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Welcome from the publisher


complete course of basic instruction,

W
elcome to StartArt, a how-to
bookazine with step-by-step using drawing and coloured pencils,
demonstrations for newcomers water-soluble pencils and watercolour,
of all ages to drawing and painting. There covering how to paint landscapes,
are few leisure interests that are as flowers and household objects, by
inexpensive as painting, and provide as experienced and popular tutors. All you
much enjoyment and satisfaction - or are need is the desire to take the first step
so creative and can conveniently be turn the pages and away you go!
done in your own home. All you need is a
selection of a few basic materials, some And dont forget to enter the StartArt
down-to-earth guidance, a bit of painting competition, with many valuable
encouragement, and the enthusiasm to prizes to be won. See page 23 for full
have a go. details. We look forward to seeing your
first paintings! Enjoy!
StartArt provides helpful advice about
the materials you will need, plus guidance Sally Bulgin

in easy-to-follow painting techniques, with


ideas and simple demonstrations to work
from so that you can draw and paint
colourful pictures to hang on the wall.
Inside these pages you will find a

DISTANCE LEARNING ESTABLISHED 1931

Home Study Courses Courses Include:


Study in the comfort and Botanical Painting
convenience of your own home History of Art
All ages/all stages - learn at your Illustrating Childrens Books
own speed Watercolour
London Art College Diploma Photography
and Certificate courses Pet Portraits
Flexible timetable - excellent tutors Chinese Brush Painting

To request a brochure please call: 0800 328 0465 or write to


London Art College, PO Box 719, Lancaster, LA1 2WT.
For a full list of our courses, please visit our website
www.LondonArtCollege.co.uk
StartArt October 2005
3
Contents 7/9/05 10:24 am Page 4

START

16
RT
Cont
Publisher:
Dr Sally Bulgin 7 Meet the tutors
Editors:
Introducing StartArts contributors
Vivien Donald
Ingrid Lyon
Jane Stroud
8 How to get started
Advice on choosing and using materials
Advertising:
Tim Fleming
Tel: 01580 763315/767786 12 On the right lines
Email: tim@tapc.co.uk Linda Birch sheds light and shade on drawing
techniques
Design:
Brenda Hedley
16 Drawing with colour
All material copyrighted; Jackie Simmonds paints a simple still life with
reproduction forbidden without water-soluble coloured pencils
permission. Views expressed by
contributors are not necessarily
those of the publisher.

24 20 Art store
StartArt is published exclusively for New products to look out for
WHSmith by The Artists Publishing
Company Limited, Caxton House,
63/65 High Street, Tenterden, Kent
TN30 6BD. Telephone 01580
23 StartArt Competition
763315/763673; Fax 01580 765411; Paint a landscape from a photograph
email: penni@tapc.co.uk

32
www.leisurepainter.co.uk

Printed by Headley Brothers Ltd.,


24 Step into colour
The Invicta Press, Queens Road, Choose and mix the right colours with
Ashford, Kent
Tony Paul

28 Pick up your paints!


Alwyn Crawshaw demonstrates basic
Cover watercolour techniques
TV artist Hazel Soan painting in
watercolours outdoors. Hazel
writes for StartArt on page 52. She
is also leading a painting holiday
32 Your first landscape
to Venice; see page 66 for details. Use your new skills to paint a simple
landscape with Alwyn Crawshaw

40 Making a splash!
Paint a beach scene step-by-step with
June Crawshaw

44 Make your own


greetings card
Jane Greenwood shows how simple but
55 striking ideas can be turned into cards for your
40 friends and family
Contents 7/9/05 10:25 am Page 5

ntents
48 Come into the garden 48
Jill Bays explores a colourful garden scene

52 The moving picture


Hazel Soan shows how to paint figures at
speed in watercolour

56 Paint your pet


Using coloured pencils, follow Sally
Michels simple step-by-step
demonstration to paint a cat
52
61 Hooked on painting?
Further reading, painting courses, where to
buy art materials

65 StartArt Bookshop
Mail-order practical art books for beginners at
discounted prices

36 WORKING FROM
PHOTOGRAPHS
Ray Campbell Smith
shows how photographs
can help you paint
lovely pictures.
Use the photograph,
56
left, to enter our Paint
a landscape from a
photograph
Competition on the
START FREE paper insert.
RT
COMPETITION DETAILS page 23
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The perfect complement to our colour ranges,
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Solvents are now available in new durable plastic are using and the effect you want to
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Finder will do the rest. Our videos will
and to reduce the risk of breakage in your studio also provide you with all the guidance
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Join the Winsor & Newton Community today

p68_lpnov11.indd 1 4/10/11 14:28:12


Startp7_ tutors 2 7/9/05 10:46 am Page 7

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Meet the tutors


Jill Bays painting, written two instructional books on painting and three
trained at Guildford School of Art as an illustrator joint books with him, all published by Collins. She writes for Leisure
before working in advertising. Jill has just finished Painter magazine and has her work published as fine art prints
her sixth book, The Flower Painters Essential and greetings cards. Books to read include You Can Paint
Handbook, to be published next spring. Other titles Seashore in Watercolour (Collins, 12.99). To see more of Junes
include: The Watercolourists Garden; Flowers in work visit www.crawshawgallery.com.
the Landscape; The Drawing Wookbook; The
Watercolourists Nature Journal and Watercolours in a Weekend, Jane Greenwood
Flowers (David & Charles; see page 65 to order). She is teaching Illustrator and designer Jane Greenwood studied
at Earnley Concourse in 2006 and in Cornwall during the winter. art, art history and theatre design in the UK and
Italy. She worked in Amsterdam as a theatre
Linda Birch designer and in France, Holland and the UK as an
Linda has taught painting and drawing for the past illustrator and teacher. Jane has published books
30 years in adult education and has illustrated over on stencilling and home decor and has written
150 childrens books. She writes regular articles for many articles for craft magazines. Books for Search Press include
Leisure Painter and is the author of How to Draw Folk Art Design; Persian Designs; as well as Watercolour Greetings
and Paint Animals (David & Charles); You Can Cards, featured on pages 44 to 46.
Paint Oils: a step-by-step guide for beginners (Collins); and most
recently The Indoor Artist (Collins). Sally Michel
is a full-time artist and long-time member of the
Ray Campbell Smith Society of Wildlife Artists. Although she paints
With an art school training and honours degree buildings, landscapes and plants, her favourite
from London University, Ray taught art in schools subject is animals, for which she has an
for some 20 years before leaving to concentrate understanding that enables her to record their
on his own painting and writing. Ray has had six personalities and physical characteristics. Sally has written several
books on watercolour painting published by David books for Search Press, including Drawing and Painting Animals
& Charles including his popular Watercolour Using Watercolour as well as her recent publication Drawing Pets,
Workout (see page 65 to order) and seven by Search Press; he featured on pages 56 to 59.
has also contributed to books featuring well-known artists. He has
made 15 instructional art videos for Seeba Film Productions, M.G. Tony Paul
Artmaster and Teaching Art. He contributes regularly to leading is a qualified Adult Education tutor with 20 years
art magazines, notably Leisure Painter, to which he recently experience in teaching adults. His work has been
became editorial consultant. shown in the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition,
The Royal Society of British Artists and The Royal
Robin Capon Society of Marine Artists. He writes two monthly
After studying fine art at Goldsmiths College columns for Leisure Painter magazine and is the author of three
School of Art and Brighton College of Art, Robin books: How to Mix and Use Colour; How to Create Light in your
combined a career in teaching and examining art Paintings; and How to Create Texture in your Paintings (New
with writing books on art techniques. Since 1988 he Holland Publishers; see page 65 to order). Tony tutors courses at
has worked exclusively as a freelance art journalist various venues, including the West Norfolk Arts Centre; phone
and author. He is well known for his regular monthly 01553 631689 for details of his courses in 2006.
features and reviews in Leisure Painter magazine. He is the author
of more than 20 books, including Teach Yourself Drawing (Hodder Hazel Soan
Headline) and David Curtis: Light and Mood in Watercolour is known to millions for her role as an Art Expert on
(Batsford). Channel 4s popular painting programme
Watercolour Challenge and through Anglias TV
Alwyn Crawshaw series Splash of Colour. She is a highly successful
has been an inspiration to millions of amateur international artist and author of seven books,
painters and has made eight popular TV series on mainly on her great passion, watercolour, including What Shall I
painting for Channel 4. He is author of 26 books on Paint? (Collins; see page 65 to order) and a pocket-sized book on
art instruction, all published by Collins. He is a 10 Minute Watercolours (HarperCollins; see page 22 for details).
regular contributor to Leisure Painter magazine, She has also produced instructional videos and magazine
President of the National Acrylic Painters articles. Hazel has a studio and gallery in West London and a
Association, a member of the Society of Equestrian Artists and the studio in Cape Town, South Africa. Hazel offers workshops and
British Watercolour Society, and a Fellow of the Royal Society of painting holidays including our StartArt trip to Venice; see page
Arts. Books to read include Alwyn Crawshaws Watercolour 66. For information about her other courses email
Painting Course; You Can Paint Watercolour; and You Can Paint hsoan@iafrica.com; www.hazelsoan.com.
Landscapes in Watercolour (Collins, 12.99). To see more of
Alwyns work visit www.crawshawgallery.com. Jackie Simmonds
is an author/tutor who works in all media and has
June Crawshaw written several books and made six instructional
paints in watercolour, acrylic and oil. She is a videos on painting with pastels. Her latest book,
member of the Society of Women Artists, the British Watercolour Innovations (Collins; see page 65 to
Watercolour Society, the National Acrylic Painters order) shows some of her experimental
Association and an honorary member of the watercolours. Jackie contributes to The Artist and
United Society of Artists. With her husband, Alwyn, runs occasional painting workshops and painting holidays. For
she has featured in three television series on details telephone 01923 824180; or visit www.jackiesimmonds.com.

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How to get started


Robin Capon lists the pencils, paints, paper and
brushes that you will need for your first pictures
E ssentially, drawings and
paintings are composed of
lines, shapes and colours, and
these can be made with a
variety of materials and
equipment to help you create
a picture, whether it is of a
vase of flowers, a landscape
or your pet. Art shops and
stationers stock a big selection
of drawing and painting
materials and at first the
extensive scope of materials
and techniques can seem
bewildering. So what do you
need, and where should you
start?

Watercolours are available in


tubes and pan colours

PENCILS AND PAINTS Water-soluble pencils


To begin with, when you are just starting to These pencils are much more versatile
develop your drawing and painting skills, than ordinary coloured pencils, and they
are especially good for sketching
all you really need are some pencils and
outdoors. You can use them as dry colour,
watercolour paints. When you feel
but they have the added advantage that
confident with these you may want to try areas of the colour can be wetted on the
other media, such as pastels, acrylics or paper (with a soft brush dipped into clean
oil paints. water) and transformed into a
watercolour-type effect. (See Jackie
Simmondss article on pages 16 to 19.)
Drawing pencils
You can also buy water-soluble graphite
There are hard pencils, labelled H to 9H,
pencils, such as Derwent Graphitint, which
and soft pencils, labelled B to 8B. Hard
will give a range of grey, tonal wash effects.
pencils will give very controlled marks
while soft pencils are good for freer, Watercolour
darker and more sensitive lines, as well as There are several reasons why watercolour
shading. is a good choice for anyone interested in
Try a B or a 2B pencil to begin with. This learning to paint. For one thing, painting in
should give you a wide range of marks watercolour requires little in the way of
and effects if you experiment with the essential materials and equipment.
amount of pressure applied and the way Moreover, everything that is required is
that you hold the pencil. (See Linda lightweight, compact and easy to store.
Birchs article on pages 12 to 15.) Unlike oil paints, watercolour is quick-
drying and a wonderfully fresh and direct
Coloured pencils medium to use.
For a coloured sketch or drawing Most watercolour paints are made from
coloured pencils are available in assorted coloured pigments, with a binder of gum
sets or you can buy individual colours. arabic solution, plus glycerine and ox gall
Water-soluble pencils are very Choose a brand such as Derwent Artists to make them flow easily. There is a huge
useful for making sketches and Pencils that will give you soft, blendable choice of colours available, sold in tubes
colour studies, particularly colours and more scope in the effects and pans (small, oblong cakes of
when working outdoors that you can achieve. colour). The Artists ranges are top-quality

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BUYING MATERIALS
Below is a list of useful all-round basics. To follow the
demonstrations featured in this booklet, the artists have
listed specific materials for you.

