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Reduction of emissions

and energy utilisation of


coke oven underfiring heating
systems through advanced
diagnostics and control
(Ecocarb)

Research and
Innovation EUR 25902 EN
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General for Research and Innovation
Directorate G Industrial Technologies
Unit G.5 Research Fund for Coal and Steel

E-mail: rtd-steel-coal@ec.europa.eu
RTD-PUBLICATIONS@ec.europa.eu

Contact: RFCS Publications

European Commission
B-1049 Brussels
European Commission

Research Fund for Coal and Steel


Reduction of emissions and energy utilisation
of coke oven underfiring heating systems
through advanced diagnostics and control
(Ecocarb)

M. Saiepour
Tata Steel UK Limited
Swinden Technology Centre, Moorgate, Rotherham, S60 3AR, UNITED KINGDOM

J. Delinchant
ArcelorMittal Maizires Research
Centre de Pyrolyse du Charbon de Marienau, Parc dActivits Forbach Ouest, 57612 Forbach Cedex, FRANCE

J. Soons
VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH
Sohnstrae 65, 40237 Dsseldorf, GERMANY

F. Huhn
Uhde GmbH
Friedrich-Uhde-Strasse 15, 44141 Dortmund, GERMANY

J. Morris
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials
Merz Court, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UNITED KINGDOM

Grant Agreement RFCR-CT-2008-00007


1 July 2008 to 31 December 2011

Final report

Directorate-General for Research and Innovation

2013 EUR 25902 EN


LEGAL NOTICE
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Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013

ISBN 978-92-79-29187-6
doi:10.2777/8828

European Union, 2013


Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

Printed in Luxembourg

Printed on white chlorine-free paper


CONTENTS
Page

FINAL SUMMARY 5

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF RESULTS 15

1. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 15

2. COMPARISON OF INITIALLY PLANNED ACTIVITIES AND WORK 15


ACCOMPLISHED

3. DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITIES AND DISCUSSION 16


3.1 Work Package 1: Data driven diagnostics for detection of coke oven 16
underfiring heating faults
3.2 Work Package 2: Causes of inefficient heating operation 27
3.3 Work Package 3: Determination of the diagnosable effects by laboratory 36
combustion tests
3.4 Work Package 4: Individual wall automatic heating control in response to 42
real-time diagnostics
3.5 Work Package 5: Real-time performance, diagnostics and advisory system 53

4. CONCLUSIONS 62

5. EXPLOITATION AND IMPACT OF RESEARCH RESULTS 64


5.1 Actual applications 64
5.2 Technical and economic potential for the use of the results 64
5.3 Dissemination 65

6. LIST OF FIGURES 66

7 LIST OF TABLES 68

8. LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 69

9. REFERENCES 70

REVISED PROGRAMME BAR CHART 71

APPENDICES 73
A1 Work Package 1: Data driven diagnostics for detection of coke oven 74
underfiring heating faults
A2 Work Package 2: Causes of inefficient heating operation 84
A3 Work Package 3: Determination of the diagnosable effects by laboratory 90
combustion tests
A4 Work Package 4: Individual wall automatic heating control in response 99
to real-time diagnostics
A5 Work Package 5: Real-time performance monitoring, diagnostics and 114
advisory system

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FINAL SUMMARY
ECOCARB: Reduction of emissions and energy utilisation of coke oven underfiring heating
systems through advanced diagnostics and control

RFCS Contract No. RFCR-CT-2008-00007

Final Technical Report for the Period: 01 July 2008 to 31 December 2011

Introduction

In an integrated Iron and Steelmaking plant the coke oven heating process is a major contributor to
NOX, SO2, CO, CO2 and particulate emissions. Legislation has made it essential to manage and reduce
these emissions [1, 2]. It is recognised that energy efficiency is a cost effective method of reducing
emissions. Previous research on improving energy efficiency and heating control has mainly focused
on whole battery operation and control [3,4,5], but in this project a new individual wall control has been
designed. Previous research on intelligent process monitoring, diagnostics and emissions prediction in
the coal and steel industry [6,7,8] had not yet been applied for condition monitoring in coke oven
underfiring systems. In this project a new diagnostic system was developed for automatically detecting
heating faults to reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency. The aims were achieved through an
integrated series of laboratory, pilot scale and plant trials, computer simulation and software
development carried out under five work packages (WPs), fully described in the Technical Annex
(section 10). Each partners contribution is shown in the Programme Bar Chart in the Technical Annex,
and described in the following sections.

Work Package 1: Data driven diagnostics for the detection of coke oven underfiring faults

Task 1.1 Concept Development

Objective
To develop knowledge and an approach for identifying certain faults within the coke oven heating
system caused by for example through-wall leakage or combustion problems, and their effect on the
waste gas composition such as O2, CO, NOX, SO2, and particulates. The developed approach (or
procedure) should enable the diagnostic system to detect and locate the faults using plant and stack
emission data.

Results and application


Waste gas analysis trials, at individual walls, were carried out at Dawes Lane Coke Ovens (DLCO) to
gain an understanding of the effects that through-wall leakage has on waste gas emissions, identify the
best indicators and obtain emission concentration values to enable the assessment of the leakage
severity. From these investigations it was confirmed that waste gas dust, CO, O2 and CH4 (or total
VOC) in the waste gas boxes may be used as indicators for through-wall leakage. It was found that
during charging of the ovens, for severe through-wall leakage, high values of CO (18,000 ppm) and
CH4 (1,200 ppm) with corresponding low values of O2 (almost zero) could be measured. In order to
quickly detect and locate the fault a simultaneous measurement of the waste gas from both walls of an
oven was needed. Hence, a new method and equipment were developed especially for this purpose by
Tata Steel UK, leading to EU patent application number 10015884, which is currently pending. Based
on stack emissions information, a procedure for the identification and location of through-wall leakage
has been devised, for use in the diagnostic system.

Task 1.2 Collection and preparation of process and emissions data

Objective
To install hardware and software connectivity for data collection from the coke oven battery
supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, and then prepare the data required for

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building the models within the diagnostic system. Ensure that the data monitoring and logging is
accurate and reliable, since the integrity of the analysis and modelling depends on these data.

Results and application


Hardware and software connections were completed between the coke oven battery SCADA and a
dedicated on-site computer for continuously logging the plant and emissions data, and saved as MS
Excel files to provide the large amount of historical data required to build the models for the diagnostic
system. In addition, remote connection from Swinden Technology Centre (STC) to the coke oven plant
through the Tata Steel Wide Area Network (WAN) was made. This made it possible to access the data
and download the logged data files remotely. Based on process knowledge twenty two relevant plant
and emission variables were selected for use as inputs in the diagnostic system, to model the normal and
abnormal operation within the coke ovens. Visual examination of the data combined with process
knowledge was carried out to prepare the data for use in the model development stage.

Task 1.3 Determination of dominant parameters

Objective
To analyse the data collected in the previous task to determine the dominant parameters, to be used in
the diagnostic system, for the detection of underfiring abnormal conditions. Determine relationships
between the collected data using data visualisation and correlation analysis, in addition to process
knowledge.

Results and application


The stack dust, CO and O2 emissions data were analysed by relating them to the oven charging times to
assess their potential effectiveness for use in the diagnostic system. The data analyses showed that
stack O2, which was previously identified as one of the main indicators for through-wall leakage during
the individual wall waste gas measurements, does not provide as much variation (at the stack), but can
be included for use in the diagnostic system. However, stack CO and dust emissions can both be
regarded as significant indicators. Although an increase in stack dust and CO emissions can be related
to a certain charging time, and hence the oven with the heating fault identified, this is not sufficient to
confirm that these stack emission variations are caused by through-wall leakage and not combustion
problems. Hence, fuel-related parameters, such as stack draught, fuel gas composition and fuel gas
flow rate that could indicate combustion problems, were also included in the investigations. The
ArchitectMV software was used to carry out visualisation and correlation analysis of the data. These
investigations showed that it was possible to confirm whether the cause was through-wall leakage or a
fuel-related problem using the selected dominant parameters, and hence they could be used in the
automatic diagnostic system developed in Task 1.4 and WP5 for the identification of the heating faults.

Task 1.4 Development and assessment of diagnostic system

Objective
To develop a data-driven diagnostic system for the automatic detection and location of coke oven
heating faults. The system should be tested on historical data where known abnormal conditions have
occurred to assess its validity.

Results and application


Tata Steel and UNEW have collaborated and based the overall system on the Gensym G2 knowledge-
based platform, using its expert system and iMSPC (with multivariate PCA modelling) software tools.
The knowledge obtained from the previous Tasks to detect and locate the heating faults, and knowledge
of process operation has been applied. The selected process variables, including charged oven ID, and
the dominant parameters (to confirm whether the increase in stack emissions is caused by through-wall
leakage or combustion faults) are part of the diagnostic system. A multivariate performance monitoring
toolbox based on MATLAB algorithms has been developed by UNEW, which included data
visualisation, data pre-processing, and PCA model calibration features. Further removal of data outliers
was carried out and a PCA model was constructed. The models detection capability was then
evaluated, using historical data, by comparing known normal and abnormal conditions such as through-
wall leakage and combustion problems. The model evaluation included the examination of the SPE and
T2 monitoring statistics, and variable contribution charts. The generated PCA models were saved as

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model definition text files for the G2 system to be run on historical data. In addition, heating fault rules
were set up within the G2 system to detect and identify the faults, which were extended in WP5. The
complete diagnostic system was then assessed by examining the Principal Component charts and a
newly developed fault identification screen, and proved to be successful for coke oven underfiring fault
detection, and was then extended to operate under on-line conditions on real-time coke oven data
(WP5).

Task 1.5 Application of new diagnostic system

Objective
To carry out off-line investigations on the potential effectiveness of the new diagnostic system for the
reduction in emissions (NOX, SO2, CO and particulates) and increase in energy efficiency. Recommend
further improvements, and gain knowledge of the best way of applying the system.

Results and application


The system was applied off-line, using historical data for the detection, location and identification of
the heating faults, and to examine its potential effectiveness in reducing emissions and increasing
energy efficiency. The G2 system x-y plots of principal components were viewed, which proved to be
useful in quickly showing a fault on the screen. The cause of the fault was further examined using a
second G2 screen, which provided information on specific ovens (being charged at that time) such as
out of range fuel-related parameters and stack emissions of that oven. However, it was recognised that
a further G2 advisory screen would be beneficial to identify the type of the heating fault, and to provide
an overall view of the faults of all the 75 ovens. This was thought to provide an effective way of
helping the plant personnel to quickly monitor the coke oven conditions for heating faults and
immediately take the appropriate actions that will lead to reduction of emissions and increasing energy
efficiency. This additional advisory screen was designed in WP5. Recommendations for a strategy to
effectively reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency using the automatic diagnostic system when
the particular fault is through-wall leakage, combustion problem or nozzle blockage have been made.

Work Package 2: Causes of inefficient heating operation

Task 2.1 Identification of required instrumentation to assess combustion efficiency

Objective
To identify the necessary instrumentation to correctly characterise the combustion pattern inside coke
oven heating flues.

Results and application


ArcelorMittal Maizires Research (AMMR) and Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM) have defined
the required instrumentation to assess combustion efficiency inside heating flues.

Table S1: Required instrumentation to assess combustion efficiency


Investigation Equipment Measurement
Gas/Air ports condition Videofil machine Video, pictures of flue bottom
Flame length Sampling probe, CO gas analyser CO content inside heating flues
Pyrofil machine Refractories temperature inside
Vertical temperature
heating flues
distribution inside heating
Suction pyrometer Gas temperature inside heating
flues
flues
Excess Air Sampling probe, O2 gas analyser % O2 at the heating flue top

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Task 2.2 Design and construction of a robot for inspection of regenerators sole flues

Objective
To design, build and test a robot for the inspection of regenerators sole flues.

Results and application


After successive improvement steps, a robot for regenerator inspection is now operational at CPM. Its
easiness to handle and to be adaptable to a wide range of battery types makes it indispensable for
detecting regenerator damages. By the end of the project, several coke oven plants had requested
assistance from CPM for inspection with the new robot.

2 cameras

Fig. S1: CPM robot for regenerator inspection is equipped with 2 cameras: axial and lateral

Task 2.3 Assessment of regenerator condition

Objective
To perform a series of tests using the inspection robot in industrial conditions to assess regenerator
conditions, quantify the damages and the amount of deposits on the checker bricks.

Results and Application


The robot for regenerator inspection has been tested in several different configurations (including most
restrictive) of regenerator compartments. The robot showed its robustness during these first trials. The
pictures taken are satisfactory and give good indications of the regenerator conditions.

Fig. S2: Pictures taken by the robot: a clean checker brick and damaged checker bricks which can
partially prevent the gas or air passage
Task 2.4 Evaluation of combustion efficiency

Objective
To undertake complete measurements in an industrial coke plant to fully characterise the combustion
pattern inside the heating flues, with the instruments and methodology defined in Task 2.1.

Results and application


Two heating walls with different combustion patterns were fully studied. All the equipment listed in
Task 2.1 and developed in Task 2.2 has been used. The results clearly characterised the flame and the
combustion pattern.

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8 8

7 7
Heating flue height (m)
6 6

Heating flue height (m)


Gas temperature
5 5
Gas temperature
Refractory flue
4 wall temperature 4

3 air 3 air

2 2
gas gas

1 1
Refractory flue
wall temperature
0 0
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Temperature (C) Temperature (C)

Fig. S3: Heating wall A has a good vertical heat Fig. S4: Heating wall B is shifted to lower
distribution temperature than heating wall A

Task 2.5 Application of new diagnostic technique for identification of combustion problems

Objective
To establish guidelines to identify combustion problems and their origin.

Results and application


AMMR and CPM past experiences and the discussion which took place between the partners of the
project led to the development of a new procedure for identification of combustion problems using the
techniques and tools designed in this Work Package. CPM established a flow chart describing the
measurements for the problem definition and the remedial action. This procedure can be applied by
coke oven maintenance personnel after locating the faulty wall using the automatic diagnostic system
(WP5) to inspect individual heating flues in that wall and related regenerators, and hence help to
effectively carry out the required repairs.

Work Package 3: Determination of the diagnosable effects by laboratory combustion tests

Task 3.1 Alteration of a BFI-burn-off-detection system for combustion research under


special coke oven heating boundary conditions

Objective
To alter the laboratory/pilot plant combustion reactor to make it suitable for conducting the research on
coke oven heating flues. This combustion reactor was located at the BFI testing facilities on the
premises of the Httenwerke Krupp Mannesmann (HKM) steel works.

Results and applications


The result of this task was the construction of a single heating flue at a scale of 1:2 of the Tata Steel
DLCO plant, firing coke oven gas from HKM plant. This heating flue model has been installed with
several connections for temperature measurements and flue gas analysis, capable of measuring O2, CO2,
CO and NOX. Two fuel gas nozzle geometries could be used (low and high nozzles), identical to the
twin flue design at DLCO. Dust measurement equipment was purchased and installed in order to
determine the flue gas dust content. Part of the auxiliary equipment was an air-preheater that was able
to produce heated air up to a temperature of 800C. Fuel gas was preheated to 500C through heating
tapes. Flue gas recirculation was simulated by operating a small burner near the bottom of the heating
flue model. In order to simulate through-wall leakage, a saturator was constructed that was able to
saturate coke oven gas with naphthalene. A heated tube connected this saturator to the heating flue
model, i.e. the altered combustion reactor. With this heating flue model it was possible to undertake
combustion research under both standard and special boundary conditions like through-wall leakage or
poor combustion, e.g. caused by nozzle blockage.

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Task 3.2 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the diagnosable effects at
standard coke oven condition

Objective
To investigate the influence of burner configuration, gas-air ratio, gas and air temperature, flow velocity
and recirculation rates on flue gas temperature and composition using the altered combustion reactor.
Additionally, CFD models were to be constructed that would, after validation using the experimental
results, allow extensive, detailed parameter studies to be conducted.

Results and application


As a result of the experimental work in this task, variables were set to values that led to experimental
process behaviour similar to real heating flue processes. Process knowledge of the project partners
contributed to the determination of these set-points: fuel gas temperature: 500C, combustion air
temperature: 800 850C and air/gas ratio: 1.4. As a result of the poor combustion of the fuel gas
(increased CO) at the experiments in which Reynolds numbers were present, identical to those present
in the original heating flues (~ 1,700), flue gas velocities similar to those in the original heating flues
were used in the experiments. Because of the untypical temperature distribution in the high burner
configuration experiments, the low burner configuration was chosen as the standard experimental
process condition. Increasing recirculation rates led to decreasing flue gas temperature and NOX in the
flue gas. At = 1.4, lowest NOX levels (~ 300 mg/m3STP) have been measured at a recirculation rate of
60%. Corresponding to theory, NOX increases and CO decreases with increasing oxygen content of the
flue gas: CO levels exceeding 100 ppm have only been observed where the recirculation rate was 40%
or lower and < 1.3. The behaviour of NOX could be predicted qualitatively using CFD software
(Ansys Fluent), and compared with the experimental results. Both the experiments and the CFD-
simulations for example showed a decrease of NOX by a factor of about 2 when increasing the
recirculation rate from 40 to 60%. The CFD-determined temperature profiles showed deviations from
the experimental observations. Possible explanations for this deviation are the applied turbulence
model in the CFD software, the position of flue gas temperature measurement in the heating flue model
and the assumptions made for the reactor wall temperature and heat losses from the un-insulated top of
the reactor. The achieved understanding of the process behaviour at standard conditions allowed for
proper interpretation of the experimental results of the faulty process conditions like through-wall
leakage or nozzle blockage in Tasks 3.3 and 3.4.

Task 3.3 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the diagnosable effects by
through-wall leakages

Objectives
To investigate the influence of through-wall leakage (flow of raw uncleaned coke oven gas from the
coking chamber into the heating flue) on flue gas temperature, flue gas composition and particulate
emissions.

Results and application


The investigations were carried out at the main combustion reactor and were supplemented by CFD
modelling of the combustion process. Theoretical calculations on a DLCO heating flue showed that
with an assumed crack geometry of 300mm x 1mm and gas pressure difference between the gas
collecting space of the coking chamber and the heating flue of 1 mbar, the flow of raw coke oven gas is
already 75% of the fuel gas flow of the main combustion, decreasing the overall lambda value from 1.4
to 0.8. Naphthalene was chosen to represent the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of raw coke oven
gas. By controlling the temperature in the saturator at 102C, a content of 130 g/m3STP (~ 2.3 % of
COG flowing to the heating flue) of naphthalene in the coke oven gas could be achieved. At typical
conditions ( = 1.4, Tcombustion air = 800C and TFuel gas =500C) and a recirculation rate of 40%, no effect
of amount of through-wall leakage on NOx and CO (continuously < 12 ppm) formation could be
observed despite the observation of decrease of O2 content of the flue gas. CFD simulations of the
experiments showed the same behaviour qualitatively. Dust content in flue gas increased with
increasing through-wall leakage and reached 55 mg/m3STP at a through-wall leakage flow of 0.350
m3STP/h (10% of COG flow through fuel nozzle of main combustion reactor). The observations of
increased dust emissions and decreased O2 content correspond to the results of Task 1.1. Thus the flue

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gas dust and O2 appeared to be the best indicators for through-wall leakage, although O2 is less defined
as it can also be affected by combustion problems. The effect of through-wall leakage on CO emissions
that were shown in Task 1.1 could not be confirmed by the BFI experimental flue, possibly because of
the overall over-stoichiometric process conditions and the absence of actual (real) recirculation of flue
gas.

Task 3.4 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the diagnosable effects by
(partial) nozzle blockage

Objective
To investigate the effect of nozzle blockage on the combustion in heating flues. CFD modelling was
used to support the experimental work in this task, especially focusing on inhomogeneous mixing of air
and gas.

Results and application


The air nozzle blockage experiments showed that a decrease in combustion air caused an increase in
hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen, whereas it caused a decrease in CO2, NOX and
temperature. The observation of hydrogen, CO and oxygen together being present in the flue gas, and
increasing together, led to the conclusion that incomplete mixing of fuel gas and combustion air existed
for the air nozzle blockage experiments. Therefore, the appropriate coke oven air regenerators should
be inspected when registering COG components (H2), CO and oxygen together in the flue gas (also see
WP2, Task 2.5). This experimental observation was supported by CFD simulations, that showed the
coexistence of both fuel gas and combustion air in the flue gas at an overall lambda value <1. However,
in the gas nozzle blockage experiments a complete mixing of fuel gas and combustion air did exist. The
flue gas CO in these experiments for example was continuously low <10ppm. Here, with increasing
blockage of the fuel gas nozzle, the system behaved as expected: increasing oxygen content and
decreasing CO2, temperature and NOX, the latter being the result of decrease of flue gas temperature,
counteracting the NOX increasing factors of increased oxygen content and increased retention time.
CFD simulation confirmed the experimental results qualitatively. Hence, the flue gas CO and H2
concentrations can be key parameters for indicating the type of nozzle blockage (air or gas). If high
CO/H2 with increased O2, is detected there is air nozzle blockage (or regenerator blockage) that leads to
lower combustion air flow rates. On the other hand, if low CO with increased O2 is detected there is gas
nozzle blockage.

Work Package 4: Individual wall automatic heating control in response to real-time diagnostics

Task 4.1 Investigation and system development

Objective
To develop a basic control system to enable individual heating walls to be controlled, and highlight any
modifications which will need to be made to plant to allow the system to work effectively.

Results and application


The purpose of the individual wall heating control system as devised by Uhde within the ECOCARB
project was to enable the battery operator to respond to a circumstance (such as through-wall leakage)
affecting an individual oven in a simple and timely manner without affecting the heating of the other
ovens within the battery. By using the new system such "weak pointsin the heating system should be
offset in the best possible way by selective and well-aimed interventions. Weak points in the system
may consist of a crude gas leakage, low quality combustion, or an over- or underheating of individual
heating wall sections. Hence, a concept for an individual regulation of a heating wall was developed,
which comprised of the following 2 elements:
The first element is the introduction of secondary air into the down leg (off gas) of the twin flue
during alternate reversals in order to burn residual combustibles before they are discharged to the
atmosphere through the battery chimney.
A second element was integrated into the control system by means of which the fuel gas quantity
and hence the heat input to the individual heating wall was controlled. This facility enables the

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flow of gas to a particular heating wall to be modulated independently to satisfy the particular
needs of the corresponding oven, thereby improving the battery energy efficiency. This more
efficient use of fuel gas provides a reduction in CO2 and SO2 emissions corresponding to the
savings in fuel gas achieved.

Task 4.2 Preparatory trials

Objective
To carry out initial trials and tests to confirm the system for further development.

Results and application


The engineering design of the individual heating system to control the flow of coke oven gas and
supplementary air to the heating flues was successfully performed. A full HAZOP study, concerning
the modification and retrofit of the heating system, had to be performed for the Tata Steel DLCO plant.
To maintain the safety and avoid any explosion risk it was necessary to make a modification to an
element of the existing heating system - the Becker recirculation duct. A flexible steel seal and
installation tool were subsequently developed by Uhde to eliminate the concerns related to potential
explosions. The installation of this seal was a difficult task and gave rise to delays. Thereafter the
individual heating wall control system could be commissioned and installed for the field trial periods at
the Tata Steel DLCO battery.

Task 4.3 Process simulation

Objective
To develop an individual wall simulation software to simulate heating fault conditions by inputting
operational data and hence predict the effect. This system should work in conjunction with the UNEW
simulation software developed in WP5 to input the type, severity and location of the heating fault.

Results and application


The simulation of the individual wall heating control was performed by adaption of Uhdes COBACS
(Coke Oven Battery Automatic Control System) software. The diagnostic and advisory simulation
results (see WP5) could be used to manually input the appropriate data into the COBACS. By
simulating varying degrees of through-wall leakage (defined by volume of crude gas) the volume of
secondary air required to be injected to achieve complete combustion could be calculated using the
COBACS programme. Moreover, inputting operational data and adjusting the fuel gas-crude gas ratio
enabled the actual volume of the through-wall leakage to be assessed. By applying this simulation any
operational problems could be revealed without industrial testing, which otherwise would cause safety
issues, cost due to damage, waste of time and mostly a restricted reliability.

Task 4.4 Field trials

Objective
To carry out plant trials on the developed individual wall heating control system at Tata Steel DLCO.

Results and application


The information gained from Tasks 4.1 - 4.3 has been utilised within the Tata Steel Scunthorpe
Management of Change procedures to assure safe working and satisfy the plant health and safety
requirements. The equipment and special components required for the individual heating wall control
system were procured. Tests, to check the practical assembling and dismantling of the sealing plates,
were initially carried out in order to avoid problems at a later stage of the trials. Following all of these
precautions and pre-arrangements the retrofittable individual wall heating control system was installed
at the heating walls 22 and 23 on oven 22 of the DLCO plant. The tasks that were carried out before
each of the field trials included the installation of 3-way cocks, pressure control flaps, larger diameter
gas nozzles, nozzle extensions, Becker port seals and supplementary air blower. All the existing
equipment was returned to its original state after the trials to allow normal production conditions to be
restored. Comprehensive data were recorded from both the plant SCADA and manually, and

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observations were made as necessary to ensure that a reliable assessment and interpretation of the trial
results could be obtained, over 3 test periods using the individual wall heating control system.

Task 4.5 Performance assessment

Objective
To analyse the data from the field trials and provide an assessment of the performance of the individual
wall heating control system at Tata Steel DLCO.

Results and application


After the equipment was tested for its feasibility to the operating conditions of Tata Steel DLCO the
emission reducing capability of the system could be confirmed in field trials. The outcome of these
tests was:
No worsening of the NOX emissions despite of the necessary removal of the Beckers duct, which
was a NOX reduction feature;
In particular, the raw gas leakages could be burnt by the addition of the supplementary air, and the
unburned CO in the waste gas (normally an indicator for soot emissions) could be greatly reduced;
Possibility of adaptation to increased or decreased heat demand for individual walls.
In this task an innovative individual wall heating control system was commissioned and applied, which
could be used in conjunction with the real-time diagnostic and advisory system developed in WP5. In
contrast to the usual way of controlling the battery heating as a whole this approach, of controlling
individual walls, was chosen to reduce emissions, increase energy efficiency and extend battery life. A
useful result was the reduction of the stack emissions even for old aged batteries. Stack emissions
mainly result from raw gas leakages into the heating flues which give rise to the formation of soot.

Work Package 5: Real-time performance monitoring, diagnostics and advisory system

Task 5.1 Real-time diagnostics model

Objective
To develop a real-time diagnostics system based on the information, knowledge and methodologies
acquired in WP1. Adapt the pre-processing methods used in WP1 for use with on-line, real-time data.

Results and application


The system was further extended from WP1 for use with on-line real-time data. The ECOCARB
software was purpose-designed to provide on-line capabilities and integrate data collection, analysis,
modelling, simulation, diagnostics and advisory functionality within the G2 real-time expert system.
An important objective of this Work Package was to develop software tools that will allow the coke
oven engineers to easily and effectively use the system in on-line applications. The new univariate and
multivariate data visualisation tool to identify and remove process outliers was an essential element of
this task. Once the data set had been pre-screened and pre-processed, the on-line monitoring and
diagnostics PCA model was built, which was suitable for use in the G2 real-time diagnostic system.
The performance of the developed PCA model was assessed by examining the scores, SPE and T2
monitoring plots. This was extended further in Task 5.2 to add on-line advisory capabilities.

Task 5.2 Real-time advisory system

Objective
To extend the real-time diagnostic system developed in the previous task into an advisory system which
provides plant operators with useful information and advice on what actions they should take during the
event of heating problems.

