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Behaviorism, Cognitive Theory, Constructivism, Transformative

learning theory

Educational psychology, educational neuroscience

Behaviorism (Watson)
prediction and control of behavior
only treats public events/observable behavior
learning = the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning and
social learning

Types of conditioning:
classical: the behavior becomes a reflex response to a stimulus
operant: where an antecedent stimuli is followed by a consequence of
the behavior through reward or punishment
social learning theory: where an observation of behavior is followed
by modeling

Situated Cognition: students need to be exposed to learning that is

practiced in the context of authentic activity and culture

Cognitivist theory:
-memory system is an active organized processor of information
-prior knowledge plays an important role in learning

Transfer of Learning (Thorndike)

Competency-Based Learning
learners work on one competency at a time
main question here: what is the big skill / the big problem that the
numerous competencies build toward? I suppose one answer would be
Constructivism (Piaget) and radical constructivism (Ernst von
various iterations: active learning, discovery learning, knowledge
active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for
curriculum should be designed in a way that builds on the pupils
background knowledge and is allowed to develop with them
theres a project/problem-based aspect to it. Begin with complex
problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems.The
teacher acts as a facilitator who encourages students to discover
principles for themselves and to construct knowledge by working,
answering open-ended questions, and soling real-world problems.

Transformative Learning Theory

apropos, in that it discusses the need to acknowledge the distorting
capacity of values and associations
works on transforming habits of mind and points of view
reflection, appropriation, and feedback and change points of view
It takes place by discussing with others the Reasons presented in
support of competing interpretations, by critically examining evidence,
arguments, and alternative points of view

Educational Neuroscience

Accelerating the learning process:

cognitive acceleration
spaced repetition
incremental reading

Difference between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge

is usefulthis is used in cognitive psychology. Declarative knowledge
is encyclopedic knowledge base; procedural knowledge is specific
knowledge relating to performing tasks.

Cognitive Load Theory

emphasizes the limitations of working memory and the need to
present information effectively within those limits
Major paper for it: G.A. Miller, The magical number seven, plus or
minus two: some limits on our capacity to process information
Psychological Review (1956)
The theory itself was pioneered in the late 1980s by John Sweller
The application of this theory in the 1990s led to the demonstration of
several learning effects: the completion-problem effect; modality
effect; split attention effect; worked example effect; expertise reversal
three types of cognitive load: intrinsic; Germane; extraneous
-intrinsic: the level of difficulty (and number of schemas) inherent in
the problem
-extraneous: the way in which the info/problem is presented to learners

1956: Benjamin Bloom releases his taxonomy (1956)
1956: B.F. Skinner, The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching
-effective instructional materials should include small steps,
frequent questions, immediate feedback, allow for self-pacing
1962: Robert Glaser introduces criterion-referenced measures. In
contrast to norm-referenced tests where an individuals performance
is compared to group performance, a criterion-referenced test is
designed to test an individuals behavior in relation to an objective
1962: Robert F. Mager, Preparing Objectives for Programmed
Instruction (1962)
-learning objectives; describes how to write objectives including
desired behavior, learning condition, assessment
1965: Robert Gagnes [see his nine events below]The Conditions of
Learning. Builds off Bloom, says there are three domains of learning
outcomes (cognitive, affective, psychomotor), five learning outcomes
(verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategy, attitude,
motor skills,) and nine events of instruction
1981: Cognitive Acceleration approach developed by Michael Shayer
and Philip Adey
-tries to catalyze a shift from concrete thinking to abstract
thinking (Piaget), and uses the Zone of Proximal Development idea

F Reif, Applying Cognitive Science to Education: Thinking and Learning
in Scientific and Other Complex Domains (MIT, 2008)
H. Kleiibard, The Struggle for American Curriculum (2004)
Journal of Educational Psychology
Brain Mechanisms and Learning (Oxford: Blackwell)
Henderson and Dweck, Achievement and Motivation in Adolescence
Anything from Teachers College Press
Instructional Science journal
Educational Psychology Review
Educational Philosophy and Theory journal
British Journal of Educational Studies
Introducing Neuroeducational Research: Neuroscience, Education and
the Brain from Contexts to Practice
On working memory, the following study was apparently important for
showing a correlation between working-memory capacity and reading
comprehension: Meredyth Daneman, Patricia Carpenter, Individual
differences in working memory and reading, Journal of Verbal
Learning and Verbal Behavior (1980); see also, working memory and
language comprehension: a meta-analysis by the same authors in the
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review

