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# Heat Transfer

Tutorial-1
1. What is the difference between the analytical and experimental approach to heat transfer?
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
2. What is heat flux? How is it related to the heat transfer rate?
3. An ideal gas is heated from 50C to 80C (a) at constant volume and (b) at constant
pressure. For which case do you think the energy required will be greater? Why?
4. A cylindrical resistor element on a circuit board dissipates 0.6 W of power. The resistor is
1.5 cm long, and has a diameter of 0.4 cm. Assuming heat to be transferred uniformly from
all surfaces, determine (a) the amount of heat this resistor dissipates during a 24-hour
period, (b) the heat flux, and (c) the fraction of heat dissipated from the top and bottom
surfaces.
5. A logic chip used in a computer dissipates 3 W of power in an environment at 120C, and
has a heat transfer surface area of 0.08 m2. Assuming the heat transfer from the surface to
be uniform, determine (a) the amount of heat this chip dissipates during an eight-hour work
day, in kWh, and (b) the heat flux on the surface of the chip, in W/m2.
6. Consider a 150-W incandescent lamp. The filament of the lamp is 5 cm long and has a
diameter of 0.5 mm. The diameter of the glass bulb of the lamp is 8 cm. Determine the heat
flux, in W/m2, (a) on the surface of the filament and (b) on the surface of the glass bulb,
and (c) calculate how much it will cost per year to keep that lamp on for eight hours a day
every day if the unit cost of electricity is \$0.08/kWh.
7. A 15-cm-diameter aluminum ball is to be heated from 80C to an average temperature of
200C. Taking the average density and specific heat of aluminum in this temperature range
to be =2700 kg/m3 and Cp=0.90 kJ/kg C, respectively, determine the amount of
energy that needs to be transferred to the aluminum ball.
8. On a hot summer day, a student turns his fan on when he leaves his room in the morning.
When he returns in the evening, will his room be warmer or cooler than the neighboring
rooms? Why? Assume all the doors and windows are kept closed.
9. A classroom that normally contains 40 people is to be air-conditioned using window air-
conditioning units of 5-kW cooling capacity. A person at rest may be assumed to dissipate
heat at a rate of 360 kJ/h. There are 10 lightbulbs in the room, each with a rating of 100 W.
The rate of heat transfer to the classroom through the walls and the windows is estimated
to be 15,000 kJ/h. If the room air is to be maintained at a constant temperature of 21C,
determine the number of window air conditioning units required.
Heat Transfer
Tutorial-2
1. Consider an aluminum pan used to cook stew on top of an electric range. The bottom section
of the pan is L =0.25 cm thick and has a diameter of D =18 cm. The electric heating unit on
the range top consumes 900 W of power during cooking, and 90 percent of the heat generated
in the heating element is transferred to the pan. During steady operation, the temperature of
the inner surface of the pan is measured to be 108C. Assuming temperature-dependent thermal
conductivity and one-dimensional heat transfer, express the mathematical formulation (the
differential equation and the boundary conditions) of this heat conduction
problem during steady operation.
2. Consider the base plate of a 800-W household iron with a thickness of L=0.6
cm, base area of A= 160 cm2, and thermal conductivity of k = 20 W/m C.
The inner surface of the base plate is subjected to uniform heat flux generated
by the resistance heaters inside. When steady operating conditions are
reached, the outer surface temperature of the plate is measured to be 85C.
Disregarding any heat loss through the upper part of the iron, (a) express the
differential equation and the boundary conditions for steady one-dimensional
heat conduction through the plate, (b) obtain a relation for the variation of temperature in the
base plate by solving the differential equation, and (c) evaluate the inner surface temperature.
3. Consider a person standing in a room maintained at 20C at all times. The inner surfaces of the
walls, floors, and ceiling of the house are observed to be at an average temperature of 12C in
winter and 23C in summer. Determine the rates of radiation heat transfer between this person
and the surrounding surfaces in both summer and winter if the exposed surface area, emissivity,
and the average outer surface temperature of the person are 1.6 m2, 0.95, and 32C,
respectively.
Heat Transfer
Tutorial -3
1. What is heat generation in a solid? Give examples
2. Heat generation is also referred to as energy generation or thermal energy generation. What
do you think of these phrases?
3. Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its simplest form as

## (a) Is heat transfer steady or transient?

(b) Is heat transfer one-, two-, or three-dimensional?
(c) Is there heat generation in the medium?
(d) Is the thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable?

## 4. Why do we often utilize simplifying assumptions when we derive differential equations?

5. Does heat generation in a solid violate the first law of thermodynamics, which states that
energy cannot be created or destroyed? Explain.
6. An iron is left unattended and its base temperature rises as a result of resistance heating
inside. When will the rate of heat generation inside the iron be equal to the rate of heat loss
from the iron?

7. In a nuclear reactor, 1-cm-diameter cylindrical uranium rods cooled by water from outside
serve as the fuel. Heat is generated uniformly in the rods (k =29.5 W/m C) at a rate of
7x 107 W/m3. If the outer surface temperature of rods is 175C, determine the temperature
at their center.