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Definition and Notation The chain rule applied to some specific functions.

h 0

f ( x + h) f ( x)

h

. 1.

d

dx

( n

)

f ( x ) = n f ( x ) f ( x )

n 1

5.

d

dx

( )

cos f ( x ) = f ( x ) sin f ( x )

If y = f ( x ) then all of the following are If y = f ( x ) all of the following are equivalent

2.

dx

e (

d f ( x)

)

= f ( x) e ( )

f x

6.

d

dx

( )

tan f ( x ) = f ( x ) sec 2 f ( x )

f ( x)

( ) (sec [ f ( x) ]) = f ( x) sec [ f ( x) ] tan [ f ( x)]

d d

equivalent notations for the derivative. notations for derivative evaluated at x = a . 3. ln f ( x ) = 7.

dx f ( x) dx

( f ( x ) ) = Df ( x )

df dy d

f ( x ) = y =

df dy

= = f ( a ) = y x = a = = = Df ( a ) f ( x)

dx dx dx dx x = a dx x = a 4.

d

( )

sin f ( x ) = f ( x ) cos f ( x ) 8.

d

(

tan 1 f ( x ) = )

1 + f ( x )

2

dx dx

Interpretation of the Derivative

If y = f ( x ) then, 2. f ( a ) is the instantaneous rate of Higher Order Derivatives

The Second Derivative is denoted as The nth Derivative is denoted as

1. m = f ( a ) is the slope of the tangent change of f ( x ) at x = a . 2

d f dn f

line to y = f ( x ) at x = a and the 3. If f ( x ) is the position of an object at f ( x ) = f ( ) ( x ) = 2 and is defined as f ( ) ( x ) = n and is defined as

2 n

dx dx

equation of the tangent line at x = a is time x then f ( a ) is the velocity of

given by y = f ( a ) + f ( a )( x a ) . the object at x = a .

f ( x ) = ( f ( x ) ) , i.e. the derivative of the ( n )

( )

f ( x ) = f ( n 1) ( x ) , i.e. the derivative of

first derivative, f ( x ) . the (n-1)st derivative, f ( n 1) x . ( )

Basic Properties and Formulas

If f ( x ) and g ( x ) are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers, Implicit Differentiation

Find y if e2 x 9 y + x3 y 2 = sin ( y ) + 11x . Remember y = y ( x ) here, so products/quotients of x and y

1. ( c f ) = c f ( x ) 5.

d

(c) = 0 will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of y will use the chain rule. The trick is to

dx

(f g ) = f ( x ) g ( x ) differentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a y you tack on a y (from the chain rule).

2.

6.

dx

( x ) = n xn 1 Power Rule

d n

After differentiating solve for y .

3. ( f g ) = f g + f g Product Rule

7.

d

( )

f ( g ( x )) = f ( g ( x ) ) g ( x ) e2 x 9 y ( 2 9 y ) + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x 3 y y = cos ( y ) y + 11

f f g f g dx

11 2e 2 x 9 y 3x 2 y 2

4. = Quotient Rule This is the Chain Rule 2e2 x 9 y 9 ye2 x 9 y + 3x 2 y 2 + 2 x 3 y y = cos ( y ) y + 11 y =

g g2 2 x3 y 9e2 x 9 y cos ( y )

( 2 x y 9e x

3 2 9 y

cos ( y ) ) y = 11 2e 2 x 9 y 3 x 2 y 2

Common Derivatives

d

dx

( x) = 1

d

dx

( csc x ) = csc x cot x

d x

dx

( a ) = a x ln ( a ) Increasing/Decreasing Concave Up/Concave Down

Critical Points

d

( sin x ) = cos x

d

( cot x ) = csc 2 x

d x

(e ) = ex x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) provided either Concave Up/Concave Down

dx dx dx 1. If f ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then

1. f ( c ) = 0 or 2. f ( c ) doesnt exist.

d

( cos x ) = sin x

d

(sin 1 x ) = 1 2 d

( ln ( x ) ) = x , x > 0

1

f ( x ) is concave up on the interval I.

dx dx 1 x dx

Increasing/Decreasing 2. If f ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then

( ln x ) = x , x 0

d d 1

( tan x ) = sec 2 x d

( cos x ) = 1 2

1

1. If f ( x ) > 0 for all x in an interval I then

dx dx 1 x dx f ( x ) is concave down on the interval I.

f ( x ) is increasing on the interval I.

( log a ( x ) ) = x ln a , x > 0

d d 1

( sec x ) = sec x tan x d

( tan x ) = 1 + x 2

1 1

dx dx dx 2. If f ( x ) < 0 for all x in an interval I then Inflection Points

x = c is a inflection point of f ( x ) if the

f ( x ) is decreasing on the interval I.

concavity changes at x = c .

