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BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

5th Lecture DSP


IMPLEMENTATION OF DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEMS

Structures for the Realization of Linear Time-Invariant Systems


As a beginning, let us consider the first-order system

which is realized as in Fig.

direct form I structure.

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system can be viewed as two linear time-invariant systems
in cascade.
The first is a nonrecursive, system described by the
equation

second is a recursive system described by the equation

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nonrecursive

Recursive

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if we interchange the order of the recursive and nonrecursive
systems

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From this figure we obtain the two difference equations

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two elements can be merged into one delay, as shown as
direct form II structure

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direct form II structure can be generalized

for the general linear time invariant recursive system


described by the difference equation

Cascade of non recursive and recursive system

&

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N > M. This structure
is the cascade of a
recursive system

followed by a non recursive system

the direct form I1 structure requires M+N+1


multiplications and max{M, N} delays
Also called a cononic form.

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If ak = 0 for all k=1,2,.,N, Then
which is a non recursive linear time-invariant system
And is called the FIR system with impulse response h(k)
equal to the coefficients bk

For M = 0, LTI system becomes purely recursive

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second-order systems

Direct Form II realization fig.a


If we set a1=a2=0

If we set b1=b2=0

purely recursive system

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CORRELATION OF DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS

received signal sequence as

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Digital communications

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


Crosscorrelation and Autocorretation Sequences
The crosscorrelation o f x(n) and y(n)is a sequence rxy(l),
which is defined as

or, equivalently. as

If we reverse the roles of x(n) and y(n)

or

By comparing we conclude that

Therefore, rxy(l) is simply the folded version of ryx(l),


BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Determine the cross correlation sequence rxy (I) of
the sequences x(n) & y(n)

For l = 0 we have
The product sequence v0 (n) = x(n)y(n) is

and hence the sum over all values of n is


For I > 0. we shift y(n)to the right relative to x(n) by I

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For I < 0. we shift y(n)to the left relative to x(n) by I

Therefore. the cross correlation sequence of y(n) & x(n) is

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956


Properties of the Autocorrelation and
Cross correlation Sequences
Let two sequences x(n) and y(n) with finite energy

The energy in this signal

First, we note that rxx(0) = Ex and ryy(0) = Ey

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Dividing by b2

In the speciai case where y(n) = x(n)

This means that the autocorrelation sequence of a


signal attains its maximum value at zero lag
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The Schur-Cohn Stability Test
The poles of the system are the roots of the denominator
polynomial of H (z), namely

We denote a polynomial of degree m by

The reciprocal or reverse polynomial Bm(z) of degree


m is defined as

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First, we set

Then we compute the lower-degree


polynomials A, ( z ) , m = N , N - 1, N - 2,
. . . , 1,
according to the recursive equation

where the coefficients Km are defined as

has all its roots inside the unii circle if and only if the
coefficients Km sarisfy the condition Km < 1 for all m = 1, 2. .
...N
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Determine if the system having the system
function is stable

We begin with A2(z), which is defined as

Hence ; K2= -1/2

Now And

Therefore K1= -7/2


Since K1>1 the system is unstable

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956