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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELESCOPIC ADS DELIVERED VIA INTERACTIVE, DIGITAL TV: THE IMPACT OF THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AND THE LEVEL OF INTERACTIVITY ON BRAND RESPONSES
Verolien Cauberghe (Corresponding author) University of Antwerp Prinsstraat 13 2000 Antwerpen Belgium email@example.com Tel: Fax: 0032 - 32755545 0032 - 32755081
Patrick De Pelsmacker University of Antwerp Prinsstraat 13 2000 Antwerpen Belgium Patrick.firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: Fax: 0032 - 32755046 0032 - 32755081
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELESCOPIC ADS DELIVERED VIA INTERACTIVE, DIGITAL TV: THE IMPACT OF THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AND THE LEVEL OF INTERACTIVITY ON BRAND RESPONSES
ABSTRACT A telescopic ad on Interactive, Digital TV has a more positive influence on brand recall and attitudes compared with a traditional 30 seconds TV ad. We further examined two aspects of the complexity of the interactive ad more in depth; the impact of the amount of information and the level of interactivity. The results demonstrate that the interactivity embedded in the telescopic TV ad has a strong positive influence on brand recall and attitude, certainly when the amount of information is low. The time spent in the telescopic ad, which is influenced by both the amount of additional information and the embedded interactivity, has a positive influence on the development of brand attitudes, but not on brand recall, and thus is a mediating variable for only some of the brand responses. 1
This study was accomplished in cooperation with Paratel, VMMa, and InSites.
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELESCOPIC ADS DELIVERED VIA INTERACTIVE, DIGITAL TV: THE IMPACT OF THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AND THE LEVEL OF INTERACTIVITY ON BRAND RESPONSES
The popularity and adoption of Interactive, digital TV (IDTV) and its related technologies such as the Personal Video Recorder (PVR) are increasing in many Western countries (Levy & Nebenzahl, 2006), making the medium attractive for advertisers in terms of reach (Ducoffe, Sandler, & Secunda, 1996). Yet, the medium has received little academic attention until now (Kim and Sawhney, 2002; Kang, 2002). In a trend analysis of research studies about the Internet, Cho and Chang (2006) observed a lack of research about the advanced applications of the Internet, such as IDTV, which can be defined as the merging of the Internet and TV. Although the technology of IDTV leads to threats for advertisers, e.g. in terms of an increase in ad avoidance behaviour due to the PVR (Boddy, 2004; Thawani, Gopalan, & Sridhar, 2004), IDTV also offers a lot of new advertising opportunities. One of the many new interactive TV advertising formats (for an overview see Cauberghe & De Pelsmacker, 2006) is the Telescopic Advertisement (Reading, et al., 2006). This format consists of a “30-second TV ad with a call-to-action button with clickable content or ‘micro sites’ featuring individual still screens providing additional information” (Bellman & Varan 2004, p.2). When the viewer clicks on the call-to-action, (s)he leaves the linear broadcast stream to enter a Dedicated Advertising Location (DAL) where (s)he can navigate through the additional information, which can be structured in different layers. The interactivity and additional information are expected to increase the time actively spent in the DAL, and thus enlarge the cognitive processing of the advertising message and as a result enhance the advertising effectiveness. In this study we compare the impact of a traditional 30” ad versus a telescopic ad. Since the telescopic advertisement can be characterized by the additional information and interactivity, we investigate
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media the impact of these two aspects that can have an influence on the complexity of the DAL (Geissler, Zinkhan, & Watson, 2006). Both aspects, the amount of information and interactivity have been studies in an internet environment, but the combined effects are rarely investigated in depth. Only a few studies have tried to keep the amount of information constant when investigating the effectiveness of interactivity (Martin, Sherrard and Wentzel 2005) or tried to manipulate to amount of information in combination with interactivity. The first contribution of this study is the investigation of the impact of a new advertising format, the telescopic ad exposed on a new medium IDTV, in comparison to a traditional 30” TV ad. The second contribution is related to the combined effects of the amount of information and the level interactivity in the DAL. Time spent in the DAL will be investigated as a potential mediating variable.
