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Title of Research


Name of Student:

Registration No.






RESEARCH TITLE: Employee Recruitment and Selection in Retail

Sector in Pakistan

Name: ____________________________

Registration No. 2013-MBA(1.5)-000

E-mail: ____________________________

Date of Registration 00.00.000

Full Time/ Part Time Full Time

Supervisor ____________________________





Human resource is a function in which selection is most impactful on an

organisational performance for achieving ultimate goal (Kumari, 2012). This study is

aimed towards identifying employee selection prevailing practices in the retail

industry. The chosen location for conducting this research is Pakistan. The study

particularly identifies current selection, practices in retail companies identifying

challenges encountered and to conclude and to recommend based on research

findings. Literature selection are reviewed in this study. Sample size of 50 is taken

where Imtiaz Supermarket employees are selected as research respondents.

Questionnaires include both closed and open-ended multi-choice questions to

determine respondents opinions on unusual issues pertaining to employee staffing

and selection practices. The study is based on qualitative analysis where everal

challenges were recognised as barriers hampering effective staffing and selection of

workforce. This includes poor HR planning, ineffective job analysis on the part of

employee, cost of hiring and selection of candidates, lack of human resource function

and weak working conditions of workers.


1.0 Introduction

To succeed, survive, compete efficiently in current era of globalisation, organisations

must employ recruitment and selection of employees in the best way. The

organisations success is directly proportionate to the performance of people working

there. Poor performance can be a result of workplace-failures (Keep & James, 2010).

Organisation have specific set of needs when hiring people. It is mandatory that they

hire people with the quality vital for perpetual success in the competitive market

place. The key is the appropriate recruitment and selection practices (Butt & Zeb,


Recruitment and selection plays a critical role in determining efficacy and

performance of an organisation. The knowledge of recruitment and selection helps the

organisations by acquiring talented and skilled labour force. It also enhance the future

prediction in terms of hiring an employee of HR management (Raziq & Shaikh,

2015). Recruitment and selection also plays an important role to ensure their

performance and good organisational results. It is usually claimed that selection of

candid occurs not just as replacement or additional but also to re-designate a

personnel in place where one could perform at a higher level or show superior


1.1 Statement of the Problem

Retail industry has strong influence on growth and development of overall economy

whether directly or indirectly. Similarly, in Pakistan retail organisations crave to

employ and engage the best human resource. So that they can achieve excellent

performances and upturn in productivity. Job satisfaction and exceeding customers

expectations in the shape of quality, cost, time and safety are the factors which helps

the company in achieving their aims. On the other hand, Pakistani retail industry

barely processes the selection of workers. However the recruitment process is a

concerned matter and needs attention (Raziq & Shaikh, 2015).

1.2 Research Aim

This thesis aims at investigating employee recruitment and selection SOPs by

recruiters in the retail industry in Pakistan.

1.3 Research objectives

The research study is based upon the fulfilment of following research objectives:

a) To find current recruitment practices implemented in retail companies in employee

engagement in Pakistan.

b) To classify prevailing selection practices implemented by retail businesses in in

employee engagement in Pakistan.

c) To identify the impact of selection methods on employees performance in retail

industry in Pakistan.

d) To ascertain challenges of HR managers in the process of recruitment and selection

of employees in Pakistan

1.4 Research Questions

The below mentioned are the research questions during the study:

a) How do retail organisations practice selection process?

b) How employee performance in retail firms is affected by recruitment and selection

process in Pakistan?

c) Which challenges are faced by retail firms in context of recruitment and selection

process in Pakistan?

d) What are the challenging ways required by retail firms in improving employee

recruitment and selection in Pakistan?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Recruiting process in companies turns out to be a very costly activity. It is critically

important to conduct it properly. Recruiting right people for the job, educate and train

them appropriately and treat them well, not only result into great business results but

also they stick longer with the organisation (Jayawardhena, & Farrell, 2011). In such

environments, investment made in the HR rewards well in short as well as in long

term. A company may employ state of the start technology and the capital resources,

but if it fails employing the right people, it will be detrimental to achieve the results.

It will also serve as reference for other researchers and be valuable to the academic

community who deals directly with the recruitment process of employees.

