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4/2/2017 HigheralkanesWikipedia

Higheralkanes
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Higheralkanesarealkaneshavingnineormorecarbonatoms.Nonaneisthelightestalkanetohaveaflashpointabove25C,andis
notclassifiedasdangerouslyflammable.

Thetermhigheralkanesissometimesusedliterallyas"alkaneswithahighernumberofcarbonatoms".Onedefinitiondistinguishesthe
higheralkanesasthenalkanesthataresolidundernaturalconditions.

Contents
1 Uses
2 Properties
2.1 Nonanetohexadecane
2.2 HeptadecanetoTetracosane
2.3 PentacosanetoTriacontane
2.4 Hentriacontanetohexatriacontane
2.5 HeptatriacontanetoDotetracontane
2.6 TritetracontanetoOctatetracontane
2.7 NonatetracontanetoTetrapentacontane
3 Seealso
4 References
5 Externallinks

Uses
Alkanesfromnonanetohexadecane(analkanewithsixteencarbonatoms)areliquidsofhigherviscosity,whicharelesssuitableforuse
ingasoline.Theyforminsteadthemajorpartofdieselandaviationfuel.Dieselfuelsarecharacterisedbytheircetanenumber,cetane
beinganoldnameforhexadecane.Howeverthehighermeltingpointsofthesealkanescancauseproblemsatlowtemperaturesandin
polarregions,wherethefuelbecomestoothicktoflowcorrectly.Mixturesofthenormalalkanesareusedasboilingpointstandardsfor
simulateddistillationbygaschromatography.[1]

Alkanesfromhexadecaneupwardsformthemostimportantcomponentsoffueloilandlubricatingoil.Inlatterfunctiontheyworkat
thesametimeasanticorrosiveagents,astheirhydrophobicnaturemeansthatwatercannotreachthemetalsurface.Manysolidalkanes
finduseasparaffinwax,usedlubrication,electricalinsulation,andcandles.Paraffinwaxshouldnotbeconfusedwithbeeswax,which
consistsprimarilyofesters.

Alkaneswithachainlengthofapproximately35ormorecarbonatomsarefoundinbitumen(asphalt),used(forexample)inroad
surfacing.However,thehigheralkaneshavelittlevalueandareusuallysplitintoloweralkanesbycracking.

Properties
Thepropertieslistedhererefertothestraightchainalkanes(or:nalkanes).

Nonanetohexadecane

Thisgroupofnalkanesisgenerallyliquidunderstandardconditions.[2]

Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Tridecane Tetradecane Pentadecane Hexadecane


Formula C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34
CASnumber [111842] [124185] [1120214] [112403] [629505] [629594] [629629] [544763]
Molarmass(g/mol) 128.26 142.29 156.31 170.34 184.37 198.39 212.42 226.45
Meltingpoint(C) 53.5 29.7 25.6 9.6 5.4 5.9 9.9 18.2
Boilingpoint(C) 150.8 174.1 195.9 216.3 235.4 253.5 270.6 286.8
Density(g/mlat20C) 0.71763 0.73005 0.74024 0.74869 0.75622 0.76275 0.76830 0.77344

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Viscosity(cPat20C) 0.7139 0.9256 1.185 1.503 1.880 2.335 2.863 3.474


Flashpoint(C) 31 46 60 71 79 99 132 135
Autoignition
205 210 205 235 201
temperature(C)
Explosivelimits 0.92.9% 0.82.6% 0.456.5%

HeptadecanetoTetracosane

Fromthisgroupon,thenalkanesaregenerallysolidatstandardconditions.

Heptadecane Octadecane Nonadecane Icosane Heneicosane Docosane Tricosane Tetracosane


Formula C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C21H44 C22H46 C23H48 C24H50
CASnumber [629787] [593453] [629925] [112958] [629947] [629970] [638675] [646311]
Molarmass(g/mol) 240.47 254.50 268.53 282.55 296.58 310.61 324.63 338.66
Meltingpoint(C) 21 2830 3234 36.7 40.5 42 4850 52
Boilingpoint(C) 302 317 330 342.7 356.5 224at2kPa 380 391.3
Density(g/ml) 0.777 0.777 0.786 0.7886 0.792 0.778 0.797 0.797
Flashpoint(C) 148 166 168 176

