2
CHAPTER 1
Algebra
3
CHAPTER 2
Logarithmic & Exponential Functions
3
CHAPTER 3
Trigonometry
5
CHAPTER 4
Differentiation
5
CHAPTER 5
Integration
8 Vectors
CHAPTER 7
13
CHAPTER 8
Complex Numbers
16
CHAPTER 9
Differential Equations
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CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
1.4 Partial Fractions
1. ALGEBRA +
+
( + )( + ) + +
1.1 The Modulus Function
Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
No line with a modulus ever goes under the x-axis
Any line that does go below the x-axis, when modulated Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
is reflected above it 2 + +
| x | = ||x || 2
+ +
( + )( + ) + + ( + )2
||
| |= Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
||
| | = ||2 = 2
2
Multiply ( + )2, substitute = and find
|| = || 2 = 2 Substitute any constant e.g. = 0 and find
2 = ||
2 + + +
1.2 Polynomials 2
+ 2
( + )( + ) + +
To find unknowns in a given identity
Multiply ( + ), substitute = and find
o Substitute suitable values of
OR Take +
to the other side, subtract and simplify.
o Equalize given coefficients of like powers of Linear eqn. left at top is equal to +
Factor theorem: If ( ) is a factor of the function
() then () = 0 Improper fraction case: if numerator has to the
Remainder theorem: If the function () is divided by degree of power equivalent or greater than the
( ) then the remainder: = () denominator then another constant is present. This can
be found by dividing denominator by numerator and
DIVIDEND = DIVISOR QUOTIENT + REMAINDER
using remainder
1.3 Binomial Series {S12-P33} Question 8:
Expanding (1 + ) where || < 1 Express the following in partial fractions:
4 2 7 1
( 1) 2 ( 1)( 2) 3 ( + 1)(2 3)
1+ + + +
1 12 123 Solution:
Expand the brackets
Factor case: if constant is not 1, pull out a factor from
4 2 7 1
brackets to make it 1 & use general equation. Do not
2 2 3
forget the indices. Greatest power of same in numerator and
Substitution case: if bracket contains more than one denominator, thus is an improper fraction case
term (e.g. (2 + 2 )) then make the last part ,
expand and then substitute back in. Making into proper fraction:
Finding the limit of in expansion: 2
E.g. (1 + ) , limit can be found by substituting 2 2 3 4 2 7 1
between the modulus sign in || < 1 and altering it to 4 2 2 6
have only in the modulus 5 + 5
This is written as:
5 5
2+
( + 1)(2 3)
Page 3 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
Solution: Show that:
Use product rule to differentiate: 2 sin 2
= sin2 2 = cos cos 2 =
4
= 4 sin 2 cos 2 = sin Solution:
First express area of sector
= +
1
= 2
= (4 sin 2 cos 2)(cos ) + (sin2 2)( sin ) 2
1
= (2 4) 2 = ( 2) 2
= 4 sin 2 cos 2 cos sin2 2 sin 2
Now express area of sector
1
Use following identities: = (2)( )2
2
cos 2 = 2 cos2 1 Express using sine rule
sin 2 = 2 sin cos sin( 2)
sin2 = 1 cos 2 =
sin
Equating to 0: Use double angle rules to simplify this expression
sin 2
=0 =
sin
4 sin 2 cos 2 cos sin2 2 sin = 0 2 sin cos
4 sin 2 cos 2 cos = sin2 2 sin =
sin
= 2 cos
Cancel sin 2 on both sides Substitute back into initial equation
4 cos 2 cos = sin 2 sin 1
= (2)(2 cos )2
2
Substitute identities = 4 2 cos 2
4(2 cos2 1) cos = (2 sin cos ) sin Now express area of kite
= 2
Cancel cos and constant 2 from both sides 1
4 cos2 2 = sin2 = 2 2 sin( 2)
2
Use identity = 2 sin( 2)
4 cos2 2 = 1 cos2 Finally, the expression of shaded region equated to
5 cos2 = 3 half of circle
3 1
cos2 = 4 2 cos2 + 2 ( 2) 2 sin( 2) = 2
5 2
cos = 0.7746 Cancel our 2 on both sides for all terms
= cos 1 (0.7746) 1
= 0.6847 0.685 4 cos 2 + 2 (sin cos 2 + sin 2 cos ) =
2
Some things in the double angle cancel out
1
{W13-P31} Question 6: 4 cos 2 + 2 sin 2 =
2
Use identity here
cos 2 + 1 1
4 ( ) + sin 2 2 =
2 2
4 cos 2 + 4 + 2 2 sin 2 4 =
Clean up
4 cos 2 + 2 2 sin 2 =
4 cos 2 = 2 sin 2
2 sin 2
cos 2 =
is a point on circumference of a circle center , 4
radius . A circular arc, center meets circumference
at & . Angle is radians. The area of the
shaded region is equal to half the area of the circle.