HB and 2B pencils

3 water-soluble pencils; red, blue and yellow

A4 sketchbook

2 sheets of 5676cm (2230in.) 300gsm (140lb) Not


watercolour paper. You can cut this to the various sizes
you may need.

6 small tubes of watercolours (see Tony Pauls suggested


list on page 24)

No.4 and No.10 round watercolour brushes

Soft eraser

5cm (2in.) roll of gummed brown paper tape

Craft knife

Mixing palette (an old saucer will do)

Water container (a jam jar, or similar)

A3 drawing board (perhaps an offcut piece


of firm plyboard)

Some rag or paper tissues

Buy a small sketchbook and


make one or two drawings
every day

paints, but the more economical


Student ranges give good results, too.
For painting, the colours are mixed with
water to create a wash of the right
consistency, and colours can also be
intermixed. However, the main point to
remember about watercolour is not to do
too much mixing or overpainting. Usually,
simple translucent washes of colour work
best. (See Pick up your Paints, page 28.)

PAPER
Use cartridge paper, which has a smooth
surface, for drawings, or work in an A4
sketchbook. For your watercolours you will
need a supply of watercolour paper. Art
shops have stocks in a choice of surfaces
hot-pressed (HP) to give a smooth
surface, Not (not hot-pressed) with a slight
texture, and Rough (rough textured and in
different weights (thicknesses).
Try a 300gsm (140lb) Not surface paper
to begin with. This is a reliable, general
purpose paper. Later, you may want to try
the HP surface for controlled, detailed
work that does not involve large areas of
wash. Use Rough paper when texture is an
important factor. Look for a good brand
of watercolour paper, such as the

Bockingford paper inserted in StartArt.

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BRUSHES
There are many different types of brushes
available for watercolour painting. Start with some
However, to begin with it is advisable to experiments like this with
keep things simple and work with just two your brushes and colours
brushes: a No.10 round for applying to see what marks and
general washes of colour, and a No.4 effects are possible
round for detail. In time you can add to
these if you think you need more choice
in order to create a greater range of
effects.
A good watercolour brush will hold a
large quantity of paint and release as
much or as little as you wish. The best
brushes have a spring and flexibility, with
fine hair that tapers to a sharp point.
Sable brushes have all these
characteristics and without doubt are the
most suitable for watercolour painting. But
if you cannot afford sable brushes or
dislike the fact that they are made from
animal hair, then try combination brushes
(those made from a mixture of natural With a large round
and synthetic hair) or synthetic fibre watercolour brush you can
brushes, which make a reasonable make many different lines
alternative. and marks, as shown here
Watercolour brushes are graded from
sizes 00000 (extremely fine) to size 24
(large wash brushes). With flat brushes,
such as one-stroke and hakes, the size is
stated in millimetres or inches. The size,
shape and variety of hair used to make a
brush all contribute to giving it certain
characteristics which, in turn, make it
BEING PREPARED
suitable for particular techniques. For
example, rounds, mops and Chinese Finding a quiet space where you can
brushes are the most versatile, suiting a draw and paint, and creating the
range of techniques, while flats, filberts right environment, can make all the
and fan brushes are good for dry-brush
difference to your enjoyment and
work and other texture effects, and one-
success.
stroke and hakes are ideal for applying
large areas of wash. Work space
For most projects you can work sitting at a
table. The kitchen or dining room table will
do, but you may want to protect it with a
cloth or some newspaper. Put the paper
on your drawing board, which should be
propped up at a slight angle of around 40
degrees (use a thick book placed
underneath the back of the board). The
other important consideration is light.
Ideally, find a place where you can work
in good, natural light.
Storage
Keep your materials in a safe place. Most
of the recommended materials will fit into
a toolbox or similar container that is easy
to carry around. Store paper flat on a
shelf or in a stiff-backed folder or portfolio.
Preparing the paper
For watercolour painting, always secure
the paper to a board, using strips of
gummed brown paper around the edges.
Dampen the watercolour paper all over
Try using a flat watercolour with a sponge and some clean water and
brush when you want to apply then leave to dry.
large areas of wash or paint However, if you are going to paint with
up to a straight edge. See lots of generous washes of colour, you
Techniques on page 28. must stretch the paper first, otherwise it
will buckle and distort badly (see panel,
above right).

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Getting started

HOW TO STRETCH
WATERCOLOUR PAPER

Lighter watercolour papers need to


be stretched before they are worked
on, to avoid the surface buckling
when wet paint is applied. Stretched
paper becomes taut as it dries.
Heavy papers, over 300gsm (140lb),
do not need to be stretched.

1: You will need a drawing board or


similar firm board. Trim the watercolour
paper so that it is at least 3.5cm (112in.)
smaller all round than the board.
2: Cut a length of gummed brown tape
(avoid masking tape) for each of the four
edges of the paper, allowing for an
overlap of about 3.5cm (112in.) each end.
A When stretching paper, after soaking it for a few
3: Immerse the sheet of paper in a tray or minutes, place it flat on a drawing board
bath of clean water for a minute or two,
ensuring that both sides are really wet.
4: Hold the paper vertically to allow the
surplus water to drain off, and then place
it on the board. Lightly smooth out any
wrinkles, using a sponge or damp cloth.
(See A above right.)
5: Working quickly, moisten each length
of gummed brown tape and press it lightly
in place along the edge of the
watercolour paper. Start with the long
sides and position the gummed strip so
that half its width is on the board and half
on the watercolour paper. Do not
attempt to smooth out the undulations,
just let the gummed tape follow them.
(See B right.)
6: Fold the overlaps underneath the
board and leave it in a flat position to dry
at room temperature.
B Complete the stretching process by securing the paper with strips
of gummed brown tape along each edge, then leave to dry

STARTER
Experiment
TIPS Brushes
Rinse your brushes thoroughly after use
Before you try the projects on the
in plenty of clean water and repoint
following pages, get a feel for your
the tips, using your thumb and
pencils, brushes and paints by testing
forefinger. When not in use, store
them out in your sketchbook or on some
brushes flat, protecting the hairs with
scraps of paper. Just experiment with
tissue paper.
different lines and marks to see what is
possible. Sketchbook
Everything you do will rely on your
Keep trying!
drawing skills, so try to develop these
Dont worry if your first attempts are
by making a sketch or two every day.
disappointing. This is true for everyone. But
keep trying and you will improve. Label all Ideas
your work with the date and any Keep a scrapbook for any
comments that might be helpful. Keep photographs, cuttings and notes of
everything in a folder so that you can ideas that could be interesting to draw
monitor your progress. or paint.

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On the right lines


You can practise drawing any time, anywhere,
with just pencils and a sheet of paper;
Linda Birch helps you draw a simple still-life picture

STEP 1
A simple collection of objects like these,
You will need

catching light and casting shadow, will
help you be successful.
 2B pencil

 4B pencil

 Eraser
Dont sit TIP
too close to your
 Drawing paper (any smooth surface group of objects.
paper will do, such as copier Approximately three paces
paper)
away is just about right
and make sure you draw
 Still-life group of no more than three large enough. It is
simple objects, placed on a actually easier
windowsill or lit by a desk lamp

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Most TIP
objects you draw can
be reduced to basic
STEP 2
geometric shapes: spheres,
Using the 2B pencil, the drawing cylinders, cubes, cones.
is started with the nearest shape
Look for these shapes
the egg, which is a sphere.
whenever you draw; it
will help you get
started on your
drawing

STEP 3
Imagining the egg as a clock face
helps to find the next shape.
Touching the egg at about 9
oclock on the clock face is the
curved base of the jug.

STEP 4
Nearest the egg on the other
side at about 2 and 4 is the edge
of the apple also a sphere.

STEP 5
Imagine the apple is a clock
face. What touches it and
where? At 11 is the side of the


jug. At 3 is the edge of the table.

TIP
Use a ruler for a
straight line if you
need to. Dont press
too hard, and go over
the line freehand
afterwards

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STEP 6
You will now find it easier to construct the jug
behind, which is a tapering cylinder.

STEP 7
Add the spout, handle and apple stem,
and mark the highlight on the jug.

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Drawing


TIP
Try
smudging your
shadows slightly
to give soft shadows,
as I have done
here

STEP 8
With the 4B pencil, gently add grey tone to the
apple (smudging if you wish), add deeper grey
shadows, and press harder to make the
deepest shadow behind the group.

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Drawing with colour


In her drawing of an onion and bright red pepper,
Jackie Simmonds shows what you can achieve
with water-soluble coloured pencils

W ater-soluble coloured
pencils are fun to use.
You will need
You can build up colour with  Watercolour paper either hot-pressed (HP) or Not surface
them just as you would with (see pages 8 to 11)
regular coloured pencils, but
then you can loosen the  Water-soluble coloured pencils. For this demonstration I have used
Derwent Watercolour Pencils in the following colours:
colour, and enrich the finished
deep cadmium, orange chrome, crimson lake, terracotta,
look with a little water. Hey
deep vermilion, spectrum blue, mineral green
presto! You have a lovely
coloured drawing-cum-  Water
painting. They are also very
versatile: with a few of these  Brush
pencils, a little water, a brush,  Eraser (not essential)
and a cartridge paper
sketchbook you can produce
small watercolour sketches
without a box of paints!
FOR PRACTICE Its a good idea to spend a little time practising with
these pencils to find out just what you can do with them.
My demonstration here Here are a few ideas:
shows a carefully constructed
drawing of a simple still life of
an onion and pepper, which
has been loosened at the end
with a little water applied with 1: Lines can be dissolved with 2: If you build up layers of dry colour,
the brush. This fuses the drawn water. If you have pressed very using two or more colours, when you
lines together and the end hard, the line will show through the wet the finished area, you create a
results look rather more like a coloured puddle you create. delicious new colour.
painting than a drawing. I
could have stopped earlier,
and I would have achieved a
looser effect. I could also have
added a washy background.
How far you take a drawing is
up to you. 3: If you wet your marks using lots of 4: If you wet your marks using a brush
water, you get a big coloured puddle. which has been dried a little, you
loosen the colour with more control,
and the finish is rich and strong. This is
the method I have used for the
demonstration opposite.


TIP 5: If you wet your paper with clean
water and shave some colour from
Dont dip your the pencil into the wet area, you can 6: If you wet your paper and draw into
pencil into your water create interesting textures. the wet area, your marks will look soft
and slightly blurred.
pot because this will
dissolve the pencil lead. It
is always better to wet
the paper rather than 7: If you create areas of colour like
this on a sheet of scrap paper, you
the pencil can use it as a palette taking
colour from it with a wet brush and
painting with the colour. This is a
wonderfully portable alternative to a
box of paints!