3. If f ( x ) = 0 for all x in an interval I then

f ( x ) is constant on the interval I.

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins

Calculus Cheat Sheet Calculus Cheat Sheet

Absolute Extrema Relative (local) Extrema Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantities

1. x = c is an absolute maximum of f ( x ) 1. x = c is a relative (or local) maximum of and differentiate with respect to t using implicit differentiation (i.e. add on a derivative every time

if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x in the domain. f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x near c. you differentiate a function of t). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.

2. x = c is a relative (or local) minimum of Ex. A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall. Ex. Two people are 50 ft apart when one

2. x = c is an absolute minimum of f ( x ) The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is being starts walking north. The angle changes at

f ( x ) if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x near c.

if f ( c ) f ( x ) for all x in the domain. pushed towards the wall at 14 ft/sec. How fast 0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distance

is the top moving after 12 sec? between them changing when = 0.5 rad?

1st Derivative Test

Fermats Theorem If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) then x = c is

If f ( x ) has a relative (or local) extrema at

1. a rel. max. of f ( x ) if f ( x ) > 0 to the left

x = c , then x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) .

of x = c and f ( x ) < 0 to the right of x = c .

We have = 0.01 rad/min. and want to find

Extreme Value Theorem 2. a rel. min. of f ( x ) if f ( x ) < 0 to the left x is negative because x is decreasing. Using

x . We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,

If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval of x = c and f ( x ) > 0 to the right of x = c .

Pythagorean Theorem and differentiating,

x x

x 2 + y 2 = 152 2 x x + 2 y y = 0 sec = sec tan =

[ a, b] then there exist numbers c and d so that, 3. not a relative extrema of f ( x ) if f ( x ) is

After 12 sec we have x = 10 12 ( 14 ) = 7 and

50 50

We know = 0.5 so plug in and solve.

1. a c, d b , 2. f ( c ) is the abs. max. in the same sign on both sides of x = c .

so y = 152 7 2 = 176 . Plug in and solve x

sec ( 0.5 ) tan ( 0.5 )( 0.01) =

[ a, b] , 3. f ( d ) is the abs. min. in [ a, b] .

2nd Derivative Test for y . 50

If x = c is a critical point of f ( x ) such that 7 x = 0.3112 ft/sec

Finding Absolute Extrema 7 ( 14 ) + 176 y = 0 y = ft/sec Remember to have calculator in radians!

To find the absolute extrema of the continuous f ( c ) = 0 then x = c 4 176

function f ( x ) on the interval [ a, b] use the 1. is a relative maximum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) < 0 .

Optimization

following process. 2. is a relative minimum of f ( x ) if f ( c ) > 0 . Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint for

1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) in [ a, b ] . 3. may be a relative maximum, relative one of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of

2. Evaluate f ( x ) at all points found in Step 1. minimum, or neither if f ( c ) = 0 . variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.

3. Evaluate f ( a ) and f ( b ) .

Ex. Were enclosing a rectangular field with Ex. Determine point(s) on y = x 2 + 1 that are

Finding Relative Extrema and/or 500 ft of fence material and one side of the closest to (0,2).

4. Identify the abs. max. (largest function field is a building. Determine dimensions that

value) and the abs. min.(smallest function Classify Critical Points

will maximize the enclosed area.

value) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3. 1. Find all critical points of f ( x ) .

2. Use the 1st derivative test or the 2nd

derivative test on each critical point.

Minimize f = d 2 = ( x 0 ) + ( y 2 ) and the

2 2

Mean Value Theorem Maximize A = xy subject to constraint of constraint is y = x 2 + 1 . Solve constraint for

If f ( x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b] and differentiable on the open interval ( a, b ) x + 2 y = 500 . Solve constraint for x and plug

x 2 and plug into the function.

into area.

f (b ) f ( a ) x2 = y 1 f = x 2 + ( y 2)

2

ba x = 500 2 y

= y 1 + ( y 2) = y 2 3 y + 3

2

= 500 y 2 y 2

Newtons Method Differentiate and find critical point(s). Differentiate and find critical point(s).

f ( xn ) A = 500 4 y y = 125 f = 2y 3 y = 32

If xn is the n guess for the root/solution of f ( x ) = 0 then (n+1)st guess is xn +1 = xn

th

By 2nd deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so is nd

By the 2 derivative test this is a rel. min. and

f ( xn )

the answer were after. Finally, find x. so all we need to do is find x value(s).

provided f ( xn ) exists. x = 500 2 (125) = 250 x 2 = 32 1 = 12 x = 12

The dimensions are then 250 x 125. The 2 points are then ( 1

2 )

, 32 and ( 1

2

, 32 )

Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins Visit http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes. 2005 Paul Dawkins

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