Page 4 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
4. DIFFERENTIATION sin( + )
1
cos( + )
4.1 Basic Derivatives 1
1 cos( + ) sin( + )
1
sec 2 ( + ) tan( + )
( + )+1
ln ( + )
( + 1)
sin cos Use trigonometrical relationships to facilitate complex
cos sin trigonometric integrals
tan sec 2 Integrate by decomposing into partial fractions
1 14 16 1 0 4 06 1 = ln = = 2 = 2 2
( ) ( )= 1 1 1
2 4 6 2 4 6 24 ln 2 2 2 ln 2 2
2 2 1
()
5.3 Integrating 2 ln 4
() Substitute limits
() = 4 ln 4 4
= ln|()| +
()
{S10-P32} Question 10:
5.5 Integrating Powers of Sine or Cosine
By splitting into partial fractions, show that: To integrate sin or cos with a power:
2
2 3 1 3 1 16 If power is odd, pull out a sin or cos and use
2
= + ln ( ) Pythagorean identities and double angle identities
(2 1) 2 2 27
1 If power is even, use the following identities
Solution: 1 1
Write as partial fractions sin2 = cos(2)
2 2
2 2
2 3 1 2 1 3 2
1 1
2 1 + + 2 + cos = + cos(2)
(2 1) 2 1 2 2
1 1
3 5.6 Integrating
+ 2 ln 1 ln|2 1|
2 If or are odd and even, then:
Substitute the limits
1 3 3 Factor out one power from odd trig function
2 + 2 ln 2 ln 3 1 2 ln 1 + 1 + ln 1 Use Pythagorean identities to transform remaining even
2 2 2
3 1 1 1 3 1 16 trig function into the odd trig function
+ ln 16 + ln 3 + ln
2 2 2 3 2 2 27 Let u equal to odd trig function and integrate
Page 6 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
{W09-P31} Question 5: Solution:
(i) Prove the identity Part (i)
cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3 8 sin4 Change to index form:
(ii) Using this result find, in simplified form, the 1
= cos 1
exact value of cos
1 Differentiate by chain rule:
3
= 1(cos )2 ( sin )
sin4
sin sin 1
1
1(cos )2 ( sin ) 2
6 cos cos cos
Solution: sin 1
Part (i) sec tan
cos cos
Use double angle identities Part (ii)
cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3 Multiply numerator and denominator by sec + tan
1 2 sin2 2 4(1 2 sin2 ) sec + tan sec + tan
+3 (sec tan ) (sec + tan ) sec 2 tan2
Open everything and clean
1 2 sin2 2 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 sec + tan sec + tan
2 2
sec + tan
1 2(sin 2)2 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 sec tan 1
1 2(2 sin cos )2 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 Part (iii)
1 2(4 sin2 cos2 ) 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 Substitute identity from (part ii)
1 2(4 sin2 (1 sin2 )) 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 1
(sec + tan )2
1 8 sin2 + 8 sin4 4 + 8 sin2 + 3 (sec tan )2
8 sin4
Part (ii) Open out brackets
Use identity from (part i): (sec + tan )2
1
sec + 2 sec tan + tan2
2
3
1 sec 2 + 2 sec tan + sec 2 1
cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3 2sec 2 + 2 sec tan 1
8
1
2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec tan
6
1 Part (iv)
1 1 3 1
[ sin 4 2 sin + 3]1
8 4 (sec tan )2
6
Substitute limits 2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec tan
1
(2 3)
32 2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec 2 tan2
Using differential from part i:
{W12-P32} Question 5:
1 2 tan + 2 sec
(i) By differentiating cos
, show that if = Substitute boundaries:
sec then
= sec tan 1
= (82 )
1 4
(ii) Show that sec tan sec + tan
(iii) Deduce that: 5.5 Trapezium Rule
1 1
2 sec 2 1 + 2 sec tan = [1 +
(sec tan )2 2
(iv) Hence show that: + 2( )]
1
4
1 1
1 =
.
