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Applications

Lexing Xie

http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~xlx/ee4830/

thanks to G&W website, Min Wu, Jelena Kovacevic and Martin Vetterli for slide materials

announcements

HW#2 due today

HW#3 out

Monday March 9th (4:10-6:40, Mudd 1127)

Open-book

YES: text book(s), class notes, calculator

NO: computer/cellphone/matlab/internet

5 analytical problems

Coverage: lecture 1-6

intro, representation, color, enhancement,

transforms and filtering (until DFT and DCT)

Additional instructor office hours

2-4pm Monday March 9th, Mudd 1312

Grading breakdown

HW-Midterm-Final: 30%-30%-40%

outline

Recap of DFT and DCT

Unitary transforms

KLT

Other unitary transforms

Multi-resolution and wavelets

Applications

7, Jain 5.1-5.11

recap: transform as basis expansion

inverse

transform

recap: DFT and DCT basis

1D-DCT 1D-DFT

recap: 2-D transforms

separable 2-D transforms

We only need to discuss 1D

be expressed with the notations of its

transforms

corresponding 1D transform.

Exercise

1 1 1

DCT2 ? A2 =

2

1 1

1 1 for 2D DCT

=1

=0 0 0 DCT2 ? ?

0 1 ? ?

=1

What if black=0, does the transform coefficients look similar?

two properties of DFT and DCT

: no two basis represent the same information in the image

: all information in the image are represented in the set of basis

functions

minimized when

Unitary Transforms

A linear transform:

orthogonal when A is unitary and real.

Orthonormality

Completeness

Exercise

Are these transform matrixes unitary/orthogonal?

1 1

2 3 2 2 cos sin

1 2 1 sin

1

cos

2 2

2 j 1 1 j

j 1

j 2 2

Unitary/orthogonal checklist:

determinant equals 1, |A|=1

unit row/column vector

orthogonal row/column vectors, AAH=I

properties of 1-D unitary transform

energy conservation

rotation invariance

the angles between vectors are preserved

i.e., rotate the basis coordinates

observations about unitary transform

Energy Compaction

Many common unitary transforms tend to pack a large fraction of

signal energy into just a few transform coefficients

De-correlation

Highly correlated input elements quite uncorrelated output

coefficients

Use the covariance matrix to measure correlation

one question and two more observations

is there a transform with

best energy compaction

maximum de-correlation

is also unitary ?

transform basis/filters do not depend on the signal being

processed

that the transform works well with many images

optimal for each signal is ill-defined

signal statistics should play an important role

review: correlation after a linear transform

x is a zero-mean random vector in

Rx is a diagonal matrix iff. all N random variables in x are

uncorrelated

What is the correlation matrix for y ?

transform with maximum energy compaction

proof. maximum energy compaction

constraints:

matrix identity

Karhunen-Love Transform (KLT)

a unitary transform with the basis vectors in A being

the orthonormalized eigenvectors of Rx

denote the inverse transform matrix as A, AAT=I

Rx is symmetric for real input, Hermitian for complex input

i.e. RxT=Rx, RxH = Rx

Rx nonnegative definite, i.e. has real non-negative eigen values

Attributions

Kari Karhunen 1947, Michel Love 1948

a.k.a Hotelling transform (Harold Hotelling, discrete formulation 1933)

a.k.a. Principle Component Analysis (PCA, estimate Rx from samples)

Properties of K-L Transform

Decorrelation by construction

the transformed sequence [Jains example 5.5 and 5.7]

Minimizing MSE under basis restriction

Basis restriction: Keep only a subset of m transform coefficients

and then perform inverse transform (1 m N)

Keep the coefficients w.r.t. the eigenvectors of the first m largest

eigenvalues

discussions about KLT

The good

Minimum MSE for a shortened version

De-correlating the transform coefficients

The ugly

Data dependent

Need a good estimate of the second-order statistics

Increased computation complexity

fast transform:

DFT is the optimal transform when

energy compaction properties of DCT

DCT is close to KLT when ...

x is first-order stationary Markov

same eigen vectors

2 Rx-1 ~ Qc when is

close to 1

cos(a+b)+cos(a-b)=2cos(a)cos(b)

DCT energy compaction

DCT is close to KLT for

highly-correlated first-order stationary Markov source

Close to optimal for highly correlated data

Not depend on specific data

Fast algorithm available

DCT/KLT example for vectors

fraction of

x: columns of image pixels * = 0.8786 coefficient values in

the diagonal

0.0136

0.1055

transform basis

0.1185

1.0000

KL transform for images

autocorrelation function 1D 2D

rewrite images into vector forms (N2x1)

solve the eigen problem for N2xN2 matrix ~ O(N6)

transform complexity O(N3)

KLT on hand-written digits

1100 digits 6

16x16 pixels

The Desirables for Image Transforms

DFT DCT KLT

Theory

Inverse transform available

Energy conservation (Parsevell)

Good for compacting energy ? ?

