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The cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.

) are adjectives referring to quantity, and the

ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer to distribution.
Number Cardinal Ordinal
1 one first
2 two second
3 three third
4 four fourth
5 five fifth
6 six sixth
7 seven seventh
8 eight eighth
9 nine ninth
10 ten tenth
20 twenty twentieth
21 twenty-one twenty-first
22 twenty-two twenty-second
23 twenty-three twenty-third
100 one hundred hundredth
500 five hundred five hundredth
1,000 one thousand thousandth
1,500 one thousand five hundred, or one thousand five hundredth
fifteen hundred
100,000 one hundred thousand hundred thousandth
1,000,000 one million millionth

Written Said
1/3 one third
3/4 three fourths
5/6 five sixths
1/2 one half
1/3 one third

Sums of money
Written Spoken
25$ twenty-five dollars
52 fifty-two euros
140 one hundred and forty pounds
12.66 twelve euros sixty-six
10.50 ten pounds fifty

Written Pronounced
5% five percent
25% twenty-five percent
36.25% thirty-six point two five percent


Written Spoken
2014 twenty fourteen or two thousand fourteen
1944 nineteen forty-four

Simple Present is the most basic verb tense in English. It is also the most common.

Positive Negative Question

I run. I do not run. Do I run?
You run. You do not run. Do you run?
We run. We do not run. Do we run?
They run. They do not run. Do they run?
He runs. He does not run. Does he run?
She runs. She does not run. Does she run?
It runs. It does not run. Does it run?

Simple Past
regular verbs infinitive + ed

Positive Negative Question

I waited. I did not wait. Did I wait?
You waited. You did not wait. Did you wait?
We waited. We did not wait. Did we wait?
They waited. They did not wait. Did they wait?
He waited. He did not wait. Did he wait?
She waited. She did not wait. Did she wait?
It waited. It did not wait. Did it wait?

irregular verbs use table of the irregular verbs

Positive Negative Question

I had. I did not have. Did I have?
You had. You did not have. Did you have?
We had. We did not have. Did we have?
They had. They did not have. Did they have?
He had. He did not have. Did he have?
She had. She did not have. Did she have?
It had. It did not have. Did it have?

Present Progressive
to be (am, are, is) + verb + -ing

Positive Negative Question

I am speaking. I am not speaking. Am I speaking?
You are speaking. You are not speaking. Are you speaking?
We are speaking. We are not speaking. Are we speaking?
They are speaking. They are not speaking. Are they speaking?
He is speaking. He is not speaking. Is he speaking?
She is speaking. She is not speaking. Is she speaking?
It is speaking. It is not speaking. Is it speaking?

Past Progressive

to be (was, were) + infinitive + -ing

Positive Negative Question

I was singing. I was not singing. Was I singing?
You were singing You were not singing. Were you singing?
We were singing. We were not singing. Were we singing?
They were singing. They were not singing. Were they singing?
He was singing. He was not singing. Was he singing?
She was singing. She was not singing. Was she singing?
It was singing. It was not singing. Was it singing?

Future Tense
will + verb in the present

Positive. Negative Question

You will help. You will not help. Will you help?
We will help. We will not help. Will we help?
They will help. They will not help. Will they help?
He will help. He will not help. Will he help?
She will help. She will not help. Will she help?
It will help. It will not help. Will it help?
I will help. I will not help. Will I help?

Future Tense. Going To

Verb to be + going to + verb

Positive Negative Question

I am going to leave. I am not going to leave. Am I going to leave?
You are going to leave. You are not going to leave. Are you going to leave?
We are going to leave. We are not going to leave. Are we going to leave?
They are going to leave. They are not going to leave. Are they going to leave?
He is going to leave. He is not going to leave. Is he going to leave?
She is going to leave. She is not going to leave. Is she going to leave?
It is going to leave. It is not going to leave. Is it going to leave?

Both tenses are future tenses.

We use the will-future for predictions, assumptions, promises and when we do something
We use the going to-future with planned actions.

The Present Perfect

have/has + past participle

Positive Negative Question

I have traveled. I have not traveled. Have I traveled?
You have traveled. You have not traveled. Have you traveled?
We have traveled. We have not traveled. Have we traveled?
They have traveled They have not traveled. Have they traveled?
He has traveled. He has not traveled. Has he traveled?

She has traveled. She has not traveled. Has she traveled?
It has traveled. It has not traveled. Has it traveled?

The Preposition
Prepositions are connecting wordsthey do not have any meaning or content in or of
themselves. They exist only to show relationships between other words. For this reason, they
must simply be learned or remembered. Prepositions are words like at, by, from, and with that
are usually followed by a noun or pronoun (at home, by herself, from Toledo, and with you).
The word following the preposition is called its object; the preposition and its object are called
a prepositional phrase. Prepositions are divided into three main types.
a) Prepositions of place
b) Prepositions of time
c) Others prepositions

Common Prepositions
Place Time Others
above in front of after about
around inside at
across into before except
behind out during
below over from for
beside outside in
between up on to
beyond under until
by with

The sun is above the clouds.
I drew a line across the page
The Prime Minister spoke about the unemployment rate.
The Romans built a wall around the town.
He wrote a book about his experiences after the war.
I wake up at 6am every morning.
Ellen worked in Montreal before moving here.
What is behind the door?
He drives way below the speed limit.
Come and sit beside me.
The lamp is between the chair and the sofa.
This book was donated by my wife.
Beyond good and evil
During the summer vacation we went swimming every day.
The museum is open every day except Tuesdays.
Here is a letter for you.
I'm a student from Spain.
The child ran out in front of the bus.
Is there anything inside the box?
I just moved into a new apartment.
I live in Panama.
There is a dark cloud over us.
I want to study to be an engineer.