TELESCOPIC VERSUS TRADITIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS
The merging of TV and the Internet is remarkably noticeable when looking at the appearance of telescopic advertisements. This new format is promising, given earlier empirical studies that show that the synergy of a TV ad and the exposure to a website results in better advertising effects than repetition of the TV ad (Chang & Thorson, 2004). The study of Bellman and Varan (2004) demonstrated that one exposure to an interactive advertisement with additional information is equal to the effectiveness of the exposure to three traditional 30” ads in terms of brand recall and attitude, and behavioural intentions. Also the recent study of Reading et al. (2006) provides evidence of the positive impact of telescopic advertisements on advertisement and brand attitudes, compared to a traditional 30” advertisement and a long infomercial. This superior effect of telescopic TV ads can be explained based on three independent, but interrelated, mechanisms: the message length effect, the amount of information about the product, and the interactivity embedded in the persuasive content. The latter two are assumed to have an influence on the time spent in the DAL. Research on the message length effect has demonstrated that longer ads have more opportunities to provide extra
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media product arguments (Agee & Martin, 2001; Stanton & Burke, 1998) and to repeat key points of the message. This leads to an increase in attention to the information (MacKenzie, 1986), and thus to a better message comprehension and information processing (MacInnis & Jaworski, 1989). From the extensive literature about the advertising effects of the amount of product and consumer information (e.g., Jacoby, Speller, & Kohn, 1974; Malhotra, 1982), the basic conclusion is that too much product information leads to an information overload and negatively impacts choice behaviour, and thus also advertising effects. Later, Keller and Staelin (1987) nuanced these results and found that an increase in the quality of the additional information, defined as “the information’s inherent usefulness to consumers” (p.200) could lead to a positive effect on advertising credibility, and thus to more positive advertising effects. Given that the information in a DAL adds information of qualitative value compared to the information in the 30” ad, a positive effect of the amount of information on advertising effects can be expected. As far as the advertising effects of interactivity are concerned, internet research found that interactivity can increase attention to the persuasive content, and make it a pleasurable experience, through the development of feelings of flow, “an intrinsically motivated optimal enjoyable mental state” (Csikszentmihalyi & Lefevre, 1989). This mental state increases the cognitive involvement with the interactive content (Liu & Shrum, 2002). The intrinsically motivated joy will be transferred to the persuasive content, leading to positive advertising outcomes (Chung & Zhao, 2004; Macias, 2003). Given these positive effects of the additional information and interactivity, in combination with the increase in time exposed to the persuasive message, the following can be expected:
H1: “An interactive advertisement will lead to higher brand recall, and a more positive brand attitude than a traditional advertisement.”
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media ADVERTISEMENT COMPLEXITY INDUCED BY THE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION AND THE LEVEL OF INTERACTIVITY
A challenge of telescopic ads is to keep the consumer’s interest focused on the persuasive message (Reading et al 2006). To achieve this Putrevu, Tan and Lord (2004) argue that an appropriate level of complexity is recommended. Early theorization of Berlyne (1958) postulated that individuals, who are confronted with complex stimuli, will be more aroused, and will try to reduce this arousal by exploring the source of the complexity, therefore increasing the elaboration. However, Sanbonmatsu and Kardes (1998) and Shapiro, Park and McInnes (2002) found that too high levels of physiological arousal reduce the amount of processing capacity available for elaborating on the persuasive message. From their qualitative research, Geissler, Zinkham and Watson (2006) could identify 5 important factors that affect the perceptions of the complexity of a homepage. Both the amount of information (length of the homepage) and interactivity (number of links) were included. In their subsequent empirical study they found that a moderate level of complexity compared to a low and high level, facilitated communication effectiveness most optimal. Martin, Sherrard and Wentzel (2005) investigated the advertising impact of the verbal complexity of a website by manipulating the amount of information presented on each webpage, keeping the total amount of information constant. Their results revealed that subjects prefer Web sites of medium level of complexity, rather than high (little clicks) or low complexity (a lot of clicks). These latter authors explained their results by referring to the Cognitive Resource Matching Theory, which states that a balance between the available cognitive resources and required resources to accomplish the task is necessary for an optimal persuasion (Peracchio & Meyers-Levy, 1997).
