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Material Specifications, Field and Laboratory tests for

WBM/WMM for Road Construction

Presentation by
Sudhir Mathur
Head, Geotechnical Engg Division
CRRI, New Delhi
MATERIALS FOR SUB BASE
LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS
Natural sand
Moorum
Kankar
Crushed stone

INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER MATERIALS


Steel slag
Pond ash or Pond-Bottom ash mix
Crushed concrete
Brick metal
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

Max. water absorption = 2 per cent


For the material passing 425 micron
sieve
LL < 25 per cent
PI < 6
Should satisfy CBR requirement as
specified
Min. CBR requirement may be reduced
in case of rural roads
Table 1 Grading for close-graded granular sub-base material
IS. Sieve Per cent by weight passing the sieve

Grading I Grading Grading


II III

75 mm 100 - -

53 mm 80-100 100 -

26.5 mm 55-90 70-100 100

9.5 mm 35-65 50-80 65-95

4.75 mm 25-55 40-65 50-80

2.36 mm 20-40 30-50 40-65

0.425 mm 10-25 15-25 20-35

0.075 mm 3-10 3-10 3-10

CBR 30 25 20
(Min.)
Table 2 Grading for coarse-graded granular sub-base material
IS. Per cent by weight passing the
Sieve sieve
Grading Grading II Grading
I III
75 mm 100 - -

53 mm - 100 -

26.5 55-75 70-100 100


mm
9.5 mm - - -

4.75 10-30 15-35 25-45


mm
2.36 - - -
mm
0.425 - - -
mm
0.075 10 10 10
mm
CBR 30 25 20
(Min.)
COARSE SAND SUB-BASE
Used especially when subgrade
is clay or silty
Acts as a inverted choke
Primarily functions as drainage
layer
The sand layer spread needs to be
flooded before one or two passes of
roller
Inverted choke sand layer
Grading limits adopted for internal roads at
Dwarka, New Delhi

Sieve Grading limits


designation (%)
10 mm 100
4.75 mm 90-100
2.36 mm 85-100
1.18 mm 75-100
600 micron 60-79
300 micron 12-40
150 micron 0-10
Typical Gradation of GSB
100

90
Range of Gradation Obtained
80 (Upper & Lower Limits)

70
Per cent Passing

60
Average Gradation
50 Obtained

40

30

20
Specified Gradation (Upper & Lower Limits)
10

0
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Sieve Size (mm)
Typical Gradation of Sand Sub-base
100
Range of Gradation Average Gradation
90 Obtained
Obtained
80 (Upper & Lower Limits)

70
Per cent Passing

60

50

40

30
Specified Gradation (Upper & Lower Limits)
20

10

0
0.1 1 10 100
Sieve Size (mm)
Mechanical stabilisation
Correctly proportioned material
(aggregate and soil) when compacted,
form a mechanically stabilised layer
Process involves
Proportioning
Compaction
Successfully applied for sub-base and
base course, and also used as surface
course for low cost roads
Mechanical stabilisation
D e s ig n o f m e c h a n ica lly s ta b ilis e d m ix e s
C o m b in in g tw o m aterials bas ed on s ieve a n a ly sis

N u m e ric a l M a te rial S ie v e L im its A v e ra ge M a te ria l N u m e ric al


d iffe re n c e A s ize B d iffe re n c e
b e tw e e n (P e rc e n t (P e rc e nt b e tw e e n
m a te ria l A P a s s in g ) P a s s in g ) m a te ria l B
& a v e ra g e & a v e ra g e
- 100 40 m m 100 100 100 -
8 98 20 m m 8 0 -1 0 0 90 73 17
26 94 10 m m 5 5 -8 0 68 55 13
33 83 4 .7 5 m m 4 0 -6 0 50 42 8
32 72 2 .3 6 m m 3 0 -5 0 40 35 5
83 55 600 1 5 -3 0 22 21 1
7 17 75 5 -1 5 10 9 1