Results and application


The advisory system was designed for use on-line by coke oven plant engineers to automatically
diagnose the source of the fault (through-wall leakage, fuel-related problems and nozzle blockage) at an
early stage and hence be effective in reducing emissions and increasing energy efficiency. In designing

13
the advisory system the information derived from the analysis and understanding of the historical plant
data in WP1 and coke oven process knowledge were used to extend the capability of the real-time
system developed in Task 5.1. Several screens on the G2 system were designed for on-line operation.
The information obtained by viewing these screens enables a battery operator to determine the type of
fault, its severity and oven number. Since, the faults can be noticed almost immediately, actions such as
adjustments to the fuel flow rate or specific repairs can be made much quicker, which can reduce
emissions and increase energy efficiency.

Task 5.3 Diagnostics and advisory simulation model

Objective
To provide simulation features to run the diagnostic and advisory algorithms and software tools
developed in the previous tasks in historical time, as if it was real-time, to enable quick, safe and
informative evaluations.

Results and application


The simulation model has been built, by UNEW, so that coke oven historical data can be fed into the
program as if it was running on real-time data. Plant engineers would then be able to add process
changes or faults to the data set, and use the modified data set to simulate different process malfunctions
as if they were occurring on the real plant.

Task 5.4 On-line application

Objective
To apply the diagnostics and advisory system on-line, with real-time data.

Results and application


The diagnostics and advisory system was installed on-line at the DLCO plant. Its performance was
assessed by UNEW researchers in response to the actual real-time data for detection, location and
identification of heating faults. Coke oven real-time data automatically entered the system and the data
points were interrogated to assess their credibility in terms of being representative of actual oven
operation or potential outliers (not representative of expected operations). The newly acquired data
were visually presented, on the G2 advisory screens, and quickly indicated whether a fault was through-
wall leakage, fuel-related problems or nozzle blockage, and also gave an indication of severity.

Task 5.5 Plant implementation

Objective
To evaluate the potential effectiveness of the developed on-line diagnostics and advisory system in
dealing with the detected coke oven heating problems, and hence assess its usefulness in reducing
emissions and increasing energy efficiency.

Results and application


UNEW researchers and Tata Steel plant control engineers tested the software, on-line, and plant
engineers could see that the diagnostics and advisory system was able to detect and locate coke oven
through-wall leakage and other coke oven heating faults. It was also possible to determine the location
of the fault, in any of the ovens of the 3 DLCO batteries (75 ovens), and its severity. When through-
wall leakage was identified it could allow repairs at an earlier stage to be carried out, resulting in an
overall reduction of dust emissions. The system was also used by Tata Steel and Uhde engineers to
provide information for controlling the individual wall as part of WP4. Plant engineers have provided
positive feedback on the new system. The required repairs or adjustments can be made at an early stage
of fault occurrence, which can reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency. However, this system
must be used by specially-trained personnel and regularly updated to include the latest process states
and conditions.

14
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF RESULTS
ECOCARB: Reduction of emissions and energy utilisation of coke oven underfiring heating
systems through advanced diagnostics and control

RFCS Contract No. RFCR-CT-2008-00007

Final Technical Report for the Period: 01 July 2008 to 31 December 2011

1. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The overall project objectives are to reduce coke oven underfiring heating emissions of NOX, SO2, CO2
and particulates, and increase energy efficiency.

A new understanding of the flue combustion characteristics under abnormal conditions caused by
blocked nozzles, through-wall leakage and regenerator malfunctioning using plant trials, physical
modelling and analysis will be obtained. The information and data from these investigations will
enable an innovative data-driven diagnostics technique to detect and identify the different faults, at their
early stages of occurrence, using process and waste gas data to be developed.

A real-time diagnostic and advisory system for on-line application will then be developed. This will be
integrated with an innovative automatic individual wall heating control system, as opposed to the usual
way of controlling the battery heating as a whole, and hence reduce emissions, increase energy
efficiency and extend battery life.

2. COMPARISON OF INITIALLY PLANNED ACTIVITIES & WORK


ACCOMPLISHED

The initial Project Plan and its final revision are shown in the Technical Annex (section 10). Changes
were very minor, primarily involving distributions of efforts over longer periods in a few tasks in order
to fulfill the project objectives. WP1 was completed successfully and deliverables D1, D2 and D3 have
been achieved (Table 1). Task 1.1 was extended to accommodate waste gas measurements needed to
provide data for the other Work Packages. WP2 was completed successfully and deliverables D4, D5
and D6 were achieved (Table 1). Tasks 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 were extended owing to modifications to the
CPM robot and further plant trials. WP3 was completed successfully and deliverables D7, D8 and D9
have been achieved (Table 1). Task 3.2 was extended to allow further essential work under standard
operating conditions to be completed. In WP4 there were major delays due to both the design of a
suitable Becker duct seal and also obtaining permission from Tata Steel to carry out the research, in the
battery basement, which was in a safety critical area with a potential for gas explosion. However, this
work was completed successfully and deliverables D10, D11 and D12 have been achieved (Table 1).
WP5 was completed successfully and deliverables D13 and D14 have been achieved (Table 1), after
minor delays due to the testing and finalisation of the real-time diagnostic system. Initially, it was
thought that an automatic feedback control system would link the diagnostic system (WP5) with the
individual wall heating control (WP4), but as the work progressed it became clear that there was no
advantage in having this link for just one oven, and also a permission for this action would have been
difficult to attain from Tata Steel due to safety reasons. Hence, a manual operator interface with the
advisory system proved to be sufficient and preferable. All the objectives were achieved within the
project budget and time scale.

15
3. DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVITES AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Work Package 1: Data driven diagnostics for the detection of coke oven underfiring
heating faults

Task 1.1 Concept development

The aim of this task was to develop knowledge and an approach for identifying certain faults within the
heating system caused by through-wall leakage, or combustion problems, and their effect on the waste
gas composition. The developed approach should enable the diagnostic system to detect and locate the
faults using plant and stack emission data. To achieve this aim, plant trials for waste gas measurements,
at individual walls, have been undertaken to investigate the effect of through-wall leakage on waste gas
composition, identify the best indicators and obtain emission concentration values to enable the
assessment of the leakage severity.

Initial visits were made to the Tata Steel Dawes Lane coke ovens (DLCO) plant, in the UK, heating
problems were discussed with plant personnel, and the required instrumentation for the research was
identified. The coke oven heating system design was also studied. See Appendix 1.1.

A crack or hole in the wall between an oven chamber and a heating flue can exist that will allow
through-wall leakage. Leakage of material from the coke oven chamber to the heating flues is a major
cause of incomplete combustion leading to excessive emissions of dust, which may become visible as
black smoke at the battery stack. Hence, detection and assessment of the severity of through-wall
leakage at an early stage would be of great benefit. For further details on through-wall leakage see
Appendix 1.1.

Waste gas measurements at individual wall waste gas boxes


The aim of these measurements was to assess coke oven through-wall leakage by undertaking waste gas
analysis at individual wall waste gas boxes and investigating the variations in waste gas composition.
Preliminary investigations were undertaken to investigate the health and safety issues, working area
conditions, waste gas conditions and equipment requirements. The results are shown in Appendix 1.1.
After the confirmation of suitability of the method and gas analysis equipment (Appendix 1.1) several
measurements on the waste gases from the coke oven walls were undertaken to detect and assess
through-wall leakage. These results showed that a distinct increase in the waste gas CO and VOC
(CH4), and decrease in O2 could be seen during oven charging. Figures 1 and 2 show the results of the
measurements carried out, at the waste gas boxes before, during and after charging, on 1 December
2009 (oven 28) and 2 December 2009 (oven 52) respectively. A Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)
gas analyser (Gasmet DX 4000) [9] was used with a data collection rate of one sample per 20 seconds.
Figure 1 relates to a wall that was known to have had low leakage and Fig. 2 relates to a wall that was
known to have had high leakage. In both Figures a large short duration increase in CO and CH4, and
decrease in O2 can be seen during charging.

16
Fig. 1: Results of waste gas measurements at wall 28 before and after charging

Fig. 2: Results of waste gas measurements at wall 52 before and after charging

Scaling of the trends to accommodate the large peaks on charging makes the behaviour over the
following two or three hours more difficult to see, but for oven 28 (Fig. 1, low leakage) emissions
quickly return to normal levels. For oven 52 (Fig. 2, high leakage), the perturbation in measured
concentrations, particularly of oxygen and carbon monoxide, is evident for several hours after charging,
suggesting that through-wall leakage may be significantly affecting emissions.

Table 2 summarises the average concentration values measured in each of the trials and relates these
values to a rough estimation of severity of through-wall leakage by plant personnel. For example for a
wall with high severity leakage (16 Feb 2009), after charging, the O2 value was less than 1.5% and CO
was higher than 4,500 ppm compared to a low leakage wall (28 April 2009) of approximately 8% and
less than 100 ppm values respectively. During charging of the ovens with severe through-wall leakage,
much higher values of CO (approx 18,000 ppm) and methane (approx 1,200 ppm) have been measured,
while O2 was almost zero. The results of these investigations have been published [10].

17
Table 2: Average waste gas composition values (corrected to 3% O2) related to through-wall leakage
severity estimated by plant personnel

* Assumed low leakage because of time elapsed since charging

Simultaneous measurement of emissions from both walls of an oven


A method and equipment have been developed at Tata Steel UK for undertaking the CO, CO2, O2, CH4,
NOX and dust measurements on both walls of an oven simultaneously. This equipment enables the
identification of the leaking wall in a much reduced time and conveniently increases the amount of
waste gas data, which improves the accuracy of the quantitative assessment of the severity of through-
wall leakage. The coke oven wall emissions tester (COWET) is self-contained and can be easily moved
from one oven to another. An application for a patent for this method and equipment has been filed at
the European Patent Office with the number: 10015884. An example of results of the simultaneous
waste gas measurements, taken at Tata Steel UK coke plant, from both walls (60 and 61) of an oven
(60) using the COWET is shown in Fig. 3 for dust emissions. The results show that wall 60 has higher
dust emissions in the waste gas, indicating that wall 60 has a more severe leakage. Further results and
details of the COWET are presented in Appendix 1.1. This method can be used before the diagnostic
technique developed by CPM in Task 2.5 for identifying combustion problems in regenerators and
heating flues.

Fig. 3: Dust emissions from walls 60 and 61 measured using the COWET
Analysis of stack emissions and process data to develop Approach/Procedure

18
In order to develop an approach for the identification and location of through-wall leakage for use in the
diagnostic system, the stack waste gas and process data have been analysed with the knowledge
obtained from the waste gas composition investigations. In addition, other plant data such as stack
draught, fuel composition and flow rate, and oven charge times have been investigated. Figure 4 (a)
shows a display of the oven numbers (ID) corresponding to different charge times and stack dust
emissions with large increases in the first few days of December 2009, which were suspected to have
been caused by through-wall leakage. Figure 4 (b) is an expanded view of the first part of Fig. 4 (a),
and shows six consecutive large increases in stack dust emissions. Figure 5 shows a close-up view of
Fig. 4 (b), and shows the way that the stack dust emissions increased immediately after charging oven
4. The results of these investigations have been published [11].

(a) (b)
Fig. 4 (a and b): Increases in stack obscuration that may be caused by through-wall leakage, and ID.
Numbers of the ovens charged at different times

Fig. 5: Close-up view of Fig. 4 (b), showing the increase in stack dust emissions immediately after
charging oven 4

Following these data investigations, a procedure to enable the diagnostic system to detect and locate
through-wall leakage, using plant and stack emission data, has been proposed. Based on this procedure,
models have been prepared by UNEW and Tata Steel for installation on the G2 system (Task 1.4 and
WP5). The procedure is:
1. Identify the stack dust and/or CO peaks,
2. Check the oven charge times,
3. Locate the suspected oven by checking the ID number of the oven last charged,
4. Use historical data to confirm the suspected oven:
a. was high stack emission caused by previous charges of the same oven?
b. is the stack emission related to fuel combustion?
5. Apply PCA models to detect abnormal conditions by looking at other related plant data.

19
Task 1.2 Collection and preparation of process and emissions data

The aim of this task was to collect data on all the relevant waste gas composition and process
parameters. In order to obtain these data, the coke oven battery supervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA) system needed to be accessed. The data monitoring and logging needed to be accurate and
reliable, since the integrity of the analysis and modelling depended on these data.

Hardware and software connections were completed between the coke oven battery SCADA and a
dedicated on-site computer for continuously logging the plant and emissions data, and saved as MS
Excel files to provide the large amount of historical data required for the research. In addition, remote
connection from Swinden Technology Centre (STC) to the coke oven plant through the Tata Steel Wide
Area Network (WAN) was made. This made it possible to access the data and download the logged
data files remotely. Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram of the logged process and emissions data at
the DLCO plant.

Fig. 6: Process and emissions data logged from SCADA system at DLCO

Twenty two relevant plant and emission variables were selected for use in the diagnostic system
models. In Task 1.3 the dominant parameters that can be used for the identification of the heating
problems were selected, by Tata Steel and UNEW, from the above list. Further information related to
the data collection and the selected parameters is provided in Appendix 1.2.

During the pre-processing and preparation stage, it was ensured that the data used for the analysis and
modelling included all the different normal and abnormal conditions so that a deviation from normal
conditions can be recognised by the diagnostic system. As the integrity of the diagnostic system
depends on the quality of the data used, non-representative data, such as statistical outliers or spikes,
missing values and constant values had to be removed. Visual examination of the data combined with
process knowledge was also carried out. Figure 7 shows a data prescreening tool, which was used to
remove major outliers and abnormal process data, by applying univariate visual data editing. The red
circled points, while the plant was running at an undesirable state, are excluded and the remaining data
are regarded as normal and used in the model development stage in Task 1.4. Appendix 1.2 presents
further details on data preparation.
Deliverable D1: Plan for data collection system has been achieved.

20
Fig. 7: Data prescreening exclusion of major data outliers (red points)

Task 1.3 Determination of dominant parameters

The aim of this Task was to determine the main parameters that may be related to the cause of the
abnormal variation or may be affected by the occurrence of the abnormal condition. These parameters
were used by the diagnostic system, developed in Task 1.4 and WP5, as the main indicators of the
heating faults. Data visualisation and correlation analysis, in addition to the knowledge gained in Task
1.1 and the process knowledge obtained from the other partners and specialists were applied.

Knowledge obtained from the individual wall waste gas trials showed that CO, O2 and CH4 in the waste
gas may be used as indicators for through-wall leakage, since they showed a distinct and large variation.
Hence, the stack dust investigations from Task 1.1 were extended to include stack CO and O2 (CH4 is
not measured at the stack) and relate their variations to the stack dust emissions, and assess their
potential effectiveness for use in the diagnostic system.

Visualisation analysis of historical data, collected in Task 1.2, was undertaken using the ArchitectMV
software. Figure 8(a) shows a display of the stack waste gas O2, CO, obscuration, and the identification
(ID) numbers of ovens charged at different times. The large dust emission peak is suspected to be due
to a through-wall leakage, which appears to correspond to oven 1. Figure 8(b) shows a close-up view
of the above. The large CO peaks are due to the monitor calibration checks and should be removed
when analysing the data. The oxygen peaks are caused by the heating stage reversals.

(a) (b)

Fig. 8 (a and b): Stack obscuration, CO, O2 and ID Numbers of the ovens charged.

Figure 9 (a and b) is similar to Fig. 8 (a and b), except that the large dust emission peak suspected to be
due to a through-wall leakage, appeared to correspond to oven 10.

21
(a) (b)

Fig. 9 (a and b): Stack obscuration, CO, O2 and ID Numbers of the ovens charged.

These investigations have shown that stack O2, which was identified as one of the main indicators for
through-wall leakage during the individual wall waste gas measurements (Task 1.1), does not provide
as much variation but can be included for use in the diagnostic system. However, stack CO and dust
emissions can both be regarded as significant indicators, although the simultaneous presence of a peak
as a consequence of a through-wall leakage is not always guaranteed.

It should be noted that although an increase in stack dust and CO emissions have been detected and an
oven identified, it is important to confirm that these stack emission variations are not caused by
combustion problems. Hence, the above stack emissions investigations had to be extended to include
fuel related parameters that could indicate combustion problems. The most effective fuel related
parameters, such as stack draught, fuel gas composition and fuel gas flow rate, which could then be
used in the diagnostic system were selected from the list of the collected parameters in Task 1.2. This
selection was based on process knowledge, discussions with the coke oven battery engineers and
specialists. Table 3 lists the selected fuel related variables and stack emissions data that can be used by
the diagnostic system for the identification of the heating faults.
Deliverable D2: Knowledge of dominant parameters has been achieved.

Table 3: Dominant parameters determined to identify coke oven heating faults

Effect of fuel related parameters


In order to confirm whether the increase in stack dust emission is caused by through-wall leakage or
fuel related variables, these fuel related parameters have been visually examined at a time when the
stack dust emission increased. Figure 10 (a) shows the increase in stack dust emission, at the time of
charging oven number 4. Figure 10 (b) shows a close-up view of Fig. 10 (a) indicating that when the
stack dust emissions increased immediately after charging oven 4, there were no corresponding
variations in any of the fuel related parameters. Oven 4 is in battery 1; hence only fuel gas flow rate for
battery 1 is shown.

22
(a) (b)
Fig. 10 (a): Increase in stack obscuration caused by through-wall leakage with no corresponding
variations in fuel related variables, and Fig. 10(b) close-up view of Fig. 10(a).

Correlation analysis was undertaken, using the ArchitectMV software, to examine the extent of effect
that the fuel related parameters had on the stack dust emissions (obscuration) variation in Fig. 10(b).
Figure 11 shows the correlations results corresponding to Fig. 10(b), and confirms that in this case none
of the fuel related parameters were correlated with the stack dust (obscuration), confirming that the
cause was not due to combustion problems. Light colours indicate weak correlation and dark colours
indicate strong correlation. Figure 11 (right) shows the correlation coefficient relating to each coloured
square. It is normally assumed that for a strong correlation the coefficient is greater than 0.8.

Fig. 11: Correlation analysis of the variables in Fig. 10(b).

The visual examination and correlation analysis confirmed that the cause was through-wall leakage and
not related to fuel parameters. This further confirmed that the selected dominant parameters, in Table 2,
could be used in the diagnostic system in Task 1.4 and WP5 for the identification of the heating faults.

Task 1.4 Development and assessment of diagnostics system

The aim of this Task was to develop a data-driven diagnostic system for the detection and location of
coke oven heating faults. Tata Steel and UNEW have collaborated and based the system on the
Gensym G2 knowledge-based platform, using its expert system and iMSPC (with multi-variate PCA
modelling) software tools. The knowledge obtained from the previous Tasks to detect and locate the
heating faults, and knowledge of process operation has been applied. The selected process variables,
including charged oven ID, and the dominant parameters to confirm whether the increase in stack
emissions is caused by through-wall leakage or combustion faults are part of the diagnostic system. In
this Task the system is developed off-line using historical data, and in WP5 it is then developed further
using real-time data to operate on-line at the coke oven plant.

23
PCA model development
During the data collection and preparation Task 1.2, it was ensured that the data was in a form that
could be used for the analysis and modelling. In this Task, further pre-processing was carried out to
obtain the high quality data needed in the model development stage (Appendix 1.4). A MSPC
performance monitoring toolbox based on MATLAB algorithms has been developed by UNEW. This
graphical user interface (GUI) has three major features for model performance monitoring applications:
sophisticated data visualisation,
advanced data pre-processing, and
PCA model calibration.
The GUI can provide visualisation of the data that enables data pre-screening and outlier
identification/removal. An example of a multivariate visual data editing screen is shown in Appendix
1.4. However, it relies on the coke oven plant engineers' experience to confirm the data sets for normal
operation. The GUI has been further developed, in WP5, for an on-line real-time application.

PCA model performance tests


After the removal of all the data outliers, a PCA model was constructed. The models detection
capability has been evaluated by comparing known normal and abnormal conditions such as through-
wall leakage and combustion problems. Figure 12 shows screen shots of the model performance
monitoring plots, using historical data, which enable the detection of process malfunctions and observe
those variables that contribute to the process fault. Figure 12 (a) shows a screen shot of a PCA Scores
plot (left), the SPE (upper right) and the T2 (lower right) monitoring statistics. The nominal (training)
model data are shown in blue, evaluation data are in green, and the faulty process data in red. Figure 12
(b) shows a screen shot of a PCA scores plot (left) and contribution plots (right) upper plot
contributions to PC1 and lower plot contributions to PC3. The charts in Fig. 12 (a) enable the
visualisation of deviations from normal process condition and assess model performance. The bar
charts in Fig. 12 (b) show the contribution of each process variable to the two principal components,
and help in identifying the cause of the fault.

Fig. 12 (a): Screen shot of performance monitoring plots - PCA Scores plot with SPE and T2

Fig. 12 (b): Screen shot of performance monitoring plots - PCA Scores plot with Contribution plots

Development of diagnostic system


The diagnostic system was based on the Gensym G2 knowledge-based platform, using its expert system
and iMSPC (with multi-variate PCA modelling) software tools. The generated PCA models were saved
as model definition text files for the G2 system to be run on historical data. Figure 13 shows a screen
shot of the G2 iMSPC toolbox with the developed PCA model implemented. In addition, heating fault
rules were set up within the G2 system to detect and identify the faults, which were extended in WP5.
Deliverable D3: Diagnostic system to detect underfiring heating faults has been achieved.

24
Fig. 13: Screen shot of the Gensym G2 iMSPC with the PCA model implemented

Assessment of diagnostic system


To investigate and assess the development of the abnormal conditions, the G2 x-y plots of principal
components (Fig. 14) were viewed using historical data. Data within the green circle (95% confidence
space) represent normal process condition and the data outside the yellow annulus (99% confidence
space) is regarded as faulty condition. Figure 14 (left) shows a screen shot of the principal components
PC1 versus PC2 scores plot and Fig. 14 (right) shows a similar screen shot for PC3 versus PC4. It can
be observed that the left plot shows continued good coke oven operations whilst the right plot shows the
gradual development of a fault. In addition, the SPE and T2 monitoring statistics and contribution
charts have been examined, which are shown in Appendix 1.4.

Fig. 14: G2 Principal component scores plots - Left: good coke oven operations. Right: development of
fault

Figure 15 shows a different screen of the G2 system, which was developed to provide further
information on the heating faults. The top trend shows the variation of stack obscuration with time.
For the oven last charged, the history of the previous stack emissions caused by that oven is displayed
on the bottom left hand side. The Table at the bottom centre of the screen shows the maximum,
minimum and current values of the fuel-related and stack waste gas parameters (from Task 1.3). If any
of these parameters falls outside its normal range, the current value is shown in yellow or red colour.
The cause of the excessive stack emission could be regarded as through-wall leakage if there was
evidence of repetition of high stack emission for the same oven and none of the fuel-related parameters
exceeded their normal range. The results of these assessments showed that the developed off-line
diagnostic system is very informative and useful for coke oven underfiring fault detection, and could be
extended to operate under on-line conditions on real-time coke oven data. This has been dealt with in
WP5.

25
Fig. 15: G2 system to detect and identify heating faults

Task 1.5 Application

The aim of this Task was the off-line investigation, using historical data, of the potential effectiveness
and estimation of the amount of reduction in emissions (NOX, SO2, CO and particulates) and increase in
energy efficiency that can be made from using the system. Hence, obtain knowledge of the best way of
using the system for the detection, location and identification of the heating faults.

Initially, the G2 system x-y plots of principal components were viewed, which proved to be useful in
quickly showing a fault on the screen. Several data points outside the 99% confidence space, that were
representative of a heating fault, could be clearly observed. The cause of the fault was further examined
using the second G2 screen that provided information on a specific oven, which was being charged at
that time, such as out of range fuel related parameters and stack emissions from previous charges of that
oven. However, further confirmation was needed to identify the type of the heating fault (through-wall
leakage, combustion problem or nozzle blockage). Also, an overall view of the faults of all the 75
ovens was required in one screen to avoid the need to continuously view the above screen for each
oven. This was thought to provide an effective way of helping the plant personnel to quickly monitor
the coke oven conditions for heating faults and immediately take the appropriate actions that will lead
to the reduction of emissions and increase in energy efficiency. This additional advisory screen has
been designed in WP5.

Currently, excessive smoke emissions from the battery stack are used as an indication of heating faults,
but by the time this is detectable (days or weeks) the fault could be at an advanced stage and may have
already caused significant damage with environmental impact.

The developed diagnostic system, after the assessments made in this Work Package and the
recommendations made above for the advisory system, can be used to:
1. Automatically detect and quickly notice a fault this saves time (at least few days);
2. Determine the type of fault - through-wall leakage, combustion problem or nozzle blockage;
3. Locate the oven with the fault;
4. Indicate the severity of the fault.

Discussions with plant personnel and Uhde, on the effective use of the diagnostic system led to the
following recommendations for a strategy for improving emissions and energy efficiency:

1. If the fault is through-wall leakage,


increase the secondary air to individual walls (see WP4), this should reduce CO and dust
emissions;

26
undertake repair procedure to located oven walls, this should reduce CO and dust emissions and
improve battery life;

2. If the fault is combustion problem,


combustion setting can be checked and the correct amount of fuel used for to individual walls
(see WP4) - a reduction in fuel flow rate can reduce SO2 emissions and energy consumption
(also CO2 emissions), correct combustion setting can reduce CO and dust emissions, reduction
in combustion air can reduce NOX emissions. Sufficient heating of the coke can avoid
undercarbonisation, which also reduces pushing emissions.

3. If the fault is nozzle blockage,


the specific nozzles can be identified by inspection from the oven tops and then unblocked or
replaced. This should reduce CO and dust emissions and improve heat distribution across the
walls to avoid undercarbonisation, which also reduces pushing emissions.

3.2 Work Package 2: Causes of Inefficient Heating Operation

Task 2.1 Identification of required instrumentation to assess combustion efficiency

ArcelorMittal Maizires Research (AMMR) and Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM) have defined
the required instrumentation to assess combustion efficiency inside heating flues.

(a) Evaluation of air and gas ports condition


In the first step, CPM Videofil machine can be used to evaluate the Air and Gas ports condition.
Relevant pictures can be taken to detect ports blockage or collapsed ports. The Videofil machine is
described in Appendix 2.1.

(b) Temperature distribution inside heating flues


The Pyrofil machine was identified as the appropriate instrument to provide a vertical temperature
profile of the refractory flue walls.

This non water-cooled machine has been developed and improved by AMMR/CPM during the last
decade. This machine is flexible and winds on a reel. The machine includes a measuring head with a
miniaturised infrared pyrometer, protected by a fibrous insulator and hung on a steel cord wrapped in a
fibrous material. Since no cooling is provided, this fibre is slightly moistened before introduction
inside the heating flue, in order to improve its thermal resistance. A schematic is given in Appendix
2.1.

The suction pyrometer is used to determine the true gas temperature inside the heating flues. In this
type of instrument the temperature sensor (thermocouple) is protected by a screen in order to avoid
radioactive heat exchange between the thermocouple and its surrounding. The gas is sucked at a very
high velocity (100 to 200 m/s) in order to favour the convection exchanges. Photographs of a water-
cooled suction pyrometer during operation are given in Appendix 2.1.

(c) Flame length assessment inside heating flues


The flame length can be determined by gas analysis inside the heating flues. A water-cooled probe is
introduced inside the heating flue. Waste gases are sucked at the same velocity as the gas flow inside
the flue, to avoid flame disturbance and cooled rapidly to stop any further change of the combustion
products. Several points are done at different levels inside the heating flues. The samples are then
analysed in order to determine the CO content inside the heating flue. It has been considered that at the
flame end the CO concentration is approximately 0.2 %.

(d) Excess air determination


The determination of the excess air at each flue top provides information on the quality of air and gas
distribution along the heating wall. This measurement is performed by using a water-cooled gas

27
sampling probe. The measurement is performed at the flue top. The detailed calculations used to
calculate excess air from the oxygen content in waste gas is given in Appendix 2.1

Task 2.2 Design and construction of a robot for inspection of regenerators sole flues

Regenerators are a key part of the combustion system of a coke oven battery. Regenerators clogging
can be a cause of inefficient combustion in the heating flues.