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Demonstration: Onion and red pepper

STAGE 1
Study the objects carefully and draw their
outlines to the best of your ability. Notice how I
have indicated the angles of the vegetables to
help me to draw them better. Also notice how I


have scanned across the still life to see where
elements line up. This scanning technique is a
really useful skill to develop.
Once TIP
you have wetted
a coloured area and
left it to dry the colour
will not lift when re-
wetted, so you can add
more colour, or
details, over the
top if you

STAGE 2
Use the yellow pencil to create coloured areas
where the objects are light in tone. Dont worry
if your marks overlap into other, darker areas.
This is not important, as other, darker tones will
be added over the top. Use cross-hatched
strokes (lines which cross each other), or use
lines which are parallel (this is called
feathering).

STAGE 3
Using a terracotta pencil and vermilion red,
begin to define the three-dimensional form of
the onion and red pepper. The light, striking
from one side, should show the form, and you
need to describe the roundness of the onion,
and the form of the paper, with your marks.
Making your marks follow the form will help to

suggest the form.

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STAGE 4
Now begin to build up your reds more
positively, and add orange chrome to the
onion. This will emphasise its lovely warm, rich
colour. It is better to build up layers gently and
gradually, rather than to press hard for dense
colour right from the beginning.


TIP
Every time you
touch a coloured pencil
area with a wet brush,
your brush will pick up
colour, so wash the brush
before moving to a
different colour
area

STAGE 5
Add more colour for the deeper-toned areas,
and add in the green stalk and end of the
pepper. Use crimson lake red for the pepper on
the right. It is receiving less light and is a darker,
colder red.

18 StartArt October 2005


START10p1619 Simmonds 4/9/05 8:59 am Page 19

Drawing with colour

STAGE 6
Pressing quite lightly, shade in some
spectrum blue lines for the shadow under
the pepper halves. This will suggest the
tabletop and will anchor the vegetables
properly. Without a shadow the objects
will look as if they are floating in mid air.

STAGE 7
With a brush that is not too drippy with
water, loosen the colour. You will see
immediately how the colour will melt,
and a richness will develop. Lift your
brush where you want to leave
highlights. Wash the brush and reload
with clean water frequently.
When the wet areas are dry, you can
work over the top adding small details,
such as the dark lines of the skin of the
onion.

Troubleshooting
If you are having difficulty building up the colours gradually, vary the pressure of
your strokes, increasing the pressure gradually
If you find that you lose control when you wet the drawing to loosen the colour,
then you are using far too much water
If the paper buckles when you wet it, you need to use less water. Keep a tissue
handy to wipe your brush before touching your drawing. If your paper still buckles,
it may be too thin
If you have made a drawing error, correct it with an eraser before you add any
water because the water will set the drawing

StartArt October 2005


19
Startp20_21_Art Store 7/9/05 3:55 pm Page 20

RT STORE
Art materials manufacturers introduce
System 3D Acrylic Colours
New System 3D acrylic colour from
Daler-Rowney has outstanding oil-like qualities.
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their ranges for beginners to painting Literally.
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travelling companion. At just 9.95 it's a For your nearest stockist call 01344 461000 or
great starting point for any new visit www.daler-rowney.com
watercolour painter.
Telephone Global Art Supplies on 01980 625625
for your nearest stockist.

Watercolour Brushes
If you are looking for good Artists watercolour brushes look no
further than Pro Arte. With its knowledge,
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the widest selection that any aspiring artist
can choose from. These start with a
students' and beginner range in the form
of Polar white nylons, but Pro Arte's most
renowned favourite is the Prolene range, The START range from Derwent
which is crafted from an assortment of Start off on the right foot with
fibre grades which give a superb feel, the START range from Derwent.
incredible spring and a needle point. Established masters at fulfilling
These are available in three shapes: all areas of the market Derwent
rounds, flats and riggers. is keen not to forget its very
Available from all good art shops, or important beginners. For this
telephone 01756 792929 for your nearest reason START has been
stockist and information on the products. incorporated into the Derwent
range at the beginner level to
entice those artists who are just
beginning to enjoy the
pleasures of drawing and
sketching and give them the opportunity to discover their talent
without any major expense.
The START range of quality colouring, sketching, watercolour, metallic
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calibre product range is reasonably priced without compromising the
quality and status for which Derwent is renowned. Prices start at 2.24
(pack of six).
For further information and a list of stockists, contact The Cumberland
Pencil Company, Southey Works, Keswick, Cumbria CA12 5NG or
telephone 017687 80898.

Mail Order
Mail-order company Great Art offers a vast selection of
art materials for all levels of artists. Products to inspire
the beginner include: A4 landscape sketchpads
(2.98); White Nights Artists' watercolours in sets of 12
pans (9.99) to 24 pans (in decorative card box 12.50
or metal box 19.95). Da Vinci watercolour brush sets
(8.85) are perfect for the beginner; as are the sets of
18 Aqua Brush colours (18.91); and the popular
Cretacolor Artino Sketching Set, which comprises a
variety of sketching and drawing media (10.95).
To receive a free catalogue, contact Great Art on
0845 601 5772 or visit its website: www.greatart.co.uk

20 StartArt October 2005


Startp20_21_Art Store 7/9/05 12:24 pm Page 21

Search Press
As specialists art & craft book publishers for 35 years,
Search Press prides itself in knowing what beginners to
art need. The Step-by-Step Leisure Arts series of 33 titles
with over one million copies sold speaks for itself. At
6.99, each 48-page book packed with colourful step-
by-step, clear and simple instructions is everything a
beginner would want from a book. Every medium is
covered watercolour, gouache, acrylics, pastels and
drawing by the expert authors in the field. (See
special offer on page 47.)
If you want to spend a little more, the new
comprehensive 'bibles' are superb value at 12.99 for
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from professional artists.
Terry Harrisons Watercolour
Trees, Starting To Paint by
Arnold Lowrey and Painting
Flowers and Plants by Janet
Whittle will also encourage
Brushes to suit all media and budgets!
and inspire beginners. Rosemary & Co offers artists of all levels a brush to suit their
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tips and suggestions on which brushes to select and advice
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on how to care for your brushes.
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Contact Rosemary on 01535 600090 or visit her website at:
www.rosemaryandco.com

Bockingford paper
When starting out with watercolour, it is imperative to use a paper
specially made for the job. A good watercolour paper will assist
your painting, and not work against you. Inserted in StartArt is a
free sample of Bockingford for you to try. Bockingford is a
beautiful English watercolour paper, traditionally made on a
mould machine by St Cuthberts Mill in Somerset. This is a high-
quality paper made using pure materials to acid-free archival
standards. It is extremely forgiving and valued by professional and
amateur artists around the world. Bockingford offers quality NEW Winsor & Newton Pocket PLUS
watercolour paper at an affordable price. This versatile compact watercolour set is perfect for those
Further information on St painting days at home or on the move. It is lightweight
Cuthberts Mills website and so small that it can even fit into your pocket! The
www.inveresk.co.uk. Pocket PLUS comes with 12 assorted Cotman half pans
Prices start from 1.50 for including vibrant colours such as Hookers green and
a 300 gsm (140lb) loose burnt sienna. It also comes with a Cotman brush No. 5
sheet. Available and up to three different palette areas which offer
nationwide and by mail varying shapes and depths of wells for all your mixing
order from: Ken needs. The Pocket PLUS also boasts a thumb loop so you
Bromleys Art Supplies can hold it in one hand and create with the other. So try
(Tel: 01204 381900; your hand at some painting and relax and enjoy the
www.artsupplies.co.uk); experience with the New Cotman Pocket PLUS. Let your
Jacksons Art Supplies imagination travel.
(Tel: 0870 2411849; The Pocket PLUS costs 10.95 from all good art stores.
www.jacksonsart.co.uk); and Telephone Sarah Williams, product manager, on 020 8424
TN Lawrence (Tel: 01273 260260; www.lawrence.co.uk). 3393 for further details or email: s.williams@colart.co.uk.

StartArt October 2005


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STARTARTp23Comp 7/9/05 10:40 am Page 23

START
RT COMPETITION
PAINT A LANDSCAPE FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
Use the photograph shown here to paint a picture in any suggestions on how best to deal with painting from
water-based medium (such as watercolour, coloured photographs. Full details can be found on the paper insert.
pencils, acrylics, gouache, etc.) on the FREE sheet of Enter your work by the closing date of December 9 2005 for
paper between pages 46 and 47. Ray Campbell Smiths your chance to receive one of the valuable prizes below,
feature on pages 36 to 39 will give you some helpful and to see your work in Leisure Painter.

START Watercolour Wooden


PRIZES 100 worth of System Box from Derwent, worth
3D acrylic colours 24.99
from Daler-Rowney Contains 24 Start watercolour
Wooden box set of 50 New ultra-thick acrylic pencils, six Start sketching
Sennelier Artists quality oil colours from Daler-Rowney. See pages 20 to pencils, paintbrush, plastic
pastels, worth 69.95 21 for details. eraser, pencil sharpener and
Developed for Picasso watercolour mixing palette all in a neat
himself, this range of wooden box. The 24 colours blend
creamy oil pastels from Global beautifully to make an infinite range of hues
Art Supplies consists of 50 lightfast colours. A case of Prolene brushes and tints.
from Pro Arte, worth 100
Watercolour brushes from
Rosemary & Co, worth 60
Bockingford paper to the value of 100 A beautiful selection of watercolour
Bockingford is a beautiful English brushes with the beginner in mind.
watercolour paper, traditionally made to Books from Search Press
archival standards on a cylinder mould Five copies of Starting to Paint Winsor & Newton Prize, worth over 100
machine at St Cuthberts Mill. An extremely by Arnold Lowrey (Search Press This prize includes a Bristol
forgiving watercolour paper it is Watercolour Tips and Technique Water Colour Sketching Easel
particularly suited series), worth 9.95 each) with carry case, along with a
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each
StartArt October 2005
23
START10p24_27_Tony Paul 5/9/05 3:11 pm Page 24

START
RT

Step into colour


Mixing the right colour can make all the
difference to your work. Tony Paul suggests
a range of colours for all your needs
olour mixing is including those difficult greens!
Csomething that
beginners usually find
difficult. When painting a You will need
tree, do you use a green on
its own, or do you add If limited to six colours, the following (from two popular watercolour
ranges) would be a good choice:
something to it? Or perhaps
you should mix it from Winsor & Newton - COTMAN Daler-Rowney - AQUAFINE
yellow and blue but which
yellow and which blue? It is  Cadmium yellow pale hue  Lemon yellow
all so confusing.  Raw sienna  Raw sienna
To begin with we need a  Permanent rose  Crimson lake
versatile range of colours. A  Intense blue  Phthalo blue
watercolour box with 12
 Viridian hue  Viridian hue
colours will probably have
most, if not all, of the  Burnt umber  Burnt umber
colours you will need, but a
smaller box may not give
you versatility. In this case
you may need to replace
less useful colours, such as
black and white, with ones
of more use. Cadmium/Lemon Raw sienna Rose/Crimson Similar colours appear in
I would recommend different manufacturers
tubes of paint rather than ranges under the same or
pans because rich colour is various names.
easier to obtain and by
looking at the tubes you will
become familiar with the
names of the colours more Intense/Phthalo blue Viridian Burnt umber
readily.
FIGURE 1

FIGURE 2

The six colours shown in the box above FIGURE 3


will make bright secondary colours
(those created by mixing two primary
colours together, such as red and yellow
to make orange, blue and yellow to
make green, and red and blue to make
purple). The brown and blue will make a
black plus a good range of greys when
diluted with water. In watercolour all
pale colours are made by diluting the
paint with water, not by adding white
(Figure 2, above). The raw sienna added
to green and blue will give softer greens;
and added to the red will give pleasant
tans (Figure 3, right).