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Amount of Information The telescopic nature of the interactive advertisement makes it possible to provide extra product information. In contrast with the choice behaviour research stream, the impact of the amount of information on the evaluation (instead of choice behaviour) of one single brand (instead of multiple alternatives) is investigated in this study. In the DAL, the quantity of information is manipulated by keeping the quality constant. Therefore, referring to the work of Keller and Staelin (1987) and in line with the Limited Capacity Theory (Lang, 2000) the following can be expected:
H2: “A high amount of information will lead to lower brand recall, and a less positive brand attitude than a low amount of information.”
Level of Interactivity Most internet studies find positive advertising effects of interactivity (e.g., Sicilia, Ruiz, & Munera, 2006). Although Geissler, Zinkhan and Watson (2006) found that interactivity (amount of links) can increase the complexity of a website, a reasonable amount of links should not cause the website to exceed a moderate level of complexity, which has been found to be to most optimal in terms of advertising effects (e.g. Martin, Sherrard, & Wentzel, 2005). Therefore, consumers will still have the ability to focus their attention on the interactive content. This attention is a prerequisite for the cognitive processing to occur (Lang, 2000). The positive mood evoked by the interactivity, induced by the experience of flow, may increase the cognitive elaboration of individuals (Lee & Sternthal, 1999). The next can be hypothesized:
H3: “A high level of interactivity will lead to higher brand recall, and a more positive brand attitude than a low level of interactivity.”
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media The interaction effect of interactivity and information Despite the positive effect of interactivity, some authors however detected no or even a negative impact of interactive advertisements (e.g., Bezijan-Avery, Calder, & Iacobucci, 1998; Eveland & Dunwoody, 2001). The Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, van Merriënboer & Sweller, 2005) can be used to explain the combined cognitive impact of the amount of information and interactivity (Eveland & Dunwoody, 2001). The CLT assumes that the human working memory is limited in processing novel information (Cf. also the Limited Capacity Theory, Lang, 2000). There are broadly two types of cognitive loads that can affect the working memory (e.g., Bodemer & Faust, 2006): intrinsic cognitive load, which is related to the intrinsic nature of the information, and the extraneous cognitive load, which corresponds to the mental effort imposed by the way the information is presented (in this study related to the interactivity). Information processing only occurs when the respondent is motivated to process the information and when he/she has the cognitive ability to do so. Depending on the strength of the internal load, the extraneous load can stimulate the cognitive processing, or can lead to a limited cognitive capacity, and thus inhibit the information processing due to feelings of disorientation and being lost. Interactive media impose more cognitive extraneous load than traditional, linear media (e.g., Conklin, 1987). But, on the other hand, interactivity can increase the involvement with the content (Liu & Shrum, 2002). According to the ELM (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981) involvement has an influence on the motivation to process information more intensively, if the individual has the cognitive ability to do so. Concluding, interactivity demands a certain cognitive load but also influences the motivation to process the information positively. Referring to the Cognitive Load Theory this leads to the following reasoning. When the intrinsic cognitive load (the amount of information) is high, the extraneous load (interactivity) can increase the motivation but also the cognitive load, leading to less profound processing of the information due to limited cognitive capacity. However, when the extraneous load is low, the individual may have more ability to process the information, but will be less motivated to do so. When the intrinsic cognitive load (the amount of information) is low and
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media the extraneous load (interactivity) is high, the individual will have both the motivation and ability to process the information. When the extraneous load is low, the respondent has the ability to process information, but will only have a low motivation to do so. The following can be expected:
H4: “In case of a low amount information, a high level of interactivity will lead to higher brand recall, and a more positive brand attitude than a low level of interactivity. In case of a high amount of information, a high level of interactivity will lead to lower brand recall, and a less positive brand attitude than a low level of interactivity.”
TIME SPENT IN THE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Research about the effect of advertising exposure length has found that the longer the consumer is exposed to the stimulus the more (s)he can remember of it (Krugman, Cameron, & White, 1995). Earlier research also shows that longer advertisements generate more positive advertising results than their shorter equivalents (e.g., Singh & Cole, 1993; Pieters & Bijmont, 1997). In an internet context, the time spent and amount of clicks in a website are often used as dependent variables to measure the effectiveness of website design (Drèze and Zufdreyden 1997). The role of time spent with a website can be emphasized by the study of Danaher and Mullarkey (2003) who found that the longer a person is exposed to a web page containing a banner ad, the more likely they remember that banner advertisement. The following can be expected:
H5: Time spent in the DAL has a positive influence on brand recall and brand attitude.
