Hydrodynamic Models of Quantum Mechanics ^{∗}
Oscar ChavoyaAceves Camelback High School Mathematics Department 4612 North 28th Street Phoenix, Arizona, 85016 USA ochavoya@iteso.mx
May 30, 2002.
Abstract
Schrodinger equation for spinless particles has an exact hydrodynamic model, which can be used to study quantum transitions, using causal functions. This has the potential to throw light on the nature of quantum entanglement, which is not studied here. Keywords: Quantum Mechanics; Hydrodynamics; BohmAharonov Ef fect; Electromagnetic Theory. PACS: 03.65.G; 03.30.
1
Introduction
As we’ll see, there is a complete hydrodynamic model of the motion of a spinless quantum particle in an external ﬁeld, in such manner that to each stationary state there corresponds a steady ﬂux of the model. Given that there is a well deﬁned procedure to transform wave func tions into hydrodynamic ﬁelds, and viceversa, this opens the possibility of studying quantum transitions as unsteady ﬂuxes. The use of this method could throw light on the nature of quantum entanglement, which is not studied in this paper, since the hydrodynamic analogy is valid even for manyparticle systems, at least when the masses are equal. In absence of magnetic ﬁelds, the hydrodynamic ﬁeld, which is the quantum ﬁeld of velocity, deﬁned as the quotient of the current of proba bility and the corresponding density, represents a potential motion. If there is a magnetic ﬁeld the velocity becomes rotational, and
e
∇ × v = − _{m}_{c} H,
^{∗} Submitted to Physics Letters A (05/30/02).
1
(1)
which explains the BohmAharonov eﬀect[1], and calls to investigate a physical connection between quantum momentum and the vector poten tial of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. This is a hydrodynamic version of the
operational equation pˆ = −i¯h∇ + ^{e} _{c} A, which is the quantum counterpart
of the equation P = mv + _{e} c A,
(2)
that deﬁnes the generalized momentum of a charged particle under the action of an electromagnetic ﬁeld, in the realm of analytic mechanics. Hydrodynamic analogies were used before to model quantum sys tems in the classical limit [2]. Those models were derived from Bohr Sommerfeld’s old quantum theory and the correspondence principle, which lead to suppose that, in the classical limit, the phase of the wave function becomes equal to the mechanical action. Those analogies are not valid in general, because the gradient of Bohm’s potential [3], which is precisely the term from which the quantum stress tensor of the hydrodynamic model is formed, is neglected. As we’ll see, however, there are valid hydrodynamic analogies even for strictly quantum motions, because, as follows from Schrodinger equation,
∇ × (mv + ^{e} _{c} A)=0,
(3)
and
(4)
where v is the quantum ﬁeld of velocities, A is the vector potential of the electromagnetic ﬁeld, and φ is the phase of the wave function.
mv + ^{e} _{c} A = ¯h∇φ.
2 The Hydrodynamic Model
From Schrodinger Equation
i¯h ^{∂}^{Ψ} ∂t
^{=} ^{−}
2
_{2}_{m} ¯h Ψ + V Ψ
(5)
where Ψ is the wave function and V is the potential energy of a classical particle, it is shown that
Here
∂ρ
∂t
ρ
+ ∇ · j = 0
≡ Ψ ^{} Ψ,
(6)
(7)
which is interpreted as a distribution of probability, and
j
≡ − _{2}_{m} i¯h (Ψ ^{} ∇Ψ − Ψ∇Ψ ^{} )
Equation (8) can be written as
∇Ψ
_{−} ∇Ψ ^{}
_{=} 2im
Ψ
Ψ
^{}
_{¯}_{h}
2
v.
(8)
(9)
where we have introduced the velocity ﬁeld
v
≡ _{ρ} ^{j} .