24 Start Art October 2005


START10p24_27_Tony Paul 5/9/05 3:13 pm Page 25

THE COLOUR WHEEL


Secondary colours
This wheel is made from the primary
colours red, yellow and blue taken
from the six colours shown opposite.
Each of the primary colours is versatile
and will give bright secondary colours
(colours made by mixing primary colours
together). Place them as shown in wheel
1 (Figure 4, right).
In wheel 2 the secondary colours
orange, green and purple have been
mixed from, and placed between, the
component colours (Figure 5, below). FIGURE 4

FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6

Tertiary colours
Tertiary colours are made by adding either a third colour to a
secondary colour mix, or a secondary colour to a primary
colour. This can be done by mixing opposite colours in the
colour wheel. Opposites are known as complementary colours
(Figure 6, above). If they are mixed equally the result will be off-
greys (Figure 7, left), but if just a little of either colour is added
to a larger amount of the other, some slightly more subdued,
but very useful, colours will result (Figure 8, below).

FIGURE 7

FIGURE 8

Start Art October 2005


25
START10p24_27_Tony Paul 5/9/05 3:14 pm Page 26

GREENS
Mixing the appropriate greens
in landscape can be tricky. The
problem is that nature gives us
so many greens, many of them
quite subtle. B
The biases of yellows and blues
can be easily demonstrated in
the greens we make.
 Phthalo blue (A), Prussian
blue (B), cerulean blue (C) and
manganese blue (D) lean
towards green so, in C
conjunction with a greenish
yellow such as lemon yellow,
will make bright greens (Figure
9, right).
Warmer greens can be made
by adding orangey yellows
such as gamboge hue, Indian D
yellow or cadmium yellow, or
the earth colours yellow ochre
or raw sienna.
 Ultramarine and cobalt blue
both lean towards purple and FIGURE 9 My watercolour of a
will give duller greens when farmhouse in
mixed with lemon yellow, Chenonceaux in
(Figure 10, below). Really subtle
greens can be made if they
France (right) was
are mixed with warm yellows or painted using greens
earth colours. made from our
selection of six colours
as follows:

(a) This dark and dull green


was made from the green
(viridian hue) mixed with raw
sienna.
(b) This bright green was made
by adding a tiny touch of red
to the yellow to warm it a little,
then adding a little blue. Be
careful not to add too much
blue as it is very powerful.
(c) The green was the basis of
this colour with raw sienna
mixed with red to neutralise it.
(d) This very dark green was
made from a binary mix of the
green and burnt umber,
making sure that the green
FIGURE 10 (which is very powerful) didnt
overpower the weaker brown.
(e) This luminous pale green
was made mainly from yellow
to which a speck of red was
added to warm it. A small
touch of green was added to
make it a pale green. The
colour was well watered down.
(f) This is basically the same mix
as (a) but diluted with water to
a pale, dull green.

26 Start Art October 2005


START10p24_27_Tony Paul 6/9/05 7:58 am Page 27

Colour mixing

b a

f
e

Start Art October 2005


27
STARTp28_31_techniques 5/9/05 9:20 pm Page 28

START
RT

Pick up your paints!


Alwyn Crawshaw demonstrates the simple, basic
techniques for painting pictures in watercolour

FLAT WASH
W hen you start anything
new, theres always
the fear of making mistakes
This is the most fundamental technique, used to
apply paint over a large or small area such as
and, even worse, being a sky or field in a landscape.
embarrassed about it,
especially with your family.
Method: In your palette (a china plate will do
The way forward is to start
but make sure its white so that you can see
at the beginning, and dont the colour youre mixing) mix a pool of colour,
try to run before you can using plenty of water to make a nice liquid
walk. And dont worry, Ill wash. Use a large flat watercolour brush and
make sure you dont! A load it with watery paint. Have enough watery
mistake is not bad: after all paint in your palette to paint the whole area.
thats how we learn we You dont want to have to mix more colour
learn from our mistakes. halfway through. Start at the top left of the
Naturally, I cant teach you paper (if you are right-handed) and take the
brush across. Go back to the beginning again
how to paint masterpieces
and paint another brush stroke underneath the
in this short article, but I can
first. This will pick up and join with the reservoir
put you on the starting line of paint left from the first stroke. Continue in this
and show you the basics to way down the paper, getting more paint from
get started. Then all you your palette as you need it. You must keep the
need is enthusiasm and paint watery and runny. If you dont the paint
practice. will not merge together.

Try some of these exercises.


They will show you how to
put paint onto paper and
you can then see what
happens.

GRADED WASH
This is simply a way of making a
colour gradually get lighter.
Watercolour paint is
transparent, therefore in this
exercise we let the white
paper show through to help to
make the wash paler.

Method: Paint the wash in


exactly the same way as the
flat wash, but as you work
down the paper, add more
water to your colour in the
palette. Do not add water
directly to your wash.

GRADED COLOUR WASH


This is the same as the graded wash, but instead of
using one colour, you can use two or more.

Method: Work in exactly the same way as the


previous two methods, but this time add different
colours to the paint in your palette, to change the
colour of the wash as you move down the paper.

28 StartArt October 2005


STARTp28_31_techniques 4/9/05 9:02 am Page 29

I used a graded colour


wash for the sunset sky in
this landscape

DRY BRUSH
This technique is used throughout a painting
and is ideal for many effects, such as sunlight
sparkling on water (below).

Method: Use less paint on your brush and drag


it across the paper. The paint will hit and miss
the paper leaving flecks unpainted. The
rougher the paper the more exaggerated the
effect will be.
WET-ON-WET
This is simply a way of putting wet colour Method: Paint an area
onto another wet colour and letting them remember, plenty of water, and
merge together. You can get some then paint in another colour
exciting visual results some you dont and watch the results. The
expect. These could be disastrous or apple was painted this way,
fantastic for your painting. This is the but with a certain amount
beauty of watercolour: you can control 90 of control.
per cent, but the other 10 per cent can be
either magic or
trouble. Try not to
worry about little
areas that
dont work most
watercolours
have them.

StartArt October 2005


29
STARTp28_31_techniques 4/9/05 9:04 am Page 30

LIFTING OUT
While the paint is still wet, you can lift out
the paint using a tissue, a brush or
anything else you find helpful. Experiment
to find out what works best for you.

Method: Screw up a tissue into an


irregular shape and blot out the colour.
You can also do this with a brush. The way
to do it is to brush (with water) and blot
out with a tissue. You may have to do this
a few times. Lifting out with a brush Lifting out with a tissue

Simple lifting out


for clouds

The far-off blue hills


were painted over the
dried sky wash

WET-ON-DRY
If the paint is perfectly dry, then
you can paint on top and get
a crisp edge. If you are
working indoors you can use a
hairdryer to speed the drying
of the paint. But dont hold it
too close to the watery paint
or it will blow the paint over
your page (far right). Actually
this can result in great design
effects; try it for yourself.

Method: Paint an area, let it


dry, then work over the top of
it. This gives you controlled
crisp edges, which you cant
get with wet on wet.

30 StartArt October 2005


STARTp28_31_techniques 4/9/05 9:05 am Page 31

Basic watercolour techniques

SOFT EDGES
These are used for making a hard edge
into a soft edge, in a controlled way.

Method: Start with water on the brush first


and add paint as you work to the darker
side. This can be done in reverse, starting
with paint and finishing abruptly with
water. The fish has been painted dark to
light, finishing with a soft edge. This makes
the fish appear round (solid). Also notice
the light water against the dark part of
the fish and the darker water against the
lighter part of the fish. This helps to show its
form.

Soft edge, water last

Soft edge, water first

Troubleshooting WET-ON-DRY

Problems and how to beat them! Underpaint not dry enough

Here the paint


FLAT WASH is too dry
LIFTING OUT
Here the paint is too dry

DRY BRUSH

OK

Brush too
wet

Water added to wash,


not to the palette

StartArt October 2005


31
STARTp32_35_Landscape 4/9/05 9:06 am Page 32

START
RT

Your first landscape


Follow this step-by-step demonstration by
Alwyn Crawshaw and discover your
hidden talent!

brown, green, purple, orange,


B efore you start with this
painting I will explain just a
few very important aspects
etc, but to make this exercise
easier and to learn how to
second yellow cadmium
yellow pale (to help to give
me a bright green). The
You will need
about colour. (See also Tony mix colours, I will use only the secret of mixing is always to  Watercolours
Pauls article on pages 24 to three primary colours. put the predominant
Yellow ochre, cadmium
27.) There are only three There are different reds, (strongest) colour into your
colours used here red, yellow and blues, but for this palette first and to add the yellow pale, crimson
yellow, blue. These are called demonstration I have used other colours (in smaller alizarin, French
the primary colours and from Daler-Rowney watercolours in amounts) to it. Before you ultramarine blue
these all colours are mixed. the following colours: French start the painting try mixing
 Brushes
You can buy many ready- ultramarine blue, alizarin some of the colours below
mixed colours, such as crimson, yellow ochre and a on scraps of paper. No. 10 Round (sable or
synthetic)
No. 6 Round (sable or
synthetic)
D 99 Rigger No. 2

Cadmium Yellow French


 Bockingford watercolour
yellow pale ochre ultramarine blue paper (Not surface).
Not surface means that it
has a pleasing texture
which will give washes
Alizarin crimson some character, but not
too rough so that the
texture dominates.
 2B pencil
 Tissue
 Eraser
 Water jug and water

Demonstration
STAGE 1
TIP Draw the scene with a 2B pencil.
Dont try Dont try to follow my pencil lines
to paint exactly. Thats impossible. Instead, use
something too my drawing and painting as a guide.
ambitious. Start
with simple
objects

32 StartArt October 2005


STARTp32_35_Landscape 4/9/05 9:07 am Page 33

STAGE 2
With your No.10 brush paint in the sky
using the graded colour wash technique
described on page 28. Start with French
ultramarine blue, then add a little alizarin
crimson and add more water to make the
sky paler in the distance. When its dry,
use your No. 6 brush and paint in the
distant trees with French ultramarine blue,
alizarin crimson and a little yellow ochre,
see detail below.

Sky - graded
colour wash

Detail

STAGE 3
Paint in the distant fields with your No. 6
brush using yellow ochre and a little
alizarin crimson. Then, with a mix of
cadmium yellow pale and a little French
ultramarine blue, start at the bottom of
the trunk and work halfway up. Continue
with a mix of French ultramarine blue,
alizarin crimson and yellow ochre for the
dark part of the large tree. Use yellow
ochre and alizarin crimson for the small
tree (see detail below).

Flat wash
TIP
Make sure
your paper is
at an angle of
approximately
40 degrees

Detail

StartArt October 2005


33
STARTp32_35_Landscape 4/9/05 9:08 am Page 34

wet on wet
STAGE 4
With your No. 6 brush and the
same colours as you used for
the tree, paint in the feathery
branches, but this time use
nearly all yellow ochre for the
small tree. Do this in a dry brush
technique (as described on
page 29). For the thinner
branches change to your
rigger brush, which is very thin
(designed for ships rigging);
see detail, right.
Now paint in the hedge. Paint
the puddles on the path and
let them dry (see detail
opposite, top). With your large
brush and using the wet-on-
wet technique, (described on
page 29), paint in the field and
path. Leave natural areas of
unpainted paper as you paint.
This helps to give life and
sparkle to the painting.

Detail

34 StartArt October 2005


STARTp32_35_Landscape 4/9/05 9:09 am Page 35

Landscape demonstration


TIP
Detail
Puddles on path. Enjoy your
Natural areas of
unpainted paper
painting
give life and sparkle
to the painting.

Dry brush

Alwyn Crawshaw Early Spring Day, watercolour, 710in. (1825.5cm)


Wet on dry

Detail
STAGE 5
This is the stage where the
painting comes to life. Make
the hedge darker, paint some
darker grass areas in the field
and a few shadows on the
path (see detail top) using your
No. 6 brush. Now with your
rigger, paint the gate, darken
the trunk and some branches
on the tree. With a little alizarin
crimson and cadmium yellow
pale, paint the peoples faces
and arms (see detail right).
When dry paint their hair.
Finally, with your No. 6 brush,
paint in the birds.