I bought the new laptop with a credit card.

The Adjective
In your writing you will often want to modify (or describe) a noun or pronoun. The word you will
use is an adjective, a word that modifies nouns and pronouns. Adjectives usually answer one of
the following questions: How many? What kind? Which one? What color?

Types of Adjectives.
Positive: Nice
Comparative: (er, more, than)
Superlative: (est, the Most)
Demonstrative: (this, that, these, those)
Possessive: (my, your, her, his, its, our, and their)

Positive Comparative Superlative
Good Better than The best
Bad Worse than The worst
Big Bigger than The biggest
Hot Hotter than The hottest
Thin Thinner than The thinnest
Spicy Spicier than The spiciest
Nice Nicer than The nicest
Busy Busier than The busiest
Fast Faster than The fastest
Sweet Sweeter than The sweetest
Large Larger than The largest
Delicious More delicious than The most delicious
Difficult More difficult than The most difficult
Popular More popular than The most popular
Noisy Noisier than The noisiest
Warm Warmer than The warmest
Happy Happier than The Happiest
Beautiful More beautiful than The most beautiful
Old Older than The oldest
Small Smaller than The smallest
New Newer than The newest
Bright Brighter than The brightest
Clean Cleaner than The cleanest
Cheap Cheaper than The cheapest
Interesting More interesting than The most interesting
Healthy Healthier than The healthiest
Refreshing More refreshing than The most refreshing
Expensive More expensive than The most expensive
Long Longer than The longest
Thick Thicker than The thickest

The Adverb
Adverbs are words that describe or modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
The huge chopper transported the soldiers quickly. (Quickly modifies the verb
The extremely tall guard dribbled the basketball slowly. (Extremely modifies the
adjective tall, and slowly modifies the verb dribbled.)
The tall guard dribbled the basketball very slowly. (Very modifies the adverb slowly.)
Adverbs usually answer the following questions: When? Where? How? To what extent?
Adjectives and adverbs are often confused. Remember that adjectives describe nouns and
pronouns, and that adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Notice the differences
in the following sentences.
Her loud hiccups distracted the speaker. (Loud is an adjective because it modifies the
noun hiccups.)
If you sneeze loudly, you will distract the speaker. (Loudly is an adverb because it
modifies the verb sneeze.)
Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective (as in loudly, in the previous sentence).
But keep in mind that some adverbs do not end in -ly (above, never, there, very, and so on). And
some words that end in -ly are not adverbs (words such as silly, friendly, and lovely).

Place Frequency Time
Here Always Today
There Never Yesterday
Where Sometimes Tomorrow
Far Often Ago
Near Usually Late
Everywhere Seldom Afternoon

Manner Quantity
Quickly Only
Slowly Too

Place Ive looked everywhere, but I still cant find it.

Frequency We often go swimming on weekends.

Time Patrick left ten minute ago.

Manner He walked slowly along the street.

Quantity She only likes rock music.

Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns are those referring to one or more unspecified objects, beings, or places.
They are called indefinite simply because they do not indicate the exact object, being, or
place to which they refer.

Indefinite Pronouns
People (body/One) Things Places
Somebody / Someone Something Somewhere
Anybody / Anyone Anything Anywhere
Nobody / No One Nothing Nowhere
Everybody / Everyone Everything Everywhere

There is somebody at the door.
I think you should talk to someone else about this problem.
I have something important to tell you.
I saw your glasses somewhere downstairs.

Anybody/Anyone, Anything and Anywhere (usually in questions or negative statements)

I didnt know anybody at the party.
Is there anybody here who can speak Japanese?
The fog was so thick that I couldnt see anything at all.
Did you buy anything?
I cant find my keys anywhere.

He screamed, but nobody came to help him.

No one else was around.
There was nothing else to say.
There is nowhere to stay in the town.

The police questioned everyone who was at the party.

Everything is very expensive in this store.
Ive looked everywhere, but I still cant find it.

The Weather in Panama.

Panama has a tropical climate. Temperatures are uniformly highas is the relative humidity
and there is little seasonal variation. Diurnal ranges are low; on a typical dry-season day in the
capital city, the early morning minimum may be 24 C (75.2 F) and the afternoon maximum 29
C (84.2 F). The temperature seldom exceeds 32 C (89.6 F) for more than a short time.

Public Holidays in Panama in the month of November

November 2nd, The day of the dead.
November 3rd, Separation of Panama from Colombia.
November 4th, The day of the symbols.
November 5th, The ratification of our separation from Colombia in the province of Colon.
November 10th, The first shout in the province of Los Santos.

November 28th, Independence from Spain.

What: pronoun (used for asking for information about somebody/something):

What kind of music do you like?
(used for showing surprise, pleasure, etc.): What a beautiful day!
Which: pronoun (used in questions when there are a number of people or things to choose
from): which piece of cake do you want?
Where: adverb & conjunction. at, in or to what place or position: Where are you going?
Who: pronoun (used in questions to ask somebodys name) Who did This?
To Whom: pronoun (used as the object form of who in reported questions and after certain
verb): He asked me whom I had met.
Whose: pronoun (used in questions when you are asking who something belongs to): A
company whose most famous product is chocolate.
How: adverb (used in questions) Can you show me how to use this machine?
Why: adverb. For what reason. Can you tell me the reason why you are so unhappy?
When: adverb. At what time. When did she get here?
How many: is used when we want to know the quantity of something. It is only used with
plural countable nouns: How many people work in your company?
How much: is used with uncountable nouns: How much money did you spend?