1.6 Research Methodology

While addressing the aim of study, it is significant to assume a suitable statistical

approach that would result into correct data collection, data analysis and authentic

interpretation of the results for the benefit of audience. Subsequently, this research

utilises primary and secondary source of data. The primary source uses information

obtained from the literature reviewed. The questionnaire includes closed and open-

ended inquiry questions in order to better analyse and determine respondents view on

particular issues. On the other hand, the secondary sources are journals, publications,

library and the internet.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

All researches have their own specific challenges. Similarly, this research had its own

boundaries. During data collection, many employees in the retail stores were on duty

so it was nearly impossible to conduct survey with them. Some senior members were

insecure while sharing and releasing important pieces of information about

recruitment and selection in their stores. Due to simultaneously studying and working,

the researchers also had limited available time, however, these boundaries did not

move the validity of the study.

1.8 Research Design

The research is based on the deductive approach, therefore it will be using a random

sampling method. The total sample size for this research will be 30 respondents. The

retail market that will be taken in consideration will be Hyperstar market. The

respondents will belong to the human resource department of the retail market in

order to analyse the recruitment and selection process in the retail industry more


1.9 Research Gap Authentication

There had been many researches that have come across on this particular subject.

Although, an extensive literature can be found yet there are some of the research gaps

that needs to be filled out. The first research gap is the quantification of future

demand of the employee selection and recruitment is not completely identified. The

second research gap is innovation and effectiveness in the identification of market

potential workforce in the retail sector in Pakistan.


1.9 Research Gap Analysis

The research gaps will be filled by means of the research questions which will be able

to extract meaningful data on the mentioned research gaps (Enclosed in Appendix- I)

2. Literature Review

This segment does in depth reviews of employee recruitment and selection procedures

in relevant organisations and from the perspective of human resource management


2.1 The Concept of Recruitment and Selection

Organisations choose the recruitment strategy according to the resources available

and their environmental situation (Brookes, & Altinay, 2011). Jayawardhena & Farrell

(2011), spoke about five questions an organisation must address in order to have an

effective recruitment strategy promising their survival and success. These questions

are Where to recruit?, Who to recruit?, When to recruit?, What recruitment

sources to use? and What message to communicate? The effectiveness mentioned

in this study directly relates to the methodology by which a company put in place its

human resource policies. The key question is that whether the policies designed in the

first place have been put in place in the true spirit.

Referring to Merkel, Jackson & Pick (2010), Human Resource Management (HRM)

mind set in any business entity are evolved to meet organisational goals and the

manifestation of strategic plans. The company conducting recruitment and selection

while pursuing HRM approach is impacted by the scenario of the labour market and

the organisations power to pull human capital from there (Evans, 2015; Merkel,

Jackson, & Pick, 2010). Moreover, companies must observe systematically how their

public image impacts positively or negatively to attract talent from labour market and

its impact on applicants expectations. The latest situation views that companies are

now developing models to attract and recruit employees they wish to recruit, and to

identify how long prospects resemble to their models i.e. reliability and validity of the

processes. Also the success of recruitment and selection processes are the vision and

strategies that organisations sought after to identify and select the most suitable

candidates for its human capital (Bryson, James, & Keep, 2013).

When hiring for entry level positions, companies usually go for minimum

qualifications and experiences. Usually they conduct recruitment drives amongst

recent high school or university/technical/college graduates. Yet, most of them have

not made their minds about future careers or are considering further academic activity

(Armstrong, Flood, Guthrie et al, 2010). While internally filling a position is usually

observed at the middle management levels, senior administrative, technical and junior

executive positions. When highly experienced talent is requires, they often go for

external sources, same is valid while hiring at the senior executive levels. Most

companies mix both the methods while recruiting. The recruiter should emphasis on

matching the capabilities and preferences of prospective candidates against the

demands and rewards relevant to a given job (Zibarras & Woods, 2010).

2.2 Definitions of Recruitment

Numerous researchers have worked in the subject of HRM. They have presented

concentrated yet profound knowledge on the sub fields of HRM with special attention

on recruitment and selection (Gopalia, 2011; Kumari, 2012). Some of the different

definitions are presented below;


The process of generating a group of capable candidates seeking an organisation for

employment is called Recruitment (Kumari, 2012). This proposes that applicants with

qualifications and experience directly related to job specifications may eventually be

successful. The cost of a mistake in recruitment is very high, this concerns the

companies the most. HRM aims to acquire, the number of suitable and qualified

candidates at a minimum cost to satisfy the requirements of the business. The

organisation entices candidates by identifying, evaluating and using the most

appropriate sources of applicants. Recruitment begins with advertising existing

vacancies (Garner, 2012).