Morrison and Dainoff (1972) investigated the effect of advertisement complexity on viewing time. They found that the visual complexity of print ads was positively related with viewing time. Given
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media that both the amount of information and interactivity are assumed to increase the level of complexity, the following can be expected:
H6: The amount of information and the level of interactivity have a positive effect on the time spent in the DAL.
However, based on the Cognitive Load Theory, a high intrinsic load in combination with a high extraneous load can lead to feelings of distraction and being lost in the information. The respondent will be quickly diverted and not motivated to spend a long time looking at the DAL. Contrary, when the intrinsic load is low, a high extraneous load may motivate the respondent more to process the information, and thus is expected to be more willing to spend more time to process the information. This leads to the following hypothesis:
H7: “In case of a low amount of information, a high level of interactivity will lead to a longer time spent in the DAL than a low level of interactivity. In case of a high amount of information, a high level of interactivity will lead to a shorter time spent in the DAL than a low level of interactivity.”
Stimuli To investigate our research questions a Telescopic Ad was developed, consisting out of a 30” TV ad, a call-to-action and an interactive DAL. To avoid language and other confounding effects, an advertisement of The Netherlands, for a brand unknown to Belgians is used. Given that product involvement has an influence on information processing (Cf. ELM), a product category with an average involvement was selected through the use of a pre-test. The involvement with 12 product
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media categories was measured with 39 respondents using the ten item five-point scale of Zaichkowsky (1994). The travel agency was selected with an average product involvement rate (M = 2.80). The attitude toward the 30” advertisement was controlled to be positive to avoid feelings of irritation. This was important given the procedure in which the respondents were requested to click on the additional information in the DAL. Therefore, a second pretest was conducted in which we measured the advertisement attitude of six 30” ads of travel agencies with 19 respondents. We selected the advertisement of “D-reizen”, which had the highest score (M = 4.21) on the 4 item 5point scale of Holbrook and Batra (1986). The hypotheses regarding the effects of the complexity of the DAL were tested using a 2x2 between-subjects factorial design. The amount of information was manipulated by the quantity of the information (e.g., information about 106 hotels versus 22 hotels). The set size (the number of attributes) and the quality of the information were kept constant. Interactivity was manipulated by the amount of hyperlinks (12 versus 92), the availability of a navigation bar, and the possibility of two-way communication (e.g., search an address). The advertisement was preceded by a programme context of average involvement and induced feeling, trying to control pre-existing mood effects.
Participants Out of a data base, a gross sample of 521 Flemish respondents was randomly selected based on a spread in age, gender and education. Past research has shown that Internet use has an impact on perceived interactivity (e.g. Sohn and Leckenby 2001; Jee and Lee 2002), and was therefore also used as selection criterium, to make sure all respondents had some experience with media interactivity (e.g. Tremayne and Dunwoody 2001). Finally, a nett sample of 282 respondents participated in the study, retaining a sample of respondents with an average age of 38 years old (range 21-56 years old, 50% between 21-40 years old), 61.8% males versus 38.2% females and 44.7% of the respondents holding a diploma of secondary high school versus 55.3% finished a higher education level. The average internet use was 17 hours a week. The respondents were
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media randomly divided into 5 groups (4 groups for the varying complexity of the DAL and one group for the traditional ad).
Procedure The respondents were individually invited to an experimental “living room” setting. They were requested to try out all the interactive possibilities they could notice on screen. After the briefing, the respondents watched the 6 minutes during mood neutral excerpt of a TV programme, followed by the advertisement. At the end of the 30” ad, a red call-to-action button appeared in the right upper corner of the screen, in combination with a voice-over that invited the respondent to press the red button to receive more product information. From the moment the respondents entered the DAL, their time was recorded. Afterwards, the respondents entered a computer assisted questionnaire containing the brand attitude measurement (7-point 4 item scale based on existing scales of MacKenzie, Lutz and Belch 1986; good-bad, lovable-not lovable, desired- not desired, positive – negative; alpha = .87), and the unaided brand recall. Attitude toward the 30” ad was measured as a covariate through the scale of Holbrook and Batra (1986) (Alpha = .946). At the end of the questionnaire the respondent was thanked for his/her cooperation. Each respondent received an incentive of 25 euro. The experiment lasted 40 minutes in total.