(10)
Taking the gradient of both sides of (7), and dividing the resulting equation by ρ, we get
(11)
∇Ψ _{+} ∇Ψ ^{}
Ψ
Ψ
^{}
_{=} ∇ρ
ρ
Adding (9) and (11)
Therefore
where
and
∇(2 ln Ψ − ln ρ) = ^{2}^{i}^{m}^{v} ¯h
^{.}
mv = ¯h∇φ;
φ =
i
_{2} (ln
ρ − 2 ln Ψ)
Ψ = ^{√} ρ Exp (iφ).
(12)
(13)
(14)
Observe that, according to equation (12)
∇ · p = ¯h φ,
(15)
and
∇ × p = 0,
(16)
where
p ≡ mv.
(17)
In particular,
_{}
p · dl = 0
(18)
for any closed path. According to the continuity equation the material derivative of the density is given by
(19)
As it is well known from Quantum Mechanics ([2] p. 223), doing the substitution (14) the Schrodinger equation (5) is transformed into a pair of real equations
Dρ
Dt
= −ρ∇ · v = − ^{¯}^{h}^{ρ} φ.
m
Where
m ^{∂} √ ^{ρ} + (∇ ^{√} ρ · ∇φ) + √ ^{ρ} φ = 0.
∂t
2
∂φ _{+} (∇φ) ^{2}
∂t
2m
+ V
+ Q = 0
Q ≡ − 2m ^{¯}^{h} _{2}
^{√} ρ
^{√}
ρ
(20)
(21)
(22)
is the quantum potential of the De BroglieBohm theory.
3
Equation (20) is mathematically equivalent to (6), which is written as:
∂ρ
∂t
+ ∇ · (ρv)=0.
(23)
We use equations (12) and (21), as well as the identity
1
_{2} ∇v ^{2} = v × (∇ × v)+(v · ∇)v,
to show that
m ∂v
+ m(v · ∇)v = −∇V − ∇Q.
∂t Equation (25) can also be written in the form
_{ρ} m ^{} ∂v ∂t
+ (v · ∇)v = −ρ∇V + F.
(24)
(25)
(26)
where
ρ _{m} ≡ m ρ;
F ≡ −ρ∇Q =
2
_{2}_{m} ¯h ( ^{√} ρ∇ ^{√} ρ − ∇ ^{√} ρ ^{√} ρ)
(27)
removing thus the divergence of Bohm’s quantum potential. It is easily shown that F is the divergence of a second order symmetric tensor:
(28)
2
_{2}_{m} ¯h ( ^{√} ρ∂ _{i}_{j} ^{√} ρ − ∂ _{i} ^{√} ρ∂ _{j} ^{√} ρ).
F i = ∂ j T ij ; T ij =
The magnitude
P = −
T ii
3
^{=}
2
_{6}_{m} ¯h ((∇ ^{√} ρ) ^{2} − ^{√} ρ ^{√} ρ)
(29)
is a kind of “pressure”, whilst the tensor
σ _{i}_{j} = T _{i}_{j} + Pδ _{i}_{j} ,
(30)
plays the role of a “shearing stress”[4]. Equations (12), (14), (23), (25) and the condition
ρdv = 1
(31)
make up a complete hydrodynamic representation of the motions de scribed by (5). They model the ﬂux of probability as a ﬂux of classical
locally interacting particles. The hydrodynamic view, however, is more general than Schrodinger’s view, because it allows us to make statements about the motion between stationary states, and about the motions that result from the relaxation of the condition ∇× v = 0, and test the validity of those statements. It’s well known from quantum mechanics that if V is the potential of a central ﬁeld of forces the eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian can be chosen real, and the corresponding ﬁeld of velocity is zero everywhere. Those states correspond to the hydrostatic limit of equations (23,25),
where v ≡ 0 and ^{∂}^{ρ}
∂t
= 0. In this limit
−∇(V + Q)=0,
(32)
4
that has the solution
(33)
which is equivalent to the equation that results from dividing by ^{√} ρ both sides of the time independent Schrodinger equation:
V + Q = E,
2
− _{2}_{m} ¯h ψ + V ψ = Eψ,
(34)
because ^{√} ρ = ±ψ where the wave function is real. In general, a stationary state of the system described by equation (5) corresponds to a steady ﬂux of the hydrodynamic model, and the value of the energy corresponds to Bernoulli’s integral of hydrodynamics. The equations for steady ﬂux are
m(v · ∇)v = −∇V − ∇Q.
