. Back flow pipeline is evenly distributed throughout the tank at bottom. At inlet
honey comb type plastic packing is provided for even distribution of wastewater coming
from Anaerobic Reactors. At the outlet, overflow line on top V-notch type weir is
provided and from here waste water flow through a channel to Aerobic pool by gravity

Anoxic conditions have a very low concentration of D.O. (that is, less than 0.5 mg/L)

Reactions: Denitrification
NO3 + CxHyO N2 + CO2 + H2O + OH
The above reaction is facilitated by facultative heterotrophic microbes.
The Phenolic compounds serve as a carbon source and electron donors to
denitrifiers and thus are dagraded under anoxic conditions.
Aerobic pool:

Aerobic pool is a simple rectangular tank provided with jet aerator and submersible
pumps in the bottom of the tank. Wastewater enters from Anoxic Pool and exit from
opposite end to intermediate sedimentation pool. Air is supplied in the top of jet
aerator and waste water is pumped in the bottom jet aerators. Air flow is monitored by
the help of flow meters. There are two Aerobic Pools, one for stream A and other for
stream B. In this, microbes decompose waste water by using oxygen present in air.
Major removal of COD occurs in this stage only.

Aerobic heterotrophic and autotrophic microbes in presence of O decompose

2 organic
compounds to CO2and H O 2 and also convert sulphide to SO &
2 NH to3 nitrates.

Nitrification Reactions:
+ + -
NH4 + 1.5O2 Nitrosomonas 2H + H O2+ NO 2

+ -
NO2 + 0.5O2 Nitrobacter NO3
Overall nitrification reaction:
+ +
NH4 + 2O2 NO3- + 2H + H2O
Due nitrification in this pool there occurs decrease in pH in aerobic pool so Sodium
Carbonate is added in order to maintain pH in the range 7-7.5 and there is provision of
Sodium phosphate dosing in order to maintain C:N:P ratio. DO maintained in range 2-4

Intermediate Sedimentation Tank:

The waste water effluent from the aerobic pool enters the Intermediate Sedimentation
tank. The basic purpose of this tank is to separate the activated sludge from the effluent
via gravity separation. The tank has a concentric pipe below which there is a metal plate.
The wastewater enters in the middle of the pipe and is guided downwards to the metal
plate. After striking the metal plate the waste water is spread in the radial direction.
The heavy activated sludge due to its gravity fails to rise and settles down. On the other
hand the effluent water along with dead cells rises up. The accumulated sludge enters
the sludge tank which is attached to the IST while the effluent water overflows in a
concentric weir through small holes provided and flows through gravity to the next

The Sludge tank is equipped with two pumps. The young sludge or activated sludge is
pumped to the aerobic pool as sludge return (RAS). This RAS flow is monitored by flow
meter. A part of this sludge can also be pumped to the sludge concentration pools as
waste sludge (WAS). There is one intermediate sedimentation tank for each stream in
COKE 3 and two for each stream in COKE 4.
Contact Oxidation Pool:

Contact Oxidation Pool is the next stage for further treatment of left over impurities in
wastewater. It is a type of fixed film reactor or FFR. It is a rectangular tank in which fixed
packing is provided. This fixed packing is plastic rings on threads which are tied in cages
inside the tank. Air is also provided from bottom via evenly distributed pipes for the
aeration or to maintain DO level between 2-4 ppm. It is another stage of aerobic
biological degradation. Wastewater enters from the bottom and comes in contact with
microbes deposited on the rings and at last after treatment overflow from the channels
provided on the top. There are two pools for each stream.

Final treatment:

Final treatment special operations are done to enhance the quality of biologically
treated water so that we can use it for our purpose. Here there will coagulation of left
over biological sludge by coagulant and flocculent. Then final sedimentation of this
coagulated water is done to remove the coagulated biological sludge. Then treated
water passes through filters to remove TSS, color and odor. Final treated water is used
for quenching purpose.

Coagulation Reactor:

In this pool there is a series of agitators provided, which agitate the influent at varying
speed to enhance the coagulation of biological sludge. Pool is divided into four
chambers in which two agitators are provided into each chamber. In addition to these
dosing lines are provided for the dosing of coagulant SPFS and flocculent PAM. Basically
in this step the sludge is coagulated by means of physical and chemical aid so that it can
be easily separated from treated water in the final sedimentation tanks.

Final Sedimentation Tank:

The effluent from coagulation reactor overflows to two parallel Final Sedimentation
Tanks. These FSTs works same as the intermediate sedimentation tanks and separate
the sludge from the final treated water effluent. The sludge collects in the sludge tank
while the treated water overflows by gravity to the treated water sump. The sludge will
be sent to the sludge concentration pool.

Treated and Drain water sump:

It is an underground tank which is divided into two parts. One is treated water sump and
other is drain water sump. All treated water from both the streams comes in treated
water sump which is pumped to quenching pond via pumps through filters. All drain
water of BOD plant comes in drain sump during emergency. This drain water can be
recycled back to regulation pools via pumps or can be sent to quenching pond by
interconnecting lines.


Coke 3 Filters

a) Sand Filters:

After pumping treated water from treated water sump it enters in sand filters. There are
two sand filters in parallel. This comprises of pebbles, silex, sand and gravel as filtering
media and polishing media respectively. Internally it is fitted with inlet distributor and a
bottom collecting system. Externally, it is fitted with frontal pipe work and isolation
valves. Sand is used for removing the suspended particles to make the water fit for
various application. Pebbles and gravels are provided to support to both the media. This
filter is to be backwashed after accumulation of suspended solids over the cycle. Limit
for the backwash in these filers is governed by differential pressure across the filter.

b) Activated Carbon Filters:

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or "Activated coal" is a form of carbon
that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to have a very large
surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. The ACF are in series with
sand filters. There are two ACFs. Purpose of using ACF is to remove color and odor of
treated water. There is provision of backwash of these filters.

Coke 4 Filters

Sand Filters:

After pumping treated water from treated water sump it enters in sand filters. There are
three sand filters in parallel. This comprises of pebbles, sand and gravel as filtering
media. Internally it is fitted with inlet distributor and a bottom collecting system.
Externally, it is fitted with frontal pipe work and isolation valves. Sand is used for
removing the suspended particles to make the water fit for various application. Pebbles
and gravels are provided to support to both the media. This filter is to be backwashed
after accumulation of suspended solids over the cycle. Limit for the backwash in these
filers is governed by differential pressure across the filter.

Sludge Handling System:

Sludge Concentration Pool:

Purpose of sludge concentration pool is to concentrate the waste biological and oil
emulsion sludge via gravity settling. In construction these holding tanks are simply
conical shape hoppers in which inlet are provided on top and outlet is provided at
bottom. There are total four chambers in sludge concentration pool. Three drain lines
are connected in each chamber to drain all supernatant liquor from top of settled

Filter Press Unit:

Filter press unit consist of pneumatically operated belt filter press and their feeding and
dosing system. Belt filter press are operated pneumatically by an air compressor
provided to maintain air pressure in pneumatic cylinders which keep belt tight and align
it in center via sensors. One feeding pump is provided for each filter press. One
dehydrating solution (cationic PAM) preparation tank is provided for the ease of sludge
dehydration. An agitator is provided to serve the need of mixing. One dosing pump is
provided to dose dehydrating agent in the feed line of filter press. One overhead mixing
vessel is provided on the top of filter press which is a baffled vessel and a spiral agitator
is provided to mix feed and dehydrating agent solution.

The sludge cake that came from the filter press manually bagged and sent to the coal
handling section to mix with the coal.