International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems

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A Novel Cluster-head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

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International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems GPAA-2009-0090 Original paper 01-Dec-2009

Ding, Rong; Beihang University, Computer Science Yang, Bing; Beihang University, Computer Science Yang, Lei; Beihang University, Computer Science Wang, Jiawei; Beihang University, Computer Science cluster-head selection algorithm, clustering algorithm, soft threshold, wireless sensor networks

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A brief flowchart of LEACH algorithm 133x188mm (96 x 96 DPI)

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com/gpaa Email: user@test. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 2 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.demo ee The flowchart of soft threshold calculation 139x99mm (96 x 96 DPI) rR ev ie w On ly .International Journal of Parallel.

manuscriptcentral. 169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo The lifetime of 100-node network with initial energy 2J/node.com/gpaa Email: user@test.Page 3 of 19 International Journal of Parallel.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .

Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 4 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Performance comparison when 1%.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .com/gpaa Email: user@test.manuscriptcentral. 50% and 100% of nodes died.International Journal of Parallel. 127x84mm (96 x 96 DPI) URL: http:/mc.

p2/2 and p2/4.Page 5 of 19 International Journal of Parallel.manuscriptcentral.com/gpaa Email: user@test. 169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Comparison for STCS algorithm with parameter of p2.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .

International Journal of Parallel. 169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 6 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo The Comparison of STCS with different initial probability and LEACH.com/gpaa Email: user@test.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly .manuscriptcentral.

manuscriptcentral.Page 7 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 rP Fo Comparison of STCS and LEACH for 200 nodes network.com/gpaa Email: user@test.demo ee rR ev ie w On ly . 169x127mm (72 x 72 DPI) URL: http:/mc.

in LEACH. when the scale of network is expanded. LEACH (Lower Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) [3]. replacing the batteries is not an option [1][2]. the STCS algorithm can also perform better than LEACH. In order to extend the network lifetime. clustering algorithm. Beijing.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Instead of changing the threshold to 0 directly. Beihang University. However. cluster-head selection algorithm. In this paper. which is one of the most popular clustering mechanisms. in which network is partitioned into small clusters and each cluster is monitored and controlled by a node.edu. the added responsibility results in a higher rate of energy drain at the CHs. even if it still has enough energy.edu. within each 1/p rounds. Bing Yang. Fo rP ee rR 1. we present a novel cluster-head selection algorithm. Introduction Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of micro sensor nodes. Lei Yang. One of these is network clustering. and thus it will lose the chance to participate cluster-head selection. many clustering algorithms have been proposed.demo ev iew On ly .manuscriptcentral. the proposed algorithm adjusts the threshold of each node gradually according to the roles they have played in the last round. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms LEACH in network lifetime by an average of 30% approximately. Other nodes send the data sensed from the environment to these CHs. so more nodes could have the opportunity to be CHs. soft threshold. addresses URL: http:/mc.International Journal of Parallel. {ybing. many routing protocols have been devised. A CH is responsible for conveying any information gathered by the nodes in its cluster and may aggregate and compress the data before transmitting it to the base station (BS).cn In recent years. In addition. Jiawei Wang State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment. Keywords: wireless sensor networks. once a node has been selected as a cluster-head (CH).buaa. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 8 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 A Novel Cluster-head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Rong Ding. dingr@buaa. which are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources. rockyanglei. its threshold will be set to 0. LEACH is the most famous one.cn. However. Among them. called Cluster Head (CH). wangjiawei}@cse. and thus power-efficiency is important in designing clustering protocols. China. In most cases.

simulation results are presented in Section 4. while Section 5 concludes the paper. a novel cluster-head selection algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Section 3 describes the limitations of the current LEACH algorithm and our algorithm on cluster-head selection in detail. In this section. Finally. These algorithms improve the performance of cluster-head selection from different perspectives. 2. This paper focuses on how to resolve it by developing a novel approach of cluster-head selection. the nodes which can be chosen as CHs will become fewer and fewer. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the related work. we detail the related work on these improvements. This paper builds on the work described in [4] by giving a detailed description and analysis of Soft Threshold based Cluster-head Selection (STCS) Algorithm. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 this by probabilistically rotating the role of CH among all nodes. its clusterhead selection mechanism is based on a kind of hard threshold. Related work In recent years. we simulate a 100-node network to observe the performance of STCS.manuscriptcentral. many algorithms and protocols for cluster-head selection have been proposed.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Therefore.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . In our previous work. As what is mentioned in the above paragraph. once it has acted as a CH in the current 1/p rounds. In this paper we expand the network size and try different initial probabilities of becoming cluster-head of each node. then observe the influence of network size on performance of STCS and find the optimal initial probability. as the algorithm continues. This paper is an extended version of the previous one. However. This kind of selection mechanism causes that a node cannot continue to participate the cluster-head election process.Page 9 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. LEACH is the most Fo URL: http:/mc.