(35)
and
∇ · (ρv) = 0
If the ﬂux is irrotational, m(v · ∇)v = transformed into
1
_{2}
∇ _{}
1
_{2} v ^{2} + V
+ Q
that has a ﬁrst integral
(36)
m∇(v ^{2} ), and equation (35) is
= 0,
(37)
1
_{2}_{m} (∇φ) ^{2} + V + Q = E,
(38)
where φ is a scalar potential for the ﬁeld mv, which is also irrotational. The continuity equation takes the form
∇ · (ρ∇φ)=0.
(39)
Equations (38) and (39) determine the solutions of the time indepen
dent Schrodinger equation, when the wave function is written in the form
= ^{√} ρExp( ^{i}^{φ} ). There is also a Bernoulli theorem for unsteady irrotational ﬂux([4]).
ψ
h¯
Let’s do the substitutions m(v · ∇)v =
_{2} 1 m∇(v ^{2} ) and mv = ∇φ in (25):
∂∇φ
+
_{2}_{m} ∇(∇φ) ^{2} = −∇V − ∇Q.
1
∂t
This equation can be written as.
(40)
_{∇} ^{} ∂φ ∂t
+
1
_{2}_{m} (∇φ) ^{2} + V
+ Q = 0,
(41)
showing that there is a function f (t) such that
Therefore
∂φ
∂t
+
^{1}
_{2}_{m} (∇φ) ^{2} + V + Q = f (t).
∂χ
∂t
+
^{1}
_{2}_{m} (∇χ) ^{2} + V + Q = 0,
5
(42)
(43)
where
χ = φ −
f (t).
(44)
Equation (42) is equivalent to (21), which together with the continuity equation, determines the evolution of non stationary quantum states. This suggests that, at least for this system, non steady and possibly rotational ﬂuxes, could be used to describe quantum jumps using causal functions.
3 Charged Particle in an Electromagnetic Field
The wave equation for a charged particle in an electromagnetic ﬁeld gen erated by the electrodynamic potentials Ω and A, subject to the Coulomb condition
∇ · A = 0,
is
(45)
i¯h ^{∂}^{Ψ} ∂t In this case
^{=} ^{−}
¯h
2
e
2
_{2}_{m} Ψ + i¯h _{m}_{c} A · ∇Ψ + _{2}_{m}_{c} _{2} A ^{2} Ψ + eΩΨ.
e
(46)
j
= − _{2}_{m} i¯h (Ψ ^{} ∇Ψ − Ψ∇Ψ ^{} ) − ^{e}
_{c}
Ψ ^{} ΨA,
that can be written in the form
∇Ψ
_{−} ∇Ψ ^{}
_{=} 2i
¯h
Adding (48) and (11) we ﬁnd that
Ψ
Ψ
^{}
mv + ^{e} _{c} A .
where
mv + ^{e} _{c} A = ¯h∇φ
φ =
_{2} i (ln ρ − 2 ln Ψ)
Observe that now we have
(47)
(48)
(49)
(50)
∇ · p = ¯h φ
(51)
∇ × p = − ^{e} _{c} ∇ × A = − ^{e} _{c} H,
where H is the magnetic ﬁeld. Furthermore
_{} p.dl = − ^{e} _{c} Φ _{H}
(52)
(53)
where Φ _{H} is the magnetic ﬂux embraced by the circuit of integration. Equation (52) shows that we could explain the BohmAharonov eﬀect as a manifestation of a physical relation between the ﬁeld of momentum and the vector potential of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. Actually:
_{d}_{t}
d
d
mv = − ^{e} _{d}_{t} Φ _{H} ,
c
6
(54)
which according to FaradayLenz law should be equal to
e E.dl,
(55)
where E is the intensity of the electric ﬁeld. From (49) and (52), we deduce that
Ψ = ^{√} ρ Exp(iφ),
(56)
allowing us to show that (46) is equivalent to a pair of real equations(v. appendix)
∂ ^{√} ρ ∂t
^{=} ^{−}
_{m} ¯h ∇ ^{√} ρ · ∇φ −
¯h
_{2}_{m} ^{√} ρ φ + _{m}_{c} A · ∇ ^{√} ρ
e
−¯h ^{∂}^{φ} ∂t
^{=}
_{2}_{m} ¯h∇φ − ^{e}
1
_{c} A ^{2} + eΩ + Q
(57)
(58)
Using equation (49), (57) is transformed into
1
_{2}_{m} ^{√} ρ∇ · mv + ^{e} _{c} A + _{m}_{c} A · ∇ ^{√} ρ.
