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:-

) (Degassing Stations
(Reservoirs) .


.
Degassing Stations) . ( -


separators production manifold




.

dead
crude oil
0
:- -


.
(Degassing
)Stations

.

:-



:-

. -:

. -:

. -:

. -:

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. -:

-:
0

**************************************************
*********
(Internal Pressure Tanks ) :- -:


Atmospheric Presser Tanks Low Presser Tanks

-

(API Standard
650 ) .

-
) (High VP
) (15 PSI
) (Presser Vessels
(API Standard 620) .

((Tanks Diameter :-" :

Small & Medium Diameter Tanks Large Diameter Tanks

) (60 Meter -
(One Foot Method) .

) (120 Meter -
(Variable Design Method) .

(Tanks Sit Method) :- -:

Anchored Tanks Free Tanks

) (Anchored Bolt



.
. )(

(Tanks Roof Shape) :- -:



Cone Roof Tanks Dame Roof Tanks

) (Cone Roof Tanks -



.
) (Dame Roof Tanks -
.


.

(Tanks Roof Type) :- -:


Fixed Roof Tanks Floating Roof Tanks

-: -
.
-: -


.
:-

(Single Deck) . -
(Double Deck ) . -
(Closed Floating Pipes) . -
-
.

:- -:



Self-Supporting RoofCenter Supporting
RoofRoof Supporting

.

Top Angle
.

) (Top Angle
) ( Centercolom ) ( Crown
.


:-



:-
. ) (AIP -
(GOST) . -
(BS) . -







Ph_S_SI_C
:- ) )

.
. -

.
.




.

:


) (Api Standard 650
) ( 15 PSI
) ( Api Standard 620
.


) ) GOR ) ( Gas / Oil Ratio
( Flare
) Pipe
) ( Degassing tower
.




) (NACE-MR 0175
(sour services requirements ) .

) ) (API650
(

) (Foundation -:



) ( Soil Bearing value

) ( 1 TON /m2
" ) ( 1 m

.

:-
. - ) (
(PILES) . -

.

.

) (Erath Foundation
:-

(Earth -:
Foundation with concrete ring wall ) :-

) ( Self Supporting Roof

.


) ( API 650 APPX.B

(Earth :
) Foundation Without ring wall


.
) ( API 650 - APPX.B

:- -:

) ( Bottom Plates 1

) 6 (
) ( Corrosion Allowance


.

. ) 50 (
( Lap Welded
Joints ).



( Annular
Plate ) .

(300 mm) .


) (Butt Welded
) (600mm
.

.

(Annular-Bottom -2 -
Plates) :-

(Allowable
) (IVA , IVIVA , V ,VI ) Stress

(Maximum Product
(160 ) Stress
) (Maximum hydrostatic Test Stress )MPa

) (172 MPA
) (50 mm
.


:-
)(215 tb

; where
) tb =Thickness of annular plate . (mm
) H = Maximum design liquid level . (m
G = Design specific gravity of the liquid .

) A (
.

Shell design ) ) :-

( Corrosion
) allowance
:-
Nominal plate thickness
*2
Nominal Tank diametr
*1
) ( mm ) ( in
( m ) ( ft . )
5 3/16
6 1/4
8 5/16
10 3/8
50>15>15 to 36 50 to 120
200>to 12036 to 60
200 < 60 <
1* Nominal Tank Diameter Shell By The
Centerline Diameter Of The Bottom Shell
_Course Plate .
2* Nominal Plate Thickness Refer To The Tank
Shell As Constructed The Thickness Specified
Are Based On Erection Requirements .
:-
1--Foot MethodOne:-
60
M.

:-

Where :-
td= Design Shell Thickness In (mm) .
= Hydrostatic Test Shell Thickness In (mm) .
D = Nominal Tank Diameter In (m) .
H = Design Liquid Level In (m).
= Height From The Bottom Of The Course
Under Consideration To The Top Of The Shell
Including The Top Angle , If Any : To The
Bottom Of Any Over - Flow That Limit To The
Tank Filling Height Or Any Other Level
Specified By The Purchaser , Restricted By An
Internal Floating Roof , Or Controlled To
Allow For Seismic Wave Action .
G = Design Specific Gravity Of The Liquid To
Be Stored .
CA = Corrosion Allowance , In (mm)
(Specified By Purchaser) .
Sd= Allowable Stress For The Design
Condition , In MPa .
S= Allowable stress For The Hydrostatic Test
Condition , In MPa .

-2- Variable Design Point :-




( One Foot Method)


:-
Where :-
, In (mm) .
D = Tank Diameter , In (m) .
t = Bottom Course Shell Thickness , In (mm) .
H = Max . Design Liquid Level , In (m) 0

) (One Foot Method
)(
(Preliminary
)Values

)(

:-
SI Units :-
= (1.06 ) () + CA .
US Units :-
= (1.06) () + CA .

