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Center of Gravity Limitations

C-1
Example
777-200 Center of
Gravity Limits
(Ref. AFM or WBM)

How does Boeing


determine C.G.
limits such as
these for any given
airplane model?

C-2
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid

C-3
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Datum for B.A.

lemac Datum

(-) (+)
m.a.c.
Moment = WT * L
L

WT C-4
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
Datum

Datum

ar m = L

= 2L
arm
(-) (+)

=-2

ar m
m.a.c.

L
L

Weight (~ 1000 lb)


-2L 2L

WT WT WT

Moment1 = WT * L

Moment2 = WT * 2L

Moment3 = WT * (-2L)

Moment (in-lb)
C-5
Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Datum
Weight (~ 1000 lb)

Moment (in-lb) C-6


Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Datum
Weight (1000 kg)
Weight (1000 kg)

Convert from weight


versus %MAC to weight
versus moment

Center of Gravity ~ %MAC Moment (kg-in) C-7


Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Datum
Enlarge this
Area of Interest
Weight (1000 kg)

Moment (kg-in) C-8


Development of the Weight versus
Moment C.G. Grid
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Weight (1000 kg)

Moment (kg-in) C-9


Advantage of this Format is the
Ability to Add Vectors Graphically
Datum
c.g. (%mac)
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
xInit
x2

x3 x1
WT2
1 3
2
WT1
WT3 2

Weight (1000 kg)


WTInit 3 1

Total Moment = WTInit * xInit +


(WT3 * x3 ) - (WT1 * x1 ) - (WT2 * x2 )

Total Weight = WTInit + WT1 + WT2


+ WT3 2
1 3

2
Order of application does not 3 1
affect final result
Starting point does not affect
final weight and moment
C-10
Determining Desired Forward and Aft
C.G. Limits

C-11
Design Objectives

The forward and aft C.G. limits for a given airplane model
are selected by Boeing during the design of the airplane,
and are meant to allow for airline-to-airline variations in:
- Operational Empty Weights
- Interior Seating Arrangements
- Cargo Loading Bulk, Pallets, Containers
- Fuel Loading and Usage
- Operational Curtailments
The airplane structure and layout is then designed to allow
for loading of the airplane within these selected (and
eventually certified) limits.
Lets look at a simplified example of how this process
proceeded for the 767-400 design.
C-12
Accounting for Loading Variations
AIRPLANE EMPTY WEIGHT & C.G.

0% 10% 20% 30% 40%


GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB) 500

400

300

Most Aft OEW C.G.


Most Fwd OEW C.G. to consider based
to consider based on tri-class
on dual-class
OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-13
Accounting for Loading Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500

Assumed
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

Dual-class loading

400 Assumed
Tri-class loading

300 Chosen as most


reasonable Aft C.G.
to consider based on
DC

tri-class with some


Most Fwd C.G. to TC business seats filled
consider based on
loading dual-class (rare to have business
OEW
and first empty with
200 economy full)
CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)
C-14
Accounting for Loading Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS and CARGO
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB) 500

Most Aft C.G. to


consider based
400 on loading pax
and baggage
Most Fwd C.G. to
consider based
on loading pax Assumed cargo
and cargo loading forward

300 Assumed cargo


loading aft

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-15
Accounting for Loading Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB) 500

400 Loading Center tank fuel

Loading main tank fuel


300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-16
Accounting for Loading Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Required C.G. Range to cover
assumed loading variations
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-17
Accounting for Loading Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB) 500

400
Notice that if this point had
been chosen as the most
aft C.G. to consider prior to
the loading of fuel it would
have produced a more
forward aft limit
300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-18
Accounting for Operational CG Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Estimate curtailments airlines
will use to account for
differences between calculated
and actual C.G. due to:
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