Orthonormal, complete basis

(sort of) shift- and rotation invariant ?

Transform basis signal-independent

Implementation

Real-valued x

Separable x

Fast to compute w. butterfly-like structure x

x

Same implementation for forward and

inverse transform

Walsh-Hadamard Transform

slant transform

energy compaction comparison

implementation note: block transform

partition a NxN image into mxn sub-images

save computation: O(N) instead of O(NlogN)

lose long-range correlation

applications of transforms

enhancement

(non-universal) compression

feature extraction and representation

pattern recognition, e.g., eigen faces

dimensionality reduction

analyze the principal (dominating) components

Image Compression

Gabor filters

Gaussian windowed Fourier Transform

Make convolution kernels from product of Fourier

basis images and Gaussians

Odd

(sin)

Even

(cos)

Frequency

Example: Filter Responses

Filter Input

bank image

outline

Recap of DFT and DCT

Unitary transforms

KLT

Other unitary transforms

Multi-resolution and wavelets

Applications

sampling (dirac) FT

STFT

FT does not capture discontinuities well

one step forward from dirac

Split the frequency in half means we can downsample by 2 to

reconstruct upsample by 2.

Filter to remove unwanted parts of the images and add

f

h h

x x

g g

t

orthogonal filter banks

orthogonal filter banks

The output of the analysis bank is

3. Then

The rows of T are the basis functions

The rows of T are the reversed versions of the filters

orthogonal filter banks

4. Since is unitary, basis functions are orthonormal

orthogonal filter banks: Haar basis

DWT

Iterate only on the lowpass channel

f

t

wavelet packet

Iterate on both the low pass and (selected)

high-pass channels

t

wavelet packet

wavelet packet

Cost(parent) < Cost(children)

wavelet packet: why it works

signal analysis and processing is in Dirac basis

f

understanding blob-like

structures of the energy

distribution in the time-frequency

space, and designing a

representation to reflect those.

t

FT STFT

f f

t t

WT WP

f f

t t

are we solving x=x?

sort of: find matrices such that

after finding those

Decomposition

Reconstruction

in a nutshell

if is square and nonsingular, is a basis and is its dual basis

if is unitary, that is, * = I, is an orthonormal basis and

=

if is rectangular and full rank, is a frame and is its dual

frame

if is rectangular and * = I , is a tight frame and =

overview of multi-resolution techniques

applications of wavelets

compression and MR approximation

fingerprint representation with wavelet packets

bio-medical image classification

subdivision surfaces Geris Game, A Bugs Life,

Toy Story 2

fingerprint feature extraction

MR system

Introduces adaptivity

Template matching

performed on different

space-frequency regions

Builds a different

decomposition for each

class

fingerprint identification results

100

80 Wavelet Correlation Filters

Identification Error Rate (%)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

SCF 0 0 9.78 3.26 4.35 35.90 33.70 89.96 6.52 9.78 0 3.26 66.30 15.22 8.70 21.74 33.70 14.13 0 11.96

WDCF 0 0 0 0 0 5.43 0 0 0 0 0 0 15.22 0 0 13.04 0 0 0 0

10 people (5 male & 5 female), 2 fingers

20 classes, 100 images/class

references for multiresolution

Light reading

Wavelets: Seeing the Forest -- and the Trees, D. Mackenzie, Beyond Discovery,

December 2001.

Overviews

Books

Wavelets and Subband Coding, M. Vetterli and J. Kovacevic, Prentice Hall, 1995.

A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, S. Mallat, Academic Press, 1999.

Ten Lectures on Wavelets, I. Daubechies, SIAM, 1992.

Wavelets and Filter Banks, G. Strang and T. Nguyen, Wells. Cambr. Press, 1996.

summary

unitary transforms

theory revisited

the quest for optimal transform

example transforms

DFT, DCT, KLT, Hadamard, Slant, Haar,

multi-resolution analysis and wavelets

applications

compression

feature extraction and representation

image matching (digits, faces, fingerprints)

10 yrs

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