The robot development for the regenerator inspection aimed to reduce environmental emissions and
increase coke oven service life through rapid identification of regenerators defects and thus planning
proactive maintenance.

Before ECOCARB no inspection tools were able to inspect the regenerators from the sole flue for a
wide range of battery type. Indeed the access to this area is sometimes difficult. The robot needs to
cross the waste gas boxes whose design can be very complex. Moreover, the robot has to be resistant to
temperatures around 350 C.

(a) A first version was used for the preliminary tests


CPM developed a first robot for the inspection of the coke oven regenerators. The first version of the
robot was developed on the basis of CPM knowledge in regenerators conditions assessment.
Regarding the regenerators sole flues temperature, it was decided to start the development with the
CPM Black and White camera usually connected to the CPM Videofil machine (camera description in
Appendix 2.2). An additional light allows visualising the low temperature areas. The carrier is
connected to compressed air in order to facilitate the displacement, to remove part of the dust or pieces
of refractory and to slightly cool the camera through a specially designed opening under the camera
steel body. Figure 16 shows the area of inspection and Fig. 17 is a description of the CPM robot.

Ascension
pipe

Ovens

Ovens sole

Regenerators

ControlUnit

Air & Gas Box


Regenerator
sole flue

Pressurizedair
Waste
Waste gas
heatflue
flue

Fig. 16: Diagram of how CPM robot operates

28
8 cm

11 cm

25 cm

Fig. 17: First CPM robot - The carrier is connected to compressed air in order to facilitate the
movement on the regenerator sole flue

The first version of the robot has been tested in cold conditions. Satisfactory pictures were taken at
different heights and the robot movement on a plane surface was easy.

Fig. 18: First version of the robot for regenerator inspection Cold tests - Several bricks heights
were simulated by wood pieces located at different heights

This robot has been successfully tested in industrial conditions (refer to Task 2.3). The quality of the
pictures taken with the robot was good, but its movement needed to be improved. In large sole flues,
the robot progressed like a snake and had difficulties to reach the inspection area.

(b) An improved second version of the CPM robot for regenerator inspection
To answer these issues, CPM designed a new version of the robot. The main characteristics of this
second version are:
- The robot is cooled using an air blower inside the robot. Air is blown on the objectives also to avoid
dust.
- A system of 2 cameras (only one camera on the first version). A lateral camera is used for the bricks
observation and can be rotated to improve the observation. An axial camera makes the observation
of deposits or obstacles on the regenerator sole possible. It avoids loss of time in trying to push the
robot, and indicates to the coke plant staff the necessity for cleaning the sole regenerator channel.
- The robot width is adjustable by using different carriers to be adaptable to more coke oven
regenerators types.
- With the aim to improve the movement on the sole, a semi-rigid cable is inserted into the cable used
to move the robot.
- A trolley (height 0.91 m, length 0.91 m, width 0.62 m) facilitates the robot transportation. Each
element can be separately carried. It includes enroller, motorisation, air filters, distance counter.
- A visucase is used to observe in real-time the checker bricks and to record the pictures. The location
of the robot on the sole and its internal temperature are displayed in Fig. 19.

29
Fig. 19: Second version CPM robot for regenerator inspection The robot can be moved either
with motorisation or manually

Tests in cold conditions


Before testing the robot in hot conditions, tests in cold conditions were necessary. The robot movement
has been tested in cold conditions (~ 50C) in a battery whose design is one of the most restrictive
configurations of regenerators. Instead of having a single channel below the regenerators, there are as
many channels as regenerator compartments (see Fig. A2.4).

The axial view has been useful to move the robot on the sole flue as illustrated by the following
pictures. For example, an unexpected step has been detected at the sole entry. Its crossing has been
facilitated with the use of robot axial view.

Fig. 20: Example of pictures obtained with the axial view of the robot for regenerator inspection
the left picture shows a step on the sole

The robot has been successfully tested in this configuration of regenerator sole flues. The robot
succeeded in reaching the sole flue end with satisfactory speed (8 metres in one minute).
Deliverable D4: Robot for inspection of sole flue of regenerators has been completed.

Task 2.3 Assessment of regenerator conditions

The robot has been tested in 2 coke plants with 2 different


regenerators configurations and brick types (checker and
soap regenerator bricks). This Task ran in parallel with Task
2.4 where combustion efficiency has been evaluated.
The indication of the robot location has been very useful
information when regenerator sole flue length is up to 8
metres long. The information can be displayed on the video
(D on Fig. 20).
The inside robot temperature has been maintained under 35C
using the air blow on the objectives (Regenerator sole flue
temperature around 300C).
Robot inside temperature is displayed and has to be
maintained lower than 60C to ensure protection of the
camera. That temperature has been easily achieved.
Fig. 21: CPM team using CPM
robot for regenerators inspection

30
The variable light of the lateral view has been used to evaluate possible blockage of the regenerator
bricks. In case of blockage and without light, the picture is black. On the contrary, when the passage is
free, the light from the hot regenerator top is visible. This second case is illustrated with the Figures
below (22 and 23).

Fig. 22: Example of a broken regenerator checker Fig. 23: Example of a broken regenerator checker
brick lighted by the robot brick not lighted by the robot Gas passage is
reduced
The robot detected shifted soap bricks as illustrated in Fig. 24.

Fig. 24: Pictures taken with CPM robot for regenerator inspection;
shifted soap bricks have been detected

(c) Regenerator cleaning efficiency


In most cases, regenerator checker bricks cleaning are performed by blowing air. A tool is moved on
the regenerator sole flue, blowing air in the opposite direction. Once arrived at the sole flue end, the
tool is pulled back manually bringing back the deposits toward the entry.

The frequency of cleaning depends on the regenerator condition. For damaged regenerators, a monthly
cleaning can be advised whereas for a regenerator without significant problem a yearly cleaning can be
sufficient. Most inspected regenerators with the robot were clean even before the cleaning operation. It
means that the cleaning method and frequency is really efficient. Only few regenerator compartments
have been detected as very dirty that cannot be attributed to cleaning efficiency fault, see Fig. 25.

Fig. 25: A dirty checker brick observed with CPM robot during regenerator inspection

31
Task 2.4 Evaluation of combustion efficiency

Two heating walls of a coke oven battery have been selected: one without specific problems and
another one with important heating problems. All the necessary tools listed in Task 2.1 were used to
evaluate combustion efficiency.

Initially, gas and air ports conditions have been observed using the CPM Videofil machine. Then, the
temperature of the flue bottom has been measured with an optical pyrometer as usually performed at the
coke plant. The bottom flue temperature has been compared with the temperature profile obtained with
Pyrofil machine inside the heating flue. The flame length has been estimated by carrying out gas
analyses inside the heating flue. Gas analyses at the flue top made the excess air calculation possible.
Finally, the bottom part of regenerators has been inspected with CPM robot.

Test conditions
During the measurements, coke ovens were only heated with mixed gas, as happens most of the time at
this coke plant. The main gas characteristics are given in Appendix 2.4.

Four grouped heating flues have been studied for each heating wall. The Pyrofil profiles of the heating
flues of a specific heating wall were similar. An average profile is given.
(a) Heating wall A with a good heating pattern
The coke produced in the coke oven heated by heating wall A had a mean temperature of 1050C. It is
a satisfactory temperature, which indicated that the coking process is finished. Mean bottom flue
temperature measured by an optical pyrometer is: 1170C. Videofil pictures did not show any
obstruction of Air/gas ports as shown in Fig. 26.

Fig. 26: Heating wall A - Videofil pictures do not show any obstruction of Air/gas ports

Pyrofil measurements showed that the heating flue temperature gradually increased from the flue top to
the flue bottom. A good vertical heat distribution was highlighted (Fig. 27).

The gas temperature distribution inside the heating flues has been determined with the CPM suction
pyrometer. The gas maximum temperature has been found to be at a height of around 4 m (Fig. 27).
Gas analyses (CO content) inside the heating flues gave an estimation of the flame height of 4.5 m.

32
8
8

7 7

6
Heating flue height (m)

Heating flue height (m)


Gas temperature
5 5
Refractory flue
4 4
wall temperature

3 air
3
air

2 2
gas gas

1 1

0 0
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Temperature (C) CO content (ppm)

Fig. 27: Heating wall A Flame height is estimated around 4.5 m

Waste gas analyses at the heating flue top have been performed to calculate excess air as explained in
Appendix 2.4. Excess air was found to be around 54 %. Generally, when coke ovens are heated with
mixed or blast furnace gas, an excess air of 30 % is a correct value (Fig. 28).

25

Reversing
20
O2 content (%)

Probe
15 introduction

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
time (min)

Fig. 28: O2 content at the heating flue top has been measured during a reversing cycle (20 min). It
corresponds to an excess air of 54 % in this case

The regenerators corresponding to heating wall A appeared to be in good conditions as shown in the
pictures taken with CPM robot (Fig. 29).

Fig. 29: Heating wall A Pictures taken with CPM robot show no checker bricks damage

The coke oven battery being aged, it can be concluded that heating wall A is in quite a good condition.

(b) Heating wall B with a bad heating pattern


The coke produced in the coke oven heated by heating wall B had a mean temperature of only 885C.
This low coke temperature shows that the coking process is not completed when coke is pushed out of

33
the oven. A direct consequence is a high emission level during pushing. To detect the causes and to
solve the problems will possibly decrease these emissions.

Mean bottom flue temperature measured by an optical pyrometer was: 910C (1170C for heating wall
A). This very low temperature is typical of a very bad combustion. In some heating flues, Videofil
pictures showed partially obstructed air/gas ports, but could not sufficiently explain such low heating
wall temperatures.

Fig. 30: Heating wall B - Videofil pictures showed some partially blocked air/gas ports but could
not explain heating faults

The temperature profile inside the heating flues measured with Pyrofil machine is shifted to lower
temperature than for heating wall A. The measurement of gas temperature with suction pyrometer
highlights a small combustion of air and gas just above the air port. It seemed that above 3 metres there
was not enough air to continue to burn the gas. It explains the rapid decrease of temperature.

6
Heating flue height (m)

5
Gas temperature
4

3 air

2
gas

1
Refractory flue
wall temperature
0
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Temperature (C)

Fig. 31: Heating wall B Flame height is estimated around 3 m

Regenerators bricks pictures show important bricks degradation. It partially blocks the fluid circulation
through these regenerators and impairs the heat exchange between bricks and gas.

Fig. 32: Heating wall B Pictures taken with CPM robot show checker bricks damages

34
In heating wall B, the CO content in the heating flue has been measured to be higher than 1 % even at
the flue top and no O2 was detected at the flue top. It confirms the bad combustion in these heating
flues and that the corresponding Air regenerators are partially blocked. The combustion efficiency of
these two oven heating walls has been evaluated. At least, one part of the heating problem in the
second heating wall comes from the regenerator blockage.
Deliverable D5: Evaluation results of regenerator combustion efficiency has been achieved.

Task 2.5 Application of the new diagnostic technique for identification of combustion
problems

The AMMR and CPM past experiences and the discussion which took place between the partners of the
project led to the development of a diagnostic technique for identification of combustion problems. The
tests performed in Task 2.4 have been used to help its elaboration. The result of this study is presented
as a flowchart in Fig. 33. Detailed explanations are given in Appendix 2.5. This procedure
complements the methods developed in Task 1.1, for identifying the faulty oven wall, to identify
combustion problems in regenerators and heating flues.
Deliverable D6: Advice to undertake remedial action has been achieved.

DETECTION EXPLANATION REMEDIAL


ACTION
Low heating flue temperature
T < T standard 150C
Optical pyrometer

Some ports are Reopening


Air/gas ports visual inspection
clogged operation

Ports seem clean and in good


condition

Gas analysis at the flue top


Flue temperature profile
Sampling probe, suction pyrometer

High O2 content Modification of


High CO content High CO and O2 Air/gas mixing
Gas supply combustion
Weak air excess content problem
problem pattern

Gas regenerators Air regenerators


inspection inspection
Air and/or Gas Cleaning or repair
Regenerator Regenerator
regenerators are operation
inspection by inspection by
dirty or damaged
Robot Robot

Air and/or Gas regenerators seem


clean and in good condition

Intermediate part inspection (corbel


area) Damaged Reopening
Videofil from the top Rigid intermediate part operation
inspection probe

Fig. 33: Flowchart of CPM diagnostics technique for identification of combustion problems.

35
3.3 Work Package 3: Determination of the diagnosable effects by laboratory
combustion tests

Task 3.1 Alteration of a BFI-burn-off-detection system for combustion research under


special coke oven heating boundary conditions

Aim of this task was the alteration of the laboratory/pilot plant combustion reactor with analysers to
make it suitable for conducting the research on coke oven heating flues. The main combustion reactor
was designed in cooperation with Uhde. The design is based on the heating flues of the Dawes Lane
coke ovens (DLCO) and its technical data was supplied by Tata Steel. Table A3.1 shows these data,
together with those of its model: the main combustion reactor. A description of the auxiliary equipment
and the experimental set up can also be found in the Appendix 3.1.

Task 3.2 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the diagnosable effects at
standard coke oven condition

Aim of this task was the investigation of the emissions of coke oven heating flues (flue gas
composition, particulate emissions), including the influence of gas-air ratio, gas and air temperature and
flow velocity. The investigations were carried out at the main combustion reactor and were
supplemented by CFD modelling.

Pre-tests for identification of most suitable conditions for further experiments with flue gas
recirculation, through-wall leakage or nozzle blockage
In the DLCO plant the heating flues are arranged in pairs (twin-flue arrangement). The height at which
the fuel gas is supplied into the heating flue is different in these two flues (Table A3.1). This influence
has been studied (low- and high burner configuration). Since the main combustion reactor is a scale
down of an original heating flue, it was not possible to do tests in which values of the following
parameters were simultaneously identical to those present in an original heating flue: flue gas retention
time, flue gas velocity and Reynolds number, approximately 1,700. As a result of the failure of the air
preheater whilst doing experiments with identical retention time (overheating of radiant tubes), it was
decided to focus on investigations of same Reynolds number and flue gas velocity (defined by flow rate
of both fuel gas and combustion air). Therefore the following pre-tests were carried out to identify the
most suitable conditions for the further experiments: flue gas recirculation, through-wall leakage and
nozzle blockage:

Case 1: High burner configuration, same Reynolds number as inside of the original heating flue
Case 2: High burner configuration, same flue gas velocity as inside of the original heating flue
Case 3: Low burner configuration, same Reynolds number as inside of the original heating flue
Case 4: Low burner configuration, same flue gas velocity as inside of the original heating flue

The following parameters were varied in these cases: (1) air/fuel gas ratio, (2) air preheating
temperature and (3) fuel gas preheating temperature, see Table A3.2.

Results
Table 4 shows the results of the pre-tests in which preheating temperature of fuel gas and combustion
air were set at 500C and 800C respectively. With increasing O2 content, CO and CO2 decrease and
NOX slightly increases. A low CO content shows that the burnout of the fuel gas in the reactor is
complete. The NOX content (1,300 to 1,800 mg/m3) is higher than the allowed emission limits for coke
oven plants. A noticeable result is that the CO content is very high (up to 3,000 mg/m3) for the cases 1
and 3 (same Reynolds number). This indicated that the fuel gas combustion was not complete in these
cases (for explanation, see Appendix 3.2).

36
Table 4: Measured flue gas composition with the variation of the O2 content (air/fuel gas ratio) in the
flue gas. Tair = 800C, Tfuel = 500C. NOX and CO relate to a reference O2 content of 5.0 Vol.-% in the
flue gas.
Case 1 (fuel gas: 7.1 m3STP/h) Case 2 (fuel gas: 3.5 m3STP/h)
O2 NOX CO CO2 O2 NOX CO CO2
in Vol.% in mg/m3 in mg/m3 in Vol.-% in Vol.% in mg/m3 in mg/m3 in Vol.-%
3.5 1,171 3,036 7.1 3.5 1,150 130 8.0
4.5 887 2,009 6.7 4.5 1,140 50 7.7
5.5 1,110 800 6.4 5.5 1,028 30 7.0
6.5 1,031 600 6.0 6.5 1,060 30 6.7
7.5 910 435 5.6 7.5 835 20 6.3
Case 3 (fuel gas: 7.1 m3STP/h) Case 4 (fuel gas: 3.5 m3STP/h)
O2 NOX CO CO2 O2 NOX CO CO2
in Vol.% in mg/m3 in mg/m3 in Vol.-% in Vol.% in mg/m3 in mg/m3 in Vol.-%
- - - - 3.5 1,110 155 7.8
4.0 1,610 570 7.4 4.5 1,143 70 7.2
5.5 1,590 75 6.9 5.5 1,070 30 6.8
6.5 1,710 30 6.6 6.5 1,033 17 6.5
7.5 1,780 15 5.8 7.5 975 7 6.1

The temperature profile inside the reactor was dependent on the position of the fuel gas supply and on
the volumetric flow of combustion air and fuel gas. Figure 34 shows the measured temperature profile
in the main combustion reactor for all four cases. While the maximum measured temperature for case 1
was at the top of the reactor, it was in the middle of the reactor for case 4, and comparison with [12]
shows case 4 to be more realistic. The flue gas outlet temperature varied between approximately 1,200
and 1,350C.

Fig. 34: Temperature profile of the reactor

NOX increased with increasing preheating temperatures (both of fuel gas and combustion air). The
measured maximum value was approximately 1,800 mg/m3. The flue gas CO and CO2 did not change
significantly with the preheating temperatures.

Hence, the best results (representative of original DLCO flue) were achieved from pre-tests with the
same flue gas velocity as in the original heating flue, so this was the preferred condition for the further
experiments: flue gas recirculation, through-wall leakage (Tasks 3.3) and nozzle blockage (Task 3.4).
Because of the a-typical temperature profile in the reactor using the high burner configuration, the low
burner configuration was chosen to represent the standard condition. The condition for the Case 4
configuration was used in the following tasks.

37
Experiments with flue gas recirculation
15 experiments for standard coke oven condition with addition of external flue gas (in the following
called recirculating flue gas or recirculation rate) were carried out and evaluated. All experiments were
carried out with low burner configuration and for the same flue gas velocity as inside of the original
heating flue (Case 4). The recirculating flue gas was generated in the external flue gas generator with
the same lambda as it was inside of the main combustion reactor. Variable parameters of the
experiments were lambda (from 1.2 up to 1.6) and the recirculation rate of the flue gas. The
recirculation rate (defined as the ratio of volume flow of recirculating flue gas to the volume flow of
flue gas from the main combustion in the reactor) was varied between 20, 40 and 60 %. Fuel gas flow
(3.5 m3STP/h) and the preheating temperature of combustion air (800C) and fuel gas (500C) were kept
constant. Table A3.3 summarises the data of the different experiments.

Results
Low measured CO contents of all experiments showed, that the burnout of the fuel gas in the reactor
was complete. The recirculating flue gas reduced the temperature in the main combustion reactor.
Comparison of cases SC7, SC8 and SC9 with case 4 (from the pre-tests, see above) without
recirculation shows a decreasing reactor temperature of approximately 50C for the cases SC7 and SC8
(20 and 40 % recirculation) and 100C at a recirculation rate of 60 % (SC9). Further, the experiments
allocate a significant impact of the recirculation rate on the NOX formation. Figure 35 shows the
measured NOX content in the flue gas as a function of recirculation rate and O2 content of the flue gas
for the cases SC1 SC15 and case 4 of the pre-tests without recirculation. It is shown that the NOX
content of the flue gas decreases with increasing recirculation rate and increases with increasing O2
content in the flue gas. Literature [13] describes three main influences on NOX formation: the NOX
formation increases with increasing O2 content, retention time and combustion temperature. Within the
experiments with a constant recirculation rate the NOX content of the flue gas increases with increasing
O2 content. The effect of lambda is lower for higher recirculation rates, because at higher recirculation
rates the NOX formation is decreased through the lower temperature inside the reactor and the lower
retention time of the gas in the reactor. The decreasing NOX content with increasing recirculation rate
is a result of the lower retention time of the gas in the reactor due to the higher volume flow and the
decreasing temperature.
2000
NOx flue gas in mg/m . Reference O2 content 5%

0% flue gas recirculation


20% flue gas recirculation
40% flue gas recirculation
60% flue gas recirculation
1500

1000
3

500

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
O2 content flue gas in %
Fig. 35: Flue gas NOX as a function of recirculation rate and O2 in flue gas.

CFD modelling
A description of the software used for the CFD calculations and the applied assumption can be found in
the Appendix 3.2. Figure 36 shows the flue gas temperature of both the CFD simulations and the
experimental results. Clearly visible is the error increase (deviation from experimental results) at higher
levels in the reactor. Here, the simulated temperature results are approximately 100C higher than the
experimental results. These errors can be explained by:

38
1. The lack of insulation material at the top of the reactor. Thus, more heat is removed from the top
part of the reactor and flue gas temperature decreases.
2. The CFD-simulations assume turbulent flow and a constant, stable combustion over the whole
length of the heating flue. In reality, combustion merely occurs in the lower part of the heating flue
causing the temperature to drop at high reactor levels.
3. The trajectory of the measured temperature indicates an in-flame-measurement. The same
qualitative trajectory can be found in the simulations but closer to the middle of the reactor.
4. The exact position of the measuring probe might not be the position at which the temperature is
actually measured. Due to suction effects the measured temperature might be one further away from
the back wall.

Fig. 36: Flue gas temperature; measured (dashed lines) and simulated

Figure 37 shows that at recirculation rates of both 40 and 60% (at lambda of 1.4) all hydrogen has
reacted before reaching the top of the reactor. The increased mixing at 60% (right) is evident through
the appearance of H2-concentrations > 0 in the centre of the reactor. Also, for the 40% recirculation
rate, the presence of H2 is still visible at higher levels in the reactor, indicating poorer mixing.
Nevertheless, from the observation of presence of combustible compounds in the top of the reactor it
should be concluded that mixing is complete at recirculation rates >40%.

Fig. 37: Hydrogen distribution at 40% (left) and 60% (right) recirculation
The effect of recirculation on NOX content has already been discussed previously (see Fig. 35). From
these, the equations of the trend lines of 40% and 60% have been determined: NOX, 60% rec. (mg/m3) =
218 + 68 * O2 (%) and NOX, 40% rec (mg/m3) = 189 + 24 * O2 (%). Thus, at an oxygen concentration of
5.5%, the NOX -concentrations are 591 and 323 mg/m3 respectively (reference O2 = 5%). Thus, by
increasing the recirculation rate from 40% to 60%, the NOX -concentration decreases by a factor of

39
1.83. Figure A3.5 shows the distribution of NOX, calculated using the Fluent software (reactor profile
and top view of flue gas exit). Weighted, these distributions correspond to 48 mg/m3 at 40%
recirculation and 24 mg/m3 at 60% recirculation. It is well known that CFD calculations of NOX -
concentrations cannot be used quantitatively. The CFD simulations show a decrease of NOX content by
a factor of 2 by increasing the recirculation rate by 20%. This factor is somewhat close to the factor
that has been determined using the experimental results. Thus, the CFD simulations can be used
qualitatively proving that the Fluent model is a good tool to do scenario studies on coke oven heating
flues.

Hence, the main impact on NOX formation within a constant recirculation rate is the lambda of the
combustion in the heating flue. The main impacts within varying the recirculation rates are the
retention time and temperature.
Deliverable D7: Determination of effects at standard coke oven condition has been achieved.

Task 3.3 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the diagnosable effects by
through-wall leakages

Aim of this task was the investigation of the influence of through-wall leakage on emission formation.
Influence of the (uncleaned) coke oven gas accompanying substances (here: naphthalene, see Appendix
3.3) was studied. The influence on the inhomogeneous mixing of leakage flow with flue gas, the flame,
flame and wall temperature, local O2, CO ratio and NOX and particulate emissions were investigated.
The investigations were carried out at the main combustion reactor and were supplemented by CFD
calculations. Theoretical calculations show that the amount of through-wall leakage is a function of (1)
P between coke chamber and heating flue and (2) crack geometry, see Appendix 3.3, which also
shows the results of the pre-experiments, that have been undertaken in order to determine the
temperature set point of the naphthalene saturator.

Through-wall leakage experiments


After the pre-tests, 9 through-wall leakage experiments were carried out and evaluated. All experiments
were carried out with the low burner configuration and flue gas velocity, identical to the flue gas
velocity in the original heating flue (i.e. Case 4 above). Variable parameters of the experiments were
the flue gas recirculation rate (20%, 40% and 60%) and the through-wall leakage flow of saturated
(with naphthalene) coke oven gas (1%, 5% and 10 % of the coke oven gas flow of the main combustion
reactor). Fuel gas flow (3.5 m3STP/h), lambda of the main combustion (1.4), combustion air preheating
temperature (800C), fuel gas preheating temperature (500C) and naphthalene temperature (~ 102C)
were kept constant. Table 5 summarises the data of the different experiments.

Table 5: Data used in the experiments for through-wall leakage


Experiment number (TWL) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Recirculation rate 20 40 60 20 40 60 20 40 60 Vol.-%
Through-wall leakage % of main fuel
1 5 10
flow of raw coke oven gas gas flow
0.035 0.175 0.35 m3STP/h
Naphthalene saturation 130 g/m3
Naphthalene temperature ~100 - 105 C
TFuel gas 500 C
TCombustion air 800 C
Volumetric fuel gas flow 3.5 m3STP/h
of the main combustion 1.4 -

Results of the through-wall leakage experiments


The measured naphthalene saturation of the experiments was 120 up to 134 g/m3. This is in good
agreement with the measured and calculated saturation from the pre-tests. Since the main combustion
air flow was kept constant, the O2 content of the flue gas decreases with higher saturated coke oven gas
flows. Figure A3.7 shows the comparison of measured and calculated changes in O2 content of the flue
gas for different experiments. Comparison of through-wall leakage experiments (TWL 2, 5 and 8) with

40
the experiment for standard coke oven condition with 40 % flue gas recirculation rate showed, that the
addition of saturated coke oven gas had no significant influence on NOX formation, Fig. A3.8. CO also,
was continuously below 12 ppm, independent of the amount of TWL. The fact that this is not in
accordance to the observations made by the industrial partners (in WP1, CO increased and NOX
decreased at locations proven to have through-wall leakage according to expectation for low values of
oxygen) could be because during the BFI experiments the flue gas was not actually recycled;
recirculation was simulated by the operation of the small burner that was operated with excess air:
lambda value ~ 1.4. Also, the small flows that have been set at the BFI experiments (max. 10% of the
fuel gas flow rate of the main combustion: 0.35 m3STP/h) could have been too low to allow observation
of this expected behaviour. The measured dust content of the flue gas was between 5 mg/m3 (for 1 %
through-wall leakage flow) and 55 mg/m3 (for 10 % through-wall leakage flow). Hence, possible
parameters to detect through-wall leakage in coke oven batteries seemed to be the O2 and dust content
of the heating wall flue gas. The dust content appeared to be the more suitable parameter, because a
changing O2 content of the flue gas could also be a result of bad combustion in the heating flue.

It should be noted that the total dust emissions from a heating wall at DLCO, which has 30 flues, would
be significantly lower than the above values because of the diluting effect of the collection of flue gases
from multiple heating flues installed in each oven wall (see Task 1.1). Hence, since the flue gas of all
heating walls is fed into a collecting pipe, leading to the battery stack, the emissions from a heating flue
need to be much higher before they can be detected at the stack.