Gear and flap movement


400 Estimat

ents
Movement of pax, crew and
service carts during flight

urtailm
ed

Movement between potable


forward

water and waste tanks

ft c
ated a
Differences between
calculated and actual C.G.
curtailm

300

Estim
location of passengers,
cargo, and fuel
ents

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-19
Accounting for Operational CG Variations
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Required C.G. Range to cover
assumed loading variations plus
possible curtailments
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-20
Consider Structural and
Performance Weight Targets
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500

MTOW
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

MZFW

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-21
Consider Other Constraints
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500

Constant
Wing Load
MTOW
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

MZFW

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-22
Constant Wing Load

The strength of the wings structure can impose a


limitation on the forward C.G. limits.
Lift Wing

Lift Tail
Weight
WING LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the
tail must = 0:
M Tail = W (B.A.Tail B.A.C.G.) L Wing(B.A.Tail B.A.Wing) = 0

L Wing = W (B.A.Tail B.A.C.G.)


(B.A.Tail B.A.Wing)

The load on the wing is increased both by increasing


airplane weight, and by forward movement of the center of
gravity. Eventually, the wings limits are reached.
C-23
Consider Other Constraints
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500

Constant
Wing Load
MTOW
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

Constant MZFW
Tail Load

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-24
Constant Tail Load

The strength of the tail and aft body structure can


impose a limitation on the forward C.G. limits.
Lift Wing

Lift Tail

TAIL LOAD Weight

For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the wing
must = 0 :
M Wing = W (B.A. Wing B.A. C.G.) LTail (B.A.Tail B.A.Wing) = 0

LTail = W (B.A. Wing B.A. C.G.)


(B.A.Tail B.A.Wing)

The load on the tail and aft body is increased both by


increasing airplane weight, and by forward movement of
the center of gravity. Eventually, the tail or aft bodys limits
are reached. C-25
Consider Other Constraints
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Constant
NLG Load
Constant
Wing Load
MTOW
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

Constant MZFW
Tail Load

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-26
Constant Nose Gear Load
The strength of the nose gear structure can
impose a limitation on the forward C.G. limits.

Load NLG Weight


Load MLG
NOSE LANDING GEAR LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the main landing
gear must = 0 :
M MLG = W (B.A. MLG B.A. C.G.) LNLG (B.A. MLG B.A. NLG) = 0

LNLG = W (B.A. MLG B.A. C.G.)


(B.A. MLG B.A. NLG)

The load on the NLG is increased both by increasing


airplane weight, and by forward movement of the center of
gravity. Eventually, the NLG limits are reached.
C-27
Consider Other Constraints
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Constant
NLG Load
Constant
Wing Load Constant
MTOW MLG Load
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

Constant MZFW
Tail Load

300

OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-28
Constant Main Gear Load
The strength of the main landing gear structure can
impose a limitation on the aft C.G. limits.

Load NLG Weight


Load MLG
MAIN LANDING GEAR LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the nose landing
gear must = 0 :
M NLG = LMLG (B.A. MLG B.A. NLG) W (B.A. C.G. B.A. NLG) = 0

LMLG = W (B.A. C.G. B.A. NLG)


(B.A. MLG B.A. NLG)

The load on the MLG is increased both by increasing


airplane weight, and by aft movement of the center of
gravity. Eventually, the MLG limits are reached.
C-29
Consider Other Constraints
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Constant
NLG Load
Constant
Wing Load Constant
MTOW MLG Load
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

p
Constant

-U
MZFW
Tail Load

Tip
off
ke
300

OEW Ta
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-30
Takeoff Tip-Up Limit
At takeoff (full thrust, static airplane) there is a possibility of
reduced nose gear steering effectiveness, or actual
airplane tip up.

