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# HYDRAULIC DESIGN

1 Design Equations
Formulaes used in Hydraulic design are as under :-
A) Hazen williams Formula
Friction loss in pipe is calculated using Hazen williams Formula
V = 0.849 C R0.63 S0.54
Where,
V = Velocity in m/sec
C = Hazen Williams Constant = 100
R = Hydraulic Radius in m
S = Hydraulic gradient
B) Mannings Formula
Friction loss in open channesl is calculated as under :-

## V = (1/n) R2/3 S1/2

Where,
V = Velocity in m/sec
n = Mannings coefficient of roughness
R = Hydraulic Radius in m
S = Hydraulic gradient
C) Weir Formula
Discharge over weir is calculated by weir formula
Q = 0.5445 Ce g b x H 1.5
Where,
Q = Discharge in cum/sec
Ce = Discharge coefficient = 0.864
b = Width of weir in m
H = Depth of flow over weir in m

valves
= 2g (k = 0.50)

## E) Head loss at bends / kV2

entrance / exit losses
= 2g (k = 0.50)

2 Design Considerations
For 250 MLD For 300 MLD
Desired Output Q(out) 250000.00 m3/day 300000
Internal loss after considering
recovery IL @ 3 % 7500.00 m3/day 9000.00
Raw water Input Q(in) = Q(out) + IL 257500.00 m /day
3
309000.00
Working Hours t 22.00 Hours/day 22.00
Average Flow Rate (Normal) Q(avg) 11704.55 m3/Hour 14045.45
Overload flow for hydraulic
design of inlet works 30.00 % 30.00

## Overload flow for hydraulic

design rest of the plant 25.00 % 25.00
Inlet Works Average Flow
Rate 11704.55 m3/hour 14045.45
Inlet Works Average Flow
Rate (Overload) Q(OL) 30 % over nornmal flow
15215.91 m3/hour 18259.09
Inlet works Average Flow
Rate (Normal) Q(avg) 3.25 m3/Sec 3.90
Inlet works Average Flow
Rate (Overload) Q(OL) 30 % over nornmal flow 4.23 m3/Sec 5.07

3 Hydraulic Calculation

a Inlet Chamber
FSL TWL 225.000 M. R. L.
Water Depth d 5.15 m
Invert Level IL 219.850 m

b Inlet Channel
Length 10 m
Width 2.5 m
Liquid Depth 1.95 m
Hydraulic radius 6.4 m
Cross Section Area 4.875 m
Velocity 0.67 m/sec
Check for Velocity at Ultimate
overload condition 1.04 m/sec
Check for Velocity at present
overload condition 0.87 m/sec

## Friction Loss 0.0004883195 m/m

Total Friction Loss 0.0048831953 m
Drop Provided 0.2 m
FSL in the channel 224.800 m
IL of Channel 222.850 m
c Parshall Flume
Approach Channel Width 2.50 m
Design flow Max 5.07 m
Design flow min 3.25 m
Throat Width 1.5 m
Head at max. flow condition Q = 2.264WH3/2 1.307 m
Head at min. flow condition 0.971 m
Headd Loss at Max Flow 0.784 m
Head Loss at Min flow 0.583 m
Level D/s of flume at max flow 224.016
Level D/s of flume at Min flow 223.782

c Distribution Box
No of Inlet 1 No
No of Outlet 6 No
HRT in the inlet box 60 Sec
Weir length for distribution 5.00 m
Maximum Flow through each weir 0.845 m3/Sec
Rise Over Weir 0.2 m

## Friction Loss between

Channel and Distribution Box 0.1 m
TWL in Distribution box 223.682
top of weir 223.482
TWL in outlet Box 223.332

## d Between Distribution Chamber & Flash Mixer

Opening Size 1 m2
Velocity Through Opening 0.845 m/sec
Friction loss 0.018
Provide 0.02
TWL in Flash Mixer 223.312

## e Flash Mixer to Clariflocculator

Pipe size 1m
Flow 0.845 m3/Sec
Velocity 1.0769 m/sec
Frction loss at entry 0.0296 m
Friction loss at exit 0.0296 m
length of pipe 94.0000 m
Area of cross section 0.785 m2
Hydraulic radius 0.25 m
Friction Lossin pipe 0.1467281 m
Add for minor losses 0.01467281 m
Total Loss 0.2205 m
TWL in Clariflocculator 223.091 M R. L
Top of Weir 223.00 M R. L
TWL in Launder 222.85 M R. L

## f Friction Loss between Clariflocculator and filter

Channel
Width 1.6 m
Depth 1.4 m
Area 2.24 m2
Hydraulic Radius 4.4 m
Flow 2.5 m3/Sec
Velocity 1.13 m/sec
Friction Loss 4.007751869E-05 m/m
Length of channel 160
Friction Loss 0.006412403 M
Say 0.01 m
TWL in Channel 222.84 M. R. L

## Friction loss in channel

between clf and filter inlet
channel 0.1
TWL Inlet Channel 222.74
Losses in Filter 2m
TWL in Filter Outlet Channel 220.74