(59)
Which, on account of (45), can be simpliﬁed to (20), which is equivalent to the continuity equation. We use now (49) to transform (58) into
∂ ^{√} ρ ∂t
_{m} ∇ ^{√} ρ · mv + ^{e}
1
_{c} A −
e
^{=} ^{−}
−¯h ^{∂}^{φ} ∂t = ^{1}
_{2} mv ^{2} + eΩ + Q.
(60)
We take the gradient of both sides of this equation and reorder the terms to obtain
_{∂}_{t} mv + ^{e}
∂
_{c} A + ^{1} _{2} m∇v ^{2} = −e∇Ω − ∇Q
and then 

m ∂v ∂t 
+ 
^{1} _{2} m∇v ^{2} = eE − ∇Q, 

where 
E = −∇Ω − ^{1}
c
∂A
_{∂}_{t}
(61)
(62)
(63)
equals the external electric ﬁeld. Using (24), (27) and (52), (62) can be written in the form
_{ρ} m ^{} ∂v ∂t
+ (v · ∇)v = eρE + ^{e}^{ρ} v × H + F,
c
(64)
showing thus that, also in this case, there is a valid hydrodynamic analogy.
7
A relativistic model of particlewave duality
4
We consider a theoretical system made of two covariant ﬁelds ρ and p _{a} , such that
(65)
p ^{a} p _{a} = k ^{2}
and 

∂ ^{a} (ρp _{a} )=0. 

From (65) 

p ^{b} ∂ _{a} p _{b} = 0. 

Therefore 
ρp ^{b} ∂ _{a} p _{b} = p ^{b} ∂ _{a} (ρp _{b} ) − p ^{b} p _{b} ∂ _{a} ρ = 0,
which can be written in the form
−p ^{b} ∂ _{a} (ρp _{b} ) + k ^{2} ∂ _{a} ρ = 0.
We use this to prove that
p ^{b} ∂ _{b} (ρp _{a} ) = p ^{b} (∂ _{b} (ρp _{a} ) − ∂ _{a} (ρp _{b} )) + k ^{2} ∂ _{a} ρ,
and
p ^{b} ∂ _{b} (ρp _{a} ) = ρp ^{b} (∂ _{b} p _{a} − ∂ _{a} p _{b} )
+ p ^{b} (p _{a} ∂ ^{b} ρ − p _{b} ∂ _{a} ρ) + k ^{2} ∂ _{a} ρ
(66)
(67)
(68)
(69)
(70)
(71)
= ρp ^{b} (∂ _{b} p _{a} − ∂ _{a} p _{b} ) + p ^{b} p _{a} ∂ ^{b} ρ.
Equation (71) can be written in the form
u ^{b} ∂ _{b} (ρp _{a} ) = ρ ^{e}
_{c} F _{a}_{b} u ^{b} + ^{p} ^{a} ^{p} b ∂ _{b} ρ,
k
(72)
where e is the electronic charge; c is the speed of light;
a
u ^{a} = ^{p} _{k}
(73)
is the fourvelocity associated to p ^{a} ; F _{a}_{b} is an electromagnetic ﬁeld gen erated by a fourpotential A _{a} , such that
p _{a} + ^{e} _{c} A _{a} = ∂ _{a} Φ, 
(74) 
and Φ is a solution of the diﬀerential equation 

∂ ^{a} ∂ _{a} Φ = ∂ ^{a} p _{a} = − ^{p} a ^{∂} ^{a} ^{ρ} . 