Telescopic ad versus traditional 30” ad To compare the advertising effects of the telescopic Ad (traditional 30” ad and DAL) with the traditional 30” ad, the manipulated conditions of interactivity and information were combined, to compare them with the group of respondents that viewed only the traditional 30” ad. The results indicate that the telescopic ad resulted in better brand recall (56.9% versus 36.1%, chi² = 5.474, p =
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media .019) and a more positive brand attitude (M = 4.32 versus M = 2.97, t = -8.134, p < .001) than the 30” ad. H1 is accepted.
Main effects of amount of information and level of interactivity The amount of information in the DAL did not have any effect on brand recall (52.1% versus 47.9%, chi² = .845, p = .358) nor on attitude (M = 4.77 versus M = 5.45, F = .039, p = .843), which was analyzed using an ANCOVA. H2 is not supported. The main effect of interactivity revealed a positive effect on brand recall and attitude. A high level of interactivity increased brand recall from 43.6% to 56.4% (chi² = 5.371, p = .020). This effect was also noticeable for Ab (M = 4.19 versus M = 4.46, F = 9.502, p = .002). H3 is accepted.
Interaction effect amount of information and level of interactivity The interaction effect of the amount of information and interactivity on brand recall showed that for the low amount of information, a high level of interactivity increases the brand recall from 41.1% to 58.9% (Chi² = 4.753, p = .029). For a high amount of information, this effect of interactivity becomes insignificant (chi² = 1.201, p = .273), but not negative as expected (46.3% versus 53.7%). For the brand attitude the same trend occurs. Given that the interaction effect of the amount of information and the level of interactivity on Ab was not significant (p = .508) in the ANCOVA, the mean values were further analyzed by using a t-test, which revealed that for the low information condition, interactivity does have a significant positive effect (M = 4.09 versus M = 4.46, F = -2.027, p = .045) on Ab, but for the high information condition, the effect is not significant (M = 4.28 versus M = 4.45, F = -1.023, p = .308) (Fig.1). Therefore, H4 can only partly be accepted. The results of the ANCOVA also show that attitude toward the 30” advertisement was a significant covariate that was positively related to brand attitude (p < .001).
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media __ ________________________________________________________________________________ Place Figure 1 about here ________________________________________________________________________________ __ __ ________________________________________________________________________________ Place Figure 2 about here ________________________________________________________________________________ __ Time spent in the DAL The average time spent in the DAL across the experimental conditions was 5.26 minutes. Looking at the brand recall results in relation to the time spent (median split), the timing does not have a significant impact on brand recall (47.5% versus 52.5%, chi² = 1.108, p = .293). Investigating the effect of timing on brand attitudes, the regression results provide evidence for a significant positive effect of the time spent in the DAL on Ab (Beta = .139, t value = 2.186, p = .030). Therefore H5 is partly accepted. The ANOVA results indicate that both the amount of information (p = .020) and the level of interactivity (p < .01) have a significant, positive main effect on the time spent in the DAL. H6 is accepted. The interaction effect of both variables on timing is also significant (p = .025), but only partly in line with our expectations. For the low level of information, the increase of interactivity leads to a high increase in time spent in the DAL (3.39 min. versus 6.08 min.). In case of a high level of information, there appeared no the negative effect of the level of interactivity on the time spent in the DAL (5.29 min. versus 6.22 min.). Instead the results showed that the increase in time was higher for the low information level compared to the high information level. H7 is partly accepted.