HEED considers a hybrid of energy and communication cost when selecting CHs. and each cluster-head can accept at most q connections. the author propose an Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Medium-scale (ACPM) WSNs which is a LEACH-like clustering protocol. By using a central control algorithm to form the clusters. However. the author propose a approach to optimally determine the location of cluster-heads for minimizing communication power. In CEFL (Clusterhead Election Using Fuzzy Logic) algorithm [8]. the author proposes an iterative decomposition algorithm and use a randomized multi-start technique for global optimization. which utilizes the remaining energy level of each node to determine the threshold. The main drawbacks of this algorithm are non-automatic cluster-head selection and the requirement that the position of all sensors must be known.International Journal of Parallel.manuscriptcentral. it can produce better clusters by dispersing the CH nodes throughout the network. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 10 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 popular clustering algorithm. LEACH-C (Centralized) [5] uses a centralized controller to select CHs. the author propose an ELCH(Extending Lifetime of Cluster Head) routing protocol Fo URL: http:/mc. In literature [10].com/gpaa Email: user@test. In literature [9].demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . which require that each sensor node connects to at least p cluster-heads for reliability. to get the energy level of sensors in a real network usually needs a routing protocol which will create new cost. In [11]. Lots of cluster-head selection algorithms are based on LEACH’s architecture. a kind of fuzzy logic method is adopted to select the CH. In order to overcome the fact that a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) problem. LEACH’s stochastic algorithm is extended in [6] with a deterministic cluster-head selection. it has a new cluster head selection strategy with an adaptive back-off scheme to overcome the power limitation of broadcasting ADV messages in LEACH. HEED (Hybrid Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering) [7] is a distributed clustering scheme in which CH nodes are picked from the deployed sensors.

nodes are clustered via the way that some nodes propose invitations.com/gpaa Email: user@test. In literature [12]. Algorithm description In this section. which organize the clusters on the basis of radio radius and the number of cluster members. in which data is transferred to the base station. Different from the algorithms mentioned above. the selection of cluster-head is according to the votes from their neighbors. which is called Improved Distributed Cluster Organization Algorithm (IDCOA).Page 11 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 that has self-configuration and hierarchal routing properties. 3. and then put forward our improvement on cluster-head selection in detail. If the number is less than T(i). Then there is a steady-state phase. our algorithm focuses on improving the cluster-head selection by adjusting the threshold of each node to become CH gradually to extend the network lifetime. At the beginning of each round. and k is the desired ee rR ev iew On ly . and compares it with a threshold T(i). the author proposed A new algorithm for building and regroup clusters. we review LEACH algorithm and discuss its limitations.1 LEACH The operation of LEACH is broken up into rounds. The threshold is set as: p   1 − p * (r mod 1 ) T (i ) =  p  0  i∈G (1) otherwise Where cluster-head number of each round) is the desired (optimal) percentage of cluster Fo k p = N URL: http:/mc.manuscriptcentral.demo rP ( N is the total number of network nodes. and other sensors respond. Each round begins with a set-up phase. each sensor node chooses a random number between 0 and 1. By the proposed algorithm. 3. In addition. in which the clusters are organized. the node becomes a cluster-head in the current round.