(75) 
ρ 
(The second equality follows from equation (66).) Equation(72) describes a relativistic ﬂux of charged particles under the action of an electromagnetic ﬁeld and a density of fourforce
f _{a} = v _{a} p ^{b} ∂ _{b} ρ = ρv _{a} ^{p} b ^{∂} ^{b} ^{ρ}
ρ
=
= −ρv _{a} ∂ ^{b} ∂ _{b} Φ.
8
(76)
Under this interpretation p _{a} is the fourmomentum of the particles and ρ is the density of particles in the system of reference where they are in rest. According to equation (75), f _{a} is a kind of reaction associated to in terchange, creation and/or annihilation of particles, all of them processes under which the elements of the ﬂuid lose their physical individuality, as has been observed by Prandtl & Tietjens[5]. Equations (74) and (75) are analogous to (49) and (19). Also,
(77)
which is analogous to (52). The electronic charge e and the mass of the particles, however, are in troduced here in an arbitrary fashion. Also, although Φ has the units of action, it is not completely clear why Planck’s constant should be introduced—as the standard deviation of Φ, for example. Finally we note that the electrical current associated to the ﬁeld F _{i}_{k} is given by the equation:
F ab = − ^{c}
_{e}
(∂ _{a} p _{b} − ∂ _{b} p _{a} ),
4π
c
j _{a} = ∂ _{b} F _{a}_{b} = − ^{c} (∂ _{a} ∂ ^{b} p _{b} − ∂ ^{b} ∂ _{b} p _{a} ) =
e
(78)
−
e ^{c} (∂ _{a} ∂ ^{b} ∂ _{b} Φ − ∂ ^{b} ∂ _{b} p _{a} ),
which, again, includes a term that could be associated to interchange, creation and/or annihilation of particles.
5
Appendix
Let’s write the solution of equation (46) in the form
Then
i¯h ^{∂}^{Ψ} ∂t
Ψ = Xe ^{i}^{φ} .
= i¯h ^{∂}^{X} ∂t
− ¯hX ^{∂}^{φ} ∂t e ^{i}^{φ}
(79)
(80)
2
− _{2}_{m} ¯h Ψ =
2
_{2}_{m} ¯h ^{} − X − 2i∇X∇φ + X(∇φ) ^{2} − iX φ ^{} e ^{i}^{φ}
(81)
i _{m}_{c} e¯h A · ∇Ψ =
_{m}_{c} e¯h (iA · ∇X − XA · ∇φ) e ^{i}^{φ}
(82)
Adding term by term the real and imaginary parts of equations (80), (81) and (82), it is shown that (46) is mathematically equivalent to a system of real equations
∂X
∂t
^{=} ^{−}
_{m} ¯h ∇X · ∇φ −
¯h
_{2}_{m} X φ + _{m}_{c} A · ∇X
e
−¯h ^{∂}^{φ} = − ^{¯}^{h} 2
∂t
2m
X
X
^{+}
_{2}_{m} ¯h∇φ − ^{e}
1
_{c} A ^{2} + eΩ
(83)
(84)
9
References
[1] Aharonov, Y. and Bohm, D. Signiﬁcance of Electromagnetic Poten tials in the Quantum Theory. Phys. Rev. (Ser. 2) 115, 485491, 1959.
[2] A. Messiah. Quantum Mechanics. Dover Ed. (1999).
[3] D. Bohm. A suggested interpretation of quantum theory in terms of ”hidden” variables I and II. Physical Review,85, 15593 (1952).
[4] Rutherford Aris. Vectors, tensors and the basic equations of ﬂuid mechanics. Dover (1989) pp. 105 & 13132.
[5] Prandtl and Tietjens. Fundamentals of Hydro and Aeromechanics. Dover (1957) p. 9.
10
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