StartArt October 2005


35
STAT10p36_39_Photographs 4/9/05 9:15 am Page 36

START
RT

Working from photographs


Ray Campbell Smith offers advice on the
benefits and limitations of working from
photographs and shows you how to get the
best paintings from your snapshots

T
here is nothing quite as
fulfilling as painting in PHOTOGRAPHIC FAULTS SCENE CHANGING: how to find a
the field, with our
The camera can distort the scene it good composition for a painting
subject matter before us. depicts and often exaggerates the in your photograph.
Sadly we do not always foreground at the expense of the
have the time or background. This may well do less than When improving on the composition of the
opportunity to work out of justice to, for example, an impressive line photograph in order to produce a better
doors and have to rely on of hills, and clearly has to be corrected. painting we must ask ourselves what good
photographs. This is no composition actually is. A well-composed
Unless the photographer was also an
disaster and I have seen painting has a balance about it that we find
experienced artist, there will probably
many fine paintings based pleasing but is hard to define. It is far easier to
be room for improvement in the
quote examples of bad composition and then
on photographic material. composition (see right).
try to avoid them.
However, we have to
The photographer cannot exercise
recognise that most
artistic licence in the way a painter can
photographs have a and has to record what is there. In using
number of in-built faults a photograph we must learn to simplify
from the painters point of and omit irrelevant features and details
view, so an exact copy to produce a better image.
rarely makes a satisfactory
The cameras recording of tone is
BETTER COMPOSITION
painting. We have,
often suspect tone in its artistic sense A strong feature, such as a church spire,
therefore, to recognise simply refers to the pattern of lights and placed exactly in the centre of our paper would
these faults and then darks and photographs often contain certainly offend far better to move it a little to
correct them. shadows which are almost black. The one side and then balance it with, perhaps, a
painter and particularly the group of trees. (See Figure 2, opposite top.)
watercolourist must lighten them and
By the same token a strong horizontal, such as
introduce colour.
the horizon, exactly halfway up the paper, is
Placing lights and darks side by side equally unattractive. In this case we should
(i.e. tonal contrast) can lift a painting decide whether we are more interested in the
and add interest and punch. The painter foreground or the sky and move the horizon up or
may well modify the photograph and down according to our decision. If the sky is a
place a grey cloud behind the white lively, interesting one, a low horizon may well be
sails of a windmill or move a dark copse the answer. (See Figure 3, opposite middle.)
to a position behind a white-washed
A good composition may well have a focal
cottage. (See Figure 1, below.)
point (that is, a feature which naturally forms a
centre of interest). If we can arrange it so that the
main construction lines of our drawing lead the
eye towards it, so much the better. These
construction lines could be, for example, the
margins of a lane or, perhaps, a line of hedge.
At all events we should avoid including two
competing centres of interest, even though they
were in the scene before us. We should
strengthen one and play down the other, so that
they no longer compete for attention.
Strong construction lines emanating from the
exact corners of the paper should be avoided. A
dominant line, such as a fence or hedge right
across the foreground, should also be shunned,
unless we include an open farm gate, which
allows the eye to pass through to the scene
beyond.
If all the tonal weight appears on one side of
FIGURE 1

36 StartArt October 2005


START10p36_39_Photographs 5/9/05 3:20 pm Page 37

Try our photographic subject step-


by-step demonstration overleaf.


MATERIALS

You will need


 300lb Rough watercolour
paper 3828cm (1511in.)
 Winsor & Newton Artists Watercolours
in: raw sienna, burnt sienna, light
red, French ultramarine blue, Winsor
FIGURE 2 blue (green shade), Paynes grey
 Brushes including:
1in. Flat, No. 12 Round, No. 6 Round
 2B pencil
 Putty rubber
 Soft tissues or paint rag
 Flat drawing board
 Jars of water

Watercolour paper has a powerful impact, for


good or ill, on our painting. The best papers really
flatter our work, while the cheaper ones rarely do
much to help it. Understandably, the best papers
are expensive and the best advice I can give is to
FIGURE 3 try out as many papers as possible and make a
note of those that give you the best results. The
our chosen composition, we may well balance it light papers are naturally cheaper, but can be
with a heavy cloud formation on the opposite stretched so that they do not buckle when very
side of the paper (See Figure 4, below.) wet paint is applied. See page 11 for information
on how to stretch watercolour paper.
Most artists have a feeling for good My favourite paper is Arches 300lb Rough heavy
composition and can appreciate, for example, enough to need no stretching, rough enough to
that a cluster of overlapping buildings usually assist broken wash techniques and beautifully
appears more interesting than the same buildings receptive to watercolour washes (see page 62 for
strung out in a straight line. Analysing the where to buy).
paintings of talented artists is a useful way of
improving our own feeling for composition. I use Winsor & Newton Artists quality watercolour
paints, but the cheaper student ranges such as
Cotman or Aquafine, used boldly and with plenty
of water, give very satisfactory results. The colours I
use for painting British landscapes include raw
sienna, burnt sienna, light red, French ultramarine
blue, Winsor blue (green shade) and, sometimes,
Paynes grey. These are the colours I used for the
step-by-step demonstration on pages 38 to 39.

The brushes you will need will depend upon your


scale of painting. The size of the demonstration
painting is 3828cm (1511in.) and for this I used a
1in. flat, a No. 12 round and a No. 6 round brush.

In addition, a 2B pencil for sketching in the main


lines of the composition, a putty rubber (for its
gentle effect on the papers surface), soft tissues
or a paint rag, a flat drawing board to support
your paper and a couple of jars of water are all
you really need.
FIGURE 4

StartArt October 2005


37
STAT10p36_39_Photographs 4/9/05 9:17 am Page 38

Demonstration
The demonstration painting is of a rolling road
in Yorkshires Wharfedale. It is often a good
plan to make a preliminary sketch of our
subject in just one colour as this enables us to
concentrate on getting our lights and darks
right without the added complication of
colour. I used just Paynes grey for this quick
watercolour sketch (below).

TIP
Use your
photograph for
information and
adapt it to improve
composition, tonal
contrast and
impact


STEP 1 I felt the photograph failed to do justice to the distant
background so I expanded this area and limited the width of the
rather dominant clump of trees on the left. I also gave more
space to the undulation in the road and ensured that the left-
hand margin was no longer the exact corner of the paper.
The pencil drawing is more complete than my usual preliminary
sketch. With greater experience we can manage with less
drawing and rely more on brushwork.


STEP 2 I began with the sky, as I always do, because it
influences every other part of the painting. I then simplified the


cumulus cloud formation a little. I used palest raw sienna for the
sunlit clouds, a mixture of French ultramarine blue and light red for
the cloud shadows, allowing the two
washes (see page 28) to blend softly TIP
together. The blue sky was French TIP
STEP 3 I now painted in the background hills, Use cool colours
for the distance, to
ultramarine blue and Winsor blue Use plenty of using a wash of French ultramarine blue with a
(green shade) and here I touch of light red for the most distant and a
make it recede and
water in your sky warmer colours for
retained a few hard edges. washes and apply wash of Winsor blue (green shade), raw sienna the foreground, to
them quickly and and French ultramarine blue for the nearer bring it
boldly to obtain grassy hills. There was only one line of drystone forward
fresh, transparent walling on the middle distance hill so I added
results several more. I then put in the distant clump of trees
and the hedges, using a slightly stronger wash of Paynes grey
and raw sienna.
38 StartArt October 2005
STAT10p36_39_Photographs 4/9/05 9:19 am Page 39


TIP
Make the

TIP
most of variations STEP 4 I now painted in the pale yellowish Paint trees in full
STEP 5 I used a stronger wash of the same
in the colours of fields on the left (mainly raw sienna) and the tree colours for the foreground copse on the leaf as masses and
the fields for the foreground field on the right. For this I used a use a broken wash
left, adding Paynes grey, wet in wet (see
sake of variety broken wash of raw sienna and Winsor blue (dry brush) technique
page 29), for the shadows and the shaded (see page 29) to
(green shade), with added texturing (wet on trunks. Applying this wash with the side of my capture their
dry; see page 30) of Paynes grey and raw sienna. No. 12 round brush enabled me to indicate the ragged edges
I used a stronger version of the same wash for the broken edges of the foliage without resorting to
line of trees and hedge, adding a touch of burnt sienna numerous tiny dots of paint an approach that
here and there for some russet tints. always produces an overworked and laboured result.

STEP 6 I now worked on the two lines of foreground stone walls,


making sure to show how the light caught their tops and
indicating roughly the texture of the stonework. The shadowed
stonework was a blend of French ultramarine blue and light red,
to which I added Paynes grey for the shadow falling on the field.
I did not like the dull grey of the tarmac in the photograph so I
painted the road as though it had been top-dressed with fine
shingle (pale raw sienna with touches of burnt sienna and French
ultramarine blue).

STEP 7 I now painted in the grass verges boldly to suggest their TIP
rough texture, using a mixture of raw sienna and a little Winsor

blue (green shade). The nearer stretch of road looked


rather blank so I painted in the shadow of an
Use fairly
rough brushwork
TIP imaginary tree off the painting to the left, using
stronger Paynes grey and a little raw sienna
to convey the
texture of
The shadows of
where it fell on grass, and French ultramarine stonework
imaginary objects
blue and light red where it fell across the road.
off the painting
can often add interest
to a blank Now try this
foreground If youve enjoyed this
project, try this
Here is a photograph of
another delightful
Wharfedale road, which, with
a little compositional
improvement, could make an
attractive painting. Using the
picture (reproduced much
larger on page 23) as your
basis, why not try developing
it into a finished painting? Use
the inserted sheet of
Bockingford watercolour
paper for your painting, then
enter it into our competition
for your chance to win a
range of valuable prizes. Turn
back to page 23 to find out
more.

StartArt October 2005


39
STARTp40_43_Beach scene 5/9/05 3:19 pm Page 40

START
RT

Making a splash!
June Crawshaw shows how she painted a
simple seaside subject for you to follow
decided to paint this
I beach scene with the You will need
figures silhouetted against  Watercolours in: alizarin crimson, French ultramarine
the light colours of the sea. blue, cerulean blue, yellow ochre, Hookers green dark
This makes the figures
easier for you to copy as  Sable or synthetic brushes: No. 10 Round, No. 6 Round
there is very little detail
 Cartridge paper (70lb)
necessary. The dark cliffs
and jetty also help to give  2B Pencil
the illusion of light. I have
kept the scene simple and I
decided to paint it on
cartridge drawing paper,
which is less expensive for
you to practise on. This
paper may buckle a little
Demonstration
when you paint on it, but
dont worry, it wont spoil
your painting. I use it a lot.
I have done the same
painting on Bockingford
watercolour paper (see
page 43) to show you
visually the difference
between the two papers. STAGE 1
After doing these two Draw the scene
paintings I felt that the using your 2B
cartridge painting showed pencil. Make sure
more of the light I was that the horizon
trying to capture. Which do line is level.
you prefer?
STAGE 2
Paint the sky using the Graded
Colour Wash technique (See
page 28). Fill your No. 10 brush
with French ultramarine, a little
crimson and plenty of water,
then paint the first part of the
sky. Continue with yellow ochre
and a touch of alizarin crimson
and paint the rest of the sky
over the cliff, jetty and horizon
line.
Let this dry thoroughly, then,
using a mix of French
ultramarine blue, alizarin
crimson and a touch of yellow
ochre, paint the cliff using the
Wet-on-Wet technique (page
29). Continue to paint using
Hookers green dark with a
touch of French ultramarine
blue at the top of the cliff,
adding some yellow ochre
halfway. Dont worry about the
colours running. This is what you
want, so let them run. Just make
sure you mop up any puddles
at the bottom of the cliff (using
a moist, not soaking, brush).