com/gpaa Email: user@test. the nodes available to be selected as CHs become fewer and fewer within 1/p rounds. However. A brief flowchart of LEACH algorithm. Once all the nodes are organized into clusters. and thus the energy dissipated in the individual sensors is minimized. Figure 1 shows the brief flowchart of LEACH algorithm. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 12 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 heads. Therefore. Thus. The cluster head nodes broadcast their status to other sensors in the network. This allows the radio components of each non-cluster-head node to be turned off all time except its transmitting time.International Journal of Parallel. Fo URL: http:/mc. The CH node selects a CDMA spreading code randomly. The CH node aggregates the data obtained from the nodes within its cluster and then transmits the compressed data to the base station. For example. each CH creates a TDMA schedule for the nodes in its cluster. we will describe the STCS (Soft Threshold Based Cluster-head Selection) algorithm. during the probability based cluster-head selection. which is to be used for communication within its cluster so that the signals of different clusters (using different CDMA codes) don't interfere. In the next section. LEACH has been a landmark in clustering protocols in wireless sensor network with its simplicity and efficiency. Each non-cluster-head node determines to which cluster it wants to belong by choosing the CH that requires the minimum communication energy.demo rP Figure 1. once a node has acted as a CH.manuscriptcentral. ee rR ev iew On ly . there are some limitations which make LEACH not so effective. r represents the current round ( 0≤ r < 1 p ) and G is the set of nodes that have not been selected as CHs in the last r rounds. each node will be a CH at some point within 1/p rounds. which uses the basic LEACH architecture but changes the CH selection procedure to prolong the network lifetime. its threshold will be set to 0.

demo rP ee k rR ev iew On ly . The detailed operations of STCS algorithm are shown in Figure 2. the threshold in its clusterhead selection will be changed to 0 directly and this node will lose its opportunity to be selected as a CH again.com/gpaa Email: user@test. In the STCS algorithm. even if it still has enough energy. after a node has been selected as a CH once. The soft threshold is adjusted by parameter . and try to find the Fo URL: http:/mc. That is. whose value may affect the probability of nodes to become CHs in each round. STCS algorithm To meet the unique requirements of wireless sensor networks. different from the hard threshold in LEACH. The flowchart of soft threshold calculation. T(i) will be adjusted step by step instead of being changed to 0 directly. In Section 4. The threshold of each node in the following rounds is based on whether this node is a CH or not and the member number of the cluster in the last round. However. all nodes are chosen to be CHs with the probability p = N . Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 3. CHs are also chosen according to the probability. The traditional LEACH algorithm adopts a kind of hard-threshold CH selection method. This may not be the best method to evenly distribute energy consumption on each node and to prolong the lifetime of the network.Page 13 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. which is the desired percentage of cluster heads. once a node has acted as a CH. we will introduce several different parameter values in the simulation. and more evenly distribute energy load among the nodes in the networks. From Figure 2. we proposed STCS (Soft Threshold Based Cluster-head Selection) algorithm to make an improvement on the CH selection algorithm.manuscriptcentral. the probability of a node to become a CH is also determined by a threshold T(i). That is to say. Figure 2. In our algorithm. How to set the adjusting parameter will be discussed in the following paragraph. in STCS is a soft threshold. we can see that in the first round ( r = 0 ).1.

International Journal of Parallel. thus k = N × p . The concrete operation of adjusting threshold is as follows. in the other ( T (i ) |r −1 −ε  T ( i ) |r =  ε T (i ) |r −1 + NUM(C(i))  i ∈ Gr −1 otherwise (3) Fo URL: http:/mc. if a node has been selected as a CH in the last round. else it will be increased by C (i ) NUM ( C ( i ) ) ε . Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 14 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 optimal value. Set N as the total number of network nodes. Therefore. ) rounds. Where NUM ( C ( i ) ) represents the cluster that node i belongs to. Its goal is to design a cluster formation algorithm so that there are approximately k clusters in each round. then r =0 ) = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r =0 = N × p = k i =1 1 1≤ r < p On (2) Y |r = ∑ X i i =1 N ly r denotes the number N . each node i set its initial threshold to p : 0 X i |r =  1 Set of CHs in the r th round. and p is the desired percentage of the CHs.com/gpaa Email: user@test. while the cluster forming is similar to LEACH by using a distributed algorithm. its probability of becoming a CH in the current round will be decreased by ε.manuscriptcentral.demo rP node i is a non-CH node in the r th round node i is a CH node in the r th round N ee T ( i ) |r = 0 = rR p 1 − p * ( r mod E (Y |r =0 ) = E ( ∑ X i i =1 ev 1 p ) r =0 iew =p . 3. As shown in Figure 2.3 Analysis of STCS The STCS algorithm mainly focuses on improving the cluster-head selection procedure. in the first round ( r = 0 ). . and then As mentioned in Section 3.2. and represents the C (i ) member number of . the STCS algorithm should ensure that the expectations of the number of CHs to be k in every round. where nodes make individual decisions without any centralized control.

