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Using Large-Eddy Simulation

1

Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et dAcoustique, UMR CNRS 5509,

Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex, France,

christophe.bogey@ec-lyon.fr

2

Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et dAcoustique, UMR CNRS 5509,

Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex, and Institut Universitaire de

France, christophe.bailly@ec-lyon.fr

Abstract Three round jets at Reynolds numbers 1,800, 3,600 and 11,000 are

computed using Large-Eddy Simulations based on low-dissipation numerical schemes

and explicit selective ltering, in order to study the inuence of the Reynolds number

on jet self-similarity. At lower Reynolds number, the jet ow achieves self-similarity

more rapidly, and then develops at a higher rate. The eects of the Reynolds number

on the velocity moments as well as on the budget for the turbulent kinetic energy

across the self-similar jet ow are however found to be weak.

1 Introduction

The self-similarity region of jet ows has been investigated extensively over the

last fty years. Reference solutions for round jets have for instance been pro-

vided by the experimental works of Wygnanski and Fiedler [1], Panchapakesan

and Lumley [2] and Hussein et al. [3]. Discrepancies between the solutions are

however observed. They are expected to result from dierences in the measure-

ment methods and in the jet initial conditions, the diameter-based Reynolds

numbers ranging in particular from 1.1 104 to 105 .

The eects of the Reynolds number on jet ow development have indeed

been shown to be signicant up to Reynolds numbers around ReD = uj D/

104 , where uj and D are the jet inlet velocity and diameter, and is the kine-

matic molecular viscosity. They have been examined experimentally specially

by Lemieux and Oostuizen [4], Namer and Otugen [5], Kwon and Seo [6] and

Deo et al. [7], as well as numerically by Bogey and Bailly [8]. In experiments,

variations of the Reynolds number might however result in modications of

other ow initial conditions, whereas the latter computational study only dealt

with the transitional jet region.

ERCOFTAC Series 13, DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-3652-0 2,

c Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

14 C. Bogey and C. Bailly

number on jet self-similarity using simulations. Computations of self-similar

jets have been performed previously by Boersma et al. [9], Freund [11] and

Uddin and Pollard [12] for instance. In Bogey and Bailly [10], a round jet at

a Reynolds number 11,000 has also been calculated by a Large Eddy Simu-

lation (LES) using an approach combining low-dissipation schemes [13] and

relaxation ltering [8]. Jet self-similarity was reached on the computational

domain, and described in detail. A good agreement with the data obtained

by Panchapakesan and Lumley [2] at the same Reynolds number was found.

Given these results, two jets with the same initial conditions as the jet at

Reynolds number 11,000 except for the diameter, providing Reynolds numbers

of 1,800 and 3,600, have been simulated by LES with the aim of characterizing

the inuence of the Reynolds number on self-similar round jets. Preliminary

comparisons are reported here.

2 Simulation parameters

Three round jets at Mach number 0.9 and at Reynolds numbers 1,800, 3,600

and 11,000 are computed by LES using the same numerical set-up, on grids

containing from 18 to 44 millions of points, extending, respectively up to

90, 120 and 150 jet radii r0 in the downstream direction, see in Table 1 for

additional parameters. The jet inow conditions such as the mean ow proles,

the shear-layer thickness or the forcing used to seed the turbulent transition

are identical except for the diameter. They are described in detail in a previous

paper [10].

The LES are performed using low-dispersion low-dissipation nite-die-

rence and RungeKutta schemes [13], in combination with the application

of an explicit ltering to the ow variables in order to remove the smaller

scales discretized without appreciably aecting the larger scales. This LES

methodology has been used successfully for transitional jets [8,14]. It does not

lead in particular to an articial decrease of the eective Reynolds number of

the ow, as it might be the case with eddy-viscosity-based LES modellings.

In addition the budgets for the turbulent kinetic energy are also computed

directly from the ow-governing equations. All the energy terms are estimated

explicitly [10].

Table 1. Number of grid points and simulation time, as well as location of the end

of the potential core xc , decay constant B, spreading rate A and centerline ltering

activity sf ilt in the self-similar jets.