Thrust
h

Load NLG Weight


Load MLG
BRAKE RELEASE TIP-UP
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the airplane CG
must = 0 :
M CG = LMLG (B.A. MLG B.A. C.G.) T h LNLG (B.A. C.G. B.A. NLG) = 0

LNLG = LMLG (B.A. MLG B.A. C.G.) T h


(B.A. C.G. B.A. NLG)

The load on the NLG is reduced by: decreasing airplane weight, aft
movement of the C.G., and increasing thrust. At light enough NLG loads,
steering effectiveness is reduced, and eventually, the NLG load can
become negative causing the airplane to tip up.
C-31
All Constraints Considered
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500
Constant
NLG Load
Constant Constant
Wing Load
MTOW MLG Load
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

p
Constant

-U
MZFW
Tail Load

Tip
off
ke
300

OEW Ta
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-32
Final Certified Structural Envelope
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500

MTOW
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

400
MLW

MZFW

300

200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-33
Additional Consideration
Ground Handling - Tipping
AIRPLANE WEIGHT & C.G.
WITH PASSENGERS, CARGO & FUEL
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
500

MTOW
GROSS WEIGHT (1000 LB)

it
Lim
400

ity
MLW

bil

it
im
Sta

gL
nd
MZFW

pin
ou

Tip
Gr
300

Aft
OEW
200

CENTER OF GRAVITY (%MAC)


C-34
Ground Handling - Tipping
On the ground, if the C.G. moves aft of the main
landing gear, the airplane will tip up.

Load NLG Weight


Load MLG
NOSE LANDING GEAR LOAD
For the airplane to be in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about the main landing
gear must = 0 :
M MLG = W (B.A. MLG B.A. C.G.) LNLG (B.A. MLG B.A. NLG) = 0

LNLG = W (B.A. MLG B.A. C.G.)


(B.A. MLG B.A. NLG)

To account for the effects of towing and ground operations, a


ground stability limit is imposed at C.G.s forward of the
absolute aft limit. This ground stability limit takes into account
3% ramp slope, Towing forces, 40 knot headwind, etc.
C-35
Examples of C.G. Envelopes for
Actual Airplanes

C-36
Example
777-200 Center
of Gravity
Limits

(For training
purposes only.
Not kept up to date) C-37
Limitations on 777-200
Center of Gravity
Mission
Performance Main
300000 Wing Gea
r

r
ea

Fu
eG

el
280000

Ve
No

ct
or
260000

rol
& Cont
240000
GROSS WEIGHT ~ KG

y
Stabilit

Loadability, Stability & Control


220000
Body Strength, Loadability, Tail Size

200000

-Up
180000

Tip
ase
Rele
160000

e
Brak
140000

120000
0 5 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
CENTER OF GRAVITY ~ % MAC
C-38
Example
737-800 Center
of Gravity
Limits

(For training
purposes only.
Not kept up to date) C-39
Limitations on 737-800
Center of Gravity
85000

Mission Main
Performance
80000 Wing Gear

Fu
el
rol

Ve
75000

ont

ct o
&C

r
ty
70000

bili
Sta

Loadability, Stability & Control


GROSS WEIGHT ~ KG

65000

60000
Body Strength, Loadability, Tail Size

55000

-Up
e Ti p
50000

leas
e Re
45000

er
Brak

Pow
Tail
40000

35000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
CENTER OF GRAVITY ~ % MAC
C-40
Example
747-400 Center
of Gravity
Limits

(For training
purposes only.
Not kept up to date) C-41
Limitations on 747-400
Center of Gravity
420000

Mission
400000 Performance
W in g
Fu

ar
el

Ge
380000 Ve
ct

se
or

No
360000

Trim Line for Takeoff


Horizontal Stabilizer
340000
GROSS WEIGHT ~ KG

320000

Loadability, Stability & Control


300000 Landing Performance

280000
F
Ve uel

Tail Load With Tail Fuel


260000 ct
or

p
ip-U
Landing Limit for Gear
Loadability, Tail Size

240000

eT
Body Strength,

eas
Rel
220000

-Up ease
ke
Bra

Rel
200000
ke
Tip
Bra

180000
0 5 10 25 20 25 30 35 40
CENTER OF GRAVITY ~ % MAC
C-42
End of
Center of Gravity Limitations

C-43