T ota l= 1 3 9 T o ta l = 45

A :B = 4 5 :1 3 9 (1 :3)

C o m b in in g tw o m aterials bas ed on p lastic ity p ro p e rtie s

M a te ria l A = ___ __ _S B (P P B ) ___ _


S B (P P B ) S A (P P A )
Calculation for Mixing of two
Materials

A= 45x 100/ 184 = 24.4%


say 25%
B= 139x 100/ 184= 75.6%
say 75%
CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS
Preparation of subgrade
Spreading and compacting
Addition of water (+1, -2 % of OMC)
Use of smooth wheel roller (8t to 10t) for
thickness < 100 mm
Use of vibratory roller for thickness upto
225 mm.

Rolling
Edges towards center
Speed of roller 5 Km/h

Field density achieved should not be less than


98 per cent of MDD determined as per IS: 2720
(Part-8)
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF SUB BASE
Min. CBR of 20% for traffic upto 2 msa & 30% for
traffic > 2 msa

Min. thickness 150 mm (traffic < 10 msa)

Min. thickness 200 mm (traffic > 10 msa)

If CBR of subgrade < 2%, capping layer of 150 mm


(min. CBR of 10%) is provided in addition to sub
base

Should be extended over the entire formation width


for proper sub surface drainage
MEASURES FOR PROPER SUB-SURFACE
DRAINAGE (Contd.)

Drainage by open graded sub-base


MEASURES FOR PROPER SUB-SURFACE
DRAINAGE (Contd.)

Drainage by extended Sub-base


MEASURES FOR PROPER SUB-SURFACE
DRAINAGE IN EXPANSIVE SOILS

Increase in the subgrade (clayey/silty) moisture


is avoided by provision of sand blanket

Suggested improvement for the sub-surface


Sub surface Drainage (Contd.)

Silty soil
Granular material

Highest water table


Capillary
rise

Provision of granular capillary cut-off when subgrade is


within the zone of capillary saturation
LIME STABILISED SUB BASES
LIME-STABILISED SUB-BASE
Adopted when local clayey soil is
having PI > 8
Slaked lime is used
Purity of lime
Should not be less than 70 per cent by
weight of quick lime
If such purity is not available, provide
higher quantity of lime
LIME-STABILISED SUB-BASE
(Contd.)
DESIGN MIX
Proportion of lime and soil depends on
Required CBR
Required Unconfined Compressive Strength
(UCS)
Minimum UCS should be 1.5 MPa after 28 days
moist curing
In high rainfall areas, minimum UCS should be
0.75 MPa after 28 days moist curing in humid
chamberand, 4 days soaking in water
LIME-STABILISED SUB-BASE
(Contd.)
CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS
Preparation subgrade
Depending on the design mix, soil is spread
after pulverisation

IS: Sieve designation Min. per cent by weight


passing IS: Sieve
26.5 mm 100
5.6 mm 80
LIME-STABILISED SUB-BASE
(Contd.)
Spreading of lime
Dry mixing with tractor towed Rotavator
(developed by CRRI), Disc harrows or other
agricultural equipment
Addition of moisture as per IS:2720 - Part (8)
(Lab. comp. test carried out on the design mix)
Wet rolling
Relative compaction of the finished surface
should be min. 98% of MDD as per IS:2720
(Part 8)
LIME-STABILISED SUB-BASE
(Contd.)

IMPORTANT POINTS DURING EXECUTION


Air temperature during construction > 100C
Compaction of lime stabilised material must be
completed within three hours of mixing
The complted surface should be cured for a
minimum period of 7 days
Curing by spreading moist straw or sand
Use of bituminous curing material (cutback/emulsion)
Fly ash for Road Construction
(Raichur, Karnataka)
Lime stabilised Sub-base for flexible pavements

Stabilisation of soil
with fly ash and lime

Compaction of
stabilised soil using
road roller
LIME-STABILISED SUB-BASE
(Contd.)