ReD nx ny nz T uj /D xc B A sf ilt

1,800 411 211 211 0.77 10 24.1r0 5.8 0.096 0.082

5

3,600 531 261 261 0.77 105 17.1r0 6.1 0.091 0.153

11,000 651 261 261 1.35 105 13.5r0 6.4 0.087 0.334

A Study of the Inuence of the Reynolds Number on Jet Self-Similarity 15

3 Results

and third-order velocity moments, and the energy budgets, have been eval-

uated from the LES elds over a long time period to ensure statistical con-

vergence. Some comparisons are provided here to give some insight into the

Reynolds number eects on jet self-similarity.

A rst illustration is provided by the vorticity elds presented in Fig. 1.

The transitions from laminar shear layers toward fully-developed turbulence

can be seen. As the Reynolds number increases, the presence of ne scales

is more visible. The initial development of the jet occurs also more rapidly,

leading to a decrease of the length of the potential core, in agreement with

experimental ndings. The core lengths xc , dened by uc (xc ) = 0.95uj where

uc is the centerline mean axial velocity, are consequently 24.1r0 , 17.1r0 and

13.5r0 at Reynolds numbers 1,800, 3,600 and 11,000, refer to Table 1.

To determine the axial locations at which the simulated jet ows achieve

self-similarity, proles of turbulence intensities along the centerline are pre-

sented in Fig. 2. The establishment of self-similarity, obtained when constant

values are observed on the jet axis, is shown to take place more rapidly at

lower Reynolds number, i.e., closer to the end of the potential core, in agree-

ment with experimental and numerical results [8,15]. More quantitatively, self-

similarity seems to be reached around x = 60r0 , 70r0 and 120r0 at Reynolds

numbers 1,800, 3,600 and 11,000.

The eects of the Reynolds number of the mean ow development are

considered from the variations of the centerline mean axial velocity uc . The

Fig. 1. Snapshots of vorticity norm || x/uj , in the plane z = 0, for the jets at

Reynolds numbers: (a) 1,800, (b) 3,600 and (c) 1,1000. The color scale ranges for

levels from 4 to 20.

16 C. Bogey and C. Bailly

0.32 0.32

0.24 0.24

[uu] 1/2 / uc

[vv]1/2 / uc

0.16 0.16

0.08 0.08

0 0

0 30 60 90 120 150 0 30 60 90 120 150

x / r0 x / r0

Fig. 2. Variations along the jet centerline of turbulence intensities [u u ]1/2 /uc (left)

and [v v ]1/2 /uc (right), for Reynolds numbers 1,800 (dotted lines), 3,600 (dashed

lines) and 11,000 (solid lines).

12 0.25

10 0.2

8 0.15

1/B

uj / u c

6

0.1

4

0.05

2

0 0

0 30 60 90 120 150 0 30 60 90 120 150

x/r0 x/r0

Fig. 3. Axial variations of the inverse of centerline mean velocity uj /uc (left) and of

the inverse of local decay constant 1/B (right), for Reynolds numbers 1,800 (dotted

lines), 3,600 (dashed lines) and 11,000 (solid lines).

inverse of uc is represented in Fig. 3 for the three jets. After the transitional

region, it seems to vary linearly as expected. In self-preserving round jets,

the mean velocity evolves indeed as uc /uj = B D/(x x0 ) where B is the

decay constant and x0 denotes a virtual origin. The establishment of mean

ow self-similarity is then investigated by plotting the inverse of the local

decay constant dened as 1/B = d(uj /uc )/d(x/D) in Fig. 3. This mean

ow parameter tends to asymptotic values in the downstream direction, indi-

cating self-similarity and providing decay constants B = 5.8, 6.1 and 6.4 at

ReD = 1,800, 3,600 and 11,000, respectively. In the same way, values of 0.096,

0.091 and 0.087 are reported in Table 1 for the spreading rates A governing

the variations of the jet half-width 0.5 . The self-similar mean ow therefore

develops at a higher rate at lower Reynolds number, in agreement with the

recent experimental data obtained for plane jets by Deo et al. [7].

