Shallow Foundations

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Shallow Foundations

© All Rights Reserved

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Walls,&Pile/PierFoundation

Flowcharts

Updated3/10/2017

Abbreviations

= Depth to bottom of footing

c = cohesion

General Considerations: = angle of internal friction

Spread footings rectangular, square, or other shape supporting one column = Surface surcharge

Continuous footings AKA wall footing or strip footing. = Base modifier

Combined footings Footing carrying more than one column. = cohesion modifier

Cantilever footings combined footing supporting a column and exterior wall/column = surcharge & depth modifier

Mat/Raft foundations footing slab that covers the entire area under a building

Bearing Capacity:

Allowable bearing capacity net pressure in excess of overburden stress that will not cause failure or excessive settlement

AKA net allowable bearing pressure or safe bearing pressure

Allowable indicates that a safety factor has already been applied

General Bearing Capacity Equation:

Ultimate bearing capacity Terzaghi-Meyerhof Equation for clay and sandy soils

CERM 36-3

Capacity Factors & are from CERM Table 36.2 and dependent on angle of internal friction

CERM Tables 36.4 (B/L factors for ) and 36.5 (Shape Factors for ) should be taken into account for

is then modified by the overburden, which is the net pressure the soil can support beyond the overburden pressure.

The safety factors are typically between 2 and 3 (based on ) for average conditions

Abbreviations

= Depth to bottom of footing

c = cohesion

= angle of internal friction

Bearing Capacity on Sand for a Spread Footing = Surface surcharge

= Base modifier

Given: Total Load, , , c=0

= cohesion modifier

= surcharge & depth modifier

1

2

Where: , ,& are from CERM Table 36.2 and

is modified by CERM Table 36.5 Another case includes SPT results and N values. So

0.11 in tons/ft^2 (See CERM 36-7)

Assuming SF=2, =100 lbf/ft^3, & with B over 2-4 ft, N<50.

Many Times

which can be used to size the footing

Mat/Raft Foundations CERM 36-9

General Considerations:

A mat/raft foundation should be used when individual footings would occupy over half of an area beneath a building

Also used to combine foundations with basement floor slabs, to minimize differential settlement on compressible soils.

Mat/Raft on CLAY:

Only method available to increase allowable loading is to increase

Factor of safety available which should be at least 3 (or 2 under temporary loading)

Mat/Raft on SAND:

Well protected against bearing capacity failure Depth of potential failure zone is very large

Differential settling is not a factor

And allowable soil pressure may be DOUBLED

For common applications, with the prerequisites described on CERM 36-7, and when SPT values are known,

2 0.11

must be modified by CERM Table 36.6 (using value @ ) unless N is denoted as true or compensated

Use B as the shorter of the mat dimensions

N should be at least 5, after correction, otherwise sand should be compacted or pile/pier foundation should be used

To calculate Safety Factors, the net bearing capacity , should be compared to the actual bearing pressures

,

,

2 The factor of 2 comes from the doubling in the allowable soil pressure mentioned for SAND

,

At Rest Earth Pressure

Lateral Pressure and Retaining Structures Z

Earth Pressure Types

AT REST: When homogenous isotropic soil, vertical principal stress is = to the overburden

or Rigid

The horizontal pressure is related to vertical pressure by 1 sin Wall

Where: is the effective stress angle of internal friction.

This is valid for OCR = 1. For greater OCR use 1 sin Active & Passive

Pressure per unit length of wall = Earth Pressure

When submerged, intergranular (effective) stress

ACTIVE: Wall and soil movement pushing the wall out (away from the soil mass)

General Active horizontal earth pressure w/ level backfill: 2

This potentially allows the cohesion to cause tension cracking at the top.