Use of Rotavator for mixing


Technique Mechanism Application
Lime-flyash Lime chemically reacts with the silica Soils of medium
stabilisation and aluminium in flyash to form plasticity (PI 5-20)
cementitious compounds, which bind and clayey soils not
the soil. reactive to lime can
be stabilised with
lime and flyash.
Bitumen Bitumen binds the soil particles. Clean graded sands
stabilisation can be stabilised by
this technique.

Two-stage This generally applies to heavy Heavy clays.


stabilisation clays. The clay is treated with lime in
the first stage to reduce plasticity
and to facilitate pulverisation. In the
second stage, the resulting soil is
stabilised with cement, bitumen, lime
or lime-flyash.
CEMENT STABILISED SUB BASES
CEMENT TREATED SOIL SUB-BASE/BASE
Soil stabilization with cement as a stabilizer is
resorted to for soils which do not respond to
lime treatment and where comparatively higher
and faster development of strength and
durability characteristics are needed, especially
for waterlogged and high rainfall areas.
Granular and sandy soils are most suitable for
cement stabilization. By way of broad
guidelines, the requirements of cement content
for different soil types are as under:
Required Cement
Soil Type
Content
Sands/Sandy Soils/Soil-gravels 3-5%
Silts/Silty Clays of low (PI<15) 4-8%
Clays/Black Cotton Soils 8-15%
For heavy clays/black cotton soils (PI more
than 30), the clay is treated with lime in the
first stage to reduce plasticity and to
facilitate pulverization. In the second stage,
the resulting soil is stabilized with cement.
Mix Design should be worked out to specify
the amount of cement to be added to obtain
the required strength in terms of 7-day
Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS)
and/or durability test under alternate wet-
dry conditions. Pulverization of soil clods,
mixing of pulverized soil with the required
amount of cement, compaction and curing
of the compacted layer are important
construction operations, as in the
construction of lime treated soil subbase.
Material to be stabilized : The material used for
cement treatment shall be soil including sand and
gravel, laterite, kankar, brick aggregate, crushed rock
or slag or any combination of these. For use in the
sub-base course, the material shall have a grading
shown in Table; it shall have a uniformity coefficient
(Cu) not less than 5, capable of producing a well closed
surface finish. For use in a base course, the material
shall be sufficiently well graded to ensure a well-closed
surface finish and have a grading within the range
given in Table. If the material passing 425 micron
sieve is plastic, it shall have a liquid limit not greater
than 45 percent and a plasticity index not greater than
20 percent.
Cement : Cement for cement stabilization shall comply with
the requirements of IS:269, 455 or 1489.
Grading Limits of Material for Stabilization with Cement
Percentage by Weight Passing
IS Sieve Finer than: Within the Range
(Subbase) (Base)
53.0 mm 100 100
37.5 mm 95 95-100
19.0 mm 45 45-100
9.5 mm 35 35-100
4.75 mm 25 25-100
600 micron 8 8-65
300 micron 5 5-40
75 micron 0 0-10
Lime : If needed for Pre-treatment of highly clayey soils (PI
more than 30).
Minimum compressive Strength : A
minimum laboratory 7-day compressive
strength of 2.76 MN/m2 is required for use in
base courses whereas in sub-base courses, a
minimum laboratory 7-day compressive
strength of 1.7 MN/m2 is adequate.
CEMENT STABILISED SUB- BASE

Adopted to stabilise soils like sand, gravel,


Kankar, Brick aggregates, slag

For material passing 425 micron IS Sieve


(LL < 45 per cent, PI < 20 per cent)

Cement as per IS: 269,455 or 1489

The water used should be clean . Potable


water is preferred
CEMENT STABILISED SUB- BASE
(Contd.)

CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

Similar to lime stabilised sub-base

The compaction of cement stabilised


material is to be completed within 2 hours
Table 5 Quality control tests and their frequencies
Test Frequency (min.)