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
In line with previous studies (Bellman & Varan, 2004; Reading, et al., 2006), a telescopic ad that offers more information to the consumer and makes interactivity possible, thereby increasing the time spent with the persuasive content, performed notably better in terms of brand recall and attitude, compared to a traditional advertisement. Contrary to our expectations, the amount of information did not have an effect on brand recall nor on brand attitudes. However, the level of interactivity had a positive effect on both brand recall and attitude. The cognitive involvement and the intrinsic enjoyable experience evoked by the interactivity may explain these results, which are in line with earlier internet studies (e.g., Sicilia, Ruiz & Munera, 2006). Previous ad complexity studies found that too much information, graphics or links cause the respondent to feel lost or overwhelmed, which may lead them to lose focus and interest rapidly. On the other hand, too little complexity may induce a feeling of boredom. The Cognitive Load Theory states that there are four possible situations (the combined effects of intrinsic load (amount of information) and extraneous load (level of interactivity)). This study could partly confirm the expectations based on the CLT. For a low amount of information, a high level of interactivity leads to more positive results, whereas when the individual is exposed to a of lot information, the effect of interactivity becomes insignificant (both for recall and attitude), but not negative as expected. In line with the main effect of the amount of information on Ab and Brand recall, this interaction effect did not signal an information overload phenomenon as a combined effect of a high amount of information and a high level of interactivity. There are two explanations for not finding this effect. First, the traditional information processing approach found that a consumer “can” experience information overload in decision making processing, but they “will” not necessary do so (Jacoby, 1984). Maybe in this study the information overload, and thus the negative advertising results, did not occur because the individuals did not allow it to happen, and only processed the amount of information that (s)he desired. Given that, in contradiction to traditional media, the viewer controls the information, this
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media effect may even be larger for IDTV formats, given that the consumer can be even more selective in the exposure to the information that he/she likes. Bezjian-Avery, Calder and Iabucci (1998) concluded from their study that clicking and interactivity may lead to less intensive processing of the intrinsic information, and may therefore not lead to limited cognitive ability. A second explanation can be found on the basis of the study of Danaher and Mullarkey (2003). They found (in an internet context) that the exposure time to the persuasive information (banner) captured most of the variance of brand attitude, leading to an insignificant effect of the amount of information. Investigating the interaction effect of the amount of information and the level of interactivity on the time spent in the DAL in this study, it was clear that for the high information condition, a high level of interactivity, leads to the longest average time spent in the DAL, hereby decreasing the likelihood of the information overload phenomenon to occur. Besides this dependent relation of time spent in function of the amount of information and the level of interactivity, the time spent in the DAL did have a positive main influence on the brand attitude, confirming earlier studies. However, the timing had no impact on the brand recall. This Time spent in the DAL has a mediating role for the effect of information and interactivity on brand attitude, but not for brand recall. This can be explained by the fact that both in conditions of short and long exposure time, the amount of minutes spent was high (minimum 1min 45) compared to other studies (e.g. Bezjian-Avery, Calder, & Iabucci, 1998). The results lead to implications for advertising professionals. First, the telescopic ads generate more positive advertising effects compared to the traditional TV ads. Secondly, the positive effect of interactivity in the DAL is remarkable noticeable on both brand recall and attitude, and is even more positive when the respondent is exposed to a low amount of information. Next, given that the amount of information did not have a negative effect in any way, advertisers can never give enough information to consumers. High amounts of information will increase the time spent in the DAL, and will therefore even have a positive effect on brand attitude and recall. The limitations of this study provide some directions for future research. First, our results are only pertinent when the respondent reacts to the call-for-action, and uses the interactive possibilities.
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Given the experimental setting of this study, little can be said about the more externally valid reallife click-trough rate of this new advertising format. Secondly, the time that consumer could spend processing the DAL was unlimited. Restricting the time is called for in further research to more validly discover an information overload phenomenon (Davis and Davis, 1996). Thirdly, only two dimensions of the DAL’s complexity were manipulated. Other aspects such as vividness and the occurrence of a simultaneous media context could also be investigated.
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Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media TABLES AND FIGURES
Figure 1: Interaction effect of amount of information and level of interactivity on brand attitude
Means of Ab
Interactivity Low A lot
A lot Information
Paper Submitted for the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media Figure 2: Interaction effect of amount of information and level of interactivity on time spent in the DAL
Means of timing
Interactivity Low A Lot
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