40 StartArt October 2005


STARTp40_43_Beach scene 5/9/05 11:17 am Page 41

STAGE 3
Paint the jetty, leaving a thin
line between the cliff and the
jetty as we dont want these
two to run into one another.
Paint the sea, starting with
cerulean blue and plenty of
water, then changing the
colours as you work
downwards, using yellow
ochre, French ultramarine blue,
Hookers green dark and
alizarin crimson. It is important
to leave plenty of white paper
for the waves as you paint.
Now paint the figures flesh
with alizarin crimson and yellow
ochre.

Detail

StartArt October 2005


41
STARTp40_43_Beach scene 5/9/05 11:19 am Page 42

STAGE 4
Make sure the paint is dry and
then paint the figures hair.
Now paint their shorts blue and
then use yellow ochre and
alizarin crimson for the dinghy.
Paint Hookers green dark
mixed with a touch of cerulean
and plenty of water to depict
the waves over the sand. Wait
for the paint to dry thoroughly
then, using a mix of French
ultramarine blue, alizarin
crimson and a touch of yellow
ochre, paint over the figures,
leaving some unpainted areas
on the right side to show
sunlight. Paint the shadow on
the dinghy and, using a paler
(wetter) mix, paint movement
on the sea and reflections.
Dont worry if your painting is
different to mine. Since we are
using watercolour, it would be
impossible to copy another
painting exactly. If it looks
good, lovely. If not, dont
worry; its only practice, so try
again.

Detail

42 StartArt October 2005


STARTp40_43_Beach scene 5/9/05 11:20 am Page 43

Simple seaside scene

This is the same beach scene, but for this painting I used
Bockingford watercolour paper instead of cartridge
paper. I also made the beach more sand coloured.

Troubleshooting
When painting with watercolour, the paint
can leave puddles of watery paint like
those shown here. If you leave them they
will run upwards and could ruin that part of
your painting.
Mop these puddles up using a moist, but
not too wet, brush, and the puddle with be
taken up into the brush hairs. Occasionally
the effect created may be just what you
wanted, in which case leave well alone!

StartArt October 2005


43
START10p44_46_Card making 5/9/05 11:22 am Page 44

START
RT

Turn your watercolour into a g


Jane Greenwood demonstrates how to make a
striking card of lemons on a blue background

A still life is a useful


subject to paint as
domestic objects sitting
around the house can
easily be arranged into a
pretty composition, and
then with an unusual way of
framing or mounting they
can be jazzed up to look
fresh and original. When I
had painted these lemons, I
thought they looked a little
boring so I made up a table
cloth (right) by tracing a
patterned scarf. The wavy-
lined border is where I ran STAGE 1 Arrange a group of three lemons as
out of pattern! shown and sketch them from life. Take a
candle and draw highlights with it on the
lemon drawings.
You will need
 Smooth watercolour
block, 250gsm (90lb)
 No. 6 round brush
 Watercolours:
cadmium yellow,
lemon yellow, yellow
ochre, Prussian blue,
ultramarine blue,
alizarin crimson
 Dark blue card,
286205mm
(11148in.)
 Pencil and putty STAGE 2 Painting the lemons from life, wash STAGE 3 Mix yellow ochre with a tiny bit of
eraser lemon yellow over the whole area of the Prussian blue to paint the shadowed areas.
lemon shapes. The highlights will remain white
 White candle
because of the wax resist from the candle.
 White gouache
 Paper tissue
 Tracing paper
 Craft knife and
cutting mat
 Spray mount

STAGE 4 Mix a little Prussian blue and lemon STAGE 5 When the painting is dry, add details
yellow to make green and paint this around the using cadmium yellow mixed with yellow ochre
mound at the end of the foreground lemon. and ultramarine blue. Allow to dry again.

44 StartArt October 2005


START10p44_46_Card making 5/9/05 11:23 am Page 45

a greetings card

STAGE 6 Trace the fabric pattern onto the tracing paper and STAGE 7 Mix ultramarine blue and alizarin crimson and
transfer it on to the painting, leaving a gap for the lemons. begin to paint the fabric pattern using a No. 6 brush.

STAGE 8
Continue to
paint in the
pattern, turning
the paper
around as you
go so that you
dont smudge
your work. Load
the brush with
paint and let it
sit on the paper.

STAGE 9 Paint the finishing touches and allow the painting to dry.

STAGE 10 When the painting is dry, take a brush wet with clear STAGE 11 Blot the wetted paint with paper tissue to suggest

water and sweep it across the patterned area around the lemons highlights.
to suggest shadows from gentle creases in the fabric.

StartArt October 2005


45
START10p44_46_Card making 5/9/05 11:25 am Page 46

Make a greetings card

STAGE 12 Remove the pencil lines from around the point at the STAGE 13 Turn the painting over and apply spray mount lightly
bottom of the fabric with a putty eraser. Using a craft knife and a to the back. Always work in a well-ventilated room when using
cutting mat, cut around the point. spray mount.

STAGE 14 Take your sheet of dark blue


card and score and fold it in half. Stick
the painting to the front of the card.
Paint a white line all the way round,
just beyond the edge of the painting,
using white gouache.

This extract was taken from


Watercolour Greetings Cards
by Jane Greenwood,
published by Search Press
(ISBN 1-903975-78-6, 6.99).
The book is available to
readers of StartArt at a
special price of 5.99 plus
FREE post and package (UK
only), from Search Press Ltd.,
Wellwood, North Farm Road,
Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN2 The purply blue background is complementary to the yellow
3DR. Telephone 01892 510850; lemons, making a pleasing combination for a really striking card.
www.searchpress.com The asymmetric framing takes the design out of the ordinary.

46 StartArt October 2005


Makuku Vic Bearcroft Drawing & Painting Wild Animals

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SA_SEPT_12.indd 1 10/08/2012 11:28:40


TA10Start_Jill Bays 5/9/05 11:30 am Page 48

START
RT

Come into the garden


Try this step-by-step watercolour by Jill Bays and
discover the delights of painting in a garden!

G ardens, whether your


own or in a local
public park, make
wonderfully varied subjects
to paint. Watercolour is
ideally suited to painting
flowers and gardens as it is
a transparent medium. It is
also easy to carry around
and you can start with just a
few colours, two or three
brushes and some
watercolour paper.
Gardens are intriguing to
paint in all seasons:
daffodils in spring, the
many and varied colours
of summer and autumn,
and winter tints.

You will need SKETCHING FROM


 Watercolour brushes
PHOTOGRAPHS
Nos. 8 and 12 Make a small sketch first
showing the main shapes.
 Watercolour paper, As it is in pencil it will be
such as 140lb easy to alter if necessary.
(300gsm)
You can also make small
Bockingford paper
sketches in colour which
 Watercolour paints, will help with tone (that is,
including the three light and dark).
primaries It often helps to have
ultramarine blue, a some sort of structural lines,
red, such as Winsor such as a path or building.
red, yellow, such as
Your view could be close
Winsor yellow This pencil sketch, from the photo above, has a definite
up or farther away, perhaps
plus Prussian with flowers as a focal point focal point. The flower masses are drawn as humps.
blue, sap green and in the foreground. Detail can always be added later to the final painting.
permanent rose
 A palette or white
plate to put your
colours on
and for mixing
Here the path leads the eye into the
 A board to rest your picture and the tree on the left
paper on (with clips adds structure. Keep pencil
or tape) sketches as ideas and dont forget
you can change your format if
 2B pencil necessary make your painting an
upright or portrait shape or
 Eraser change it to a long, narrow
landscape shape or a square.

48 StartArt October 2005


TA10Start_Jill Bays 5/9/05 11:31 am Page 49

For this Canterbury bell, left, I drew


NOTES ON PAINTING the shape (a bell) and added the
FLOWERS petals, taking note of where the
light came from (the right). I noted
Always look for the main shape of the petals and stamens and tried
the flower. It could be a cup to make sure that the stem came
shape (a poppy), a star shape from the centre of the flower.
(clematis), a bowl (tulip), an When I started painting I was not
ellipse (daisy), a trumpet painting, but drawing with my
(daffodil), a bell shape (bluebell), brush as though it were a pencil.
or maybe it has many florets, such This can save a lot of time as
flowers fade quickly and petals
as a hydrangea. Also, there are
drop before your eyes. I used
flowers in spikes and lipped ultramarine blue with a touch of
flowers such as foxgloves. Detail permanent rose to make the
always comes last. There are flower colour. For the stems I used
many kinds of leaves too, and the sap green and yellow ochre.
stems are also important. Leave the stamens white that is,
the white of the paper.

PAINTING FROM PHOTOGRAPHS

These two colour sketches inspired by the


photograph. above, show two different
approaches. The first one (above right) shows a
distant view while the other (right) shows a
close-up of the flowers with a background.

Troubleshooting
If you find your watercolour is too pale,
increase the amount of pigment
Watercolour dries at least 50 per cent
lighter, so make allowances for this
Use pure colour if at all possible. Mixing on
the palette always dilutes the strength
Remember that strong colours come
forward so that they look as though they are
in the foreground and pale blues recede to
the background
Contrast is important. Look for the darkest
and lightest colours

StartArt October 2005


49
TA10Start_Jill Bays 5/9/05 11:33 am Page 50

Demonstration
MY GARDEN SCENE
Here I will show you how I
set about painting my
garden, sitting in front of the
scene. It is an attractive
view with the river in the
background (right). I used
an impressionistic
technique to try to achieve
the effects of light and
summer. I also wanted to
give the effect of the
garden framing the river
view.

You can use just the essence of one


photograph or several, leaving out things
you dont want, such as telephone lines.
This, of course, also applies if you are
painting with the subject in front of you.


Try to TIP
paint in front
of the subject if you can;
painting from nature is
always best. Photographs can
be used, but be selective.
Practise your colours first and
get to know greys and greens
in particular. Note that the
white paper is your
white

STEP 1 I drew the main shapes in pencil


the willows, river, the masses of
foliage and flowers in simple shapes.

STEP 2 Using the colours listed


on page 48 I painted a pale
wash of Winsor yellow over all
the parts which were to be
either yellow or green. Using a
light permanent rose, the
flowers in the middle distance
were washed in as were the
light mauves, which were
mixed with ultramarine and
permanent rose. Dont forget
to leave the house white.

50 StartArt October 2005


TA10Start_Jill Bays 5/9/05 11:34 am Page 51

Garden scene
STEP 3 Further colours were now
used a light ultramarine wash for
the sky, Prussian blue for the darker
leafy areas, and some ultramarine for
the blue bush (centre left). A reddish
colour was mixed for the spiky plant.
Sap green was added to the foliage
to make a medium green and darker
greens were made by adding either
ultramarine or Prussian blue. (See
pages 26 and 27 for more
information on mixing greens.) A
darker permanent rose defined the
pink flowers further.

Detail,
showing
brushstrokes

STEP 4 Using wet-in-wet washes and small strokes I defined the


foliage and flowers, strengthening colour where necessary.
The brush was used to advantage with all sorts of strokes.
Taking a long look I decided to strengthen some darks to
define the clumps of flowers. I mixed a brown from blue, red
and yellow to paint the tree trunk.
It is always difficult to know when you have finished, but resist
the temptation to fiddle!