CFD modelling
Parallel to the experiments CFD modelling was done. Since naphthalene compound parameters are not
saved in the CFD database, octane (C8H18) has here been used as the high carbon compound in
uncleaned, raw coke oven gas. Octane has a comparable H/C-ratio and minimum combustion air
requirement as naphthalene. Thus, the effect on e.g. oxygen concentration in flue gas is similar. Since
the theoretical calculations showed that already small cracks (see Fig. A3.6) result in high through-wall
flows, an additional simulation has been carried out with a through-wall leakage flow of 2.6 m3STP/h
(calculated from crack with dimensions of 300 mm x 1mm and 1 mbar pressure difference between
coke chamber and heating flue). Figure 38 shows the distribution of oxygen (two perspectives: profile
and top view of heating flue outlet). Parallel to what has been observed during the experiments (and
from calculations, see Table A3.5), the CFD calculations show a decrease in oxygen content of about
1% (from 6.6 Vol.-% to 5.5 Vol.-%), when a through-wall leakage flow of 0.35 m3STP/h is present. A
crack of 300 mm x 1 mm, corresponding to a flow rate of 2.6 m3STP/h of uncleaned, raw coke oven gas
in the heating flue causes the oxygen concentration to fall below 0.4 Vol.-%. Here, H2 coexists with
oxygen (3.6 Vol.-%), indicating incomplete mixing.

Fig. 38: O2 distribution exp. SC8: 6.6% O2, TWL8 (0.35 m3STP/h, middle): 5.5% O2 and case 4 (2,6
m3STP/h, right, crack 300 * 1 mm): 0.35% O2.

41
Figure 39 shows the NOX distribution, determined by CFD. Clearly visible is that NOX concentration is
not a function of the amount of through-wall leakage (assumptions: recirculation rate of 40% and a
lambda value of the main combustion of 1.4). This is in correspondence to the experimental
observations, depicted in Fig. A3.8. Note again that experimental and CFD can only be compared
qualitatively, not quantitatively.
Deliverable D8: Determination of effects of through-wall leakage has been achieved.

Fig. 39: Overview NOX distribution (from CFD simulations): SC8 (left, 48 mg/m3, no TWL), TWL8
(middle, 49 mg/m3, TWL=0.35 m3STP/h) and at TWL flow of 2.6 m3STP/h (right, 42 mg/m3)

Task 3.4 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the diagnosable effects by
(partial) nozzle blockage

Aim of this task was the investigation of nozzle blockage on the combustion in heating flues. CFD
modelling was used to support the experimental work in this task, which was concentrated on the nozzle
blockage issues, especially the influence on the inhomogeneous mixing of air and gas, flame length,
flame temperature, local O2 and CO ratio, NOX and particle emissions. Three experiments for blockage
of combustion air nozzle and six experiments for blockage of coke oven gas nozzle were carried out and
evaluated. All experiments were carried out with low burner configuration, with the addition of
external flue gas (flue gas recirculation) and for the same flue gas velocity as inside of the original
heating flue. Combustion air preheating temperature (800C) and fuel gas preheating temperature
(500C) were kept constant.

Blockage of combustion air nozzle


Flue gas recirculation was set at about 40% with an oxygen content of 0 0.5% and a CO2-
concentration of about 9.5%. Combustion air entering the flue is decreased in two steps, resulting in 3
process conditions of lean combustion (A, B and C), Table 6. C represents the experiment where the
least amount of combustion air is being used, i.e. after the second reduction of combustion air. Main
combustion air flow rate has not been measured or determined, because it was not possible to measure
the volume flow of the hot (800C) combustion air. Combustion air heater required a minimum amount
of ambient air to prevent it from overheating. Decreasing combustion air flow was regulated by
removing of excess air via by-pass before entering the reactor. Measured variables were: flue gas
composition at the top of the main combustion reactor, flue gas composition of the external flue gas
generator and temperature inside of the main combustion reactor. The following observations were
made, see also Table 6:
1. Reduction in CO2
2. Increased H2 and O2 content
3. CO content increases from 2.8 (condition A) to 3.3 (B); then slightly lower at 3.0% (C).

42
4. Flue gas temperature decreases at increasing lack of combustion air, parallel to the observation
that the amount of unburned coke oven gas increases.
5. Reduction of NOX content. From theory, NOX decreases with (a) decreasing combustion
temperature, (b) decreasing excess of oxygen and (c) decreasing retention time.
6. The thermocouple at the lowest position (T1: ~ 500 mm) in the reactor was broken. Thus no
correct temperature measurement from this position is available

In these experiments, the influence of the temperature reduction is the crucial process parameter that
counteracts the NOX increase from an increase of oxygen content and retention time. From theory,
assuming that equilibrium has been reached, the presence of oxygen is only possible at lambda values
higher than 1 (see Fig. A3.9: results of theoretical calculations). At lean combustion conditions
(lambda < 1), all oxygen in the combustion air is used. Since at the experimental conditions a lean
combustion was guaranteed and oxygen was recorded in the flue gas, it can be concluded that
equilibrium was not reached and that combustion air and coke oven gas did not fully mix (and burn
until no oxygen was present anymore). This means, the presence of oxygen in flue gas can occur at all
lambda values. From theory also (assuming a condition of equilibrium again) both H2 and CO increase
with increasing lack of combustion air, see Fig. A3.9. The content of these combustible fuel gas
compounds in the flue gas can be higher than could be expected from the lambda value because of
incomplete mixing.

Table 6: Results of experiments of blockage of combustion air nozzle


Process CO O2 (Vol.- H2 (Vol.- CO2 NOX (mg/m3; T2 T3 T4
condition (Vol.-%) %) %) (Vol.-%) ref. O2 = 5%) (C) (C) (C)
A 2.8 0.4 5.0 6.9 96 1237 1140 1006
B 3.3 2.4 7.5 5.4 45 1195 (- 1058 (- 937 (-
42) 82) 69)
C 3.0 3.8 8.3 4.7 37 1106 (- 1009 (- 896 (-
89) 49) 41)

CFD modelling
The blocking of either of the nozzles was simulated experimentally by reducing the volume flow of the
related gas. The actual blocking of a nozzle proved to be impossible since it was not accessible (closed
and insulated reactor). In the CFD simulations however, part of the cross section of the nozzle has been
set inactive, similar to reality where part of the nozzle area is not available because it is blocked for
example by a piece of refractory material. The results of the CFD simulations should therefore only be
used qualitatively and not quantitatively (i.e. not compared to the experimental results). Figure 40
shows, for a blockage of 33% of the cross section of the combustion air nozzle (corresponding to a
combustion air flow of 67% of the amount required for a combustion at = 1.4), the oxygen and
hydrogen distribution. Because of the fact that O2 and H2 are calculated more accurately than CO at
sub-stoichiometric CFD simulations, the latter is excluded from this figure. However, in agreement with
the experimental results, it is shown that fuel and flue gas coexist in the heating flue in sub-
stoichiometric conditions (0.67 x 1.4 = 0.93 < 1), indicating that fuel gas and combustion air do not
fully mix.

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Fig. 40: Hydrogen and oxygen distribution over the heating flue when 33% of air nozzle is blocked.

Blockage of coke oven gas nozzle


The blockage of the coke oven gas nozzle has been simulated experimentally by decreasing the coke
oven gas flow rate. Lambda was increased from 1.4 to 2.4 in five steps, with a step size of 0.2.
Measured variables were: flue gas composition at the top of the main combustion reactor, flue gas
composition of the external flue gas generator, temperature inside of the main combustion reactor and
coke oven gas composition. From theory, oxygen content increases and CO2 content and flue gas
temperature decrease with increasing values for lambda, see Fig. A3.9. The experimental results,
shown in Fig. 41, correspond to this theory. The experiments showed that NOX decreases with
increasing excess combustion air, the effect of temperature being more important than that of O2 content
and retention time since although the latter two increased, a reduction of NOX formation could be
observed. During the experiments at lambda values >1 the hydrogen in the flue gas has not been
analysed (the analyser capable of determining hydrogen was being used for the coke oven gas analysis).
CO in flue gas however was continuously lower than 10 ppm and thus it can be concluded that, in
contrast to the combustion air nozzle blockage experiments, equilibrium has been reached and coke
oven gas and combustion air mixed completely.

Fig. 41: Composition and temperature of the flue gas as a function of fuel gas flow.

44
CFD modelling
Qualitatively, the fluent calculations show the same behaviour as the experiments: NOX and
temperature decrease whilst the oxygen content increases, meaning that the decrease of temperature in
the heating flue is the parameter responsible for the decrease in NOX content, see Fig. 42.

Fig. 42: NOX (top) and temperature distribution (bottom) as a function of decrease in fuel gas flow (left:
-17% fuel gas; middle: -33% fuel gas and -67% fuel gas (right))

Hence, the flue gas CO and H2 concentrations can be key parameters for indicating the type of nozzle
blockage (air or gas). If high CO/H2 with increased O2, are detected there is air nozzle blockage (or
regenerator blockage) that leads to lower combustion air flow rates. On the other hand, if low CO with
increased O2 is detected there is gas nozzle blockage.
Deliverable D9: Determination of effects of nozzle blockage has been achieved.

3.4 Work Package 4: Individual wall automatic heating control in response to real-time
diagnostics

Task 4.1 Investigation and system development

After some plant visits, Tata Steel UKs Dawes Lane Coke Ovens (DLCO) within the Scunthorpe
Steelworks was chosen for the development and realisation of the individual heating control system.
This coke plant is composed of three batteries of Becker underjet ovens (5.4m). Moreover the spacious
cellar and battery side alleys at DLCO allowing accommodation of any special equipment required for
individual heating wall control without compromise.

Analysis of the heating system


The Dawes Lane Coke Ovens (DLCO) is comprised of 3 Woodall-Duckham/Koppers batteries with 75
ovens in total (5.4m tall) (see Appendix 4, Fig. A4.1). Each heating wall consists of 15 twin flue pairs,
i.e. 30 heating flues. Heating is provided by coke oven gas supplied in accordance with the underjet
heating system. Coke oven gas is fed through a distribution main extending along the battery and
through connection lines and nozzle strands to the individual heating walls (see Fig. A4.2). Two

45
heating walls each are supplied with fuel gas in regenerative alternation via two connection lines and
nozzle strands. One connection line each with the associated nozzle strand is put on gas to supply the
even heating flues in the first heating wall and the odd heating flues in the second heating wall with gas.
The change in gas feed is effected through gas reversing cocks in the relevant connection lines which
are alternately opened or closed as they are coupled to either of the reversing equipment pull bars which
extend along the entire length of the battery. The duration of the individual heating phases and thus the
duration of supplying gas to the relevant heating flues amounts to 20 minutes.

A special feature of this oven type is the recycling of waste gas from the off-gas heating flue (carrying
waste gas) through a connecting bus flue located at the elevation of the regenerator sole between the
ceramic riser pipes within the regenerator supporting walls (Becker duct, see Fig. A4.3). Figure A4.4 is
a photograph of the bottom of a real hot heating flue at DLCO showing the gas and air outlets.

Concept for the improvement of the heating system


Within the conventional coke oven battery it is normally only possible to adjust the flow of air and fuel
gas to individual heating walls by a long and laborious process involving the adjustment of finger
plates and the installation of new gas nozzles across the heating wall. This task may be undertaken by
the battery operator in case of a major step change in battery throughput; however it could never be
contemplated on a day to day basis for individual ovens.

The purpose of the individual heating wall control system as devised by Uhde within the framework of
the ECOCARB project was to enable the battery operator to respond to a circumstance (such as
through-wall leakage from the oven chambers into the heating flues) affecting an individual oven in a
simple and timely manner without affecting the heating of the other ovens within the battery. By means
of the new system such "weak points in heating should be offset in the best possible way by selective
and well-aimed interventions. Weak points in the sense of this definition may be mainly a crude gas
leakage, but also a lack of quality in combustion as a consequence of air shortage and an over- or
underheating of individual heating wall sections

Depending on the detected weak point, the response should be possible on the combustion air and/or the
flue gas side, respectively, and take effect on the smallest possible unit of the heating system, of two
adjacent heating walls.

The basic idea for the reduction of emissions by the installation of an individual heating wall control
system consists of 2 main elements:

The first element is the introduction of secondary air into the down leg (off-gas) of the twin flue during
alternate reversals in order to burn residual combustibles before they are discharged to the atmosphere
through the battery chimney. These residual combustibles may be present because of raw gases
entering the heating flue as a consequence of through-wall leakage, mainly during and just after
charging. As indicated in Fig. 43 the raw gas leaking into the burn-off flues can be burned directly;
furthermore the soot formed from the gas leakage into the burning flues is burned at least partially.
Unburned combustibles may also be present because of incomplete combustion of the fuel gas itself
(see WP1 results), e.g. as a result of a partially blocked air port. In either case the secondary air will
burn the residuals, thereby avoiding the stack emissions (most notably, CO and carbon dust in the form
of soot). In addition to the control of emissions the secondary air also serves to decarbonise the rich gas
fuel nozzles, thereby further enhancing energy efficiency.

The second element is the control of the fuel gas quantity and hence the heat input to the individual
heating wall. Temperature deficits of the relevant heating walls are counteracted by an individual
increase in the fuel gas quantity, while a temperature surplus of the relevant heating walls is
counteracted by an individual reduction of the fuel gas quantity (see Fig. 44). This facility enables the
flow of gas to a particular heating wall to be modulated independently to satisfy the particular needs of
the corresponding oven, thereby improving the battery energy efficiency. This more efficient use of
fuel gas provides a reduction in CO2 and SO2 emissions corresponding to the savings in fuel gas
achieved.

46
Fig. 43: Introducing supplementary air into the Fig. 44: Main elements for the individual
non-burning (off-gas) flue during alternate heating control at DLCO
reversals in order to burn raw gas leakages
Adapted to the conditions at DLCO the following new equipment and facilities were installed to the
heating walls of oven 22 (walls 22 and 23) selected by DLCO personnel (see Fig. 44 above):
- An air blower in the nozzle basement to provide additional combustion air, including a connection to
the fuel gas connection lines of the selected heating wall pair;
- Exchange of the original transit cocks in the fuel gas connection lines of the selected heating wall
pair for three-way cocks. The lateral (third) connection of the three-way cocks is linked to the
delivery line of the air blower. The actuation, i.e. opening and closing of gas reversing cocks, is
done via the existing pull bars of the reversing equipment as done hitherto. The functions of the
reversing unit and the chronological sequence of the reversing cycles remained untouched. The
torque needed to adjust the valve cocks did not exceed the torque of the currently existing gas
reversing cocks. By dismantling the line for additional air and by closing the lateral connection of
the three-way cocks by means of commercial-type blind flanges, the original status could be restored
without any problems or restrictions;
- Installation of one gas pressure control flap each in both fuel gas connection lines of the selected
heating wall pair;
- Installation of a pressure pulse tapping into each of the two nozzle strands of the selected heating
wall pair which extend under the nozzle decking in oven length direction;
- Regulating the fuel gas pressure in the nozzle strands of the selected heating wall pair and control of
the air blower;
- For safety considerations, the function of the Becker flue gas recirculation duct could not be utilised
because additional air is forcibly supplied to those heating flues which carry waste gas. The hitherto
existing riser pipes had to be modified to achieve a nearly gastight closure of the Becker flue gas
recirculation duct.

The necessary changes in the process sequence of the heating control are described in Appendix 4.1.

Task 4.2 Preparatory trials

Safety considerations and HAZOP analysis


Based on the transmitted data, drawings and general information a HAZOP analysis concerning the
modification and retrofit of the heating system had to be performed for the Tata Steel DLCO plant.
From the standpoint of safety no principal drawbacks were identified. However, there were some major
difficulties concerning the design of the sealing for the lower recirculation port (Becker duct).
Additionally, the installation had to be performed without disturbance or damage of the riser pipes.

After the HAZOP analysis was performed further test work was continued to find solutions for a tight
sealing in the lower recirculation port. This was unforeseeable and because of the confined and only

47
limited accessible design of the underfiring gas supply very difficult task and gave rise to a major
delay. More details are described in Appendix 4.2

At the outset, it was clearly shown that the new seal fitted to prevent the secondary air from entering the
on-gas flue through the Becker duct did perform according to the design. This eliminated the concerns
related to potential explosions or uncontrolled heating. Figure 45 shows the final results of the designs.

Fig. 45: Becker duct seal (left), and nozzle carrier with the seal and new nozzle at the tip (right)

Task 4.3 Process simulation

An important conclusion was reached relating to the intended linkage between the real-time diagnostics
software developed by UNEW (WP5) and the Uhde individual heating wall control system. The
original concept envisaged an automatic closed loop control between the two work packages. As the
two work packages developed, however, it became clear that a manual intervention instead of an
automatic closed loop control between the two systems would be sufficient and preferred. An
automatic interface would provide no advantage for just one wall, and also permission for this action
would have been difficult to attain from Tata Steel due to safety reasons. Notwithstanding this shift in
control philosophy it remained still entirely valid to simulate the operation of the individual heating
wall control system in order to assess the effects of the secondary air injection prior to field tests. This
simulation was therefore developed using Uhdes in-house COBACS software (Coke Oven Battery
Automatic Calculation System). Hence, the UNEW simulation system would provide Advisory
Information, enabling the appropriate data to be entered into the Uhde COBACS simulation to predict
the effects and consequences before any changes to the individual heating wall control system are
made.

The principal objective of the process simulation was to determine the volume of air required to
combust crude gas present in the flue as a consequence of through-wall leakage and to assess the
amount of heat input arising as a consequence of the secondary combustion.

The program depicts the underfiring of a coke oven by calculating the hyper-stoichiometrical
combustion in the heating wall. This combustion needs a certain amount of air and produces a waste
gas whose composition depends on the composition of the fuel gas. If there is a crude gas transfer
(through-wall leakage) into the heating wall this case will be treated as if there is a new fuel gas being a
mixture of lean gas or rich gas and the transferred crude gas. In case the crude gas composition as well
as the waste gas composition is known the lean or rich gas composition should be known anyway
the adapted air flow can be calculated by comparing the actual waste gas composition with the one
which is expected for hyper-stoichiometrical combustion without crude gas transfer. That comparison
is performed by the program COBACS for ECOCARB. More Details are described in Appendix 4.3.

By simulating varying degrees of through-wall leakage (defined by volume of crude gas) the volume of
secondary air required to be injected to achieve complete combustion can be calculated using the
COBACS programme. Moreover, inputting operational data and adjusting the fuel gas-crude gas ratio
enables the actual volume of the through-wall leakage to be assessed. By this simulation any
operational problems could be revealed without industrial testing, which otherwise would cause safety
issues, cost due to damage, waste of time and mostly a restricted reliability.

48
This process simulation has demonstrated, by mathematical calculation, that the air flow envisaged
within the design of the individual heating wall control system should be sufficient to combust the
anticipated volume of crude gas within the heating flues arising as a consequence of through-wall
leakage.

Deliverable D10: Simulation system to test real-time diagnostic system has been achieved.

Task 4.4 Field trials

Before starting the field trials all of the information gathered within Tasks 4.1-4.3 has been utilised
within the Tata Scunthorpe Management of Change procedures to assure safe working. The
procedure for the preparation of field tests was updated and handed over to Tata Steel in order to obtain
their permission for installation. In order to check the practical assembling and dismantling of the
sealing plates tests at Tata Steel DLCO plant were also carried out.

The equipment and special components required for the individual heating wall control system were
procured.
Following all these precautions and pre-arrangements the retrofittable individual heating wall control
system was installed at the individual heating walls 22 and 23 on oven 22 of the DLCO plant. Main
tasks carried out before each of the field trials were:
Draughting of the coke chambers, in which the chamber was left empty for a prolonged time to
remove the wall carbon, to promote raw gas leakages for the trials;
For linking of the additional air into the heating reversal scheme 3-way cocks had to be installed;
Installation of pressure control flaps into both fuel gas connection lines;
Procurement of new larger diameter gas nozzles across the heating walls, to get the capability to
modulate the fuel gas supply by means of the gas control valve lower, but also higher than the
standard mid adjustment. The size of the individual nozzles was calculated from first principles by
the specialist engineers in Uhde. Before the commencement of each field trial the resultant cross
wall temperature profiles were checked and the appropriate adaptations were made
Installation of the new nozzles including the nozzle extensions and the Becker port seals without
disturbance or damage of the existing riser pipes (Fig. 46).
The supplementary air blower for introducing supplementary air into the off-gas flues was installed
on a skid and connected to the adapted new reversing valves.

Fig. 46: The nozzles and Becker duct seals, during the installation, at DLCO

49
All existing equipment was then cleaned and returned to its original state. An impression of the
installed heating control equipment is shown in Fig. 47 (also see Appendix 4.4).

Fig. 47: New equipment (reversing cocks and air blower) fitted to heating walls 22&23 for field trials

Using the individual wall heating control system, over 3 test periods, comprehensive data were recorded
from both the plant SCADA and manually, and observations were made as necessary to ensure that a
reliable assessment and interpretation of the trial results was possible.

After completion of each field trial the complete installation had to be returned to the original state.
Figure 48 shows the nozzles after removal. Only a slight deposition of carbon can be observed on their
surface indicating a good performance of the decarbonising capability of the individual heating
control system.

Fig. 48: Nozzles after removal from the heating wall

Task 4.5 Performance assessment

The trial data and observations were analysed and assessed to determine the actual and potential
improvements in the battery emissions in general, including oven pushing emissions, and the
underfiring energy efficiency.

General aspects
Base measurements were undertaken to provide a comparison of the status before and after installation
of the individual heating control. As an example, the NOX -emissions are considered here (Figures
A4.16 and A4.17). It can be derived that the heating system could be influenced by the different
individual fuel flow rates in a well controlled manner.

50
Effects on emissions to air
The main task was to investigate the effect of the individual heating control system on the stack
emissions from raw gas leakages. During the field trials it could be clearly shown that the injection of
secondary air into the off-gas leg reduced the waste gas CO. As the waste gas CO and dust emissions
are normally related to each other, this also indicates a reduction of soot in the waste gas dust. The
corresponding results can be summarised as follows:

Trials at coking time of 18.5h


Clear reduction of raw gas leakages;
High CO levels in the waste gas - approx 15,000 25,000 ppm;
Good effect of the secondary air addition (Fig. A4.21).

Trials at a prolonged coking time of 22 h


Low CO levels even without additional air - < 6,000 ppm shortly after charging; later only
approx 500 1,000 ppm;
Enforcing a bad combustion or releasing the conditions by lower gas collector main pressure
gave only a small effect on the reduction of the CO levels.
Confirmation of the former results, but (mainly because of the longer coking time) on a
considerably lower level and visible only under enforced bad combustion

Fig. 49: CO development in the waste gas of the heating wall resulting from raw gas leakages and
typical effect of the individual heating control on the CO emission (A: Air injected; B: Air stopped)

Deliverable D11: Results of trial tests operating the single wall heating system in conjunction with real-
time diagnostics system has been achieved.

More detailed information is presented in Appendix 4.5.

Benefits on energy efficiency


The first statement to be made is that the new nozzle configuration provided a satisfactory cross wall
temperature profile similar to the profile obtained with the original nozzles.

The effects on energy efficiency were investigated based on waste gas analyses and data related to
heating obtained from the battery computer (SCADA). After years of continuous operation it is not
uncommon for defects to develop in the heating walls and gas distribution systems, resulting in
deviations away from the original design concept. The ability to regulate the gas supply to individual
walls provides the opportunity to accommodate these deviations and optimise gas usage on such walls.
These effects are typical for older plants and do allow reliable measures for improvement of the
energetic conditions only to a very limited extent. More details are presented in Appendix 4.5

51
The outcome of the DLCO field tests is:
the heat input can be influenced on individual heating walls
That means:
if a particular wall needs more heating only the fuel rate for that wall and not for the whole
battery can be increased. Hence, the fuel consumption can be optimised on the balance
between high CO2 emissions (high fuel usage) on the one hand and pushing emissions / under-
carbonisation on the other hand
If for the same heat input less fuel is used, the system is more energy efficient, CO2 and SO2
emissions will be lower.

In Appendix 4.5 an estimate is made showing for one DLCO battery the potential reduction of the
energy input by 79 TJ/a and of the CO2 output by 3.3 kt/a. This would also give rise to a considerable
cost saving, because not so much COG would have to be substituted by natural gas.

For more reliable results the installation of the individual heating control not only at one heating wall
but at a whole battery is an indispensable precondition but that was far beyond the scope of this pre-
industrial project and would be a task for a much bigger scale industrial realisation.
Deliverable D12: Determination of improvements in battery emissions and energy efficiency has been
achieved.

3.5 Work Package 5: Real-time performance, diagnostics and advisory system

Task 5.1 Real-time diagnostics model

The aim of this task was to develop a real-time diagnostics system based on the information, knowledge
and the methodologies acquired in WP1. The pre-processing methods used in Task 1.2 were adapted by
UNEW, who have had previous experience in developing real-time diagnostic systems [14], for use
with on-line, real-time data. Multivariate data analysis combined with algorithms were used to develop
the models, taking into account that the extracted data had variable levels of associated precision and
uncertainty. In this WP, the work undertaken in WP1 based on the Gensym G2 platform has been
extended to enable its operation under on-line conditions. It should accept continuous real-time data
input and diagnosis of the faults. An important objective of this Work Package was to develop software
tools that will allow the coke oven engineers to easily and effectively use the system in on-line
applications.

To build a multivariate statistical process monitoring and diagnostics model for the Gensym G2 real-
time system, for coke oven heating fault diagnostics, required additional sophisticated data pre-
processing, analysis and multivariate modelling tools. Hence, the ECOCARB software was purpose-
designed to provide these capabilities and integrate data collection, analysis, modelling, simulation,
diagnostics and advisory functionality within the G2 real-time system.

The logged DLCO process data are in two forms. One provides a tag data file with all the time series
data for each variable, the second records oven level data such as oven ID and charge/levelling time,
immediately after oven charging. The ECOCARB software integrates these two data files using activeX
controls thus enabling operational staff and engineers to acquire oven IDs and the physical location of
particular ovens while moving the mouse cursor along the historical data chart. Figure 50 shows two
screenshots of the cursor positions where some abnormal time series data points need investigating. The
faint vertical line in each figure shows where the cursor position is, and the oven ID indicator shows 67
and 37 respectively which means that ovens 67 and 37 are charging at the point where the mouse cursor
is. The red rectangles in the battery indicators show the location of ovens 67 and 37 within batteries 3
and 2 respectively.

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Fig. 50: Time series plots of coke ovens data using activeX controls

Figure 51 shows screen shots of the univariate (left) and multivariate (right) data visualisation plots to
identify process outliers, which are extensions to the work carried out in WP1 to achieve on-line
applicability. The provision of a sophisticated yet highly visual and easy-to-use data analysis / data pre-
screening for use prior to building the nominal process diagnostics model is an essential element for a
task that can take up to 70% of the data pre-processing and model building tasks. The highly visual
nature of the developed software makes this task possible. The left hand plot in Fig. 51 (univariate) the
user is able to select some abnormal data (marked with red) and the Graphical User Interface (GUI)
locates the oven number for the selected data, in this case oven 13. The engineers use plant log books
and their knowledge of process operations to confirm whether these data points are abnormal. If
identified as being abnormal they can be deleted. Similarly, Fig. 51 (right) shows the multivariate
outlier identification and removal screen.

Fig. 51: Left: Univariate Outlier Identification and Cleaning. Right: Multivariate Outlier
Identification and Cleaning with oven ID.

Figure 52 shows the scores monitoring plot (left side plot) together with the SPE (upper right plot) and
T2 (lower right plot). The SPE plot provides the user with a facility to identify a new event. The scores
for each new observation can be located in the score plane, typically, although not necessarily, principal
components one and two, and the calculated value of the SPE. The structure of these plots reflects two
ways in which non-conforming behaviour can be identified:

If the process change is caused by a larger than normal shift in one or more of the process
variables, but the basic relationship between the quality and/or process variables remains
unchanged, then a translation in the score plane will result, with the SPE remaining at an
acceptable level.
If the abnormality enters through a new event not captured in the reference data set, it will
change the nature and possibly the dimension of the relationship between the process and/or
quality variables. The SPE will then increase.