Another definition states that recruitment is the process of finding and attempting to

attract suitably qualified job candidates who are capable of filling vacancies in job

positions effectively (McGraw, 2011). The whole idea is to encourage them to apply

for the vacant position. Recruitment is considered to be a set of actions and

procedures used to legally attain adequate number of qualified applicant at the right

place and at the right time to enable applicant and the organisation both to select each

other for their own optimum interest. It is much more like a match making process

(Bryson, James & Keep, 2013).

Evaluating from above mentioned multiple definitions of recruitment, as given by

professional and scholars of the subject of Human Resource Management, it is

pertinent and apparent that recruitment embodies with the plan of advertisement of

exiting vacant position inside or outside of an organisation. In order to appeal and

attract appropriate and qualified candidates and to apply for the vacant position for

employment in the subject company, it is necessary to understand the motive of the

recruitment and selection processes. Based on the abovementioned, recruitment is a

highly specialised portion of Human Resources Management as it involves techniques

that will adequately identify the pool of skilled and quality applicants (Taylor, 2014).

2.3 Definition of Selection

Costen (2012) refers to selection as a process of selecting from a cluster of those

candidate individuals best suited for a particular position in an organisation. Whereas

the recruitment process must be aligned to inspire individuals to seek long term

employment with the business, the selection process is defined as to find and employ

the best-qualified and suitable individuals for the specific positions. Conventionally, it

was presumed that organisations could unilaterally choose amongst applicants and

that they would automatically accept all job offers (Chaneta, 2014).

On the contrary, selecting a wide array of applicants was never a problem, but

narrowing down to the right applicants became the main concern amongst employers.

It can be easily assumed that employers must be very careful before selecting any

applicants considering the abundant over supply of unskilled applicants. Any

employers decisions relevant to the selection of employees are pivotal to the success

of organisations. There is a series of outcomes associated with such decision that

matter to individuals as well as organisations, and the society at large (Mellors-

Bourne, Metcalfe, Pearce, et al, 2014).

Three of most acclaimed scholars in the field of Human Resource and Management

define the selection process as selecting the most appropriate candidates (Jeske and

Shultz, 2016; Kang & Shen, 2017). The selection process is guided by prearranged

criteria for selection like job descriptions. Job specifications and job profiling that

begins right after the recruitment process has been completed. Another scholar points

out that the central idea of the whole selection process is to match the applicants

ability, knowledge, skills and experience with business requirement with the job in a

fair and legal manner. This reflects that selection panels, in their mission to select

applicants with potential. Possibly the most elementary query in this area is why do

employers engage in selection efforts at all (Chaneta, 2014).

2.4 Selection Process

Selection of employees is among the most crucial decisions for an organisation just

like a decision about any merger and acquisition proposition. It is central to the

organisational operations followed by a series of results that matter to individuals,

organisations, and society as well (Arya and Singh, 2016). Principally the mandatory

question in this area is why organisations engage in selection efforts in the first place.

Business managers who are involved in hiring process should understand the skills

and abilities required in the concerned job and should determine which of the

candidates appeared have those capabilities. Measures like interviews, reference

checks, tests, applications and resumes can help in identifying difference among

candidates. Business managers can make their decisions through the applicants

strength and weaknesses (Kang & Shen, 2017).

2.5 Challenges of Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment and selection of employees have always been the most vital job of a

Human Resource personnel. Effective and efficient recruitment is fundamental and

crucial both at a time to the accomplishment of day-to-day functioning of any

business organisation (Jeske and Shultz, 2016). A successful recruitment relies upon

discovering the people with the right skills, right qualification and matching expertise

to bring organisation objectives into realities and should possess the ability to make a

positive contribution to the values and aims of the organisation. A research analyst

identified risks and issues and highlighted that some of the tricky issues affecting

recruitment and selection are the overcoming pressure for employment, utilisation of

informal sources of recruitment and delegation of recruitment function with or

without developing the necessary skills required. Such challenges have drifted the

employee into inadequate use of job description and the standard requirement of the

business is lost in translation in the process of recruitment (Derous & De Fruyt, 2016).


Anyim, F. C., Ekwoaba, J. O., & Anthony, I. D. (2012). The role of human resource

planning in recruitment and selection process. British Journal of Humanities and

Social Sciences, 6(2), 68-78.

Armstrong, C., Flood, P. C., Guthrie, J. P., Liu, W., MacCurtain, S., & Mkamwa, T.

(2010). The impact of diversity and equality management on firm performance:

Beyond high performance work systems. Human Resource Management, 49(6), 977-




PERFORMANCE (A Special case of Recruitment and Selection). Global Journal For

Research Analysis, 5(8).

