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HYDRAULIC DESIGN

1 Design Equations
Formulaes used in Hydraulic design are as under :-
A) Hazen williams Formula
Friction loss in pipe is calculated using Hazen williams Formula
V = 0.849 C R0.63 S0.54
Where,
V = Velocity in m/sec
C = Hazen Williams Constant = 100
R = Hydraulic Radius in m
S = Hydraulic gradient
B) Mannings Formula
Friction loss in open channesl is calculated as under :-

V = (1/n) R2/3 S1/2


Where,
V = Velocity in m/sec
n = Mannings coefficient of roughness
R = Hydraulic Radius in m
S = Hydraulic gradient
C) Weir Formula
Discharge over weir is calculated by weir formula
Q = 0.5445 Ce g b x H 1.5
Where,
Q = Discharge in cum/sec
Ce = Discharge coefficient = 0.864
b = Width of weir in m
H = Depth of flow over weir in m

D) Head loss through gates / kV2


valves
= 2g (k = 0.50)

E) Head loss at bends / kV2


entrance / exit losses
= 2g (k = 0.50)

2 Design Considerations
For 250 MLD For 300 MLD
Desired Output Q(out) 250000.00 m3/day 300000
Internal loss after considering
recovery IL @ 3 % 7500.00 m3/day 9000.00
Raw water Input Q(in) = Q(out) + IL 257500.00 m /day
3
309000.00
Working Hours t 22.00 Hours/day 22.00
Average Flow Rate (Normal) Q(avg) 11704.55 m3/Hour 14045.45
Overload flow for hydraulic
design of inlet works 30.00 % 30.00

Overload flow for hydraulic


design rest of the plant 25.00 % 25.00
Inlet Works Average Flow
Rate 11704.55 m3/hour 14045.45
Inlet Works Average Flow
Rate (Overload) Q(OL) 30 % over nornmal flow
15215.91 m3/hour 18259.09
Inlet works Average Flow
Rate (Normal) Q(avg) 3.25 m3/Sec 3.90
Inlet works Average Flow
Rate (Overload) Q(OL) 30 % over nornmal flow 4.23 m3/Sec 5.07

3 Hydraulic Calculation

a Inlet Chamber
FSL TWL 225.000 M. R. L.
Water Depth d 5.15 m
Invert Level IL 219.850 m

b Inlet Channel
Length 10 m
Width 2.5 m
Liquid Depth 1.95 m
Hydraulic radius 6.4 m
Cross Section Area 4.875 m
Velocity 0.67 m/sec
Check for Velocity at Ultimate
overload condition 1.04 m/sec
Check for Velocity at present
overload condition 0.87 m/sec

Friction Loss 0.0004883195 m/m


Total Friction Loss 0.0048831953 m
Drop Provided 0.2 m
FSL in the channel 224.800 m
IL of Channel 222.850 m
c Parshall Flume
Approach Channel Width 2.50 m
Design flow Max 5.07 m
Design flow min 3.25 m
Throat Width 1.5 m
Head at max. flow condition Q = 2.264WH3/2 1.307 m
Head at min. flow condition 0.971 m
Headd Loss at Max Flow 0.784 m
Head Loss at Min flow 0.583 m
Level D/s of flume at max flow 224.016
Level D/s of flume at Min flow 223.782

c Distribution Box
No of Inlet 1 No
No of Outlet 6 No
HRT in the inlet box 60 Sec
Weir length for distribution 5.00 m
Maximum Flow through each weir 0.845 m3/Sec
Rise Over Weir 0.2 m

Friction Loss between


Channel and Distribution Box 0.1 m
TWL in Distribution box 223.682
top of weir 223.482
TWL in outlet Box 223.332

d Between Distribution Chamber & Flash Mixer


Opening Size 1 m2
Velocity Through Opening 0.845 m/sec
Friction loss 0.018
Provide 0.02
TWL in Flash Mixer 223.312

e Flash Mixer to Clariflocculator


Pipe size 1m
Flow 0.845 m3/Sec
Velocity 1.0769 m/sec
Frction loss at entry 0.0296 m
Friction loss at exit 0.0296 m
length of pipe 94.0000 m
Area of cross section 0.785 m2
Hydraulic radius 0.25 m
Friction Lossin pipe 0.1467281 m
Add for minor losses 0.01467281 m
Total Loss 0.2205 m
TWL in Clariflocculator 223.091 M R. L
Top of Weir 223.00 M R. L
TWL in Launder 222.85 M R. L

f Friction Loss between Clariflocculator and filter


Channel
Width 1.6 m
Depth 1.4 m
Area 2.24 m2
Hydraulic Radius 4.4 m
Flow 2.5 m3/Sec
Velocity 1.13 m/sec
Friction Loss 4.007751869E-05 m/m
Length of channel 160
Friction Loss 0.006412403 M
Say 0.01 m
TWL in Channel 222.84 M. R. L

f Friction Loss between Clariflocculator and filter

Friction loss in channel


between clf and filter inlet
channel 0.1
TWL Inlet Channel 222.74
Losses in Filter 2m
TWL in Filter Outlet Channel 220.74