The blue points on the score plot (Fig. 52) are normal process data indicating relatively good operations
of the coke oven and the red points show the development of an abnormal condition. From this
monitoring metric (PCA scores), we can see that some red points are still inside of the nominal region.
This can imply two things: (i) the nominal model is not completely representative of the coke oven

53
normal operations and more data pre-screening may be required or (ii) the slow build-up of the process
malfunction say the onset of an oven wall problem. Again the data set needs to be investigated
further in collaboration with the coke oven engineers. The SPE plot where all the red data points are
beyond the 99% control limit which implies that the SPE metric provides a good monitoring metric in
this particular case. In contrast, the T2 plot shows some sensitivity in the normal data with some false
alarms being generated.

Fig. 52: Process monitoring with PCA model

Once the data set has been pre-screened and pre-processed the on-line monitoring and diagnostics PCA
model can be built to generate the top model file for the G2 real-time diagnostic system by in-putting a
few model specifications (Fig. 53). Clicking the button Generate iMSPC Model, allows the
ECOCARB software to automatically produce the model files which can be read by the G2 real-time
system, thus allowing the diagnostic system to use any new or updated model. This whole process is
extremely efficient, normally taking only a few minutes. The new GUI and automated model building
software provide a huge improvement to process performance monitoring and diagnostics. A
description of the Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system used with ECOCARB is
presented in Appendix 5.1.

Fig. 53: Model file generating screen of ECOCARB software.

Task 5.2 Real-time advisory system

The aim of this task was to extend the diagnostics system developed in the previous task into an
advisory system which will provide the plant operators with information and advice that will allow
them to take action to deal with the heating problems. The system should allow the faults to be noticed
almost immediately, meaning that actions such as adjustments to the fuel flow rate or specific repairs
can be made much quicker, which can reduce emissions and increase energy efficiency.

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Tata Steel have collaborated with UNEW to design the advisory part of the system in such a way that it
will be used on-line by coke oven plant engineers to automatically diagnose the source of the fault at an
early stage and hence be effective in reducing emissions and increasing energy efficiency. In designing
the advisory system the information derived from the analysis and understanding of the historical plant
data in WP1 and plant coke oven process knowledge were used to extend the capability of the real-time
system developed in Task 5.1.

Figure 54 shows the G2 principal component plot of the real-time advisory system. As explained
earlier, data within the green circle represents normal operation (95% confidence space), and data
outside of the yellow annulus is regarded as faulty condition (99% confidence space). It can be seen
that there are several data points located on the yellow annulus, and so these may be down to faulty
operation, but initially the operator should focus on the data points outside of the circle, since these can
definitely be regarded as faulty. By inspecting these data points further the operator can then find out
which variables are contributing to this abnormal operation, as shown in Fig. 55.

Fig. 54: Principal Component (PC) Score plot of PC3 vs. PC4 of the real-time diagnostic system

Figure 55 shows a display of the G2 system being used to detect and locate a heating fault. The top
trace is the stack dust emission, bottom left bar charts show the last three dust emission peak values for
the oven that was last charged, and the bottom right table shows the normal operating ranges of the
relevant variables and the current values. The cause of the excessive stack dust emission (>40%)
appeared to be through-wall leakage, as there was a repetition for the same oven (number 35) and none
of the fuel-related parameters exceeded their normal range (shown in Green).

Fig. 55: Real-time G2 system to view stack emission exceedance and investigate individual ovens

Figure 56 shows a further screen shot of the real-time advisory system, developed a result of the need
identified in Task 1.5. The advisory system uses both univariate and multivariate statistics to detect
oven heating problems and provide advice on the probable cause(s). On this screen, three main coke

55
oven heating faults, i.e. through-wall leakage, fuel-related problems and nozzle blockage are displayed.
On the screen, green indicates normal conditions, yellow indicates warnings, and red indicates
potential operational problems.

For example, considering oven 6 in battery 1, it can be seen that both Stack Dust and SPE detect an
out-of-bound sample and the advisory system indicates that this might be caused by through-wall
leakage. In this way the diagnostic system provides operational information that enables the battery
operators to quickly assess the potentially abnormal events in any oven. This information enables a
battery operator to determine the type of fault, its severity and oven number. Then, the required actions
such as repairs can be carried out. If an additional facility for adjustments to the fuel gas and secondary
air are available, as in WP4 (oven 22), these adjustments can also be made. The coke oven operation
rules that were used within this advisory system have been detailed in Appendix 5.2.

Fig. 56: Real-time advisory system, coke oven underfiring emissions and causes

Task 5.3 Diagnostics and advisory simulation model

The aim of this task is to provide simulation features to run the diagnostic and advisory algorithms and
software tools developed in the previous tasks in historical time, as if it was real-time, to enable quick,
safe and informative evaluations. Plant engineers should be able to add process changes or faults to the
model, and then use the modified data set to simulate different process malfunctions as if they were
occurring on the real plant.

In process control practice, simulation has two uses; one is to run (simulate) process operations in an
off-line mode through the diagnostics and advisory system, where historical data is fed into the
simulation as if the system were running on-line in real-time. This allows for operator training and the
testing of new ideas and new operational policies. The second use is to generate data sets replicating
various states of the process based upon a mechanistic (first principles) model of the process.

After building a model that represents normal process operating conditions using the ECOCARB
software, the new model can be easily transferred to the Gensym G2 diagnostics and advisory system.
With the newly updated model running, plant data can be fed into the monitoring, diagnostic and
advisory system to emulate real-time operations - i.e. just as if the system was running on-line. This
enables the testing of the diagnostic model for robustness and reliability, as well as quick, safe and
informative evaluations.

An example simulation model based on plant data has been evaluated by UNEW and Tata Steel
researchers, and shown to be capable of simulating coke oven operational states both under normal and
abnormal conditions. Figure 57 shows a screen shot of the G2 Simulation Option module for choosing

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the data set and selecting the timestep for simulation. The simulation model screen (Fig. 58) is then
used to introduce changes in this data.

Fig. 57: Simulation options specification screen programmed in Gensym G2 system.

The simulation model is presently contained within ECOCARB version 3.2. Figure 58 shows a screen
shot of the user screen where both univariate and multivariate simulation datasets can be generated. A
useful feature of the ECOCARB software is that of being able to add process changes / malfunctions to
the monitoring-diagnostics model, built with the pre-processed historical data, and then use the modified
data set to simulate different process malfunctions and faults as if they were occurring on the real plant
being monitored by the Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic advisory system. This enables process
engineers to examine possible causes of various operational issues in the coke ovens. For the
multivariate simulation model, users can add faults to selected principal components. Similarly, a
univariate simulation model enables the determination of the impact that particular variable(s) might
have on operational performance and the relative magnitude of potential malfunctions.

Fig. 58: Simulation model screen in ECOCARB 3.2

Figure 59 shows a screen shot of the principal components PC1 versus PC2 scores plot for the
simulation of the process. It can be observed that there is a development of a fault indicated by the
points falling outside the 95% and 99% confidence limits. In addition, the SPE and T2 monitoring
statistics and contribution charts (similar to Appendix 1.4) have been examined to obtain further
information from the results of the simulation. Once the operation staff have observed this out-of-
control event they can interrogate the statistical diagnostics model to assess the potential cause.

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Fig. 59: Principal Component (PC) Score plot of PC1 vs. PC2 of the simulation system

Initially it was thought that an automatic feedback control system would link the diagnostic system with
the individual wall heating, but as the work progressed it became clear that there was no advantage in
doing this for just for one wall, and also a permission for this action would have been difficult to attain
from Tata Steel due to safety reasons. Hence, an operator interface within the advisory system was
regarded as sufficient and preferable.

Task 5.4 On-line application

The aim of this task is to apply the diagnostics and advisory system (developed in tasks 5.1 and 5.2) to
on-line, coke oven real-time data. The information and principles developed in Task 1.4 form the basis
of this system. The individual wall heating control field trials carried out by Uhde in Task 4.4 were
considered during these assessments. This assessment was required before the full implementation
(Task 5.5), which involves plant engineers using the advisory system and obtaining information on the
actions to be taken on a particular wall.

The new ECOCARB diagnostics and advisory system has been installed on-line at the DLCO plant by
Tata Steel and UNEW researchers. The system performance has been assessed at the coke oven plant in
response to the actual real-time data for detection, location and identification of heating faults.
Real-time data automatically entered into the system where the new data points were interrogated to
assess their credibility in terms of being representative of actual oven operation or potential outliers
and hence not representative of expected operations. The newly acquired data were visually presented,
on a G2 screen, and quickly indicated whether a fault was, or was being, developed.

Figure 60 shows the results in the form of G2 system x-y plots of principal components (PC), during
on-line real-time operation. It can be seen that the system has detected some data points that fall
outside the 99% confidence space (yellow annulus), which are representative of heating faults. The
cause of the fault was not known at that stage, hence further examinations using the G2 screens shown
in Figs. 61 and 62 were undertaken. A Score contribution chart (discussed before) can also help to
indicate the probable contributing process variables.

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Fig. 60: G2 screen PC Score plot of the on-line diagnostic system

Figure 61 shows an online display of the G2 system, which provides further information on the heating
fault, emission history of the oven currently being charged (oven 34) and the fuel-related and stack
waste gas parameters. The details of this display were explained previously in Tasks 1.4 and 5.2. The
cause of the excessive stack dust emissions (>40%), that occurred approximately 1 and 2 hours before,
cannot be investigated on the real-time display as it only shows the current values. Hence, the advisory
screen showing all the 75 ovens had to be viewed (as was recognised in Task 1.5). Figure 61 also
shows that, at the time of viewing the screen, none of the parameters fell outside their normal range
(shown in Green), except stack temperature (223.3C) which was slightly below the minimum value of
230C.

Fig. 61: On-line G2 screen showing stack dust and main variables

Figure 62 shows the on-line display of the G2 advisory system, for all of the 75 ovens, which provided
information on whether the heating fault was through-wall, combustion problem or nozzle blockage. It
also indicates the oven number and severity of the faults. The details of this display were explained in
Task 5.2. Considering oven 8 in battery 1, it can be seen that Stack Dust is shown to be too high (red)
as was seen in Fig. 61 and the advisory system indicated that this might be caused by through-wall
leakage (red).

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Fig. 62: On-line G2 screen of advisory system, coke oven underfiring emissions and causes

The results of these on-line assessments have shown that the diagnostic system is capable of providing
on-line real-time operational information that enables the battery operators to assess the severity of
potentially abnormal events in the ovens. The system was then ready for full implementation, in Task
5.5, which involved plant engineers using the advisory system and obtaining information on the actions
required to be taken on a particular heating wall. For oven 22, which was used in the field trials of Task
4.4, adjustments to the fuel gas flow and the flow of secondary air can be made in order to mitigate or
eliminate the stack emissions that would otherwise occur.

Task 5.5 Implementation

The aim of this task, which is an extension of Task 5.4, is to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the
developed on-line diagnostics and advisory system in dealing with the detected coke oven heating
problems, and hence assess its usefulness in reducing emissions and maximising energy efficiency.
Tata Steel DLCO plant engineers were involved to obtain their feedback and opinion on the
improvements. The data from the advisory system on heating faults provided useful information for the
individual wall heating control field trials carried out by Uhde in Task 4.4.

The real-time diagnostics and advisory system is designed to provide information on all of the 75 ovens
in DLCO batteries, and can detect, identify and locate the oven heating faults. The plant personnel can
use this information to carry out the usual maintenance or repair procedure required on the identified
oven. In WP4 (Uhde) the research on the heating wall control was undertaken for one individual oven
(22), hence the information from the diagnostics and advisory system relating to oven 22 was used in
WP4. The Uhde engineers could then make the necessary adjustments to the secondary air and fuel
flow rates for oven 22 walls (22 and 23), in addition to any repairs, if necessary, as mentioned above for
the other ovens.

During the final stages of WP5 the online real-time diagnostics and operator advisory system has been
installed in the control operator room in DLCO of Tata Steel. UNEW researchers and Tata Steel plant
control engineers have tested the software thoroughly to ensure that the final delivered system can be
run reliably and is fit-for-purpose. Plant engineers could see that the diagnostics and advisory system
was able to detect and locate coke oven through-wall leakage and other coke oven heating faults. It was
also possible to determine the location of the fault, in any of the 75 ovens, and its severity. For
example, when a through-wall leakage was more rapidly identified it allowed repairs at an earlier stage

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to be carried out, resulting in an overall reduction of dust emissions from this cause. Figures 63 (left)
and (right) show photographs of the diagnostic and advisory system during operation at the Tata Steel
UK DLCO plant.

Fig. 63: Photographs of diagnostic and advisory system during operation at Tata Steel DLCO

The online real-time monitoring, diagnostics and advisory system is believed to be an effective system
for detecting and diagnosing process faults that contributes to reducing emissions and maximising
energy efficiency. However, it must be used by specially-trained personnel and regularly updated to
include the latest process states and conditions.

The system was also used by Tata Steel and Uhde engineers to provide the relevant feedback, combined
with the data from the plant SCADA) as a result of the fault identification and severity to allow
corrective control action to be taken on coke oven 22 (walls 22 and 23). The engineers made the
necessary adjustments to the secondary air and fuel flow rates for oven 22 walls (22 and 23), which is
discussed as part of WP4.

Deliverable D13: Delivery of prototype on-line detection system has been achieved.

Deliverable D14: Delivery of prototype on-line advisory system has been achieved.

Effectiveness in reducing emissions and maximising energy efficiency


Equipped with the information from the diagnostics and advisory system, a battery operator is now in a
position to determine the type of fault, its location and severity. For example dust emissions from coke
oven under firing, largely a consequence of through-wall leakage, are currently minimised through
repair of any leaks, normally detected by observing black smoke from the battery stack. This is a slow
process (days or weeks) and usually leads to an exceedance of the emissions limit. The developed
diagnostics and advisory system rapidly identifies through-wall leakage and hence allows repair at an
earlier stage, resulting in an overall reduction of dust emissions from this cause. Similarly, the
improved identification of poor combustion control, reduces emissions and increases energy efficiency.

When the system is used in conjunction with individual wall control (as in WP4) of fuel gas flow and
secondary air flow rates, these parameters can be varied in order to immediately mitigate or eliminate
the stack emissions that would otherwise occur. A further benefit is the increase in energy efficiency as
a result of using the correct amount of fuel for heating.

In conclusion, the plant engineers have provided positive feedback on the new system. The required
repairs or adjustments could be made at an early stage of fault occurrence. For walls (22 and 23) with
individual control of fuel and secondary air, it was possible to reduce emissions of dust and CO, and
increase energy efficiency (WP4). The main benefits (also see Task 1.5) of using the system are:

Lower particulates emissions;


Increased energy efficiency, as a result of lower fuel consumption, leading to lower CO2 emissions;
Lower SO2 emissions because of lower fuel flow rate, which contains H2S;

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Lower NOX emissions because combustion conditions can be optimised;
Improved coke quality uniformity from better heat distribution;
Lower pushing emissions because under-carbonisation will be avoided;
Extended battery life because excessive wall temperatures are avoided.

For the effective use of the diagnostic system the following recommendations have been made:
The system should be used by trained personnel;
It should be updated regularly with latest process data;
Appropriate action should be taken as soon as a fault is diagnosed.

The results on the development of this diagnostics and advisory system have been published [see
section 5.3, dissemination]. Tata Steel is considering installing a similar online real-time diagnostics
and advisory system in their other coke ovens. Uhde is looking at the possibilities of installing real-
time diagnostics and advisory system into their new products.

4. CONCLUSIONS

Early detection of heating wall problems enables timely repair and maintenance, which reduces
emissions, increases energy efficiency and extends battery life. Measurements of waste gas
composition at the waste gas boxes have shown that a heating fault, such as through-wall leakage, may
be detected and its severity assessed. Waste gas dust, CO, O2 and CH4 (or total VOC) in the waste gas
boxes may be used as indicators for through-wall leakage. During charging of the ovens with severe
through-wall leakage, high values of CO (approx 18,000 ppm) and CH4 (approx 1,200 ppm) have been
measured, while O2 was almost zero. To quickly detect and locate the fault, a simultaneous
measurement of waste gas from both walls is needed. This has been made possible in this project by
designing a new instrument (COWET). The process and waste gas analysis results, and process
knowledge related to identification of the main parameters for detection and location of heating faults,
provided by Tata Steel, was essential for the diagnostic system developed by UNEW.

The new robot for inspection of regenerator sole flues, developed by AMMR/CPM, is the first robot
able to inspect a wide range of battery types with higher complexity. The robot has been applied under
real hot (350C) conditions and was capable of producing clear images for viewing the condition of the
test area. When the robot was used in conjunction with the other CPM instruments, a complete
evaluation of combustion efficiency was possible. This included the evaluation of the quality of air and
gas distribution over the length of the heating wall and the combustion efficiency inside the flues. The
knowledge gained from the developments in this research have been applied to provide advice and
guidelines for identifying combustion problems. This can reduce environmental emissions, increase
energy efficiency and increase coke oven service life through rapid identification of regenerators
defects and thus planning proactive maintenance.

The research carried out by BFI using the laboratory combustion reactor, to simulate the Tata Steel
DLCO heating flues, for investigating the effects of flue gas recirculation, through-wall leakage and
nozzle blockage on the flue gas composition, have shown that the best results can be achieved using the
same flue gas velocity as in the original (DLCO) heating flue. The results have shown that the main
impact on NOX formation for a constant recirculation rate is the lambda of the combustion, and the
main impacts for varying recirculation rates are the retention time and temperature. Increasing the
recirculation rate slightly decreases the temperature in the heating flue, which reduces the NOX
formation. Possible parameters to detect through-wall leakage in coke oven batteries appeared to be the
O2 and dust content of the heating wall flue gas. The dust content may be the more suitable parameter,
as it can increase by large amounts from the leaked raw gas, and also because a changing O2 content of
the flue gas could be a result of either bad combustion in the heating flue or through-wall leakage. The
flue gases of all the heating walls, at DLCO, are fed into one main duct that leads to the battery stack.
Thus changes in the flue gas composition of a single heating wall have only partial effects on the flue
gas released from the coke oven battery stack. Hence, variations in the waste gas compositions from an
individual heating flue need to be high enough to be detected at the battery stack, and this makes the
dust (and possibly CO) emissions better indicators of through-wall leakage (also see WP1). Nozzle

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blockage experiments showed that the flue gas CO and H2 concentrations can be key parameters for
indicating the type of nozzle blockage (air or gas). If high CO/H2 with increased O2, as a result of
incomplete mixing of fuel gas and combustion air, are detected there is air nozzle blockage (or
regenerator blockage) that leads to lower combustion air flow rates. On the other hand, if low CO with
increased O2 is detected there is gas nozzle blockage.

The individual wall heating control research results, by Uhde and Tata Steel, have shown that the
modifications did not cause any detrimental effect on NOX emissions or heat distribution. In addition, it
was shown that the injection of secondary air into the off-gas leg reduced the waste gas CO emissions
and soot formation from raw gas leakages. The control of individual heating walls in response to real-
time diagnostic systems is a major advance in the traditional technology, which offers great potential
for energy savings and consequent reduction in emissions. An estimation of improvements in emissions
and energy efficiency, at the coke ovens plant where the research was undertaken, has shown that when
the heat (using COG as fuel) into only one oven (2 walls) is increased by 10% compared to all the 25
ovens (26 walls) of a battery (assumed coke production 235,000 t/a), the energy consumption is reduced
by 79 TJ per one battery, which lowers the CO2 emission by 3.3 k tonne. This also provides the
opportunity to use the coke oven gas instead of natural gas in other parts of an integrated plant and
would allow considerable cost saving to be made. There will also be reductions in other emissions such
as NOX and SO2 and dust. The technology can be transferred and will be of benefit to suitable EU
cokemaking plants. However, in terms of return on investment time, the advantages of the system may
not be achieved before 10 - 20 years of operation time of a new plant and probably too expensive for an
old plant. The particular coke plant managers will be better placed to decide whether a mid or long-
term advantage justifies such an investment.

The on-line real-time diagnostics model and advisory system has been successfully tested and evaluated
at Tata Steel DLCO for the automatic detection of coke oven heating faults. The system is able to
identify abnormal operation within a coke oven battery through complex statistical analysis and locate
the oven responsible. It also advises the operator on the cause of the abnormal operation, whether it is
through-wall leakage, a fuel-related problem or nozzle blockage, and enables appropriate actions to be
taken to deal with the coke oven heating problems. The system is based on the Gensym G2 and a
Matlab-based GUI for model generation. The ECOCARB GUI provides the coke oven plant engineer
with a user-friendly tool for model building and validation, alongside ease of regular model updating.
As the ECOCARB software tools are very flexible the methodologies can be applied to a wide range of
other EU cokemaking plants and the consortium is confident that such applications will also be
successful. Translation of the ECOCARB process performance monitoring, diagnostics and advisory
system to other plants and processes is relatively straightforward. The procedure for investigating
future applications on other processes includes primarily a careful evaluation of the data logging system
of the target processes, using the ECOCARB software tools to analyse the new process data. The
software tools are generic as is the G2 real-time expert system. The system has gained encouraging
feedback from the Tata Steel DLCO plant engineers, and other plants within Tata Steel have already
shown an interest in this system.

5. EXPLOITATION AND IMPACT OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS

5.1 Actual applications

There have been several significant achievements as a result of this project. Knowledge of a new
method and equipment for the reliable measurement of waste gas composition at coke oven waste gas
boxes to detect through-wall leakage, and assess its severity, has been developed by Tata Steel. Early
detection of heating wall problems enables timely repair and maintenance, which reduces emissions,
increases energy efficiency and extends battery life. This knowledge has been publicised and discussed
with other EU cokemaking managers during conferences who were interested in using the new method
and equipment.

The regenerator inspection robot, developed by CPM, is the first robot that is able to inspect a wide
range of battery types with more complex designs. This robot helps to reduce environmental emissions

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and increase coke oven service life through rapid identification of regenerators defects and thus
planning proactive maintenance. The new robot will be of great benefit to any EU cokemaking plant,
especially when used as part of the newly developed procedure for complete evaluation of combustion
problems. Tata Steel have already requested regenerator inspections from CPM.

The new BFI combustion reactor, as an experimental heating flue, is an extremely useful device for
investigating coke oven heating problems. This device can be modified to simulate almost any coke
oven heating flue in EU cokemaking plants. Uhde have had several discussions with BFI on future
applications.

The individual wall heating control research results, at Tata Steel DLCO, have shown that the
technology can be transferred and will be of benefit to suitable new EU cokemaking plants, but this will
depend on the outcome of cost-benefit analyses. Uhde, who are a leading designer and manufacturer of
coke plants, can specify the equipment and instrumentation required for specific applications.

The successful plant application of the developed diagnostics system for the automatic detection of
coke oven heating faults has gained encouraging feedback from Tata Steel DLCO plant engineers. This
system, developed by UNEW and Tata Steel, will be easily transferable to any EU cokemaking plant.
Two other plants within Tata Steel have already shown an interest in this system.

5.2 Technical and economic potential for the use of the results

Coke plant operators throughout Europe are under increasing pressure to comply with environmental
legislation and also reduce energy costs. Detection of heating faults at their early stage of occurrence
using these new technologies (new waste gas analysis method and equipment, inspection robot,
laboratory combustion reactor and real-time diagnostic system) can significantly reduce emissions and
costs. The main benefits of the developed new technologies in this project are:

Increased energy efficiency, hence less fuel usage leading to lower CO2 emissions;
Lower particulates emissions;
Lower SO2 emissions because of lower fuel flow rate, which contains H2S;
Lower NOX emissions because combustion conditions can be optimised;
Lower pushing emissions because under-carbonisation will be avoided;
Improved coke quality uniformity and consistency;
Extended battery life because excessive wall temperatures are avoided;
Enabling operators to instigate remedial action at an early stage, which should become an important
part of the Works preventative and corrective maintenance system.

The control of individual heating walls in response to real-time diagnostic systems is a major advance
in the traditional technology, which offers potential for energy savings and consequent reduction in
emissions, and hence of considerable interest to every coke plant manager in Europe. For the industrial
realisation in a coke oven battery, only the necessary equipment and instrumentation would have to be
procured. For example, 3-way cocks are already available, instrumentation for secondary air has only
to be adapted for the higher air flow rate.

Advantages of the individual heating control system are:

Controllability of the heating for individual ovens (of interest mainly for periods of coking time
variations);
Conventional heating adjustment procedure for taking into operation can be held shorter because
individual adjustment is possible;
Raw gas leakage emissions can be reduced (mainly of interest after 10-20 years of operation).

This has to be balanced against the disadvantages:


Higher costs for the equipment and instrumentation;

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More maintenance needed to keep the equipment continuously in good condition over
a long time;
For new batteries raw gas leakages usually are not a problem.

In terms of return on investment time, a major problem for the further exploitation of the individual
wall control system could be that the considerable advantages of the system may not be achieved before
10 - 20 years of operation time of a new plant and probably too expensive for an old plant. The
customer will decide whether a mid-/long-term advantage justifies such an investment.

5.3 Dissemination

A patent for the COWET, developed in WP1, has been applied for with EU patent application number
10015884. A number of publications and conference presentations have resulted from the ECOCARB
project to disseminate the research within the European community.

Saiepour M and Haines N: Assessment of Coke Oven Through-wall Leakage using Waste Gas
Analysis, InSteelCon 2011, 27th June- 1st July, Dusseldorf, Germany;
Saiepour M et al: Detection of Coke Oven Through-wall Leakage Using Data Driven
Techniques, International Conference on Clean Technologies in the Steel Industry, 26th-28th
September 2011, Budapest, Hungary;
Yi G, Zhang J et al: Fast Prototyping GUI in Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring,
CPACT research day, 19th October 2010, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
Yi G, Zhang J et al: CPACT research day, 8th March 2011, Centre for Process Innovation,
Redcar, UK;
Yi G, Zhang J et al: Intelligent Process Monitoring in Large Scale Processing, 2nd Conference
European Process Analytics and Control Technology, 26th April 2011, Glasgow, UK.
Yi G, Zhang J et al: Intelligent Process Condition Monitoring in Large Scale Materials
Processing, 24th International Congress on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics Engineering
Management (COMADEM2011), 30th May-1st June, Stavanger, Norway;
Saiepour M: Waste Gas Analysis for the Assessment of Coke Oven Through-wall Leakage,
COMA Year Book 2011, 1, 54-68;
Saiepour M et al: Condition Monitoring of Coke Oven Heating Walls Using Waste Gas
Analysis, ECCRIA 2010 Conference, 6th-8th September 2010, Leeds, UK;
Saiepour M et al: Development of a diagnostic system for the detection of coke oven through-
wall leakage, Advances in Process Analytics and Control Technology (APACT10), 28th-30th
April 2010, Manchester, UK.