Quality of lime/Cement One test for each consignment


subject to a minimum of one test
per 5 tonnes

Degree of pulverisation Periodically as necessary

CBR or Unconfined As required


compressive strength on a
set of 3 specimens

Moisture content prior to One test per 250 Sq.m


compaction

Density of compacted layer One test per 500 m2

Deleterious constituents As required


Water Bound Macadam
Materials
Aggregates
Screening
Binding material

Aggregates
Crushed or broken stone
Crushed slag
Overburnt brick aggregates
Physical Requirements of Coarse Aggregates for
Water Bound Macadam for Sub-base/Base Courses

Test Subbase
Aggregate Impact Test Less than 30
(IS:2386 Part 4 or IS:5640)
Flakiness and Elongation Indices Less than 30
(IS:2386 Part 1)
Soundness Test (IS:2386 Part 1)
Loss with Sodium Sulphate Less than 12%
Loss with Magnesium Sulphate Less than 18%

Aggregates like brick ballast, kankar, laterite etc which get


softened in presence of water shall be tested for Aggregate
Impact Value under wet conditions in accordance with IS:5640.
The requirement of flakiness index shall be enforced only in the
case of crushed or broken stone and crushed slag.
Water Bound Macadam(Contd.)
Size Range/Grade IS sieve, mm % by weight
passing
90 mm to 45 mm(Grade 1) 125 100
90 90-100
63 25-60
45 0-15
22.4 0-5

63 mm to 45 mm (Grade 2) 90 100
63 90-100
53 25-75
45 0-15
22.4 0-5

53 mm to 22.4 mm (Grade 3) 63 100


53 95-100
45 65-90
22.4 0-10
11.2 0-5
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

Quality Control Tests for Aggregates

Sl.No. Test Relevant code Frequency of test


3
1. Aggregate Impact IS:2386 : Part - 4 1 test / 200 m
Value or Los
Angeles Abrasion
Value
3
2. Aggregate As per MOST 1 test / 100 m
Gradation
3
3. Combined IS:2386 : Part - 1 1 test / 200 m
Flakiness and
Elongation Indices
3
4 Atterberg Limits of IS:2720 : Part - 5 1 test / 25 m
binding material
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)
Grading of screenings

Grading Size of IS sieve % passing


classification screenings
A 13.2 mm 13.2 mm 100
11.2 mm 95-100
5.6 mm 15-35
180 micron 0-10

B 11.2 mm 11.2 mm 100


5.6 mm 90-100
180 micron 15-35
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)
Quantity of screenings
Coarse Aggregates Screenings
Classifi Compacted Loose Classificat Loose
cation thickness quantity ion quantity
Grade 1 100 mm 1.21 to Type A 0.27 to 0.30
1.43 m3 13.2 mm m3
Grade 2 75 mm 0.91 to Type A 0.12 to 0.15
1.07 m3 13.2 mm m3

Type B 0.20 to
11.2 mm 0.22 m3

Grade 3 75 mm 0.91 to Type B 0.18 to 0.21


1.07 m3 11.2 mm m3
Construction of WBM (Contd.)

Jaw and cone crushers


Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

Hard Aggregates

Weak Soft Aggregates


Conceptual structure of compa
material using static roller
56
Conceptual structure of compacte
using vibratory roller
57
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

Construction operations
Preparation of sub base to specified
crossfall
Provision of inverted choke
Spreading of coarse aggregates
Rolling
Application of screenings
Application of binding material
Setting and drying
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

Spreading of stone metal


Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

WBM surface (Grade II) with screenings and


application of binder
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

WBM Grade III before application of screenings


Close View of WBM Grade II
Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)

Finishing of WBM surface


Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)
DONTS

Inadequate compaction due to services


Water Bound Macadam (Contd.)
DONTS

Rolling of Aggregates on Application of Excess


soft subgrade binder
Utilization of Steel Slags
Total production of slag from steel
industries is about 8.0 million tonnes