Brewster, C., & Mayrhofer, W. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of research on comparative

human resource management. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Brookes, M., & Altinay, L. (2011). Franchise partner selection: perspectives of

franchisors and franchisees. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(5), 336-348.

Bryson, J., James, S., & Keep, E. (2013). Recruitment and selection. Managing

human resources. Human Resource Management in transition, 125-149.

Bryson, J., James, S., & Keep, E. (2013). Recruitment and selection. Managing

human resources. Human Resource Management in transition, 125-149.

Butt, A., & Zeb, N. (2016). Recruitment and Selection Decisions of SMEs.

Chaneta, I. (2014). Recruitment and Selection. International Journal of Management,

IT and Engineering, 4(2), 289.

Costen, W. M. (2012). Recruitment and Selection. The Encyclopedia of Human

Resource Management: Short Entries, 379-387.


Derous, E., & De Fruyt, F. (2016). Developments in Recruitment and Selection

Research. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 24(1), 1-3.

Evans, S. (2015). Juggling on the line: Front line managers and their management of

human resources in the retail industry. Employee Relations, 37(4), 459-474.

Garner, E. (2012). Recruitment and Selection. Bookboon.

Gopalia, A., 2011. Effectiveness of online recruitment and selection process: a case of


Jayawardhena, C., & Farrell, A. M. (2011). Effects of retail employees' behaviours on

customers' service evaluation. International Journal of Retail & Distribution

Management, 39(3), 203-217.

Jeske, D. and Shultz, K.S. (2016). Using social media content for screening in

recruitment and selection: pros and cons. Work, Employment & Society, 30(3),


Kang, H., & Shen, J. (2017). International Recruitment and Selection Policies and

Practices. In International Human Resource Management in South Korean

Multinational Enterprises (pp. 51-84). Springer Singapore.

Keep, E., & James, S. (2010). Recruitment and selectionthe great neglected topic.

SKOPE Research Paper, 88.

Kumari, N. (2012). A Study of the Recruitment and Selection process: SMC Global.

Industrial Engineering Letters, 2(1), 34-43.

Kumari, N. (2012). A Study of the Recruitment and Selection process: SMC Global.

Industrial Engineering Letters, 2(1), 34-43.

McGraw, P. (2011). Recruitment and selection. Australian Master Human Resource

Guide, 217-234.

Mellors-Bourne, R., Metcalfe, J., Pearce, E., & Hooley, T. (2014). Understanding the

recruitment and selection of postgraduate researchers by English higher education


Merkel, J., Jackson, P., & Pick, D. (2010). New challenges in retail human resource

management. Retailing in the 21st Century, 257-70.

Raziq, A., & Shaikh, A. A. (2015). Exploring recruitment & selection practices in

Pakistani SMEs. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(1), 102.

Taylor, S. (2014). Recruitment and selection. Strategic Human Resource

Management: An International Perspective, 10(6), 139-14.

Zibarras, L. D., & Woods, S. A. (2010). A survey of UK selection practices across

different organization sizes and industry sectors. Journal of Occupational and

Organizational Psychology, 83(2), 499-511.


Appendix- I

1. Age Limit:




55 and above

2. Gender:



3. Describe the process used to evaluate the performance of all new employees?

4. Describe the process used to bring new employees on board within the


5. Describe your candidate ranking process with pre-employment screening


6. Does the recruitment strategy target the largest possible candidate pool?



7. Where does HR determine where to advertise the position?


Online careers

Recruitment Agencies

8. Are there guidelines regarding the content of the job advertisement?



9. Is HR responsible for overseeing the hiring process for the job advertised?



10. Is HR involved in designing the advertisement to ensure that the departments

work is promoted in addition to attracting the best candidates?



11. Does the recruitment strategy target the largest possible candidate pool?



12. How do business units determine where to advertise the position?

13. Are there guidelines regarding the content of the job advertisement?



14. How do you determine attractive or selling points in your business unit? What

are the usual attractive points used in your business unit?

15. How employee performance is measured by maintaining knowledge about

their productivity in the firm?

16. How does HR maintain accurate knowledge about the employee performance?

8. Comments of Supervisor.

Signature of Supervisor Signature of Student


Endst. No. Univ./______________ Dated: _____________

The above proposal duly recommended by the Departmental Board of

Studies/Committee of Post-Graduate Studies in its meeting held on _____________ is

forwarded to the Office of Research Innovation and Commercialization for obtaining

the approval of the Vice-Chancellor.



IB&M, UET, Lahore


Dean of the Natural sciences, humanities & Islamic Studies