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6. LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1 Results of waste gas measurements at wall 28 before and after charging.
Fig. 2 Results of waste gas measurements at wall 52 before and after charging.
Fig. 3 Dust emissions from walls 60 and 61 measured using the COWET.
Fig. 4 (a and b): Increases in stack obscuration that may be caused by through-wall leakage, and ID
Numbers of the ovens charged at different times.
Fig. 5 Close-up view of Fig. 4 (b), showing the increase in stack dust emissions immediately after
charging oven 4.
Fig. 6 Process and emissions data logged from SCADA system at DLCO.
Fig. 7 Data prescreening exclusion of major data outliers.
Fig. 8 (a and b): Stack obscuration, CO, O2 and ID Numbers of the ovens charged.
Fig. 9 (a and b): Stack obscuration, CO, O2 and ID Numbers of the ovens charged.
Fig. 10 (a and b): (a) Increase in stack obscuration caused by through-wall leakage with no
corresponding variations in fuel related variables, and (b) close-up view of (a).
Fig. 11 Correletion analysis of the variables in Fig. 10(b).
Fig. 12 (a and b): (a) Screen shot of performance monitoring plots - PCA Scores plot with SPE and T2,
and (b) with Contribution plots.
Fig. 13 Screen shot of the Gensym G2 iMSPC with the PCA model implemented.
Fig. 14 G2 Principal component scores plots - Left: normal operation. Right: development of fault.
Fig. 15 G2 system to detect and identify heating faults.
Fig. 16 Diagram of how CPM robot operates.
Fig. 17 First CPM robot.
Fig. 18 First version of the robot for regenerator inspection.
Fig. 19 Second version CPM robot for regenerator inspection.
Fig. 20 Example of pictures obtained with the axial view of the robot for regenerator inspection.
Fig. 21 CPM team using CPM robot for regenerators inspection.
Fig. 22 Example of a broken regenerator checker brick lighted by the robot.
Fig. 23 Example of a broken regenerator checker brick not lighted by the robot.
Fig. 24 Pictures taken with CPM robot for regenerator inspection; shifted soap bricks detected.
Fig. 25 A dirty checker brick observed with CPM robot during regenerator inspection.
Fig. 26 Heating wall A - Videofil pictures do not show any obstruction of Air/gas ports.
Fig. 27 Heating wall A Flame height is estimated around 4.5 m.
Fig. 28 O2 content at the heating flue top has been measured during a reversing cycle (20 min).
Fig. 29 Heating wall A Pictures taken with CPM robot show no checker bricks damage.
Fig. 30 Heating wall B - Videofil pictures show some partially blocked Air/gas ports but do not
explain heating faults.
Fig. 31 Heating wall B Flame height is estimated around 3 m.
Fig. 32 Heating wall B Pictures taken with CPM robot show checker bricks damages.
Fig. 33 Flowchart of CPM diagnostics technique for identification of combustion problems.
Fig. 34 Temperature profile of the reactor.
Fig. 35 Flue gas NOX as a function of recirculation rate and O2 in flue gas.
Fig. 36 Flue gas temperature; measured (dashed lines) and simulated.
Fig. 37 Hydrogen distribution at 40% (left) and 60% (right) recirculation.
Fig. 38 O2 distribution expected.
Fig. 39 Overview NOX distribution from CFD simulations.
Fig. 40 Hydrogen and oxygen distribution over the heating flue when 33% of air nozzle is blocked.
Fig. 41 Composition and temperature of the flue gas as a function of fuel gas flow.
Fig. 42 NOX (top) and temperature distribution (bottom) as a function of decrease in fuel gas flow.
Fig. 43 Introducing supplementary air into the non-burning (off-gas) flue during alternate reversals in
order to burn raw gas leakages.
Fig. 44 Main elements for the individual heating control at DLCO.
Fig. 45 Becker duct seal (left), and nozzle carrier with the seal and new nozzle at the tip (right).
Fig. 46 The nozzles and Becker duct seals, during the installation, at DLCO.

66
Fig. 47 New equipment (reversing cocks and air blower) fitted to heating walls 22&23 for field trials
Fig. 48 Nozzles after removal from the heating wall.
Fig. 49 CO development in waste gas of the heating wall resulting from raw gas leakages and typical
effect of the individual heating control on CO emission (A: Air injected; B: Air stopped).
Fig. 50 Time series plots of coke ovens data using activeX controls.
Fig. 51 Left: Univariate Outlier Identification and Cleaning. Right: Multivariate Outlier
Identification and Cleaning with oven ID.
Fig. 52 Process monitoring with PCA model.
Fig. 53 Model file generating screen of ECOCARB software.
Fig. 54 Principal Component (PC) Score plot of PC3 vs. PC4 of the real-time diagnostic system.
Fig. 55 Real-time G2 system to view stack emission exceedance and investigate individual ovens.
Fig. 56 Real-time advisory system, coke oven underfiring emissions and causes.
Fig. 57 Simulation options specification screen programmed in Gensym G2 system.
Fig. 58 Simulation model screen in ECOCARB 3.2.
Fig. 59 Principal Component (PC) Score plot of PC1 vs. PC2 of the simulation system.
Fig. 60 G2 screen PC Score plot of the on-line diagnostic system.
Fig. 61 On-line G2 screen showing stack dust and main variables.
Fig. 62 On-line G2 screen of advisory system, coke oven underfiring emissions and causes.
Fig. 63 Photographs of diagnostic and advisory system during operation at Tata Steel DLCO.

67
7. LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Table of Deliverables.
Table 2 Average waste gas composition values (corrected to 3% O2) related to through-wall leakage
severity estimated by plant personnel.
Table 3 Dominant parameters determined to identify coke oven heating faults.
Table 4 Measured flue gas composition with variation of O2 content (air/fuel gas ratio) in flue gas.
Table 5 Data used in the experiments for through-wall leakage.
Table 6 Results of experiments of blockage of combustion air nozzle.

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8. LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ActiveX A collection of prewritten software components that developers
can implement within an application, to add extra functionality
to their software without needing to write new code.
CO Carbon Monoxide
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
COG Coke Oven Gas
DLCO Dawes Lane Coke Ovens, Tata Steel UK
FTIR Fourier Transform Infra Red
G2 Gensym G2 Knowledge-based Expert System
GUI Graphical User Interface
H2 Hydrogen
H 2S Hydrogen Sulphide
HAZOP Hazard and Operability study
HKM Httenwerke Krupp Mannesmann steel works, Germany
MATLAB Software toolkit by MathWorks
MSPC Multivariate Statistical Process Control
NDIR Non-Dispersive Infra Red
NO Nitric Oxide
NOX Oxides of Nitrogen
O2 Oxygen
PCA Principal Component Analysis
ppm Parts per million
SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SO2 Sulphur Dioxide
SPE Squared Prediction Error Statistic
T2 Hotellings T2 Statistic
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
WAN Wide Area Network
Ratio of actual Air Fuel Ratio to stoichiometry value

69
9. REFERENCES

[1] UK Environment Agency: Coke, Iron and Steel Sector Guidance Note IPPC S2.01, Issue 1,
June 2004;
[2] Fisher R et al: Environmental control of European coking plants at the beginning of the 21st
century, Cokemaking International, 2001, 68-73;
[3] RFCR-CT-2004-00004: Improving environmental control and battery life through integrated
monitoring systems, 30/06/2008;
[4] ECSC 7220-PR041: Improved energy efficiency and coking process operation and control,
31/10/2001;
[5] De Quievrecourt B et al: Automatic control of coke oven heating - A better insight of everyday
practice, 34th meeting of the European Coke Committee, Roma, October 1990;
[6] Sandberg E et al: Multivariate process monitoring of EAFs, Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 2005,
Vol. 32 No. 3, 221-225;
[7] RFSR-CT-2003-00001: Emissions reduction through analysis, modelling and control,
28/02/2007;
[8] Saiepour M et al: Development and assessment of predictive emission monitoring systems
(PEMS) models in the steel industry, AISTech 2006 Proceedings, May 2006, Vol II, 1121-1132,
Cleveland, Ohio;
[9] Gasmet Technologies Oy: Gasmet DX-4000 FTIR gas analyzer product technical information,
Internet Web address: http://www.gasmet.fi/files/26/GASMET_Dx-
4000_Technical_Data_(v1.1).pdf;
[10] Saiepour M and Haines N: Assessment of Coke Oven Through-wall Leakage using Waste Gas
Analysis, InSteelCon 2011, 27th June- 1st July, Dusseldorf, Germany;
[11] Saiepour M et al: Detection of Coke Oven Through-wall Leakage Using Data Driven
Techniques, International Conference on Clean Technologies in the Steel Industry, 26th-28th
September 2011, Budapest, Hungary;
[12] Hermann W: Senkung der CO- und NOX -Freisetzung bei Koksfen mit neuartigem
multivalenten Beheizungssystemen, Schlussbericht zum Forschungsvorhaben der Ruhrkohle
AG, EGKS-Forschungs-Nr. 7261/01 456/01, 1995;
[13] Wnning G J and Milani A: Handbuch der Brennertechnik fr Industriefen, Vulkan-Verlag
GmbH, 2007;
[14] Aynsley M: Artificial Intelligence and the Supervision of Bioprocesses (Real-Time Knowledge-
Based Systems and Neural Networks), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering,
University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, Advances in Biochemical Engineering
Biotechnology, 1993, 48, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

70
REVISED PROGRAMME BAR CHART

Work Work packages title Deliverables Hours on project/ Contractor(s) 1st yr (2008) 2nd yr (2009) 3rd yr (2010) 4th yr (2011)
packages Tata AMMR BFI Uhde UNEW III IV I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV
WP 1 Detection of heating faults
Task 1.1 Concept development 1000 25
Task 1.2 Collection and preparation of data D1 1875 300
Task 1.3 Determination of dominant parameters D2 1400 25 50 200 550
Task 1.4 Development of diagnostics system D3 1650 25 50 150 750
Task 1.5 Application of new diagnostics system 800 250 650
WP 2 Causes of inefficient heating operation
Task 2.1 Instrumentation required 200
Task 2.2 Design and construction of robot D4 25 1100 25
Task 2.3 Assessment of regenerator condition 900 25
Task 2.4 Evaluation of combustion efficiency D5 25 900 250 80
Task 2.5 Application of new identification technique D6 25 250 250 80 25
WP 3 Determination of the diagnosable effects
Task 3.1 Alteration of burn-off-detection system 25 25 1560 50
Task 3.2 Investigate by standard coke oven condition D7 25 25 780 100 25

71
Task 3.3 Investigate by through-wall leakages D8 25 25 780 80 25
Task 3.4 Investigate by (partial) nozzle blockage D9 25 25 780 50 25
WP 4 Individual wall heating control
Task 4.1 Investigation and system development 50 1200 100
Task 4.2 Preparatory trials 100 1200
Task 4.3 Process simulation D10 50 800 600
Task 4.4 Field trials D11 100 25 180 400
Task 4.5 Performance assessment D12 250 25 220 300 700
WP 5 Real-time diagnostics and advisory system
Task 5.1 Real-time diagnostics D13 40 25 100 925
Task 5.2 Real-time advisory D14 30 100 950
Task 5.3 Simulation model 30 150 1000
Task 5.4 On-line application 100 25 100 130 1570
Task 5.5 Implementation 100 130 1200
Total Hours on project 7750 3600 5100 5500 9420
Original Plan Change to Original Plan
APPENDICES

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APPENDIX 1

WORK PACKAGE 1: Data driven diagnostics for the detection of coke oven underfiring heating
faults

Appendix 1.1: Task 1.1 Concept development

Initial visits to plant


Initial exploratory plant visits were made to the Tata Steel UK DLCO coke ovens plant, where the
research was conducted, to investigate the current practice by plant personnel on detecting heating
problems. Existing knowledge related to through-wall leakage and combustion faults were discussed.
Existing plant instrumentation has been examined and the equipment required for continuous
measurements and for the waste gas measurement plant trials were specified. A continuous emissions
monitoring system (CEMS), Alpha cross-duct from ETR-Unidata, for measuring dust emissions at the
outlet duct of the DLCO plant was purchased and installed.

Coke oven heating system


The DLCO plant, Scunthorpe, consists of three batteries, each containing 25 ovens to convert coal to
coke for use in the blast furnaces to make iron for the production of steel. The coking process produces
raw coke oven gas, which is cleaned in the by-products plant and used as fuel around the integrated
steelworks as well as for coke oven heating. The waste gas resulting from burning of the coke oven
fuel gas is directed through ducts leading to the main battery stack. Figure A1.1 shows a simplified
schematic of the flow of air and exhaust gases through the waste gas boxes during a heating stage.

Fig. A1.1: Schematic showing the flow of air and waste gas through the waste gas boxes.

Figure A1.2 shows a more detailed schematic of the flow of air and exhaust gas through the waste gas
boxes during a heating stage of the twin flues in the heating walls. The direction of the combustion air
and waste gas around each oven are reversed every 20 minutes to preheat the combustion air in the
regenerative process. Reversals also allow uniform heat transfer for the carbonisation process. The
duration of the reversal time between each heating cycle is approximately 12 seconds. The total
carbonisation time for converting coal to coke is about 18 hours.

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Fig. A1.2: Schematic showing the flow of air and waste gas through the boxes and twin flues in heating
walls. L odd flues (low burners) and H even flues (high burners).

Figures A1.3 and A1.4 show a waste gas box open for the inflow of combustion air, and one closed for
the outflow of waste gas to the battery stack, respectively. It is useful to note that for most of the coke
oven flue regenerator designs, the waste gas from the two oven walls is mixed when entering the
regenerators. However, for the DLCO design the waste gas from each wall is kept separate, and not
mixed, until after the waste gas boxes at the main duct.

Fig. A1.3: Waste gas box open for inflow Fig. A1.4: Waste gas box closed for
of combustion air outflow of waste gas to battery stack

Through-wall leakage
A crack or hole between an oven chamber and a heating flue can exist that will allow leakage. The
material that leaks from the chamber into the heating flues during coal charging and throughout the
coking cycle is mostly raw coke oven gas. This interferes with the combustion process in the heating
flues by consuming part of the excess oxygen (O2), though it depends on the location of the leakage and
the conditions in the flue at that point. As the O2 is lowered below the required excess O2 value for
complete combustion, incomplete combustion results in the increased emission of carbon monoxide
(CO) and soot (carbon) particles. Also, a larger amount of combustibles such as methane (CH4) from
both the leaked raw gas and the fuel gas remain un-burnt as excess. Hence, the measurement of CO,
O2, CH4 and particulate matter may be used as indicators for through-wall leakage and could provide a
measure for its severity. It has been observed that there may be high stack smoke emissions for a few
minutes when an oven, known to have severe through-wall leakage, is charged. The principal factors
that control the amount of material leaking from the oven chamber to the heating flues are the gas
pressure difference across the through-wall cracks, the size of the cracks, location and their blockage by
carbon deposits. During charging, some leaked material is almost always expected, depending on the
conditions within the chamber and the cracks. However, the amount of leaked material after charging
could be greatly reduced by the blockage of the cracks by carbon deposits over time.

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Preliminary experiments
The preliminary measurements were carried out in November 2008 using a Horiba PG250 gas analyser.
The tests were carried out 7-9 hours after charging to ensure any leakage effects would be minimised.
The waste gas was extracted from the box by inserting a 2 metre probe into the box, as can be seen in
Fig. A1.5. The probe was 2m long so that it would avoid sucking gas from more turbulent regions
within the box. The sampled gases were conditioned using a heated sampling line, heated particulate
filter and a gas chiller to remove moisture before being fed into the analysers.

Fig. A1.5: Photograph of equipment used in waste gas measurements

The gas analyser measured CO, CO2 and SO2 using Non Dispersive Infrared (NDIR), NO/ NOX using
chemiluminescence and O2 by Zirconium oxide sensor. The waste gas total VOC was measured using a
Sick Maihak total hydrocarbon analyser (FID3006) that uses the flame ionisation detection method. At
the same time, the waste gas temperature was measured by attaching a thermocouple to the probe.
Nitric oxide (NO) was measured to represent nitrogen oxides (NOX), since under these conditions, NO
is regarded as the dominant species within NOX. The units for the measurements are C for waste gas
temperature, % for O2 and CO2 and ppm for CO, NO, SO2 and VOC. During these trials, because of the
lower demand for coke (caused by the economic downturn in 2008/9) the coking time was increased
from the normal 18 hours to as high as 26 hours, which may have had some effect on the measured
values. Figure A1.6 shows pictures of the filter element before and after use, and highlights the fact
that the equipment must be protected against high dust emissions during these measurements.

Fig. A1.6: Filter element before (left) and after (right) use during the trials

These preliminary measurements provided the following useful information:

The conditions under which the measurements are expected to be carried out, particularly health
and safety considerations such as the potential exposure to carbon monoxide gas, electrical
supply, and high temperatures of waste gas box, floor and ambient;
The waste gas temperature (> 300C), moisture (> 20% hence potential condensation and loss
of soluble gases such as NO2 and SO2) and dust loading (up to 2.5 g/m3);

76
The typical waste gas composition values expected from an oven wall with almost no through-
wall leakage; e.g. O2 (8%-10%), CO (<150 ppm), SO2 (400 ppm), NOX (900 ppm) values
normalised to reference O2 level of 3%;
The B-side flues (even numbered flues/high burners) have higher values of CO, lower NOX, and
lower O2 than the A-side flues (odd numbered flues/low burners).

Validation of method for investigating through-wall leakage


Measurements were carried out to confirm the validity of the above waste gas analysis method for
investigating through-wall leakage. The variations in the waste gas VOC were examined, since the fuel
gas (COG) and raw gas both contain methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons, the presence of which in
the waste gas would indicate incomplete combustion. To determine whether the variations in VOC
were caused by the fuel and combustion inefficiency or through-wall leakage, the following actions
have been undertaken:

The combined effects of the fuel gas flow rate, fuel methane content and combustion air draught
have been examined by analysing the relevant data for the duration of the trial;
The shape of the trend of the measured waste gas VOC has been compared to the variations of the
above mentioned fuel related data during charging and through the coking cycle;
An increase in measured VOC, during and after charging, that was not related to fuel would
suggest that the cause is through-wall leakage.

Examination of the variations of the fuel-related parameters such as fuel gas flow rate, fuel methane
content and combustion air, during these measurements, showed that they were not correlated to the
measured waste gas VOC variation. Hence, it was concluded that since the variation in the waste gas
VOC was not related to the fuel, and appeared to relate to the oven chamber gas pressure, the variations
had to be caused by through-wall leakage. This confirmed that the method used in the plant trials to
investigate the effect of through-wall leakage on the waste gas composition was valid.

Figure A1.7 shows the results of the measurements at the outlet of a heating wall before, during and
after charging that were carried out on 16 Feb 2009 (oven 5). The time at which the oven was charged
is indicated by an arrow. The measurements were carried out at one waste gas box for one side of a
wall, hence the Figures only show the waste gas composition during the reversals in which the waste
gas was being extracted from the heating flues. The large short duration VOC emission peaks caused
by through-wall leakage during charging could not be seen, since the waste gas box was on air.
However, the longer duration VOC emission peak can be clearly seen. Figure A1.8 shows a larger view
of the variation of the measured waste gas VOC corresponding to Fig. A1.7. The pattern of increase of
waste gas VOC was similar to the way an oven chamber gas pressure is normally expected to develop
during the coking cycle. Figure A1.8 shows the maximum value occurring at about 1 hour after
charging. The concentration values were corrected to 3% O2 to normalise against the effect of dilution.
The CO measurement range of the Horiba gas analyser is limited to 5000 ppm.

Fig. A1.7: Results of waste gas measurements at wall 5A before and after charging

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Fig. A1.8: Measured waste gas VOC at wall 5A before and after charging

During these measurements, the combined effect of the fuel gas flow rate, fuel methane content and
combustion air were examined for the duration of the trial and it was found that the variation of the fuel
methane was small compared to the measured waste gas VOC variation, showing that the increase in the
waste gas VOC was not related to the fuel or combustion. In addition, it was found that the pattern of
increase in the waste gas VOC was similar to the way oven chamber gas pressure is expected to develop
during the coking cycle as discussed above. Hence, it was concluded that since the variation in waste
gas VOC was not related to fuel or combustion and was related to the chamber gas pressure, the
variations were most likely caused by through-wall leakage. This meant that the method used in the
plant trials to investigate the effect of through-wall leakage on the waste gas composition was valid.

Assessment of through-wall leakage


To improve the quality of the measurements a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyser was used
instead of the Horiba PG250 gas analyser which was used on the previous trials. Using the FTIR meant
that less equipment was needed, provided a measurement of methane, which is the main combustible in
the coke oven gas and the fuel gas, rather than the VOC, and also increased the range of CO
measurements, which was previously limited to 5000 ppm. Figure A1.9 shows a photograph of the
FTIR on use during the trials. The gas was extracted from the waste gas boxes using a 2 metre probe,
and conditioned as before. To further improve the quality of measurements, two probes were used
which were positioned in the waste gas boxes either side of the wall to be measured. The sampling line
was moved from one probe to the other on changeover, which led to a continuous measurement of
waste gases flowing out of the two sides of an oven wall.

Fig. A1.9: Photograph of the FTIR in use during the trials

Simultaneous measurement of emissions from both walls of an oven


The COWET uses a series of instruments to allow the measurement of emissions from both sides of a
wall simultaneously. Fig A1.10 shows a simplified schematic diagram of the apparatus and the way in
which they are connected.

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Fig. A1.10: Block diagram of the COWET

Fig. A1.11: Photograph of COWET during operation

The principles on which the COWET was designed were similar to the way in which the gas
measurements were conducted: a probe would extract the gas which was then sent through a gas
conditioning system allowing the concentrations of the emissions within the gas to be measured. The
difference is that this new device allows both walls of an oven to be measured simultaneously, provides
a reading of dust emissions from the waste gas, and is all located in one device which is easily
transportable along a battery of coke ovens. Figure A1.11, shows the COWET in use, at Tata Steel
DLCO plant. An application for a patent for this method and equipment has been filed at the European
Patent Office with the number: 10015884.

Figures A1.12 show examples of results of the simultaneous waste gas measurements, taken at Tata
Steel UK coke plant, from both walls (32 and 33) of an oven (32) using the COWET for waste gas CO
and O2. The results show that wall 33 has higher CO and lower O2 concentrations in the waste gas than
wall 32, indicating that wall 33 had a more severe leakage. The results also show that the differences
were more pronounced after oven charging at 14:52.

Fig. A1.12: Waste gas CO and O2 from walls 32 and 33 measured using the COWET

79
Appendix 1.2: Task 1.2 Collection and preparation of process and emissions data

Data Collection
A system was set up at Tata Steel Dawes Lane Coke Ovens (DLCO) allowing plant data to be collected
in a dedicated data-logging PC. Another system was set up to access the data from Swinden
Technology Centre (STC) remotely through the Tata Steel Wide Area Network (WAN), in order to save
time on travelling from STC to DLCO. The data were logged at a sampling rate of one per minute and
saved as MS Excel files. Figure A1.13 shows a schematic of the data collection system.

Fig. A1.13: Coke oven battery Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system with
Iconics software and OPC connectivity

The most relevant plant and emission variables were selected for use in the analysis and modelling.
Table A1.1 shows the 22 plant variables that were selected for use in the diagnostic system models.
The dominant parameters that can be used for the detection and identification of the heating problems
were selected from this list and are discussed in Task 1.3.

Table A1.1: Plant and emission variables selected for use in the diagnostic system

Data preparation
The integrity of the developed diagnostic system depends on the quality of the data used for the analysis
and PCA model development. Special care was therefore taken in the collection, preparation and
selection of the data, and the following aspects were considered:

a) Variability the process variables must not stay constant (zero variance) and should move around
throughout the data range,

b) Richness the data should include all known normal operating regions of the process,

80
c) Consistency the data must be consistent throughout and care must be taken to avoid data in
which the process is operating abnormally, as this can affect the quality of the model produced.

A large amount of continuous data was necessary in order to select the required quality data for training
the models over all the different normal operating regions. Also, the defined ranges of process
variables that were established during the model development (parameter operating envelope) were
maximised, so that the parameter inputs during evaluation did not fall outside the training data
operating envelope, which would have led to unreliable fault detection.

It was important to remove any data that was non-representative of normal process operation, before
carrying out any model development. Such data are usually statistical outliers or spikes, missing
values, constant values (zero variance) and abnormal operating modes such as start-ups and shut-downs.
In order to select the representative data regions for training, a PCA model with the selected variables
was computed on all the data and the following aspects were considered:

a) Inspection of principal component score plots


A plot of any two scores against each other, for each sample of the analysed data, produces a cluster
chart. These charts can provide important information relating to several process conditions shown as
different clusters. Contour charts are based on the cluster charts and are concerned with the probability
density function (PDF) sets. They include boundary limits that indicate the regions within which 95%
or 99% of the points should be under normal operating conditions. Any excursions from these limits
would then indicate a plant condition that should be analysed further.

b) Inspection of Hotelling's T2 chart


Hotelling's T2 (extension of the univariate t-test) is a statistical measure of the multivariate distance of
each observation from the centre of the data set. The T2 chart provides an overall measure of how close
the model scores are to their mean or typical value under normal operating conditions. Therefore, any
significant deviations from the representative training region should be detected by analysing this single
chart.

c) Squared Prediction Error (SPE) chart


The SPE chart provides a measure of the error between the measured and predicted values of all the
variables (as opposed to the T2 chart which relates to scores). Therefore, any significant prediction
errors should be detected by analysing this single chart.

d) Score Contribution chart


The score prediction contribution chart shows for the selected sample the extent to which each plant
variable contributes to the estimated scores or T2 statistic. The variables that have contributed the most
to the T2 chart at a given time instant will have relatively large contributions.

Appendix 1.4: Task 1.4 Development and assessment of diagnostics system

Data Pre-processing
Figure A1.14 shows a multivariate visual data editing screen, which allows the users to plot any pair of
principal component scores, shown on the left hand side of the screen, and SPE and T2 statistics charts
with different numbers of principal components on the right hand side of the screen. Multivariate
outliers are marked with red circles, and are shown in the principal component scores plot, along with
the SPE and T2 plots. The green points on the scores plot represent the nominal, good process
operations, with 95% and 99% confidence bounds. The scores outside the 99% confidence limits
denote data that may be representative of a process malfunction or fault.

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Fig. A1.14: Multivariate outlier removal screen

Gensym G2 knowledge based system


The key elements of the G2 system iMPSC toolbox allow the user to graphically implement a number
of PCA models, whose outputs can then be viewed in the standard x-y plots of principal components, as
well as trend plots of SPE, T2 and Contribution values. The user can configure a number of
contribution analysis schemes for each model which are automatically invoked should, for example, the
PC1 v PC2 snake plot exceed its warning limits for 10 consecutive datapoints. This then examines the
recent history of the process variables which are used in the model to generate a ranked candidate list of
those variables whose change has caused the snake plot to exceed its limits. The candidate list can then
be examined and compared to other process trends and history using standard system rule based
techniques so that a warning message can be generated if required. Likewise contribution analysis
schemes can be created for SPE and T2 trends and for other pairs of principal components.

SPE and T2 monitoring statistics and contribution charts in the G2 system


Figure A1.15 shows a time series plot representing the variable Stack Obscuration that corresponds to
Fig. 14 (right). The univariate control limit is 40% for this particular variable and the Figure shows that
the dust obscuration was fluctuating between 25-55%.

Fig. A1.15: Univariate time series plot

Figures A1.16 and A1.17 (corresponding to Fig. 14 (right)) show the T2 and SPE statistical metrics with
the SPE for providing evidence of the occurrence of a process malfunction. In this case the T2 plot does
not provide any evidence of an oven problem due to the univariate nature of the coke oven fault.

Fig. A1.16: Hotelling's T2 trend plot.

82
Fig. A1.17: SPE monitoring statistics chart

Finally, Fig. A1.18 shows the G2 differential contributions plot which indicates the process variable(s)
which cause the process malfunction or fault. In this case, stack obscuration has a large increase with
little effect from other variables. Hence, the fault was not caused by combustion problems.