StartArt October 2005


51
START10p52_55_Moving picture 5/9/05 11:37 am Page 52

START
RT

The moving picture


Hazel Soan describes how to paint
P ainting people is not as
difficult as you think. If
you can put a stick man figures at speed in watercolour
together you can paint
convincing people with
watercolour. The secret is FIGURES FROM FRONT OR BACK You will need
largely in the materials. A Colours: burnt sienna, cadmium red,  Size 6 round brush
good sable or less ultramarine blue. Paper: Arches Not surface
expensive synthetic brush  Tubes of Artists watercolours in a
The right solution of pigment (paint) is selection of colours, including burnt
with its fine tip and flexible important. Mix a rich creamy solution of burnt sienna (a transparent brown for the
body and richly mixed sienna on a plate or in a palette. You do not flesh colour)
pigment on good quality need a lot, but it must not be too dilute.
paper will give you a lively Prepare also rich solutions of cadmium red and  China palette with wells for mixing
form almost by default. For ultramarine blue in separate pools. colour (or a large white plate)
your part you need to be  Small pad of quality watercolour
aware of the proportion of 1 Start your figure paper (I have used Arches and Khadi
the figure and be bold and with a blob of the papers. See page 61 for details)
quick with your burnt sienna for the
 Three small pots of water
brushstrokes so the colours head, two lines
blend while wet and the for the arms  Roll of kitchen paper
and a V for
brushstroke stays fresh.
the legs.
People move, so there is
Make your
not much time to catch a brushstroke
3 Quickly rinse off the red in the
pose. Rather than draw the water pot, tap off excess
once on
figures with a pencil, go moisture and pick up the blue
the paper
straight in with the from the pool in the palette.
and resist
Brush it down from the red to
brushstroke. Be light of the urge to
form the skirt, meeting the
touch and trust the brush go over it
knees (the top of the V) so
to make an interesting twice.
the colours merge.
mark. If you look at the
figures on these pages the
brushmarks do not really
define limb shapes, rather
they suggest a limb is there
and your eye completes
the picture.
People in motion make
better subjects than static
figures. Study their
proportions: the head of an
adult goes into the body
seven or eight times; the
shoulders start below the
neck and arms reach down
to the top of the legs. A
small head works better
than a big head and
elongation is quite in order. 2 Quickly,
Forget the feet. Painting before the
one leg shorter than the brushstrokes
other on figures walking have a chance to
towards you will suggest dry, dab the colour
they are in motion. off the brush on the
kitchen paper and
pick up the red from
the pool in the
palette. Add it under
the head and link with
4 You can even add
the shoulders (the
accessories like hats and
colours should merge)
handbags to characterise
bringing it down to the
your figure.
waistline.

52 StartArt October 2005


START10p52_55_Moving picture 5/9/05 11:38 am Page 53

FIGURES FROM THE SIDE FIGURES IN DARK CLOTHING


Colours: burnt sienna, Prussian blue. Colours: burnt sienna, viridian (green) and
Paper: Khadi paper, Rough surface Indigo (blue-black). Paper: Khadi paper

1 If the figure has dark


clothes (the womans
Capri pants) you can
paint the initial limb
1 Make the brushstrokes under the
burnt sienna dark-clothed area.
head and limb
brushstrokes
and this time
add a neck.
2 Add the wet colour on
top stopping the
brushstroke short of
where you want the
trousers to end as the
indigo will continue to
merge into the damp
burnt sienna of the legs.

3 If you have a complicated pose or


all the clothes are dark, you can paint
the whole shape of the figure with the
2 While the paint
burnt sienna first and then add in the
is still wet, so
colours for the clothes while the burnt
the neck
sienna brushstrokes are still wet.
blends, brush
in Prussian
blue, leaving a
sliver of white
untouched paper
along the top
side of the lower
arm. Carry on
the Prussian
blue below
the arm
without any
gap and
allow it 4 This mother and child holding
to also hands were painted
blend first with the burnt
with the sienna and then the
legs. clothes were added,
wet into wet
violet for the
ladys dress
and blue
and crimson
for the childs
clothes. The
added colours
need to be quite
strong so that they do
not spread too far into
the wet burnt sienna.

53
StartArt October 2005
START10p52_55_Moving picture 5/9/05 11:39 am Page 54

LIGHT-COLOURED CLOTHING 2 If the limbs do not define the form you


have to use a background to create the
shapes of the light-coloured clothing. Here
1 When a person is the limbs were painted as before and then
wearing white (the girls the background was brought around the
top), you can leave the shapes of the figures clothes. Pale colours
area unpainted so long as were then added for the clothing when all
the limbs define the form. was dry.

BACKLIT FIGURES
1 If figures are backlit the background can be
painted while the figures are still wet, by leaving
halos of untouched paper behind the heads and
on top of the shoulders and arms. Cast the shadow
directly from the end of the leg so it blends and is
attached to its source.

2 You need few details to personalise


your figures. Here sunglasses, a hint of the
shadow under the nose and lips and a
necklace bring the girl to life. The legs
below the shorts are darkened on the
man to explain the form.

54 StartArt October 2005


START10p52_55_Moving picture 5/9/05 11:41 am Page 55

Figures at speed

A Crowd, St Marks Square, Venice


When you have practised solitary figures and backgrounds
from life or photographs try your hand at a whole crowd. Use
backlight to make it easier. The distant figures need only be
hinted at so long as their heads are apparent. Dont be afraid
to let your colours blend even by mistake therein lies the
fascination of watercolour.

Troubleshooting

If your colours are too


dilute, they may run too far
into each other. Here the
green of one jacket has
flooded into the red jacket
adjacent to it.

By adding a denser

mix of the red back into


the left-hand jacket, the
flow is reversed and the
red pushes the green
pigment back. The
colours still blend, but
the separate forms are
retrieved.

StartArt October 2005


55
STARTp56_59_Pets 5/9/05 12:01 pm Page 56

START
RT

Paint your pet


Sally Michel uses coloured pencils to
paint Justin the cat

You will need


 Rough watercolour
paper
 Coloured pencils
medium grey, olive
green, orange, yellow
ochre, dark red,
purple, grass green,
yellow-green, bright
yellow, light grey,
dark grey, medium
brown, soft black,
medium blue, lilac
 Sharpener

D rawings from life of your


cat or dog are
complete in themselves; full
Decide what elements you want to include in your
of life and character, they
picture and compose it. Try the different elements
prompt recall of far more in various positions make a rough sketch of each
than the sketch actually one on a scrap of paper and move them about in
contains, even when the relation to one another to find the most pleasing
animal is not present. combination no need for much more than an
If you wish to do a more outline at this stage. Try to get a good balance
elaborate picture of your between the separate elements of your
pet, your life studies are the composition.
essential starting point. You
can add a decorative
setting by choosing a
pleasing background that
might not have been
available at the time. For
example, perhaps you
would like to present your
cat in an elegant and
aesthetically pleasing
setting and you have a
particularly successful life-
like drawing of him, but at
the time he was sitting on
the breakfast table, on a
newspaper with a
background of milk bottles
and used cereal bowls. He
might have been nicely
posed in front of a bowl of
flowers but beside some
large, awkwardly shaped
article that would take up
far too much room in the
foreground.
56 StartArt October 2005
STARTp56_59_Pets 5/9/05 12:02 pm Page 57

Demonstration

STAGE 1 Use the medium grey and a light STAGE 2 Use the olive green to draw the basic outlines of the pot
touch to draw the basic shapes of the cat. plant. Use orange, yellow ochre, dark red and purple pencils to
draw the bowl and fruit.

STAGE 3 Start to work up the


leaves with the grass green,
then, applying colour on
colour, use other greens to
develop the dark areas of
shadow between the
flowers.

STAGE 4 Work up the bright


highlights on the leaves with
the yellow-green, then
intensify the deep shadows
with purple.

STAGE 5 Now work up the shape of


the white flowers with touches of
yellow-green and olive green; develop
shadow areas on the petals and knock
back some of the brighter greens on
the leaves.

STAGE 7 Shade
the insides of the
ears with medium
brown, varying
the applied
pressure to
create form. Use
the same colour
to define the
underside of the
eyes and the
nose and mouth.
Black cats often
have a brown
tinge to their fur,
so, using the
same colour,
STAGE 6 Colour in the cats eyes with bright yellow, apply a light
adjusting the applied pressure to create a roundness to the shading to parts
eyeball. Emphasise the curve of the eye with the light grey of the chest and

pencil, then use the dark grey to develop the pupil. tail.

StartArt October 2005


57
STARTp56_59_Pets 5/9/05 12:03 pm Page 58

STAGE 8 Develop
the cats fur with the
light grey pencil.
Work from the head
downwards,
adjusting the
applied pressure
and depth of colour
to create form.

STAGE 9 Use soft black to work up the darkest tones on the


cats head, adding detail around the eyes and ears, then
add touches of purple.

STAGE 10 When you are happy with the tonal structure of


the head, work up the darks on the body with the soft black.
Accentuate the lighter parts of the body fur and the head
with the medium blue. STAGE 11 Enrich the dark parts of the body and head with purple.

STAGE 13 Use lilac to create the bloom on the purple plums and to
block in the shape of the flower pot. These marks help link all the
STAGE 12 Use the bright yellow to block in the component parts of this composition. Develop the shapes of the
bananas, the yellow plums and a base colour on the bananas with touches of yellow-green. Use the purple pencil to add
apples. Use the yellow ochre pencil to block in a base darks to the purple plums and to develop shadows on the bananas,
coat for the wooden bowl. the bowl and the plant pot.

58 StartArt October 2005


STARTp56_59_Pets 5/9/05 12:05 pm Page 59

Paint your pet

STAGE 14 Use the orange, shaded lightly with dark red, to STAGE 15 Sharpen the soft black pencil to a fine point, then add
work up the shape of the yellow plums. Work up and apply details to the cat: sharpen the shapes of its eyes; add in some
orange base colour for the apples, then overlay this with a hairs in the ears; flick in the whiskers; and add some hairs on its
variety of dark red tones. Use the purple to redefine deep back, down the chest and round the tail. Add fine shadow lines
shadows and the yellow ochre to warm up the wooden bowl. around the fruit and bowl.

THE FINISHED DRAWING


This (abridged) extract was taken from Drawing Pets by Sally Michel,
Olive green has been added published by Search Press (ISBN 1-903975-56-5, 6.99). The book is
to the foreground to complete available to readers of StartArt at a special price of 5.99 plus FREE
the drawing. post and package (UK only) from Search Press Ltd., Wellwood,
North Farm Road, Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN2 3DR. Telephone 01892
510850; www.searchpress.com

StartArt October 2005


59
Aquatone

Angela Gaughan

Make a splash of colour!


Watercolour pencils are amazingly versatile and Aquatone offers you four times more
useable material than a wood cased pencil. This solid stick of pure, watersoluble colour
can be used wet or dry, and you can apply broad sweeps of colour in seconds. For
even faster colour lay down, simply peel off the protective wrapper and apply
Illustration: Lin
da Stevens
Aquatone on its side.

Aquatone will give you many hours of creative pleasure. The range of 24 Aquatone
colours is the same as those in the Watercolour pencil range so they complement each
other perfectly.

For more information visit: www.pencils.co.uk


Download the Derwent iPhone app for hints & tips
videos, colour charts and lots more.
Startp6162 Hooked 7/9/05 3:47 pm Page 61

Hooked on painting?
Heres where to go to learn more
2.95 MONTHLY
October 2005

phoning 01580 763673.