manuscriptcentral.05. The code for our experiments was a modification based on the code of LEACH algorithm [13]. Figure 3. Simulation results and analysis In order to evaluate the performance of the STCS algorithm. according to equation (3).demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . some nodes may be selected as CHs many times.. = E (Y |0 ) = k i =1 i =1 N N 4. in order to compare with LEACH. we also set the desired percentage of cluster heads p to 0. However. there is: E (Y |r ) = E[ ∑ X i |r ] = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r i =1 i =1 N N (4) For each cluster C.com/gpaa Email: user@test. similar to LEACH. we used a random 100-node network. so the first node died earlier in STCS than in LEACH.. since the nodes using the STCS are allowed to be CHs more than once. The lifetime of 100-node network with initial energy 2J/node. the advantage of STCS appeared gradually. and the time when 50% and 100% of nodes died were both later in STCS than in LEACH (see Figure 3 and Figure 4). It caused their energy to drain rapidly. In addition. and C(i) represents the cluster that node i belongs to. we can get: E (Y |r ) = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r = ∑ 1* T (i ) |r −1 = E (Y |r −1 ) = . we used NS-2 simulator to simulate STCS and LEACH algorithm for comparison. each node began with only 2J of energy and calculated its probability as described in Figure 2 to determine its cluster head status at the beginning of each round. In these experiments. 175) in a 100m x 100m field. We compared the time of communication when 1%. The parameter in STCS was set to p2. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Where Gr-1 is the set of nodes which were selected to be CHs in the r − 1 th round. Fo URL: http:/mc.Page 15 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. For the r th round. as the simulation continued. 50% and 100% of the nodes die between LEACH and STCS with each node having the same initial energy level. In the simulation. the BS was located at (50. At the beginning of the simulation.

we will also simulate 200 nodes to observe what influence will be brought by the increase of the number of network nodes.manuscriptcentral.e. if one node is always selected to be CH from the first round to the last round. In the simulation node is . Energy(J protocol 1% 50% 100% /node) LEACH 110 220 274 1 STCS 80 250 422 LEACH 380 490 550 2 STCS 130 510 648 LEACH 480 690 758 3 STCS 120 760 1100 LEACH 550 930 1005 4 STCS 190 990 1574 LEACH 860 1230 1350 5 STCS 150 1160 1871 The experimental data listed above indicates that STCS does not perform well enough at the initial period of algorithm. 50% and 100% nodes died for different initial energy. STCS extends the network lifetime and performs much better than LEACH. Table 1 summarizes the results with initial energy per node of 1J. the total number of rounds is 1/p. However. while the initial threshold of each p p −( )×ε ≥ 0 1 p 2 . i.International Journal of Parallel. In this section.. 3J.com/gpaa Email: user@test. Performance comparison when 1%. we will use different parameters and observe its impact on the performance of STCS. The time(s) when 1%. Table 1.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . 4J and 5J in the 100m x 100m network. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 16 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Figure 4. we adjust the threshold T ( i ) with a parameter. we will discuss how to choose the parameter. In the worst case. 50% and 100% of nodes died. So we must make sure that Fo URL: http:/mc. ε ≤ p . In the next section. The result of table 1 shows that the conclusion made in the above paragraph is still tenable with different initial energy. 4. as the algorithm continues. Simulation parameter setting As shown in Figure 2. In addition. 2J.

In order to observe the influence of network size on the performance of STCS. Fo Figure 7. STCS with parameter p2/2 performs better than STCS with parameter p2. In Figure 5. The Comparison of STCS with different initial probability and LEACH. we simulated the proposed algorithm with parameter ε equalling to p2. Here we simulate STCS algorithm with initial probability of 0.03.com/gpaa Email: user@test. URL: http:/mc. the desired percentage of cluster heads in LEACH is set to 0.manuscriptcentral.06. Figure 7 shows the simulation result. In addition. We can infer from Figure 7 that STCS algorithm can also outperform LEACH with the expansion of the network size. p2/2 and p2/4 for comparison. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 described above. Comparison of STCS and LEACH for 200 nodes network.035. 0. and to observe how the initial probability influences the performance of STCS. while the other parameters is the same as before. Figure 6. As can be seen from Figure 5. which is also the initial probability of each network node to become cluster-head. the STCS performs best in compare with LEACH and STCS of other probabilities. 0. 350) in a 200m x 200m field. but when parameter ε decreases from p2/2 to p2/4.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . 0.05 and 0.05.04. we can see that the performance of STCS is not increased linearly with the increase of initial probability of network nodes. The result of the simulation reflects that the parameter ε may have an optimal value between 0 and p2. p2/2 and p2/4. we double the network size to 200 nodes and locate the BS at (100. 0.035. Figure 6 shows the simulation result. the difference of their performance is no longer obvious. Figure 5.045. From Figure 6.Page 17 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. we just set parameter ε to p2 simply. Comparison for STCS algorithm with parameter of p2. When we set the probability to 0.