Fig. A1.18: G2 Contribution plot for PC3

LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX 1

Table A1.1 Plant and emission variables selected for use in the diagnostic system

LIST OF FIGURES IN APPENDIX 1

Fig. A1.1 Schematic showing the flow of air and waste gas through the waste gas boxes.
Fig. A1.2 Schematic showing the flow of air and waste gas through the boxes and twin flues in
heating walls. L odd flues (low burners) and H even flues (high burners).
Fig. A1.3 Waste gas box open for inflow of combustion air.
Fig. A1.4 Waste gas box closed for outflow of waste gas to battery stack.
Fig. A1.5 Photograph of equipment used in waste gas measurements.
Fig. A1.6 Filter element before (left) and after (right) use during the trials.
Fig. A1.7 Results of waste gas measurements at wall 5A before and after charging.Fig. A1.8
Measured waste gas VOC at wall 5A before and after charging.
Fig. A1.9 Photograph of the FTIR in use during the trials.
Fig. A1.10 Block diagram of the COWET.
Fig. A1.11 Photograph of COWET during operation.
Fig. A1.12 Waste gas CO and O2 from walls 32 and 33 measured using the COWET.
Fig. A1.13 Coke oven battery SCADA system with Iconics software and OPC connectivity.
Fig. A1.14 Multivariate outlier removal screen.
Fig. A1.15 Univariate time series plot.
Fig. A1.16 Hotelling's T2 trend plot.
Fig. A1.17 SPE monitoring statistics chart.
Fig. A1.18 G2 Contribution plot for PC3.

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APPENDIX 2

WORK PACKAGE 2: Causes of inefficient heating operation

Appendix 2.1: Task 2.1 Identification of required instrumentation to assess combustion


efficiency

(a) Videofil machine to observe the heating flues conditions


The Videofil machine is a flexible and non water-cooled endoscope of 10 m length and 60 mm in
diameter. This machine is made of a flexible and fibrous sheath winding on a reel and of an optical
head fixed to its end. The optical head includes an
objective lens, a CCD colour microcamera, motors for
focusing and rotation and electronic cards for the
multiplexing of the command and video signals. Different
lens configurations have been designed for axial or lateral
view of the target, wide or narrow field of view. A 360
rotation mechanism allows the change of the observing
direction inside the chamber. The rotation angle and the
insert depth of the viewing head are superimposed to the
image on the screen of the video monitor. The machine
also includes the control unit with the display and the
control of the operating parameters, a video monitor and a
hard disk recorder.

(b) Pyrofil machine to obtain the vertical heat


distribution inside the heating flues
This machine is very similar to the previous one. It is not
water-cooled and made of a flexible and fibrous sheath Fig. A2.1: Videofil Schematic
winding on a reel and of a measuring head fixed to its end.

The measuring head includes a miniaturised infrared pyrometer and is protected by a fibrous insulator.
The fibrous sheath is slightly moistened before introduction inside the heating flue, in order to improve
its thermal resistance. This machine is very easy to use and allows a fast and non-disturbing
measurement of the heating wall temperature profile.

(c) Suction pyrometer to measure the flame temperature inside the heating flues
The suction pyrometer is used to determine the true gas temperature inside the heating flues. In this
type of instrument the temperature sensor (thermocouple) is protected by a screen in order to avoid
radioactive heat exchange between the thermocouple and its surrounding. The gas is sucked at a very
high velocity (100 to 200 m/s) in order to favour the convection exchanges.

Thermocouple Suction
Suction
pyrometer pyrometer

elevator
Elevator

Fig. A2.2: CPM Suction pyrometer is introduced inside the heating flue using an elevator

84
(d) Excess air determination
Excess air is calculated from waste gas analysis at the heating flue top. It is performed with a water-
cooled sampling probe similar to the suction pyrometer. Instead of a thermocouple, the probe is
connected to gas analysers. The combustion reaction is as follows:

(H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, CO, Benzol) + (O2 + 3.8 N2) CO2 + H2O + N2

First, the determination of the coke oven gas composition is necessary to calculate the stoichiometric
air/fuel ratio (Va) and the stoichiometric waste gas/fuel ratio (VWG).

Then, analysis of the waste gas in the heating flues gives O2 content which is necessary to calculate the
excess(e) air.
In the case of complete combustion with excess air:

1m3 gas + Va(1 + e) m3 air VWG m3 waste gas + eVa m3 air + VH2O m3 H2O
eVa
O2 content of true waste gas (dry): 0.208.
VWG e.Va
VCO2
CO2 content of stoichiometric waste gas (dry): 0
VWG
VCO2
CO2 content of true waste gas (dry):
VWG e.Va
VWG V
Excess air (e): e e WG 0 1
Va 0.208 Va
In the case of incomplete combustion with excess air and unburnt CO (bad mixing pattern):
1
v O2 0.208 e Va + v CO
O2 content of true waste gas (dry): = = 2
VWG 1
VWG + e Va + v CO
2
v CO v CO
CO content of true waste gas (dry): = =
VWG 1
VWG + e Va + v CO
2

- (1 - )
VWG 2
Excess air (e): e =
Va 0.208 - + (1 - )
2

Appendix 2.2: Task 2.2 Design and construction of a robot for inspection of regenerators
sole flues

First version of the robot for regenerator inspection - CPM black and white camera
The selected camera for the inspection robot is the type that is normally fitted into the CPM Videofil
machine. It allows inspection in colder areas than in the heating flues. The use of a black and white
camera gives better results in terms of resolution. Under low light conditions, when the temperature is
not high enough, additional lighting may be provided by the in-built white light emitting diodes (LED).

Fig. A2.3: CPM black and white inspection camera

85
The camera characteristics are:
-High temperature camera
-Lateral view
-Field of view: 34x 26
-Focus control and autofocus
-White LED adjustable
-Operating temperature: up to 800C for 5 min using air cooling
-Pyrex glass
-Data and power supply using multiplexing technology through high temperature coaxial cable
-Stainless Steel 316 L

Tests of the second version of CPM robot for regenerator inspection in cold conditions
CPM tested the Robot in a Didier type battery. In this configuration some of the channels have
different dimensions to each other, and the minimum height and width are 9 cm and 18 cm respectively.
It explains the choice of the robot dimensions which are 8 cm height and 8 cm width.

Fig. A2.4: Multi-channels entries leading to the regenerator sole flues in Didier type oven

The CPM robot for regenerator inspection is located at the CPM facilities.

Its characteristics are given in Task 2.2.

Relevant pictures are obtained using the two cameras of the robot as illustrated on the following
Figures.
Inspection of
regenerators bricks

Head rotation

Additional light to Inspection of


inspect cold area regenerators sole

Fig. A2.5: CPM robot body for regenerator inspection has 2 cameras equipped with variable lights
Robot width is adjustable to be adaptable to the regenerator sole flue width.

86
2 cameras

CPM robot CPM robot CPM robot


Width 80 mm Width 140 mm Width 240 mm
Fig. A2.6: Pictures of Robot with different widths

Damaged checker bricks Dirty checker brick

Damaged checker brick Corroded checker bricks


Fig. A2.7: Example pictures of regenerator checker bricks

At the end of the project, several coke oven plants requested assistance from CPM for regenerator
inspection with the new robot.

Appendix 2.4: Task 2.4 Evaluation of combustion efficiency

Table A2.1: Characteristics of mixed gas used during the tests


Gas composition CO H2 CH4 CO2 O2 VA VWG VCO2
Blast furnace gas 23.37 3.65 0.00 22.83 0.00 0.65 0.98 0.46
Coke oven gas 6.82 54.25 23.63 2.52 0.60 3.68 3.71 0.33
Mixed gas 22.82 5.32 0.78 22.16 0.02 0.75 1.07 0.46

Waste gas composition: O2: 5.6 %, CO2: 31.0 %


Excess air (e) calculated from O2 content: 52 %
Excess air (e) calculated from CO2 content: 55 %

87
Appendix 2.5: Task 2.5 Application of the new diagnostic technique for identification of combustion proble

DETECTION EXPLANATION REMEDIAL COMMENTS


ACTION The regular measurement of flue bottom temperature with an optical pyrometer
Low heating flue temperature needs to be conscientiously performed by cokemakers. A significant deviation
T < T standard 150C
Optical pyrometer of this temperature compared to the battery standard temperature should catch
the attention of the coke plant managers.
Following an observation of temperature lower than 150C below standard
Some ports are Reopening temperature, flue bottom needs to be observed. Videofil machine can be used
Air/gas ports visual inspection
clogged operation
to detect heating flue damages.
If ports are completely clogged, a reopening operation is needed.
If ports are in good conditions, temperature profile inside heating flues has to be
Ports seem clean and in good determined.
condition
A suction pyrometer gives the vertical gas temperature distribution and Pyrofil
machine gives the temperature distribution of heating wall refractories.
Gas analysis at the flue top If vertical heat distribution is not homogeneous (high temperature difference
Flue temperature profile between flue top and bottom), it could suggest a bad heating adjustment (Air
Sampling probe, suction pyrometer
and/or gas flows are not well balanced).

88
Gas analyses complete the first observations and are used to make the
High O2 content Modification of
explanation of combustion problems more precise.
High CO content High CO and O2 Air/gas mixing
Gas supply combustion
Weak air excess content problem
problem pattern High CO and O2 contents can reveal an air/gas mixing problem. A modification
of combustion pattern should be performed by adjusting the air/gas flows.
Gas regenerators Air regenerators
inspection inspection
Air and/or Gas Cleaning or repair A high O2 content can reveal a gas supply problem, and a high CO content can
Regenerator Regenerator
regenerators are operation
inspection by inspection by reveal insufficient excess air.
dirty or damaged
Robot Robot
An inspection of the corresponding regenerator compartments can be performed
with the CPM robot to detect checker bricks blockage.
Air and/or Gas regenerators seem
clean and in good condition
If all inspection and measurements listed above do not show any problems, the
intermediate part between heating flue and regenerator is probably damaged.
Intermediate part inspection (corbel
area) Damaged Reopening
This area can be inspected by Videofil equipped with a short axial viewing
Videofil from the top Rigid intermediate part operation head and introduced through air/gas ports (refer to following figures).
inspection probe

Fig. A2.8: Flowchart and description of diagnostics technique for identification of combustion problems
Fig. A2.10: Connecting ducts between heating
Fig. A2.9: CPM short Videofil with axial
flue and regenerator observed by the Videofil
viewing head (diameter 40 mm, length 125 mm)
machine

LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX 2

Table A2.1 Characteristics of mixed gas used during the tests

LIST OF FIGURES IN APPENDIX 2

Figure A2.1 Videofil Schematic


Figure A2.2 CPM Suction pyrometer is introduced inside the heating flue using an elevator
Figure A2.3 CPM black and white inspection camera
Figure A2.4 Multi-channels entries leading to the regenerator sole flues in Didier type oven
Figure A2.5 CPM robot body for regenerator inspection has 2 cameras equipped with variable lights
Figure A2.6 Pictures of Robot with different widths
Figure A2.7 Example pictures of regenerator checker bricks
Figure A2.8 Flowchart and description of diagnostics technique for identification of combustion
problems
Figure A2.9 CPM short Videofil with axial viewing head (diameter 40 mm, length 125 mm)
Figure A2.10 Connecting ducts between heating flue and regenerator observed by the Videofil
machine

89
APPENDIX 3

WORK PACKAGE 3: Determination of diagnosable effects by laboratory combustion tests

Appendix 3.1: Task 3.1 Alteration of a BFI-burn-off-detection system for combustion research
under special coke oven heating boundary conditions

Table A3.1 shows the installation and process parameters of both the DLCO heating flue and its scale-
down installation at the BFI testing facility.

Table A3.1: Data of the original DLCO heating flues and the main combustion reactor

DLCO heating flues Main combustion reactor


Height of the heating flue 4.1 2 m
Width (long side) of the heating flue 0.55 0.275 m
Width (short side) of the heating flue 0.32 0.16 m
Overall fuel gas flow rate 14.1 1 - 10 m3STP/h
Fuel gas heating value 17.7 16.6 MJ/m3
Air preheating temperature 1,100 Up to 800 C
O2 content of the flue gas 5.5 Vol.-%
Fuel gas preheating temperature Not known Up to 500 C
Heating flue temperature 1,280 1,280 C
Air supply Bottom Bottom -
Staged fuel gas supply No, but burner - -
heights alternate
high-low burners.
Fuel gas supply low burner 0.26 above bottom 0.13 above bottom m
Fuel gas supply high burner 1.18 above bottom 0.59 above bottom m

Experimental set-up
Fuel gas and combustion air are supplied through a nozzle floor, which consists of two ducts. The fuel
gas nozzle could be changed in its length, so that experiments with high and low burner configurations
(see Table A3.1, low and high burners) are possible. Since the main combustion reactor was
constructed at the BFI testing facility at the Httenwerke Krupp Mannesmann (HKM) steel works, the
fuel gas composition is not exactly the same as that of the original heating flue. This was especially
considered for the above described nozzle design. The combustion air was preheated in a special air
preheater, which consists of four radiant tubes. Depending on the combustion air flow rate preheating
temperatures of 800C are possible. The aimed preheating temperature of 1,100C could not be
achieved because the preheater could be damaged through overheating at this temperature. The fuel
was preheated through heating tapes which were wrapped around the fuel pipe. The maximum fuel
preheating temperature is 600C. For replication of flue gas recirculation the main combustion reactor
was extended with an external flue gas generator. The external flue gas generator consisted of a 50 kW
burner, which burns coke oven gas in an insulated tube. The exhaust gas (flue gas) of the burner was
supplied to the main combustion reactor through a small pipe. The supply nozzle was implemented on
the side of the combustion air supply at a height of 20 mm above the combustion air nozzle. The burner
is controllable from 5 to 50 kW. For replication of through-wall leakage a saturator was designed
which enriches the coke oven gas with naphthalene, Fig. A3.1. To liquefy it, the naphthalene was
heated in the saturator up to 100 130C by heating tapes. Coke oven gas was supplied into the
saturator through a small tube and exits at the top through an outlet. Thus the coke oven gas flows
through the liquid naphthalene and is enriched with naphthalene vapour. The enriched coke oven gas is
supplied into the main combustion reactor through a heated pipe. The supply nozzle at the main
combustion reactor is at a height of approximately 820 mm from the bottom.

90
Fig. A3.1: Picture and scheme of the naphthalene saturator

The monitoring equipment for the main combustion reactor includes temperature and flue gas
composition measurements. The temperature was measured at 4 stages inside the reactor. Additionally
the temperatures of the supplied combustion air and fuel gas were measured. The temperature
measuring points inside the reactor are at heights of 500, 1,000, 1,400 and 1,900 mm from the bottom.
The flue gas composition was measured inside the flue gas pipe, which was on the top of the main
combustion reactor. Further the flue gas composition of the external flue gas generator was measured.
Measured gases were O2, CO2, CO and NOX. The dust content of the flue gas could also be measured
in the flue pipe. For this purpose dust measuring devices were purchased. Figure A3.2 shows the entire
main combustion reactor including measuring equipment at the BFI testing facility and the schematic of
the main combustion reactor.

Flue gas
Analyzer

Analyzer

Raw gas

Analyzer

Automatic firing Raw gas


device
Analyzer

Analyzer

Flue gas
recirculation
Coke oven gas
Air

BF gas
Fuel gas

Natural gas

Fig. A3.2: Picture and scheme of the main combustion reactor

91
Appendix 3.2: Task 3.2 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the
diagnosable effects at standard coke oven condition

The incomplete combustion that has been observed at the experiments in which same Reynolds
numbers as in an original DLCO heating flue have been studied is the result of necessary adaptations
that needed to be made when doing experiments using scaled down set ups. In order to have a
Reynolds number of 1,700 in the test model, gas velocities needed to be increased considerably to
compensate for the reduced hydraulic diameter of the 1:2 flue model (Re = (vd/)with v = gas
velocity; d = hydraulic diameter and = kinematic viscosity). Since the flue gas velocity could only be
controlled by COG and combustion air flow rate, the increased gas velocities resulted in reduced
retention time and thus poorer fuel gas burnout.

Table A3.2 shows the parameter settings used at the pre-tests that have been done to identify the best
suitable experimental conditions.

Table A3.2: Data used in the trials


Standard Parameter variations
condition
Fuel gas preheating 500 500 500 500 500 300 600 500 C
temperature
Combustion air preheating 800 800 800 800 800 800 800 600 C
temperature
O2-content of the flue gas 5.5 3.5 4.5 6.5 7.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 Vol.-%
Lambda 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 -
Volumetric fuel gas flow 7.1 m3STP/h
(cases 1 and 3)
Volumetric fuel gas flow 3.5 m3STP/h
(cases 2 and 4)

The assumed standard condition for all cases was:

fuel gas preheating temperature of 500C,


combustion air preheating temperature of 800-850C and
an O2 content of 5.5 Vol.-% in the flue gas (representing a Lambda of approximately 1.4).

Flue gas recirculation


Table A3.3 shows an overview of parameter settings that have been applied at the experiments studying
standard coke oven conditions.

Table A3.3: Data used in the experiments for standard coke oven condition (SC)
Exp. 1 4 7 10 13 2 5 8 11 14 3 6 9 12 15
number
(SC)
O2 flue gas
3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5
(Vol.-%)
Lambda (-) 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
Recirculati
20 40 60
on rate (%)
TFuel gas
500
(C)
TCombustion
800
air (C)
Fuel gas
flow 3.5
(m3STP/h)

92
CFD modelling
Supplementary to the experiments, CFD modelling was carried out. To verify the CFD model for later
calculations of an original heating flue, calculations of the fluid dynamics and combustion inside the
main combustion reactor for case 2 were carried out first. The modelling and simulation of the pilot
scale heating flue has been done within Gambit and Fluent. The calculation domain has initially been
discretised by 400,000 volumes and later on increased to 700,000 in order to decrease cell to cell
temperature gradients. An exemplary cross section of the calculation domain is shown in Fig. A3.4.
The domain is depicted by the orange circle. For the simulation the following models were used:

standard k- -Model for turbulence


species transport with volumetric reaction utilising the finite rate eddy dissipation approach
discrete ordinates for radiation modelling
incompressible ideal gas for modelling of free convection

The turbulence model has a significant effect for the mixing and therefore the reaction of fuel and
oxidator. In preliminary calculations it was found that the k- -Model yields the best results compared
to the pilot scale operational testing.

Due to the complexity of the various flow configurations a precise critical Reynolds number cannot be
pointed out. This special case is not implemented in the used CFD-code. Therefore the simulation
results may differ from the operational testing results as the chemistry turbulence interaction in the
lower part of the computation domain is presumably over predicted. For the simulation of species
transport and reaction various approaches have been tested and evaluated. The best results have been
achieved by the finite rate/eddy dissipation approach [A3.1], where the reaction is calculated either by a
turbulent mixing rate or the kinetic Arrhenius approach. To predict individual species behaviour the
PDF approach was used for calculating equilibrium. While the results showed acceptable accordance
regarding the operational testing qualitatively, the order of magnitude for the resulting temperature was
too high. The best results have been achieved by the implementation of the Jones-Lindstedt global 4
step mechanism for methane oxidation [A3.2]. The mechanism includes all relevant species and
forward/backward reactions (This model however lacks in precision on the prediction of CO formation
in fuel rich domains).

The boundary conditions were chosen closely to the conditions of the pilot scale testing reactor with
assumptions for less sensitive parameters to decrease the computation time. The temperature of all
walls inside the computation domain was fixed at 900 C, as well as the temperature of the recirculating
gas. Simulations with different boundary conditions at the walls had insignificant influence on the
upstream temperature (e.g. modelling of heat transfer with calculation of insulation). The fuel and the
gas mixture were considered constant through all simulations, while the simulation of nozzle blockage
required adaption of the recirculating waste gas. For the simulation of the through-wall leakage test
cases a gas inlet with a fuel-gas-octane-mixture was assumed (temperature set at 200C). Table A3.4
shows the composition of the fuel gas and the applied oxidator (air).

Table A3.4: Composition of inlet gas fluxes


CO2 CO H2O O2 N2 H2 CH4
(Vol.-%) (Vol.-%) (Vol.-%) (Vol.-%) (Vol.-%) (Vol.-%) (Vol.-%)
Oxidator - - - 21,0 79,0 - -
Fuel Gas 1,6 7,2 4,3 - 4,7 61,4 20,8

Figure A3.3 shows a top view of the fluent model. The circle in the background is the (enlarged) pipe
(flue gas exit), installed on top of the reactor. This view has been used to discuss gradients in
composition and temperature.

93
Fig. A3.3: Reactor top view (the combustion air Fig. A3.4: Exemplary cross section of an adapted
nozzle is clearly bigger than the fuel gas nozzle; mesh (700,000 in sum; smaller volumes are
recirculating gas is located at the side of the air defined in the orange circled area) for the
nozzle; location of through-wall leakage is on the computation of 40 % waste gas recirculation
right side in this view).

Simulated NOX behaviour as a function of the recirculation rate


Figure A3.5 shows the simulated NOX content for a recirculation rate of 40% (left) and 60%.

Fig. A3.5: CFD results of the NOX distribution (40% recirculation (left): 48 mg/m3 and 60%
recirculation (right): 24 mg/m3.

94
Appendix 3.3: Task 3.3 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the
diagnosable effects by through-wall leakages

Theoretical calculations of the through-wall leakage flow


To estimate a possible value of through-wall leakage flow, calculations on a DLCO heating flue
according to the crack dimensions and pressure difference between coke chamber and heating flue were
carried out. Since the surface roughness of the crack and friction losses in the leakage were
disregarded, the calculated values are only theoretical and approximate. However, the calculations give
a good overview of the possible quantity of through-wall leakage flow. Figure A3.6 shows the results
for a DLCO through-wall leakage with a length of 300 mm and a width of 1 mm. The lambda of the
main combustion in the heating flue was assumed to be 1.4. It is shown, that the lambda in the heating
flue decreases rapidly with increasing through-wall leakage flow. At a typical pressure drop of 100 Pa
between the gas collecting space of the coke chamber and the heating flue, the through-wall leakage
flow is about ~ 75 % of the fuel gas flow of the main combustion. In this case the through-wall leakage
flow reduces the lambda in the heating flue to an sub-stoichiometric value of 0.8. At a through-wall
leakage flow of ~ 40 % of the main fuel gas flow in the heating flue, the Lambda is reduced from 1.4 to
1.0. Conclusion of the calculations is that just small leakages could cause sub-stoichiometric
atmosphere in the heating flue which results in incomplete combustion. In some areas of the coke
chamber where the pressure differences to the heating flue are higher, the through-wall leakage flow
will increase. Such areas are mainly located in the lower parts of the coke chamber at the beginning of
the coking process, where the pressure is increased through the initial high gas release of the coal.

Fig. A3.6: Theoretical through-wall leakage flow at a DLCO heating flue according to the leakage
dimensions and gas pressure difference between coke chamber and heating flue

Pre-tests
Data from literature [A3.3] show, that naphthalene is the main polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in
uncleaned raw coke oven gas. Other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the raw coke oven gas are
benzene, toluene and xylene, but the contents of these components are much lower than that of
naphthalene. The content of naphthalene, benzene, toluene and xylene in raw coke oven gas averages
up to 130 g/m3. Thus naphthalene will be used for replication of the raw coke oven gas for through-
wall leakage experiments.

Initially, 12 pre-tests were carried out and evaluated to determine the saturation of coke oven gas with
naphthalene according to the naphthalene temperature and coke oven gas flow. Aim of the pre-tests
was to determine the necessary boundary conditions to charge the coke oven gas with 130 g/m3
naphthalene. Variable parameters of the pre-tests were the naphthalene temperature (90 - 120C) and
the simulated raw coke oven gas flow (0.035, 0.175 and 0.35 m3STP/h as 1%, 5% and 10% of the coke
oven gas flow of the main combustion reactor). A higher simulated raw coke oven gas flow was not

95
possible due to the dimensions of the saturator. Measured variables were the naphthalene temperature
and the saturation of the coke oven gas with naphthalene. The saturation was measured by weighing of
the saturator (with a balance with an accuracy of 0.1 g) before and after every experiment. Table A3.5
summarises the data of the pre-tests.

Table A3.5: Data used in the pre-tests (PT) for naphthalene saturation
Experiment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
number (PT)
Naphthalene
117 92 109 96 98 91 101 108 101 91 111 95 C
temperature
Through-wall % of main
leakage flow 1 5 10
fuel gas flow
of raw coke
oven gas 0.035 0.175 0.35 m3STP/h

The naphthalene saturation of the coke oven gas increases with increasing naphthalene temperature. It
varies between ~ 75 g/m3 at 90C and ~ 160 g/m3 at 117C. For higher coke oven gas flows (0.175 and
0.35 m3STP/h: PT5 PT12) the saturation increases approximately linearly with increasing naphthalene
temperature. This function has been determined and was then used to calculate the temperature set-
point of the naphthalene saturator in order to achieve a saturation of 130 g/m3: ~102C.

Oxygen depletion in flue gas as a function of amount of through-wall leakage and recirculation rate
With increasing through-wall leakage flows, the O2 content of the flue gas decreases. Maximum
decrease was measured and calculated for experiment TWL7 with 10 % through-wall leakage flow and
20 % flue gas recirculation rate. With increasing recirculation rate the decrease of the O2 content is
lower, due to the addition of O2 with the recirculating flue gas. The measurements are in good
agreement with the theoretical calculations of the through-wall leakage flow, see Fig. A3.7
1,8
calculated decrease in O2 content
1,6
measured decrease in O2 content
1,4
decrease of O2 content in %
calculated and measured

1,2

1,0

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0
TWL1 TWL3 TWL4 TWL6 TWL7 TWL8 TWL9

Fig. A3.7: Measured and calculated O2 decrease in the flue gas for different TWL experiments

NOX in flue gas as a function of O2 and through-wall leakage


Figure A3.8 shows the behaviour of NOX (experimental results) in the flue gas as a function of the
lambda value of the main combustion and as a function of different amounts of through-wall leakage.

96
800

NOx flue gas in mg/m . Reference O2 content 5%


600

400
3

40% recirculation
3
40% recirc.; fuel flow (sat. with napht.): 0,035 m /h
200 40% recirc.; fuel flow (sat. with napht.): 0,175 m3/h
40% recirc.; fuel flow (sat. with napht.): 0,350 m3/h

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
O2 content flue gas in %
Fig. A3.8: NOX in the flue gas as a function of through-wall leakage flow and O2 in flue gas

Appendix 3.4: Task 3.4 Investigation of emission formation and determination of the
diagnosable effects by (partial) nozzle blockage

Figure A3.9 shows the theoretical flue gas composition as a function of the lambda value.

Fig. A3.9: Theoretical flue gas composition for combustion of coke oven gas as a function of Lambda

97
LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX 3

Table A3.1 Data of the original DLCO heating flues and the main combustion reactor.
Table A3.2 Data used in the trials.
Table A3.3 Data used in the experiments for standard coke oven condition (SC).
Table A3.4 Composition of inlet gas fluxes.
Table A3.5 Data used in the pre-tests (PT) for naphthalene saturation.

LIST OF FIGURES IN APPENDIX 3

Fig. A3.1 Picture and scheme of the naphthalene saturator.


Fig. A3.2 Picture and scheme of the main combustion reactor.
Fig. A3.3 Reactor top view.
Fig. A3.4 Exemplary cross section of an adapted mesh (700,000 in sum; smaller volumes are defined
in the orange circled area) for the computation of 40 % waste gas recirculation.
Fig. A3.5 CFD results of the NOX distribution.
Fig. A3.6 Theoretical through-wall leakage flow at a DLCO heating flue according to the leakage
dimensions and gas pressure difference between coke chamber and heating flue.
Fig. A3.7 Measured and calculated O2 decrease in the flue gas for different TWL experiments.
Fig. A3.8 NOX in the flue gas as a function of through-wall leakage flow and O2 in flue gas.
Fig. A3.9 Theoretical flue gas composition for combustion of coke oven gas as function of Lambda.