PentacosanetoTriacontane

Pentacosane Hexacosane Heptacosane Octacosane Nonacosane Triacontane


Formula C25H52 C26H54 C27H56 C28H58 C29H60 C30H62
CASnumber [629992] [630013] [593497] [630024] [630035] [638686]
Molarmass(g/mol) 352.69 366.71 380.74 394.77 408.80 422.82
Meltingpoint(C) 54 56.4 59.5 64.5 63.7 65.8
Boilingpoint(C) 401 412.2 422 431.6 440.8 449.7
Density(g/ml) 0.801 0.778 0.780 0.807 0.808 0.810

Hentriacontanetohexatriacontane

Hentriacontane Dotriacontane Tritriacontane Tetratriacontane Pentatriacontane Hexatriacontane


Formula C31H64 C32H66 C33H68 C34H70 C35H72 C36H74
CASnumber [630046] [544854] [630057] [14167590] [630079] [630068]
Molarmass(g/mol) 436.85 450.88 464.90 478.93 492.96 506.98
Meltingpoint(C) 67.9 69 7072 72.6 75 7476
Boilingpoint(C) 458 467 474 285.4at0.4kPa 490 265at130Pa
Density(g/ml) 0.781at68C[3] 0.812 0.811 0.812 0.813 0.814

HeptatriacontanetoDotetracontane

Heptatriacontane Octatriacontane Nonatriacontane Tetracontane Hentetracontane Dotetracontane


Formula C37H76 C38H78 C39H80 C40H82 C41H84 C42H86
CASnumber [7194845] [7194856] [7194867] [4181957] [7194878] [7098206]
Molarmass(g/mol) 520.99 535.03 549.05 563.08 577.11 591.13
Meltingpoint(C) 77 79 78 84 83 86
Boilingpoint(C) 504.14 510.93 517.51 523.88 530.75 536.07
Density(g/ml) 0.815 0.816 0.817 0.817 0.818 0.819

TritetracontanetoOctatetracontane

Triatetracontane Tetratetracontane Pentatetracontane Hexatetracontane Heptatetracontane Octatetracontane


Formula C43H88 C44H90 C45H92 C46H94 C47H96 C48H98
CAS
[7098217] [7098228] [7098239] [7098240] [7098251] [7098262]
Number
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Molar 605.15 619.18 633.21 647.23 661.26 675.29


mass
(g/mol)
Boiling
point 541.91 547.57 553.1 558.42 563.6 568.68
(C)
Density
0.82 0.82 0.821 0.822 0.822 0.823
(g/ml)

NonatetracontanetoTetrapentacontane

Nonatetracontane Pentacontane Henpentacontane Dopentacontane Tripentacontane Tetrapentacontane


Formula C49H100 C50H102 C51H104 C52H106 C53H108 C54H110
CASnumber [7098273] [6596403] [7667767] [7719791] [7719804] [5856666]
Molarmass
689.32 703.34 717.37 731.39 745.42 759.45
(g/mol)
Boilingpoint
573.6 578.4 583 587.6 592 596.38
(C)
Density(g/ml) 0.823 0.824 0.824 0.825 0.825 0.826

Seealso
Alkene
Alkyne
Cycloalkane
Hydrocarbon
Paraffinwax,composedmostlyofhigherlinearalkanes
Polyethylene,alinearalkaneofpolymericlength

References
1.ASTMD539909,StandardTestMethodforBoilingPointDistributionofHydrocarbonSolventsbyGasChromatography
2.KarlGriesbaum,ArnoBehr,DieterBiedenkapp,HeinzWernerVoges,DorotheaGarbe,ChristianPaetz,GerdCollin,DieterMayerHartmut
Hke"Hydrocarbons"inUllmann'sEncyclopediaofIndustrialChemistry,2005,WileyVCH,Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227(http
s://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2F14356007.a13_227)
3.Weast,RobertC.,ed.(1982).CRCHandbookofChemistryandPhysics(63rded.).BocaRaton,Fl:CRCPress.p.C561.

Externallinks
InternationalChemicalSafetyCard1245(http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics
Lookuphigheralkanesin
1245.htm)(nonane) Wiktionary,thefree
NIOSHPocketGuidetoChemicalHazards(http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0466.htm dictionary.
l)(nonane)
InternationalChemicalSafetyCard0428(http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics
WikimediaCommonshas
0428.htm)(decane) mediarelatedtoHigher
Alkanes.
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Categories: Alkanes

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