P ractical art magazines,
such as Leisure Painter
and The Artist, provide step-
For studying at leisure,
book publishers specialising
demonstrations, workshops,
painting outings and
exhibitions of members'
LEARN TO PAINT WITH THE UKS MOST POPULAR PAINTING MAGAZINE

by-step painting in art instruction, such as paintings. They provide a Landscapes


from
demonstrations and in- Search Press, Collins and friendly atmosphere in Photographs
depth advice on painting David & Charles, publish art which to develop your New
Series!
techniques, and also run instruction books by well- artistic talents. The Artists' Painting
Miniatures
workshops and painting known tutors, including Publishing Company has a
holidays for both beginners Alwyn Crawshaw, giving list of art clubs nationwide;
and more experienced guidance in drawing and for the contact details of
painters who want to brush painting techniques. your local art club, write to
up on their painting skills. In all areas of the UK there them at 63/65 High Street, Step-by-Step
Demonstrations
Their Painting Courses are art clubs and societies Tenterden, Kent TN30 6BD, Beginners
booklet, included in the run by enthusiastic enclosing a stamped, 10 Birds in
Coloured Pencils
November issue of both members, who organise addressed envelope. 9 770024 071089

magazines, lists the many


art centres in the UK and

Lets StartwiithArt65
BEGINNERS

FIRST
Europe that run painting STEPS WIT
LEISURE
H
PAINTER
courses and holidays with A Pair of Budgerigars in Colooured Pencil by Trudy Friend
expert tuition provided in all MATERIALS USED

media, including Paper


Cartridge drawing paper 110gsm for the initial sketch
Saunders Waterford 190 gsm HP paper for nal

artwork

watercolour, oils and Coloured pencils: Derwent Studio range


Deep
cadmium
Golden
brown Bronze
Grass
green
Mineral
green

acrylics.
The magazines are on Light
blue
Cobalt
blue
Blue
grey
Gunmetal Black

sale at WHSmith, or in case To


AIM OF DRAWING

create a relationship between two birds on a bough


1

of difficulty available direct


To indicate form by the depiction of pattern

KEY POINTS

from the publisher by The initial drawing was used to ensure that both heads
were not placed at the same level. They were positioned
in a way that allowed an interesting negative shape to
appear between the two forms. I then looked for another
(small) negative shape to add interest (seen in the blue
area, Figure 1).

Left Budgerigars.
TECHNIQUES USED Coloured pencil 7" x 7"
3 (18cm x 18cm) by Trudy
Friend

MAGAZINES The images were transferred from the cartridge paper


to the HP surface by placing the drawing against a
window with the HP paper over the top, and tracing
each bird using the relevant colours.
shape between the wing feathers, the birds body and
the supporting branch in blue, as these are important
Figure 3
Step 1 Budgies come in a variety of colours, and I was
considerations in a composition. careful to choose two colours that were different yet
I used two main methods of applying colour: a) gentle
connected in some way in order to create a unity
blocking in the main hues; and b) overlaying contoured Figure 2 between them hence the yellow head feathers of the
pattern for the rows of feathers. Step 1 Colours relevant to each bird were used to trace blue bird.
Small zig-zag applications of the contoured pattern
them in position on the HP paper. Step 2 Special care and attention was given to the
areas contrast with the longer strokes needed to depict Step 2 Larger areas of colour were blocked in using bright little eyes and smooth delicate bills the former
wing and tail feathers.
2
gentle toning to establish variations in hue. On the with its strong contrast and the latter with subtle Trudy Friend runs
green bird these comprised shades of green and blending. drawing and watercolour
courses for beginners and

The Artist, Caxton House, 63/65 High Street, Figure 1 yellow, and on the blue bird, shades of blue and blue Step 3 To continue the theme of contrast and blending,
TIME TAKEN grey. I allowed some white paper to remain the breast feathers were treated with careful, short improvers at the Wyndham
Step 1 The two birds were initially drawn on cartridge Arms Hotel, Clearwell, near
paper. Consideration was given to their relationship untouched to indicate pale, highlighted areas. strokes of the pencil, using a variety of gentle and rm
Step 3 I then concentrated on the relationships pressure marks. Coleford, Gloucestershire. The
I often produce the initial sketch and let time elapse and the use of an important negative shape that courses run from Sundays to
before starting the nal artwork. This enables me to see between the eyes and bills, overlaying the intricate Step 4: Strong contrasts of black pattern on the other

Tenterden, Kent TN30 6BD Tel: 01580 763673 the layout with a fresh eye before committing the nal
image to paper. I also take breaks from time to time in
order to re-assess the progress of the work.
separates them. The horizontal guideline placed
above the blue bird ensured that the heads would be
on different levels.
Step 2 I have indicated the open negative shape (not
contoured pattern following the form of the heads.
Step 4 I have indicated specic shadow recess shapes
between clumps of feathers that help to relate the
parts of the bird were then emphasised.
Step 5: Finally, all shadow recess areas were enhanced.
Gentle shading was introduced to create texture on
Tuesdays and tuition is based
on the requirements of group
members. For further details
contact Trudy on 01291
enclosed at the top) and a smaller closed negative birds to their support and anchor the forms. the bough and to anchor both the birds and the bough. 689641.

www.theartistmagazine.co.uk 18 OCTOBER 2005


OCTOBER 2005 19

Turn to page
Leisure Painter, Caxton House, 22 for a special
63/65 High Street, subscription offer Readers of Leisure Painter
to Leisure Painter whose paintings were
Tenterden, Kent TN30 6BD
and FREE book by
Tel: 01580 763315 Hazel Soan selected for exhibition in
www.leisurepainter.co.uk the annual Patchings
Open Competition 2005

COURSES atmosphere. The tutors, who In addition to courses of one,


include Tony Paul and Hazel two, three and five days there Painting holidays give you the
Soan, offer a wide variety of are also weekly courses chance to improve your skills in
West Norfolk Arts Centre
courses including including a nine-week inspiring surroundings. In the
The Old School House representational landscape, Beginners' Watercolour course. picture below tutor Michael
Castle Rising portraiture, abstract and Chaplin gives a
King's Lynn miniatures, and all popular painting
media are covered. Structured demonstration
Norfolk PE31 6AG to a group of
for beginners and the more
01553 631689 experienced alike the courses students in
Email: westnorfolk.arts@ take place in the centre's Montecatini
studio in Castle Rising, and Terme, Tuscany,
virgin.net;
along the beautiful north during a
www.westnorfolkarts.co.uk Norfolk coast, and the centre holiday
also runs painting holidays in organised
Established in 1993 by Ros and Greece, Spain and Italy, by West Norfolk
Richard Cartwright the West including a trip to Andalucia in Arts Centre. For
Norfolk Arts Centre provides September 2006 with Tony more details
non-residential art courses in a Paul. Non-painting partners are see page 64.
relaxed and enjoyable welcome.

StartArt October 2005


61
Startp6162 Hooked 7/9/05 10:50 am Page 62

PRACTICAL ART BOOKS


Artists' Choice is a book club and drawing including the Tips including courses that are
offering a variety of & Techniques series focusing especially suitable for
Collins publications, materials and on watercolour, acrylics and beginners and improvers.
77-85 Fulham Palace Road videos for artists. See page 65. painting with oils, and the Step- www.artcourses.co.uk
by-Step Leisure Arts series
Hammersmith, London W6 8JB
020 8741 7070 David & Charles Painters Online
Painting for Pleasure An interactive club for
www. collins.co.uk Brunel House
Brunel House amateur and professional
Forde Close artists run by The Artists'
Alwyn Crawshaw, June Forde Close
Newton Abbott Publishing Company, with
Crawshaw, Jackie Simmonds Newton Abbott
Devon TQ12 4PU chatroom and the chance to
and Hazel Soan are Devon TQ12 4BR have your painting questions
contributors to Collins art 01626 323200
instruction books. Collins
0870 4422123 answered by other club
www.davidandcharles.co.uk members.
publish the popular You Can www.painters-online.com
One of the Readers' Union
Paint series for the absolute Publishers of art instruction Specialist Book Clubs, Painting
beginner, from which you can books; authors include Ray for Pleasure is for painters of all
move on to the Learn to Paint, Campbell Smith and Jill Bays. abilities. Members are offered
and Learn to Draw series. All
savings on books, with books
painting media are covered,
and art materials delivered to
from watercolour to acrylics, Search Press
your door. See page 68. THE NEXT STEP
pastels, oils, mixed media, Wellwood If you have enjoyed this
drawing and sketching.
North Farm Road introduction to drawing
Tunbridge Wells and painting, why not
Artists' Choice WEBSITES subscribe to Leisure Painter
Kent TN2 3DR magazine? See the
PO Box 3
Huntingdon
01892 510850 Artcourses.co.uk special subscription offer
www.searchpress.com Helps you find art and crafts on page 22
Cambridgeshire PE28 0QX
courses in Britain and beyond.
01832 710 201 Search Press publishes art You can search for courses by
www.artists-choice.co.uk instruction books in painting location, subject or duration,

Paper, pencils and paints: where to buy


You will find the best-known the Arches mill in France). Bracknell Wealdstone
ranges of art materials in More specialist papers, Berkshire RG12 8ST Harrow
your local art shop or such as the Indian Khadi 01344 424621 Middlesex HA3 5RH
stationer. WHSmith have a papers mentioned by Hazel www.daler-rowney.com 020 8427 4343
select range of art materials Soan (page 52), are
www.winsornewton.com
and books. Other sources available from art shops, by
Pro Arte
of art materials include the mail order or from
specialists such as Falkiner Park Mill
well-established specialist
mail-order companies, who Fine Papers (020 7831 Brougham Street DISTRIBUTOR
supply a wide range of 1151). Skipton
products. Derwent Pencils, made by North Yorkshire BD23 2JL Global Art Supplies
The comprehensive The Cumberland Pencil 01756 792929 Unit 13-16 Mills Way Centre
Daler-Rowney and Winsor & Company, are also widely www.proarte.com Boscombe Down Business Park
Newton ranges, which are available, and include Brush manufacturer Amesbury
widely available, include graphite sketching and Wiltshire SP4 7RX
both Artist and Student drawing pencils as well as
Rosemary & Co 01980 625625
(economical) ranges of coloured and watercolour
PO Box 372 Phone Global Art Supplies for
watercolour, oil and acrylic (water-soluble) pencils.
Keighley stockist details of Cretacolor,
paints, as well as pastels,
watercolour and drawing Yorkshire BD20 6WZ Golden Acrylics, Isabey,
(cartridge) paper, sold as ART MATERIALS 01535 600090 Mabef, Raphal, Sennelier
separate sheets or bound www.rosemaryandco.com
into handy-sized The Cumberland Pencil Brush manufacturer
sketchbooks, and Company MAIL ORDER
accessories from erasers to Southey Works St Cuthberts Mill
easels. Bockingford paper, Keswick Wells Great Art
included in StartArt for your Gerstaecker UK Limited
Cumbria CA12 5NG Somerset BA5 1AG
competition entry, is made
at St Cuthbert's Mill in 01768 780898 01749 672015 Normandy House
www.pencils.co.uk www.inveresk.co.uk 1 Nether Street, Alton
Somerset, and supplied by
art shops and mail-order Hampshire GU34 1EA
companies, along with Daler-Rowney Winsor & Newton 0845 601 5772
Arches papers (made at PO Box 10 Whitefriars Avenue www.greatart.co.uk

62 StartArt October 2005


Aquarelle Advert:Layout 1 31/05/2012 14:14 Page 1

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COLOUR M IXING:

Colour harmony balance and harmony


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Soraya French discusses
Yellow

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olour is the most powerful Yellow-green

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It has
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FROM STUDIES TO FINISH
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successfully we need to tary
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Analogous colours
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Analogous colours are the

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adjacent to each other , but little
has
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wheel, such as blue, blue-green ted portrait reasons a portrait
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feeling of calm and tranquillity ut
Central, ion that
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techniques and subject matter


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advice from popular artists


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and oil. Why? Well, watercolou ice of pose is stillr impressions I
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October 2012
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Co lle ait ure warmth
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2012
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