LIST OF REFERENCES IN APPENDIX 3

[A3.1] Magnusse B and Hjertager B: On Mathematical Models of turbulent combustion with special
emphasis on Soot Formation and Combustion, 16th (Int.) Symposium on Combustion, The
Combustion Institute, 1976;
[A3.2] Jones WP and Lindstedt RP: Global Reaction Schemes for hydrocarbon combustion,
Combustion and Flame, 48, 1982;
[A3.3] Jess A: Thermische und katalytische Spaltung von Kohlenwasserstoffen in wasserstoff- und
wasserdampfreicher Atmosphre Eine Modelluntersuchung zur Erzeugung von
Reduktionsgas aus Koksofenrohgas, Habilitationsschrift, 1996.

98
APPENDIX 4

WORK PACKAGE 4: Individual wall automatic heating control in response to real-time


diagnostics

Appendix 4.1: Task 4.1 Investigation and System Development

Figure A4.1 shows the underjet heating system at DLCO. A description of the heating system is given
in Appendix 1.1.

Fig. A4.1: Woodall-Duckham-Koppers twin flue recirculation underjet oven at DLCO (scheme)

Fig. A4.2: Battery cellar at DLCO including the COG piping

99
Fig. A4.3: Schematic of Beckers recirculation of waste gas from the down-burning adjacent flue at
DLCO plant

Fig. A4.4: View into a real hot heating flue at DLCO showing the gas and air outlets

Process sequence and P&I-diagram


The hitherto proceeding heating phase has been terminated by the reversing unit on closing the gas
reversing cock associated with the up-burning heating flues. The air flaps and waste gas valve disks at
the waste gas/air valves are set for the following heating phase. The blower for additional air is in
operation.

The pressure control flaps are moved into the position which they had taken at the end of the preceding
heating phase towards the just expired heating phase, i.e. the control flap in the connection line carrying
gas during the following heating phase stands in the start position "GAS", and the control flap in the
connection line carrying air during the following heating phase stands in the start position "AIR". The
gas reversing cock of the associated up-burning heating flues is opened via the reversing unit. Fuel gas
streams via the connection line, via the associated nozzle strand and via the connected riser pipes to the
up-burning heating flues. Via the second, closed gas reversing cock, air streams through the lateral
connection and via the connection line, via the nozzle strand and via the connected riser pipes to the
down-burning heating flues. If the ON-position of the gas reversing cock has been reached, the
pressure controls in the connection lines carrying gas and air are activated after an adjustable waiting
time (0 10 s) has been expired. In accordance with the design values to be defined by the heating
control and by the detection system, the fuel gas pressure in the gas-carrying nozzle strand and the air

100
pressure in the nozzle strand carrying additional air are controlled and regulated. As the signal to close
the gas cocks is sent to the reversing unit, the actuator signals of the controls are saved. The control
flap in the connection line carrying additional air is closed and the one in the connection line carrying
gas is opened. Then the reversing unit closes the gas cock of the hitherto up-burning heating flues. As
soon as the hitherto gas-carrying reversing cock has reached the OFF-position, air streams via the
connection line, via the nozzle strand and via the riser pipes in the direction of the hitherto up-burning
heating flues. This relatively large volume of air pushes the fuel gas still remaining in the lines towards
the direction of the heating flues where it is then burnt. Back-ignitions from the heating flues into the
nozzle strand and connection line due to the evolving mixture of gas and air are thus avoided. The risk
of deflagrations is thus ruled out. Upon the expiry of an adjustable waiting time (0 20s), the two
control flaps are retracted into the relevant previously saved position. The change in position of the air
flaps and waste gas valve disks is effected subsequently. This marks the beginning of a new cycle.

Fig. A4.5: P&I-diagram of individual oven heating

101
Appendix 4.2: Task 4.2 Preparatory trials

Developments of a seal for the Becker duct tools and of tools for fitting of nozzles and nozzle carriers
Because it was a major technical problem, substantial efforts were directed towards the development
and testing of seals for the Becker duct tools, and of the tools for fitting of nozzles and nozzle carriers.
To this purpose the engineering, laboratory testing, tests in the mechanical workshop and later in the
coke oven plant were performed stepwise.

Laboratory testing of seals


To find a reliable solution for a tight sealing in the lower Becker recirculation port tests were performed
using a wooden model of the nozzle basement and the lower recirculation duct.

Several sealing materials were tested. However, the application of only a resilient sealing was possible,
but this made the manipulation/exchange of the riser pipes unavoidable. A combination of a steel
sealing with a resilient viton gasket did prove a failure and was therefore also abandoned. Therefore
ideas on the use of memory metal for the sealing came up. But a reliable partner for the delivery of
such a sealing could not be found. Instead of this another technical solution for the sealing of
underfiring gas against air was developed using only a spring steel sealing (Fig. A4.6). After several
tests with this sealing type a nearly tight sealing was proven successfully (Fig. A4.7).

Fig. A4.6: Sealing of the Beckers recirculation port by spring steel elements to achieve a nearly gastight
closure of the Becker duct

102
Fig. A4.7: Sealing of the Beckers recirculation port by spring steel elements in the wooden model of the
nozzle basement/recirculation port area

Tests in the mechanical workshop


In the next stage, tests of the handling of the complete equipment were made in the mechanical
workshop (Figures A4.8 and A4.9).

Fig. A4.8: Complete tool in the mechanical workshop

Fig. A4.9: Pin joint of the tool and Nozzle carrier with the seal and the new nozzle at the tip

Plant tests for nozzle holder and seal


The visit to the Dawes Lane coke plant took place in November 2010. It was the aim of this visit to test
the tool and installation of an extended nozzle holder in a riser pipe at one of the coke oven batteries.
During the time before this visit, the coke oven plant management had taken all necessary measures and
preparations to ensure the availability of the test equipment and to select two adjacent heating flues for
this test. These heating flues had been equipped with new riser pipes before this visit.

Initially the DLCO staff were inducted in the handling of the tool and about the modifications made to
the nozzle holders as compared with the existing ones. Subsequently it was initially tried to screw the
nozzle holder from the outside into the thread at the upper end of a reserve riser pipe lying in the
horizontal position. This turned out to be more difficult than anticipated, because the new thread of the
nozzle holder did not fit exactly into the existing thread of the riser pipe. An attempt to screw the

103
nozzle holder by the aid of the tool from inside into the riser pipe was also difficult to realise for the
same reason. The nozzle holder was forcibly screwed-in so as to recut the thread as far as possible. It
was intended to rule out by all means that the thread of the riser pipe installed at the oven could be
damaged by a non-fitting thread of the new nozzle holder. Owing to the different expansion of
materials used, it was to be expected in the long term view that the nozzle holder might get stuck in the
thread of the riser pipe.

In close consultations with the operations department it was then tried to screw the new nozzle holder
including the extension, the spring plate fan and a nozzle by the aid of the tool into one of the chosen
riser pipes. And this time the thread fitted better so that it was possible to screw-in the nozzle holder
completely.

Fig. A4.10: Nozzle carrier arrangement Fig A4.11: Installation of nozzle carrier

After a few minutes waiting time, the nozzle holder was dismantled by the aid of the tool. By means
of the anti-clockwise thread newly cut into the nozzle holder, the tool was fixed without any problems
at the nozzle holder and it was possible to unscrew it easily. Merely by its weight, the spring plate fan
prevented the nozzle holder from falling out which the operating staff was accustomed to. By slightly
pulling the tool, it was managed to overcome the resistance and to pull the nozzle holder. As had been
expected, the spring plate fan became useless for further use (under subsequent operating conditions
and requirements), but not destroyed. Another test for screwing-in and screwing-out was run.
Screwing-in and screwing-out turned out to be as easy as during the previous test. But the spring plate
fan was destroyed due to the renewed loads and stresses. It was pointed out that this was really
expected and that it was planned to use a new spring plate fan after each pulling of a nozzle carrier prior
to its renewed installation. The operating staff attending these tests voiced its positive opinion on the
tests made and confirmed the feasibility for the equipment of two complete heating walls. Together
with the operating staff it was decided to fabricate the new nozzle carriers and nozzles from
INCONEL. This material was said to be more resistant in operation than other materials.

104
The operations department considered and accepted the idea of the additional anticlockwise thread at
the nozzle carrier as a good advance and progress. Since they encountered problems with nozzle
carriers that got stuck in the past, they will presumably equip the existing nozzle carriers in the same
way so as to make pulling possible.

After the successful trial of two test carriers, the spring steel seals and the purpose made
installation/extraction tool this Task (preparatory trials) was completed.

105
Appendix 4.3: Task 4.3 Process Simulation

Figure A4.12 (left) shows a cross-section of a coke oven battery heating system as the main Menu
screen.
In Menu 1 of the programme, shown in Fig. A4.12 (right), the coking coal feedstock data is input (coal
basic data)
In Menu 2, shown in Fig. A4.13 (left), the coke oven battery data is input (battery basic data)
In Menu 4, shown in Fig. A4.13 (right), fuel gas data and battery temperature data is input (heating
basic data)
In Menu 5, shown in Fig. A4.14 (left), gas flows are calculated (flows basic data)
In Menu 6, shown in Fig. A4.14 (right), the heating data is calculated with the provision within the
menu to adjust the leakage gas.

Fig. A4.12: Main menu (left) and menu 1 - input basic data coal (right)

Fig. A4.13: Menu 2 - Basic data battery (left) & menu 4 - heating (right)

106
Fig. A4.14: Menu 5 Basic data flows (left) & menu 6 heating (right)

The program depicts the underfiring of a coke oven by calculating the hyper-stoichiometrical
combustion in the heating wall. This combustion needs a certain amount of air and produces a waste
gas whose composition depends on the composition of the fuel gas.

If there is a crude gas transfer (through-wall leakage) into the heating wall this case will be treated as if
there is a new fuel gas being a mixture of the underfiring gas (UF-gas - in the example below also
called lean gas and the transferred leakage gas. In case the crude gas composition as well as the
waste gas composition is known the underfiring gas composition should be known anyway the
adapted air flow can be calculated by comparing the actual waste gas composition with the one which is
expected for hyper-stoichiometrical combustion without crude gas transfer. That comparison is
performed by the program COBACS for ECOCARB.

The corresponding Menu to enter all data for the comparison is shown in Menu 6 - Heating (Fig. A4.14
(right)). Table A4.1 explains the different parts in Fig. A4.14 (right) that are indicated by numbers.

Table A4.1: Key for Fig. A4.14 (right) with description

item meaning
1 Input fuel gas (lean / rich gas) composition
2 Input crude gas composition (Leakage gas)
3 Input air composition
4 Input actual (measured) waste gas composition
5 Input calorific data
6 Input excess air factor for pure lean / rich gas combustion
7 Fuel gas crude gas ratio
8 Output expected waste gas composition

When all the data except item 7 are entered in the menu there will probably be a deviation of the actual
waste gas composition from the expected waste gas composition. Then the Fuel gas crude gas ratio
is varied until both waste gas compositions coincide. The corresponding air flow can be found in the
mass/flow menu (see Fig. A4.14 (left) Menu 5 Basic Data Flows).

107
Appendix 4.4: Task 4.4 Field trials

The photographs in Fig. A4.15 show the individual wall heating control equipment, installed at DLCO
by Uhde, which was fitted to heating walls 22 and 23 of oven 22 for the field trials.

Fig. A4.15: Close-up view of new equipment, left: air blower and right: reversing cocks

Appendix 4.5: Task 4.5 Performance assessment

Fig. A4.16: Wall 22 NOX emissions (3% O2, dry) with original nozzles and normal fuel flow rate

The difference in the NOX concentrations between adjacent reversals (as shown in Fig. A4.16) is due to
the low- and high-burner twin-flue design at DLCO (mentioned above and in WP1 and WP3).

108
Fig. A4.17: Wall 22 effect with the individual heating control installed and varying fuel rate on NOX
emissions (A normal, B reduced fuel flow)

With the individual control installed no increase of the NOX levels could be stated despite of the
blocked Beckers duct (Fig. A4.17, normal flow rate); it seemed that the emissions were even lower, but
this effect was detected later as being not reproducible. Therefore concerns relating to NOX emissions
and cross wall temperatures could be assuaged.

Effects on emissions to air


Trials at a coking time of 18.5h (full production)

Fig. A4.18: Development of CO resulting from raw gas leakages and typical effect of the individual
heating control on the CO emission (A: Air injected; B: Air stopped)

Fig. A4.19: Typical effect of the individual heating control on the CO emission resulting from raw gas
leakages (A: Air injected; B: Air stopped)

109
Trials at a prolonged coking time of 22 h

Fig. A4.20: Typical development of the CO emission at prolonged coking time - without the individual
heating control active

Because of the low CO level from raw gas leakages under these conditions as seen in Fig. A4.20 a bad
combustion was enforced purposely to get higher CO levels. During these trials sometimes
unexplainable technical problems with the air addition took place, however, each time when the air
addition was observable, as indicated by O2 increase in the waste gas box, there was also a positive
effect on the waste gas CO emission (Fig. A4.21).

110
Fig. A4.21: Typical effect of the secondary air addition on the O2 content (top) and CO emission
(bottom) resulting from raw gas leakages (Air injected: 14:20-15:20) - trials under enforced bad
combustion

Benefits on emissions and energy efficiency


As an example Fig. A4.22 shows the effect of changing the fuel flow rate into wall 22 on the waste gas
CO2 and SO2 emissions. The system allows an efficient use of fuel gas that leads to a reduction in CO2
and SO2 emissions corresponding to lower energy consumption. However, no clear trend of the
measurements can be recognised the effects on the burning are much too complex to be in all details
explainable during the test periods. Nevertheless what can be concluded from the tests is that there is a
possibility of influence on individual heating walls that is not possible without the new system.

111
Fig. A4.22: Effect of varying fuel rate by means of the individual heating control on CO2 and SO2
emissions during a field trial

A further effect of the supplementary air not to be neglected is that the nozzles are decarbonised after
each heating period automatically (without this decarbonisation a blocking of the nozzles by soot
deposits took place after some days of operation). Despite not being quantifiable, an increase in energy
efficiency and avoiding worsening of combustion characteristics can also be realised from this measure.

Estimation of improvements in emissions and energy from using individual wall control
Table A4.2 shows estimates of some of the benefits related to emissions and energy when the heat
(using COG as fuel) into only one oven (2 walls) is increased by 10% compared to all the 25 ovens (26
walls) at one DLCO battery (assumed coke production 235,000 t/a). For the purpose of this estimation,
linear relationships between emissions and energy with the walls having similar heating and emission
characteristics have been assumed. The reduced energy consumption by 79 TJ per one DLCO battery,
which lowers the CO2 emission by 3.3 k tonne, also provides the opportunity to use the coke oven gas
instead of natural gas in other parts of an integrated plant and would allow considerable cost to be
made. There will also be reductions in other emissions as mentioned above.

Table A4.2: Estimated benefits in emissions and energy consumption using individual wall control
Total Energy COG Battery stack CO2
usage (TJ) (k tonne)
Typical value for 1 M 3650 151.2
tonne of coke produced
For 1 DLCO battery 858 35.5
10% increase in heat 943 39.1
input to 26 walls of a
battery
10% increase in heat 864 35.8
input to only 2 walls
Potential reduction 79 3.3

112
LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX 4

Table A4.1 Key for Fig. A4.14 (right) with description


Table A4.2 Estimated benefits in emissions and energy consumption using individual wall control

LIST OF FIGURES IN APPENDIX 4

Fig. A4.1 Woodall-Duckham-Koppers twin flue recirculation underjet oven.


Fig. A4.2 Battery cellar at DLCO including the COG piping.
Fig. A4.3 Schematic of Beckers recirculation of waste gas from the down-burning
adjacent flue at DLCO plant.
Fig. A4.4 View into a real hot heating flue at DLCO showing the gas and air outlets.
Fig. A4.5 P&I-diagram of individual oven heating.
Fig. A4.6 Sealing of the Beckers recirculation port by spring steel elements to achieve a nearly
gastight closure of the Becker duct.
Fig. A4.7 Sealing of the Beckers recirculation port by spring steel elements in the wooden model
of the nozzle basement/recirculation port area.
Fig. A4.8 Complete tool in the mechanical workshop.
Fig. A4.9 Pin joint of the tool and Nozzle carrier with the seal and the new nozzle at the tip.
Fig. A4.10 Nozzle carrier arrangement.
Fig. A4.11 Installation of nozzle carrier.
Fig. A4.12 Main Menu (left) and Menu 1 - Input Basic Data Coal (right).
Fig. A4.13 Menu 2 - Basic Data Battery (left) & Menu 4 - Heating (right).
Fig. A4.14 Menu 5 Basic Data Flows (left) & Menu 6 Heating (right).
Fig. A4.15 Close-up view of new equipment, left: air blower and right: reversing cocks.
Fig. A4.16 Wall 22 NOX emissions (3% O2, dry) with original nozzles and normal fuel rate.
Fig. A4.17 Wall 22 effect with the individual heating control installed and varying fuel rate on
NOX emissions (A normal, B reduced fuel flow).
Fig. A4.18 Development of CO resulting from raw gas leakages and typical effect of the individual
heating control on the CO emission (A: Air injected; B: Air stopped).
Fig. A4.19 Typical effect of the individual heating control on the CO emission resulting from raw
gas leakages (A: Air injected; B: Air stopped).
Fig. A4.20 Typical development of the CO emission at prolonged coking time - without the
individual heating control active.
Fig. A4.21 Typical effect of secondary air addition on O2 content (top) and CO emission (bottom)
resulting from raw gas leakages (Air injected: 14:20-15:20) - enforced bad combustion.
Fig. A4.22 Effect of varying fuel rate by means of the individual heating control on CO2 and SO2
emissions during a field trial.

113
APPENDIX 5

WORK PACKAGE 5: Real-time performance monitoring, diagnostics and advisory system

Appendix 5.1: Task 5.1 Real-time diagnostics model

Architecture of overall real-time on-line diagnostics system


The structure for the development and application of the new on-line diagnostics system is shown in
(Fig. A5.1).

At-line/On-line Continuous, Multi-Stage


and End of Batch Process Monitoring

PCA/PLS
Projection Based Multi-block PCA/PLS
Techniques Approaches

On-line Latent On-line SPE On-line Quality Monitoring


2
Variable Scores Hotelling's T

On-line Statistical
Monitoring

On-line Fault Detection and


Identification

Impact Analysis

Fig. A5.1: ECOCARB Real-time Process Diagnostics Schematic

G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system


The Gensym G2 real-time intelligent expert system is an object-oriented development environment for
optimising system dynamic, decision support and control applications. There are several facilities
within G2 to construct control models, however, despite these facilities there are a number of
limitations. For example, many G2 real-time expert systems are based upon simple data analysis such
as univariate data analysis to reach conclusions which can potentially lead to higher false alarm rates,
late detection and poor monitoring capabilities. There are some more successful G2 real-time
applications using multivariate statistical process control techniques such as those at some of the blast
furnaces in Tata Steel.

However, to build a multivariate statistical process monitoring and diagnostics model for the Gensym
G2 real-time system, for use as coke oven heating fault diagnostics, required additional sophisticated
data pre-processing and analysis tools in addition to the next generation multivariate statistical
techniques. Traditional software packages, such as ArchitectMV used in WP1, are able to carry out
statistical analysis of historical data but none of them enable flexible and ease-of-use of multivariate
statistical analysis, modelling and diagnostics within the Gensym G2 real-time system. Thus, prior to
ECOCARB, all the relevant analyses had to be carried out independently and then manually stored in a
series of files. Although these model files can be read by the Gensym G2 diagnostics system to perform
process monitoring, this normally took an experienced engineer some considerable time (up to a few
days) to carry out an intensive data analysis and model building for uploading into the Gensym G2
diagnostics system.

114
The ECOCARB process performance monitoring, diagnostics and advisory system is purpose-designed
to bridge the technological gap between sophisticated process data analysis, modelling and simulation
and the Gensym G2 real-time diagnostics system. It integrates data collection, analysis, modelling,
simulation, diagnostics and advisory functionality developed for ECOCARB.

Figure A5.2 shows the Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system top level model. In the
screen shot of Fig. A5.2 the measured process inputs with the variable names, the data filters to
condition the measured signals can be seen. Each measured variable has its own raw data filter
specified by the real-time advisory system and process condition monitoring model (marked as X t next
to each variable name), the data synchronisers (blue rectangles marked with 1, 2, , 10 and 1, 2, 3), the
PCA model (blue square marked with "June 2011 GYI"). This constitutes the core of the diagnostics
system which is generated separately by using the additional statistical data pre-screening, pre-
processing and modelling tools developed by UNEW and accessed through the MATLAB GUI. All the
statistical measures and plots can be accessed from the GUI. For example, The 'blue' squares with the
code 'PC'/'SPE'/'T2' represents the newly collected data (either from real-time sensor reading or from
off-line simulation dataset), which is projected on to the latent variable space resulting in the
multivariate monitoring statistics. The 'white' squares with magnifying glass inside are the enable
access to the real-time/off-line simulation multivariate control chart display connected to the G2
diagnostic system.

Fig. A5.2: Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system top model

Appendix 5.2: Task 5.2 Real-time advisory system

Top level screen of the ECOCARB real-time advisory system


Figure A5.3 shows the top level screen of the ECOCARB real-time advisory system developed using
the Gensym G2 system. The Advisory System button on the upper left hand side of the figure
contains all the coke oven operating rules derived from analysis and understanding of the historical
plant data in WP1 and plant operational log book. Engineers use the ECOCARB system to analyse
historical data and relate abnormal data observations to certain process faults such as through-wall
leakage, emissions, etc, as part of the diagnostics model building process. After the advisory model has
been established, the statistical limits for both univariate and multivariate statistics are determined to
provide operational staff with actual control limits.

The Multivariate button enables reading of the PCA model file created and the calculation of the
multivariate statistics such as PC scores and monitoring statistics T2 and SPE. The advisory system is
then enabled to provide advice based on coke oven multivariate statistical performance monitoring and
diagnostics.

115
Fig. A5.3: Gensym G2 Real-time advisory system top level screen

The core aim of the on-line real-time advisory system is to combine operational knowledge and
information acquired from the plant data analysis to the real-time diagnostic and advisory model in G2 /
iMSPC. The process monitoring / advisory model can be specified by a variety of available files, such
as a top model file, option file, contribution analysis schemes file etc. Typical screen shots of these
files are shown in A5.4, 5 and 6.

Fig. A5.4: Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system top model file

Once a nominal model has been built the ECOCARB software automatically generates a model-file
required for the G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system. This model-file contains principal
component loading matrix, variable units, Eigen values of the system, standard deviations of each
variable, etc. Figure A5.5 shows the G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system option file and Fig.
A5.6 shows the G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system contribution analysis file.

116
Fig. A5.5: Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system option file.

Fig. A5.6: Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system contribution analysis scheme file.

The G2 real-time system reads in the top model file together with all other supporting files, and sets up
the statistical limits for each of the statistical monitoring control charts - principal component (PC)
scores, squared prediction error (SPE) and Hotelling's T2.

117
Rules for G2 system to determine that the increase in stack dust emission (or CO emission) are
caused by through-wall leakage, fuel parameters or nozzle blockage for advisory system

Table A5.1: Operation range for DLCO battery variables

DLCO Battery Tags Normal operation


Tag Description Min Max
Total Fuel Gas Flow (m3/hr) 1500 15000
Fuel Gas Flow IN Batt 1 (m3/hr) 150 5500
Fuel Gas Flow IN Batt 2 (m3/hr) 150 5500
Fuel Gas Flow IN Batt 3 (m3/hr) 150 5500
Mass Spec CV (MJ/m3) 16 20
Mass Spec SG 0.2 0.5
Mass Spec H2 (%) 50 70
Mass Spec Methane (%) 15 30
Mass Spec Benzene (%) 0 0.5
Stack Press Control (mBar) 2 3.5
Stack Temperature (Deg. C) 230 350
Stack CO (%) 0 2200
Stack O2 (%) 3 12
Stack Obscuration (%) 0 40

1. If the stack obscuration (dust emission) during charging of an oven goes above the maximum
(40%) for less than 90 minutes and none of the fuel parameters go out of range at that time, then
the emissions are caused by through-wall leakage.

2. If the stack obscuration (dust emission) goes above the maximum (40%) and/or stack CO goes
above the maximum (2200 ppm) for more than 90 minutes and some of the fuel parameters also
go out of range for the same duration, then the emissions are caused by fuel parameters.

3. If the stack obscuration (dust emission) goes above the maximum (40%) and/or stack CO goes
above the maximum (2200 ppm) for more than 90 minutes and none of the fuel parameters go
out of range for the same duration, then the emissions are caused by nozzle blockage.

Key for colours of cells in the G2 Advisory screen

a) Stack obscuration: if the average of the last three peaks is:

i) Less than 40%, then cell is green (low);


ii) Between 40% and 85%, then cell is yellow (medium);
iii) More than 85%, then cell is red (high).

84 55 37

b) CO gas: if the average of the last three peaks is:

i) Less than 2200 ppm, then cell is green (low);


ii) Between 2200 ppm and 2600 ppm, then cell is yellow (medium);
iii) More than 2600 ppm, then cell is red (high).

2800 2300 1200

118
c) For through-wall leakage (ignore CO gas), if the average of the last three peaks of stack
obscuration during charging of an oven is:

i) Less than 40%, then cell is green (low);


ii) Between 40% and 85%, then cell is yellow (medium);
iii) More than 85%, then cell is red (high).

Fuel and Nozzle should also be green.

d) For fuel parameter and Nozzle blockage problems

The colour of the cell is determined by the stack obscuration (dust emission) or CO gas whichever is the
largest as shown in (a) and (b) above except that it is not related charging.

Note: The above sensitivity settings for colour indication can be adjusted to provide a realistic
representation of the condition of the plant.

LIST OF TABLES IN APPENDIX 5

Table A5.1 Operation range for DLCO battery variables

LIST OF FIGURES IN APPENDIX 5

Fig. A5.1 ECOCARB Real-time Process Diagnostics Schematic.


Fig. A5.2 Gensym G2 real-time diagnostic and advisory system top model.
Fig. A5.3 Gensym G2 Real-time advisory system top level screen.
Fig. A5.4 Gensym G2 Real-time diagnostic and advisory system top model file.
Fig. A5.5 Gensym G2 Real-time diagnostic and advisory system option file.
Fig. A5.6 Gensym G2 Real-time diagnostic and advisory system contribution analysis scheme file.

119
European Commission

EUR 25902 Reduction of emissions and energy utilisation of coke oven underfiring heating systems
through advanced diagnostics and control (Ecocarb)

Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union

2013 119 pp. 21 29.7 cm

ISBN 978-92-79-29187-6
doi:10.2777/8828
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KI-NA-25902-EN-N
The project aims are to reduce emissions and maximise the energy efficiency
of coke oven heating using intelligent diagnostics and individual wall heating
control. A new understanding of the combustion characteristics under
abnormal conditions caused by through-wall leakage, combustion inefficiency
and regenerator malfunctioning has been obtained using plant trials, physical
modelling and analysis. The information and data from these investigations
have enabled a data-driven real-time diagnostic system to be developed for
detecting and identifying heating faults at early stages of occurrence.

Waste gas analysis, plant data and process knowledge have helped in the
identification of the main parameters for detection and location of heating
faults (Tata Steel), required for the development of a diagnostic system. This
system was further extended into a real-time advisory system (UNEW), which
was implemented on-line at DLCO to provide feedback on heating faults to plant
personnel. A regenerator inspection robot was developed and applied under real
coke oven conditions as part of a complete evaluation of combustion efficiency,
with guidelines to identify combustion problems (AMMR/CPM).An experimental
heating flue was constructed to investigate the effects of through-wall leakage
and nozzle blockage (BFI), and along with CFD modelling, it was shown that flue
gas dust, CO, H2 and O2 contents can be used as indicators of heating faults.
An individual wall heating control system was designed and implemented to
counteract the effects from heating faults (Uhde), with no detrimental effect on
NOX emissions or heat distribution..

Studies and reports

doi:10.2777/8828