Types of Slags
Blast Furnace Slag
- Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)
- Air Cooled Slag
Steel Slag
CRRI Work on Utilisation of Slags

Characterisation of slags produced at


different steel plants
Laboratory studies on Lime-GBFS mixes

Semi-field studies on Lime-GBFS concrete

Test track studies on usage of slags in road


works
Blast Furnace Slag
Produced during making of pig iron in blast
furnace

About 50 per cent of the molten slag is


granulated by quenching to make
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS)

Remaining 50 per cent of the molten slag is


air cooled to produce Air Cooled Slag which
can be used as aggregates for road works
Granulated Blast Furnace
Slag (GBFS)
(Reactive Silica)

Air Cooled Slag


(Non-reactive)
Air Cooled Slag

Air Cooled Slag has been extensively


used in advanced countries like USA,
Germany, U.K. France, Japan, etc., in
civil engineering construction.
Road aggregate in base course, surface
dressing and other bituminous road
constructions

Ballast for rail track

Aggregate for concrete


Typical Ingredients of Air Cooled Slag
Composition %
Plant SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO MnO S

Bhilai 30.20 28.96 1.67 30.84 6.41 1.20 0.71

Durgapur 31.14 28.44 1.77 34.48 1.68 1.11 0.81

Rourkela 31.54 25.32 0.99 36.36 2.15 2.6 1.02

Normal 27-32 17-31 0-1 35-45 0-17 0-2 0-2


Range
Properties of Air Cooled Slag
Property Durgapur Bhilai Rourkela Natural
Delhi
Quartzite
Specific 2.78-2.82 2.82-3.33 2.97-2.99 2.67
gravity
%Water 1.53-1.72 0.58-1.38 0.74-1.29 0.48
absorption

Abrasion 18.80 25.00 14.28 34.0 (As per IS


value (%) not more than 50%)

Soundness 1.66 1.17 0.33 0.17(As per IS


value (%) not more than 10%)

Impact 15.79 14.8 16.90 24.5 (As per IS


value (%) not more than 30%)
Typical Ingredients of GBFS

Composition %
Plant SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaO MgO MnO S LOI

Bhilai 31.37 22.24 2.5 26.3 4.10 6.0 - -

TISCO 32.31 20.18 3.6 32.06 10.72 - 0.42 0.51

Bokaro 30.5 27.5 1.45 32.2 1 7.76 - 0.30 0.10


Salient Features of Lime-GBFS Binder for concrete
GBFS in conjunction with lime can be
utilized as binder material in construction of
various layers of roads
Gypsum is added to improve setting time
and strength characteristics
GBFS is ground to fineness of 100 per cent
passing 150 micron IS sieve before using as
binder
1 : 9.6 (binder : agg.), i.e.lime : GBFS: sand:
coarse agg.(1:5:18.5:39.3) for base course
construction
Salient Features of Lime-GBFS Concrete

High flexural and compressive strengths


as compared to other dry lean concrete
mixes used for base course

Superior load dispersion characteristics


as compared to conventional base
course of WBM or WMM
Comparison of Strength Characteristics of
Lime-GBFS Concrete and Conventional Concrete

Binder: Aggregate = 1:6


Mix proportion of Lime-GBFS Concrete
Lime : GBFS : Sand : CA = 1 : 5 : 14.4 : 21.6
Conventional Concrete 1:2:4

STRENGTH 7 Days 7 Days 28 Days 28 Days


Conventional GBFS Conventional GBFS
Concrete Concrete Concrete Concrete
_______________________________________________________________
Compressive
Strength kg/cm2 165 142 250 175

Flexural
Strength kg/cm2 19.5 27 35 39
_____________________________________________
Steel Slag
Obtained as a waste product during
production of steel
Particle size varies from 80 mm to 300
microns
Compared to blast furnace slag, steel slag
contains lower amount of silica, higher
amounts of iron oxide and calcium oxide
Due to presence of free lime, steel slag
should be weathered before using it in
construction
Typical Composition of Steel Slag