General equation for see figure for symbols

This equation is modified by geometry, soil type, and friction theory (CERM 37-3)

Common ( 0 & 90 for dry cohesionless Rankine (no friction ) soil 45

Total Active Resultant per unit of wall length(acting at H/3 from bottom):

DRY COHESIONLESS SOIL:

INTERNAL FRICTION & COHESION: 2 (essentials pg 726)

At Rest Earth Pressure

Lateral Pressure and Retaining Structures Z

Earth Pressure Types

Passive: Wall and soil movement pushing against the soil mass

General PASSIVE horizontal pressure w/ level backfill: 2 Rigid

General equation for see figure for symbols Wall

This equation is modified by geometry, soil type, and friction theory (CERM 37-4)

Active & Passive

Common ( 0 & 90 for dry cohesionless Rankine (no friction soil 45

Earth Pressure

Total Active Resultant per unit of wall length(acting at H/3 from bottom):

DRY COHESIONLESS SOIL:

INTERNAL FRICTION & COHESION: 2 (essentials pg 726)

Keywords:

Level backfill 0

Vertical Wall 90

Rankine Theory No wall friction ( 0

Granular Soil/Sand 0

Saturated Clay 0 & 1

Good Visuals on pg 725 & 725 of Essentials McCarthy.

More movement/strain is required to achieve the PASSIVE state than the ACTIVE STATE

Active & Passive similar when top of wall is fixed. When the wall is going away from soil Active state

Components of & (See CERM 37-7)

Lateral Pressure and Retaining Structures

Lateral Pressure w/ water table behind wall

Effects of Groundwater & Freezing Rigid

Groundwater affects the way the soil particles react to the wall Wall

The general equation for pressure is a combination of loads above and below water line #1

Resulting Pressure per unit length #1 #2 #3 #4

1

Acting at a height of

#2 #3 #4

Surcharge loading Cerm 37-8 & 752 essentials.

Depends on load type. 1

For distributed load, apply an additional pressure

Ground Water

Pressure from Soil

Saturated Soil

Pressure from

Pressure from

Point loads require some equations.

See CERM 37-8 & Essentials pg 752.

Design Considerations

Overturning (CERM example pg 37-9)

Sliding (CERM Example 37-9 & 37-11)

Bearing Capacity check (CERM Example 37-9)

General Sizing of Cantilever Retaining Walls (CERM 37-12)

CONCRETE DESIGN (CERM 54)

Piles and Deep Foundations

Piles General Information CERM 38 & Essentials McCarthy (538) SEE THE DESIGN EXAMPLES. METHODS CHANGE W/ SOIL

Allowable/Design Static Bearing Capacity

Ultimate Static Bearing Capacity Where:

= effective surface area of pile in contact w/ soil along the embedded shaft length

f = unit shearing strength of interface soil zone adjacent to pile shaft. Typically varies along length of the pile.

= bearing pressure of soil at pile tip

= pile tip bearing area

has more complex methods and will be harder to calculate.

Between CERM 38-3 and Essentials McCarthy (545), the method you use will depend on information given.

For piles through multiple soil layers: , ,

function of shaft material & soil type/condition

For cohesive soils: can have a cohesion/adhesion component (CERM 38-3)

External friction values can be found in CERM Table 37.1.

This is affected by soil type/condition (See CERM 38-2 & Essentials McCarthy 547)

Do Example 38-2 Here

Piles and Deep Foundations In Reference problem book

Pile Groups (CERM 38-5 & Essentials McCarthy 565 & 566 Design Example)

Common minimum spacing between piles is 3 to 3.5 pile diameters

This ensures the highest design capacity for a particular grouping

Design capacity is usually taken as the smaller of the following Capacities:

Piles Activing Individually

Sum of individual pile strengths

Group Action

Considers the effect of soil btw piles & the group perimeter is important

See example pg 566 Essentials McCarthy

In cohesionless soils, the group action will be greater than the sum of the individuals.

So the sum of the individual capacities will govern the design

In clays, it can go either way. See example pg 566 Essentials McCarthy

Settlement of piles & pile groups (CERM 38-6 & Essentials McCarthy 568)

Function of compressive pile shortening & settlement in soil support the piles

Sand (little settlement) is better than clay (large settlements from excess pore water

pressure dissipation neede).

The estimation of settlement depends on bearing governance

When soil friction governs a larger area underneath is considered, up to 2/3 L

When pile tip bearing governs there isnt going to be much settlement

Excavations & Alternate Retaining Structures 758

Excavations (CERM 39-1 & Essentials McCarthy 768 & 773)

Earth

Do Example 39-2 Here

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