To characterize the turbulent elds in the self-similar jets, the proles of

second-order and third-order velocity moments are calculated across the jets,

and plotted as functions of y/0.5 . Illustrations are given in Fig. 4 with the

A Study of the Inuence of the Reynolds Number on Jet Self-Similarity 17

0.3 0.002

0.25

0.001

0.2

[uu]1/2/uc

[uuv] / uc3

0.15 0

0.1

0.001

0.05

0 0.002

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

y/0.5 y/0.5

Fig. 4. Proles of second and third-order velocity moments [u u ]1/2 /uc (left) and

[u u v ]/u3c (right) across the self-similar jets, for Reynolds numbers 1,800 (dotted

lines), 3,600 (dashed lines) and 1,1000 (solid lines).

0.015

convection

0.01

production

0.005

budget for k

0 pres diff

0.005

turb diff

0.01

0.015 dissipation

0.02

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

y/0.5

Fig. 5. Budget for the turbulent kinetic energy k across the self-similar jets at

Reynolds numbers 1,800 (dotted lines), 3,600 (dashed lines) and 11,000 (solid lines):

convection, production, dissipation, turbulence diusion and pressure diusion.

proles obtained for [u u ]1/2 /uc and [u u v ]/u3c . For the former quantity, the

curves fairly collapse, whereas for the latter, the magnitude of the velocity

moment only slightly increases when the Reynolds number decreases. The

inuence of the Reynolds number therefore appears weak on the ow features

considered, over the given Reynolds number range.

Finally, the budgets calculated for the turbulent kinetic energy in the self-

similarity regions of the three jets are represented in Fig. 5. Dissipation is here

the sum of the viscous and ltering dissipations, whose relative contributions

vary with the Reynolds number. On the centerline for example, the ltering

dissipation is 33% of the total energy dissipation at ReD = 11,000 but only 8%

at ReD = 1,800, as indicated in Table 1 by the centerline ltering activity sf ilt .

The shapes obtained for the dierent energy terms, namely for mean ow con-

vection, production, dissipation, turbulence diusion and pressure diusion,

18 C. Bogey and C. Bailly

are very similar. The magnitudes of the energy terms only appear to be higher

at lower Reynolds number. This is particularly the case for production, dissi-

pation and mean ow convection, whereas turbulence diusion is surprisingly

nearly unchanged. The present results suggest that the balance between the

dierent turbulent mechanisms in the self-similar jets does not depend signif-

icantly on the Reynolds number.

4 Conclusion

The present LES show that in round jets the distance required to achieve self-

similarity as well as the development of the self-similar jet mean ow depend

on the Reynolds number over the range 1,800 ReD 11,000, but that the

eects are quite weak on the turbulence features. Further analyses will be

done to support this contention.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Institut du Developpement et des Re-

sources en Informatique Scientifique of the CNRS and the Centre de Calcul

Recherche et Technologie of the CEA for providing CPU time on Nec com-

puters and for technical assistance.

References

1. Wygnanski I, Fiedler H (1969) J Fluid Mech 38(3): 577612

2. Panchapakesan NR, Lumley JL (1993) J Fluid Mech 246: 197223

3. Hussein HJ, Capp SP, George WK (1994) J Fluid Mech 258: 3175

4. Lemieux GP, Oosthuizen PH (1985) AIAA J 23: 18451847

5. Namer I, Otugen MV (1988) Exp. Fluids 6: 387399

6. Kwon SJ, Seo IW (2005) Exp. Fluids 38: 801812

7. Deo RC, Mi J, Nathan GJ (2008) Phys. Fluids (20): 075108

8. Bogey C, Bailly C (2006) Phys Fluids 18(6): 065101

9. Boersma BJ, Brethouwer G, Nieuwstadt FTM (1998) Phys Fluids 10(4):

899909

10. Bogey C, Bailly C (2009) J Fluid Mech 627: 129160

11. Freund JB (2001) J Fluid Mech 438(1): 277305

12. Uddin M, Pollard A (2007) Phys Fluids 19: 068103

13. Bogey C, Bailly C (2004) J Comput Phys 194(1): 194214

14. Bogey C, Bailly C (2006) Int J Heat and Fluid Flow 27(4): 603-610

15. Pitts WM (1991) Exp. Fluids (11): 135141

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