Nine events[edit]
According to Gagn, learning occurs in a series of learning
events. Each of nine learning events are conditions for
learning which must be accomplished before the next in
order for learning to take place, termed . Similarly,
instructional events should mirror the learning events:
1. Gaining attention: To ensure reception of coming
instruction, the teacher gives the learners a stimulus.
Before the learners can start to process any new
information, the instructor must gain the attention of
the learners. This might entail using abrupt changes in
the instruction.
2. Informing learners of objectives: The teacher tells the
learner what they will be able to do because of the
instruction. The teacher communicates the desired
outcome to the group.
3. Stimulating recall of prior learning: The teacher asks for
recall of existing relevant knowledge.
4. Presenting the stimulus: The teacher gives emphasis to
distinctive features.
5. Providing learning guidance: The teacher helps the
students in understanding (semantic encoding) by
providing organization and relevance.
6. Eliciting performance: The teacher asks the learners to
respond, demonstrating learning.
7. Providing feedback: The teacher gives informative
feedback on the learners' performance.
8. Assessing performance: The teacher requires more learner
performance, and gives feedback, to reinforce learning.
9. Enhancing retention and transfer: The teacher provides
varied practice to generalize the capability.

Bloom, Benjamin Taxonomies of the cognitive, affective,

and psychomotor domains 1950s
Bonk, Curtis Blended learning 2000s
Bransford, John D. How People Learn: Bridging Research
and Practice 1990s
Bruner, Jerome Constructivism - 1950s-1990s
Clark, Richard Clark-Kozma "Media vs Methods debate",
"Guidance" debate.
Gagn, Robert M. Nine Events of Instruction (Gagn and
Merrill Video Seminar)
Gibbons, Andrew S - developed the Theory of Model
Centered Instruction; a theory rooted in Cognitive
Hannum, Wallace H.
Heinich, Robert Instructional Media and the new
technologies of instruction 3rd ed. Educational
Technology 1989
Jonassen, David problem-solving strategies 1990s
Kemp, Jerold E. Created a cognitive learning design
model - 1980s
Langdon, Danny G The Instructional Designs Library: 40
Instructional Designs, Educational Technology
Mager, Robert F. ABCD model for instructional objectives
1962 - Criterion Referenced Instruction and Learning
Marzano, Robert J. - "Dimensions of Learning", Formative
Assessment - 2000s
Mayer, Richard E. - Multimedia Learning - 2000s
Merrill, M. David Component Display Theory / Knowledge
Objects / First Principles of Instruction
Osgoverview of Instructional DesignISD HandbookEdutech
wikication' and 'love' in teaching and learning [67]
Papert, Seymour Constructionism, LOGO 1970s-1980s
Piaget, Jean Cognitive development 1960s
Reigeluth, Charles Elaboration Theory, "Green Books" I,
II, and III 1990s2010s
Schank, Roger Constructivist simulations 1990s
Simonson, Michael Instructional Systems and Design via
Distance Education 1980s
Skinner, B.F. Radical Behaviorism, Programed Instruction -
Vygotsky, Lev Learning as a social activity 1930s
Wiley, David A. - influential work on open content, open
educational resources, and informal online learning
Wilson, Brent G. - Constructivist learning environments -

Lets say your class meets four times a week

There is content that has to be communicated
But what is that content really? In history, the content is usually
secondary source reading you have done. In other words, you are
taking on academic faith the information you are trying to
communicate. You have read peoples interpretations of primary
sources and then tried to communicate them. Why not just
communicate the primary sources themselves?

Maybe what would be good, then, would be a type of model where

students are exposed to the primary sources at first, have the freedom
to interpret them as they see fitwhich gives formative assessment
opportunityand then look at how authoritative authors have worked
with either the same material or similar material.

What if each unit archive was broken up by weeklets say you have
students looking at two to three documents a week, focused on some
guiding questions, and then at the end you combine all of the weekly
documents and ask for a narrative construction, as well as a critical
reading of a secondary source dealing with similar subject matter,
asking them to use their primary sources to either support or critique
the secondary sources.

Class time might then be used working on the primary sources,

together or individually; working on methodological concepts; doing
harkness discussions;

One class on secondary source (harkness); one class on primary

sources and method; one class on contemporary application w/
student presentation?; one class on secondary source, chronology,
core narrative, and work on weekly homework?