[2] I. References [1] Sun Limin. the STCS algorithm can also outperform LEACH. In this paper. Tsinghua publishing company. our future plans will involve how to optimize the selection of the parameter ε. Acknowledgments Supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China(RFDP). Balakrishnan.com/gpaa Email: user@test. pp. and Y. Its main idea is to adjust the threshold of each node step by step instead of changing it to 0 directly. Athens. 223-232 [4] Rong ding.manuscriptcentral. Hawaii. Proceeding of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. and the lifetime of the network is extended by an average of 30% approximately. 2002. pp. in proceedings of The Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications. we just adopt a way of adjusting the threshold to achieve our purpose of increasing the network lifetime. IEEE Communications Magazine. Li Jianzhong. W. Conclusion and future work In wireless sensor networks. In order to further save energy and extend the lifetime of the network. A survey on sensor networks. Akyildiz. In addition. [3] W.International Journal of Parallel. A. 2009 Fo URL: http:/mc. and thus nodes have more chance to become CHs. Beijing. the fund of the State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment (Grant No. Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless sensor networks. Soft Theshold based Clusterhead Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sankarasubramaniam. Heinzelman. Chandrakasan. F. Jiawei Wang. when the scale of network is enlarged. In this paper. and Chen Yu. Wireless Sensor Networks. Bing Yang. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than LEACH algorithm. Lei Yang. Emergent and Distributed Systems Page 18 of 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 5. 2005. Su. 2008AA12A216). January 2000. and H. 102-114. 40(8). SKLSDE-2009ZX-04)and the National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program) (Grant No. the energy consumption and the network lifetime are important issues for the research of the route protocol. we present a novel cluster-head selection algorithm.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly .

HEED: A hybrid. . Shanghai. Bonab Mehdi Nozad. and D. Timmermann. 2004. [8] Gupta I. 2008. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. and H. 2436-2439 [11] Lotf Jalil Jabari. “An Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Medium-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks”. 660-670. Halifax. 1(4). 329-333 [13] LEACH Algorithm Code. Cassandras. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. Handy. An application specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor network. pp.demo rP ee rR ev iew On ly . 2007 [10] Xu Zhezhuang. pp. Li JianPing. [9] Xu ling. http://wwwmtl. Networking and Mobile Computing. A. R. 366–379. Haase. Christos G. Emergent and Distributed Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 [5] W. Bao Binghao. 2005. . Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Performance evaluation methodologies and tools. Zhang Xiliang. M.shtml 07. Proceeding of the 4th International Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network. and Sampalli S.com/gpaa Email: user@test. 2008 [12]Zhao junfeng. 2002.edu/researchgroups/icsystems/uamps/research/leach/leach_code.Page 19 of 19 International Journal of Parallel. Zhang Shiqing. 2007 International Conference on Wireless Communications. pp.manuscriptcentral. 2007. 2008 International Conference on Apperceiving Computing and Intelligence Analysis. Proceeding of the 3rd Annual Communication Networks and Services Research Conference. [6] M. J. . Balakrishnan.13. 9-11.mit. Nantes. Heinzelman. distributed clustering approach for ad-hoc sensor networks. A Novel Cluster-based Routing Protocol with Extending Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2009 Fo URL: http:/mc. Fahmy. Younis and S. 3(4). pp. pp. An improved distributed cluster organization algorithm of wireless sensor networks. Optimal Cluster-head Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks with Redundant Link Requirements. energy-efficient. 255−260. 2002. pp. Cluster-head election using fuzzy logic for wireless sensor networks. Li Peng. [7] O. Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy with deterministic cluster-head selection. Khorsandi Siavash. Surabaya. Chandrakasan. 5th IEEE and IFIP International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks. Riordan D.

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