for
2
= (82 )
0 (sec tan ) 4
Page 7 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
6. SOLVING EQUATIONS NUMERICALLY 7.2 Parallel, Skew or Intersects
6.1 Approximation For the two lines:
To find root of a graph, find point where graph passes
= + = +
through -axis look for a sign change Parallel:
Carry out decimal search o For the lines to be parallel must equal or be in
o Substitute values between where a sign change has some ratio to it e.g. 1: 2
occurred Intersects:
o Closer to zero, greater accuracy o Make =
o If simultaneous works then intersects
6.2 Iteration o If unknowns cancel then no intersection
To solve equation () = 0, you can rearrange () Skew:
into a form = o First check whether line parallel or not
This function represents a sequence that starts at , o If not, then make
=
moving to o Carry out simultaneous
Substitute a value for and put back into function o When a pair does not produce same answers as
getting 1 and so on. another, then lines are skew
As you increase , value becomes more accurate
Sometimes iteration dont work, these functions pare 7.3 Angle between Two Lines
called divergent, and you must rearrange formula for Use dot product rule on the two direction vectors:
in another way .
= cos
For a successful iterative function, you need a ||||
convergent sequence Note: and must be moving away from the point at
which they intersect
7. VECTORS
Page 9 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
2 1 2 o is what we want to find
= + ( 2 ) = (2) + ( 2 ) o is the cross product of 2 vectors parallel to the plane
2 2 2
Part (ii)
and
o If we use then =
Interpreting the question gives the information that
is equal to cos is equal to cos . 4
o = = (5)
Now you can equate the two dot product equations
. 9 + 2 1
cos = = o Substitute point to get .
|||| 39 + 4 + 122 4
. 11 + 14 o . (5) = 13
cos = =
|||| 59 + 4 + 122 1
9 + 2 11 + 14 Given a point and a line on the plane:
=
39 + 4 + 122 59 + 4 + 122 2 2
Cancel out the denominator to give you o (1,2,3) and = (1) + ( 1 )
9 + 2 11 + 14 0 1
= o Make 2 points on the line
3 5
45 + 10 = 33 + 42 o Substitute different values for
3
12 = 32 and = 8 o Repeat 3 point process
Given 2 lines on a plane:
7.6 Equation of a Plane o Find a point on one line
o Find 2 points on the other line
o Repeat 3 point process
Page 10 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
Solution: 7.12 Distance from a Point to a Plane
Part (i)
3
= = ( 1 )
1
Page 12 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
7.15 Angles 8.3 Square Roots
When using dot product rule to fine an angle, Example:
Find square roots of: 4 + 3
Question asks Question asks Question asks
for acute angle for obtuse angle for both angles Solution:
We can say that:
Use +ve value Use -ve value
Use +ve and - 4 + 3 = +
ve value of dot
of dot product of dot product
product Square both sides
2 2 + 2 = 4 + 3
Equate real and imaginary parts
8. COMPLEX NUMBERS
2 2 = 4 2 = 3
Solve simultaneous equation:
8.1 The Basics
32 2
2 = 1 = =
General form for all complex numbers: 2 2
32 2 32 2
+ 4 + 3 = +
2 2 2 2
From this we say:
( + ) = & ( + ) = 8.4 Argand Diagram
Conjugates: For the complex number = +
o The complex number and its conjugate
Its magnitude is defined as the following:
= + & =
|| = 2 + 2
Arithmetic:
o Addition and Subtraction: add and subtract real and Its argument is defined as the following:
imaginary parts with each other arg = tan1
o Multiplication: carry out algebraic expansion, if 2 Simply plot imaginary (-axis) against real (-axis):
present convert to 1
o Division: rationalize denominator by multiplying
conjugate pair
o Equivalence: equate coefficients
8.2 Quadratic
Use the quadratic formula:
o 2 4 is a negative value
o Pull out a negative and replace with 2 Arguments:
o Simplify to general form Always: < <
Use sum of 2 squares: consider the example
Example:
Solve: 2 + 4 + 13 = 0
Solution:
Convert to completed square form:
( + 2)2 + 9 = 0
2
Utilize as 1 to make it difference of 2 squares:
( + 2)2 9 2 = 0
Proceed with general difference of 2 squares method:
( + 2 + 3)( + 2 3) = 0
= 2 + 3 = 2 3
The position of is a reflection in the -axis of
Page 13 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
8.5 Locus {W11-P31} Question 10:
| | = On a sketch of an Argand diagram, shade the region
whose points represent the complex numbers which
The locus of a point such that | | = , is a circle
satisfy the inequality| 3| 2. Find the greatest
with its centre at and with radius .
value of arg for points in this region.
Solution:
The part shaded in blue is the answer.
