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# BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

## 5th Lecture DSP

IMPLEMENTATION OF DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEMS

## Structures for the Realization of Linear Time-Invariant Systems

As a beginning, let us consider the first-order system

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system can be viewed as two linear time-invariant systems
The first is a nonrecursive, system described by the
equation

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nonrecursive

Recursive

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if we interchange the order of the recursive and nonrecursive
systems

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From this figure we obtain the two difference equations

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two elements can be merged into one delay, as shown as
direct form II structure

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direct form II structure can be generalized

## for the general linear time invariant recursive system

described by the difference equation

&

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N > M. This structure
recursive system

## the direct form I1 structure requires M+N+1

multiplications and max{M, N} delays
Also called a cononic form.

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If ak = 0 for all k=1,2,.,N, Then
which is a non recursive linear time-invariant system
And is called the FIR system with impulse response h(k)
equal to the coefficients bk

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second-order systems

## Direct Form II realization fig.a

If we set a1=a2=0

If we set b1=b2=0

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CORRELATION OF DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS

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Digital communications

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Crosscorrelation and Autocorretation Sequences
The crosscorrelation o f x(n) and y(n)is a sequence rxy(l),
which is defined as

or, equivalently. as

or

## Therefore, rxy(l) is simply the folded version of ryx(l),

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Determine the cross correlation sequence rxy (I) of
the sequences x(n) & y(n)

For l = 0 we have
The product sequence v0 (n) = x(n)y(n) is

## and hence the sum over all values of n is

For I > 0. we shift y(n)to the right relative to x(n) by I

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For I < 0. we shift y(n)to the left relative to x(n) by I

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Properties of the Autocorrelation and
Cross correlation Sequences
Let two sequences x(n) and y(n) with finite energy

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Dividing by b2

## This means that the autocorrelation sequence of a

signal attains its maximum value at zero lag
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The Schur-Cohn Stability Test
The poles of the system are the roots of the denominator
polynomial of H (z), namely

m is defined as

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First, we set

## Then we compute the lower-degree

polynomials A, ( z ) , m = N , N - 1, N - 2,
. . . , 1,
according to the recursive equation

## where the coefficients Km are defined as

has all its roots inside the unii circle if and only if the
coefficients Km sarisfy the condition Km < 1 for all m = 1, 2. .
...N
BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956
Determine if the system having the system
function is stable

Now And

## Therefore K1= -7/2

Since K1>1 the system is unstable