Using Fictional Sources in the Classroom: Applications from Cognitive

Psychology (September 2012)
so dumb.

The efficacy of fiction as a learning tool is likely due to many factors,

such as increased interest and, consequently, increased time on task,
as well as the organizational mnemonic or schema provided by

Interest: greater interest leads to increased time spent studying,

longer retention of studied materials, and better grades (Silvia, 2006)
The Value of Applied Research: Retrieval Practice Improves Classroom
Learning and Recommendations from a Teacher, a Principal, and a
Scientist (September, 2012)
Quizzing improves long-term retention, esp. delayed quizzes
To summarize, buzzing in eighth grade science significantly improved
students long-term retention, and this retrieval practice effect was
obtained with only a single review quiz administered 8 months prior to
the final criterial testIn contrast to quizzing immediate before (i.e. a
pre-quiz) or after (i.e. a post-quiz) a teachers lesson, a delayed quiz
(i.e. a review quiz a few days later) was most potent for enhancing
long-term retention.

Feedback: feedback [on quizzes] improves students actual

performance and also students predictions of their performance (see
Butler et al. 2008) and Agarwal et al aimed to extend this work into an
authentic school setting with classroom materials. Of particular
relevance to educators, feedback is typically believed to be beneficial
for only students incorrect answers. However, in both Butler et al
(2008) and Agarwal et al (2009), results demonstrated that feedback
after quizzing improved students low confidence correct responses.

When is Practice Testing Most Effective for Improving the Durability

and Efficiency of Student Learning? (September 2012)

Summative testing, esp. the type that requires retrieval of long-term

memory (such as short answer tests), increases learning retention and

In sum, the prevailing evidence supports the prescriptive conclusion

that a particularly effective way to enhance student learning is to
engage in repeated, retrieval-based practice tests that are followed by
restudy and that are distributed across time.

Test-enhanced learning has been shown on many kinds of criterion

measures, including those that primarily measure memory for the
practiced items and this that primarily measure comprehension or
application of the practiced items (e.g. Butler 2010; Johnson and Mayer
2009; McDaniel et al 2009).
Results suggest that practice tests are more effective when they
require retrieval of information from longer-term memory (e.g., such as
a short answer question that presents learners with a key term and
asks them to recall the definition from memory) rather than
recognition-based tests (e.g. a multiple-choice question that presents
learners with a key term and asks them to select the correct definition
from among a list of alternatives). Furthermore, the advantage of
retrieval-based practice tests over recognition-based tests has been
shown even when the final test is recognition-based.

Retrieval-Based Learning: A Perspective for Enhancing Meaningful

Learning (September 2012)
Retrieval shouldnt just be seen as a way to assess and access
knowledge, instead should be seen as part of learning itself.

Here we make the case that retrieval is the key process for
understanding and promoting learning.

The perspective that we refer to as retrieval-based learning is

founded on two central ideas. The first idea is that retrieval is the key
process for understanding learning and therefore must be considered
in any analysis of learning.The second idea is that retrieval is not a
neutral assessment of the contents of ones mind, but the process of
retrieval itself contributes to learning.

Doug Rohrer, Interleaving Helps Students Distinguish Among Similar

Concepts (September 2012)
Interleaving (mixing up encounters of various concepts when trying to
teach a group of concepts to students) is good

Shana K. Carpenter, et al. Using Space to Enhance Diverse Forms of

Learning (September 2012)
Studying information across two or more session that are separated
(i.e., spaced apart or distributed) in time often produces better
learning than spending the same amount of time studying the material
in a single session.

The optimal spacing gap depends on when the information will be

tested in the future. For participants who completed the final test 7
days after their final study session, the optimal spacing gap was 1 day.
However, for participants who waited 35 days before taking the final
test, the optimal spacing gap was 11 days. For those who completed
the final test after 70 days, the best spacing gap was 21 days. In
general, the optimal spacing gap equaled 10-20% of the test delay.

Lisa K. Son, Dominic A. Simon, Distributed Learning: Data,

Metacognition, and Educational Implications
The past and ongoing data provide consistent implications for
education, both for the educator and the individual learner: spacing
study is the optimal strategy.

By using the ungraded quizzing method, educators can encourage

effective strategies of both spacing and self-testing while discouraging
the stress that is so often connected with test-taking in school.

Another potential way in which to incorporate the benefits of spacing

into the classroom is to increase contextual variability (e.g.
Raajimakers 2003). Contextual variability can