To find the greatest value of arg within this region we
must use the tangent at point on the circle which has
the greatest value of from the horizontal (red line)
( ) =
The locus of a point such that arg( ) = is a ray
from , making an angle with the positive real axis.
| | = | |
The locus of a point such that | | = | | is the
perpendicular bisector of the line joining and
2
sin =
3
= 0.730
=+ = 0.730 + = 2.30
2 2
Page 14 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
Solution: Polar Form to General Form:
Part (i) Example:
Argand diagram:
Convert from polar to general, = 4 4
Solution:
=4 arg =
4
= 4 (cos + sin )
4 4
2 2
= 4( + )
2 2
= 22 + (22)
General Form to Polar Form:
Example:
Convert from general to polar, = 22 + (22)
Solution:
= 22 + (22)
2 2
Part (ii) = (22) + (22) = 4
The greatest value for the real part of would be the
one which is furthest right on the axis but within 22
= tan1 =
the limits of the shaded area. Graphically: 22 4
4 (cos + sin ) = 4 4
4 4
Example:
Find 1 2 in polar form given,
1 = 2 (cos + sin ) 2 = 4 (cos + sin )
4 4 8 8
Solution:
1 2 = (2 4) (cos ( + ) + sin ( + ))
Now using circle and Pythagoras theorems we can 4 8 4 8
3 3
find the value of : 1 2 = 8 (cos + sin )
1 8 8
= 2 cos
4
= 2
To find quotient of two complex numbers in polar form:
greatest value of = 2 + 2
o Divide their magnitudes
8.6 Polar Form o Subtract their arguments
1 |1 |
For a complex number with magnitude and = (arg 1 arg 2 )
argument : 2 |2 |
= (cos + sin ) =
cos + sin =
Page 15 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
Example: When = 10:
1 1
Find in polar form given, 10 + 3 = (2(27) 5)2
2
1 = 2 (cos + sin ) 2 = 4 (cos + sin ) 10 = 49 3
4 4 8 8 = 0.4
Solution:
1 2 Now substitute 20 as and then find :
1
= ( ) (cos ( ) + sin ( ))
2 4 4 8 4 8 0.4(20) + 3 = (2 5)2
1
1 1 11 = (2 5)2
= (cos + sin )
2 2 8 8 121 = 2 5
= 632
8.8 De Moivres Theorem
= (cos + sin ) = {S13-P31} Question 10:
Liquid is flowing into a small tank which has a leak.
9. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS Initially the tank is empty and, minutes later, the
Form a differential equation using the information given volume of liquid in the tank is 3. The liquid is
o If something is proportional, add constant of flowing into the tank at a constant rate of 80 3 per
proportionality minute. Because of the leak, liquid is being lost from
the tank at a rate which, at any instant, is equal to
o If rate is decreasing, add a negative sign
3 per minute where is a positive constant.
Separate variables, bring and on opposite sides i. Write down a differential equation describing
Integrate both sides to form an equation this situation and solve it to show that:
Add arbitrary constant 1
= (80 80 )
Use conditions given to find and/or
ii. = 500 when = 15, show:
{W10-P33} Question 9: 4 4 15
A biologist is investigating the spread of a weed in a =
25
particular region. At time weeks, the area covered Find using iterations, initially = 0.1
by the weed is 2 . The biologist claims that rate of iii. Work out volume of liquid at = 20 and state
increase of is proportional to 2 5. what happens to volume after a long time.
i. Write down a differential equation given info Solution:
ii. At start of investigation, area covered by Part (i)
weed was 72 . 10 weeks later, area Represent the given information as a derivative:
covered = 272 Find the area covered 20
= 80
weeks after the start of the investigation.
Solution: Proceed to solve the differential equation:
Part (i) 1
=
80
2 5 = 2 5 1
=
Part (ii) 80
Proceed to form an equation in and : 1
(1) =
80
= 2 5 1
+ = ln|80 |
Separate variables
1 Use the given information; when = 0, = 0:
= 1
2 5 = ln(80)
Integrate both side
1 Substitute back into equation:
+ = (2 5)2 1 1
When = 0: ln(80) = ln|80 |
=7 =3 1 1
1 = ln(80) ln|80 |
+ 3 = (2 5)2
Page 16 of 17
CIE A LEVEL- MATHEMATICS [9709]
1 80 Solution:
= ln ( ) Part (i)
80
80 First represent info they give us as an equation:
= ln ( ) 1
80 = 2
80 3
=
80 = tan 60 = 3
80 1 2
80 = = (3) = 3
3
= 80 80
1 = 32
= (80 80 )
1
Part (ii) = 2
You did the mishwaar iterations and found: Find the rate of change of :
= 0.14 (2. . )
Part (iii) =
1
Simply substitute into the equations :
1 2 3
Page 17 of 17