-: )(
() .
SI Units :-
= (1.06 ) () .
US Units :-
= (1.06) () .
-:
() . )(


:-
Where :-
= Height Of The Bottom Shell Course In mm.
(in.) .
r = Nominal Tank Radius In mm. ( in.) .
t = Actual Thickness Of The Bottom Shell
Course , Less Any Thickness Added
For Corrosion Allowance In mm. (in.) , Used
To Calculate () (Design) . The Total Thickness
Of The Bottom Shell Course Shall Be Used To
Calculate () (Hydrostatic Test) .
(1.375)

(2.625)

) ( 1.375)
(2.625 .
+ () [2.1
Where :-
Minimum Design Thickness Of The Second
Shell Course Excluding Corrosion Allowance ,
In (mm) (in) .
= Thickness Of The Second Shell Course , In
(mm) (in) .

()
)(
( Variable Design Point)
:-
SI UNITS :-
Where :-
Thickness Of The Upper Course Of The Girth
Joint In (mm) .
C=
=K
= Thickness Of The Lower Course At The
Girth Joint In (mm) .
= Design Liquid Level In (mm) .
IN US UNITS :-

Where :-
Thickness Of The Upper Course Of The Girth
Joint In (in) .
=C
=K
= Thickness Of The Lower Course At The
Girth Joint In (in) .
= Design Liquid Level In (ft.) .
)(

:-
IN SI UNITS :-
IN US UNITS:-
)(
)( )(

.

(Roof Design) :- -

:-
Dead Load + Uniform Life Load 1.2 KPa (25
lb. / f) Of Projected Area .

) (3/16 in ) (5 mm

) (Self-Supporting Roofs
.

.
-:
(0.17 ) (4.5 mm
)in
.

) (Top Angle
(Continuous Fillet Weld) .

)(Maximum Static And Dynamic Stress



(Asics Specification For Structural Steel
) Buildings

.

) (6mm) (0.250 in
(Knee ) (Columns
)Braces And Beams Or Stiffeners
( 4 mm) ( 0.17 in) .
-1 - (( Supported
Cone Roofs :-
( 300 mm /19 mm) (3/4''
in 12'') .

-2 - ( Self-
Supporting Cone Roofs) :-
( 5 mm) (3/16 in) .
Self-Supporting Cone Roofs Shall Conform To
The Followings :-
37 (Slop = 9:12) .
9.5 (Slop = 2:12) .
IN SI UNITS :-
Min. thick. = 5 mm .
Max. thick. = 12.5 mm , Exclusive Of C.A.
= Angle Of The Cone Elements To The
Horizontal , In (Degree) .
D = Nominal Diameter Of The Tank Shell (m) .
( Live And Dead
Loads) ( 2.2 KPa)
:-
.
In Us Units :-
Min . thick. = 3/16
Max . thick. = 1/2 exclusive of (C.A.)
= Angle Of The Cone Elements To The
Horizontal , In (Degree) .
D = Nominal Diameter Of The Tank Shell
(ft.) .
:-
When The Sum Of The Live And Dead Load
Exceeds 45 / The Minimum Thickness Shall Be
Increased By To Following's Ratio :-
.

:.
IN SI UNITS :-
= Angle Of The Cone Elements To The
Horizontal , In Degree .
= Nominal Diameter Of The Tank Shell In
(m) .


.
2.2 -: KPa
( Top Angle)
:-
IN US UNITS :-
.
= Angle Of The Cone Elements To The
Horizontal , In Degree .
= Nominal Diameter Of The Tank Shell In
(ft.) .

.
)(
( Top Angle) :-

-3 /
(Self -Supporting Dome And Umbrella Roofs) :-

-:

(3/16)" ( 5mm) .
Self-Supporting Dome And Umbrella Roofs Shall
Conform To The Following Requirements :-
min . radius = 0.8 D (Unless Otherwise Specified By
The Purchaser)
max . radius = 1.2 D .
IN SI UNITS :-
min . thickness . = + C.A 5mm .
max. thickness. = 12.5mm , Exclusive Of C.A .
Where :-
D = Nominal Diameter Of The Tank Shell .
= Roof Radius , In (m) .
2.2 -: KPa
( Top Angle)
:-
IN US UNITS :-
min. thickness. = 3/16 ".
max. thickness. = 1/2'' , Exclusive Of C.A.
D = Nom. Dia. Of The Tank Shell () .
= Roof Radius () .
)( )(
:-
)(
:-
IN SI UNITS :-

.
KPa 2.2
) (Top Angle
:-

:
"

:
1-

" "

.
2-


...

" .
3-
.
:
" " 1-


API 650. API620
2-

.
3-


.

REFERENCES :
- WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OIL STORAGE API
STANDARD 620
- WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OIL STORAGE API
STANDARD 650
Steel tank with cone roof
Supported cone roof under construction

Steel tank with dome roof

Tank bottom
Tank shell during construction
Roll type shell construction
Sheet by sheet shell construction
Dome roof construction
Spiral stairway
Internal floating roof
External floating roof with ladder