Constituents Composition (%)

SiO2 12-18
Al2O3 2-5
Fe2O3 15-30
CaO 30-50
MgO 2-8
MnO 8-14
P2O5 2
Road Projects Executed Utilising
Iron Slag
Plant roads at Vishakapatnam
Test Tracks in collaboration with AP PWD
using slags from Visakapatnam Steel Plant
Test tracks in collaboration with Orissa
PWD using slags from Rourkella Plant
Test tracks at R&D Centre for Iron & Steel,
Ranchi using Slags from Bokaro Plant
Construction of
test track using
slag at Orissa

Labour based
techniques for
construction of
stabilised layer
Lime stabilisation
of Iron slags
(Orissa)

View of finished
surface of road
constructed using
slags at Orissa
WET MIX MACADAM
Wet mix macadam single grading
specified
Prepared using WMM plant
Laying at site using grader or paver
Better quality material as compared to
WBM
Normally recommended on all NH
projects
Wet Mix Macadam (Contd.)

Grading Requirements
IS sieve,mm % passing
53.0 100
45.0 95-100
26.5 -
22.4 60-80
11.2 40-60
4.75 25-40
2.36 15-30
600 micron 8-22
75 micron 0-8
Wet Mix Macadam (Contd.)
Physical requirements of aggregates for
WBM/WMM

Test Requirements
Los Angeles 40 per cent (max.)
Abrasion value
Aggregate Impact 30 per cent (max.)
value
Combined FI and EI 30 per cent (max.)
Wet Mix Macadam (Contd.)

Construction operations

Preparation of mix
Spreading of mix
Compaction
Setting and drying
WET MIX MACADAM PLANT

Preparation of mix in WMM Plant


Construction of Wet Mix Macadam
(Contd.)

Laying of hard shoulder Hard shoulder with WMM


before laying WMM
Wet Mix Macadam (Contd)

Sprading of WMM
Wet Mix Macadam on approach fly over
(Contd.)

Compaction of WMM with a Finished surface


Vibratory roller
Wet Mix Macadam (Contd.)

Quality Control Tests

Sl.No. Test Frequency of test


3
1. Aggregate Impact 1 test / 200 m
Value or Los
Angeles Abrasion
Value
3
2. Aggregate 1 test / 100 m
Gradation
3
3. Combined 1 test / 200 m
Flakiness and
Elongation Indices

4 Atterberg Limits 1 test / 100 m3

5. Density of 1 test / 500 m2


compacted layer
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF BASE
COURSE

Material requirements as discussed earlier

Min thickness 225 mm (traffic < 2 msa)

Min thickness 250 mm (traffic > 2 msa) may


be increased to 300 mm depending on the
traffic (> 10 msa)
Wet Mix Macadam (Contd.)

Booming of Base surface before Prime coat


CRUSHER-RUN MACADAM BASE
The material to be used for the work shall be crushed rock.
If crushed gravel/shingle is used, not less than 90 percent
by weight of the gravel/shingle pieces retained on 4.75 mm
sieve shall have at least two fractured faces. It shall be free
from any organic matter and other deleterious substances
and shall be of such nature that it can be compacted readily
under watering and rolling to form a firm, stable base. The
aggregate shall conform to the grading and quality
requirements.
Better Designed and Constructed Roads
Would Lead to Economic Development
of our Country

Fly over at Mumbai City


Any Laboratory/Field Problem
Free to Contact:
.
Sudhir Mathur
Head, Geotechnical Engg Division
Central Road Research Institute
Delhi- Mathura Road, P.O.CRRI
New Delhi - 110 020

Fax : 91 11 26845943
Ph. 011-26842612, 0120- 2537726(R)
Mobile- 09810 284 367
E-mail : sudhirmathur.crri @ nic.in