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V o l .3 , No.4, Febr uar Y 1972.

AustralianFlyingSaucerRevier is a non-profiteducational publicationproduced by the Victorian

Society,P.0. Box Moorabbin,
u.F.0. Research victoria ]189' Ihe functionof the societyis to
collate and disseminateinformation aboetthe subjectof FlyingSaucers0r Unidentified Flying


PTTER I. 11ORRIS TL.B. President

JU0ITH M. !4AGtt IeI:922W2 VicePresident
l,lItLIAt4 TARPTEE ' Secretary
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tIS. BRISTOL Connitteel.lan
I( I T . F R A II C T SI.II L L I A14S l4an
ALBERI t,ILl(ItlS0lt Connitteeilan

Ihe Reviei, articles for publiqation'
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RrGISrtm0 8.
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" Therecentsymposiumheld in Adelaide
the auspices
of the AustralianandI{eyZealand
Associationfor the Advancement of Science
A provideda much needed stimulus for Ut()re-
srarchin this country.
Ihe tditors enthusiasticallycomnend
attitude of the organisers
of the
J and of those scientistsyho read
duringthe proceedings.
is to be hopedthat the excellent
providedby the SouthAustralian
ision of the Association'riil shortiy be
emulatedby similar organisations in the

U [asternStates.
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- andthe possibility of life on otherplanets.

by P.G.0ittins 2
by f4ichaelMcilamara q

by DevinJ. l4eyers 8
- a spacepropulsion
I0ll tl'lGlt{ts lecture.
by L.t. Adam 12
by the Aerial PhenomenaResearchGroup
andby U.F.0.Research bothof SouthAustralia.
& Investigation, 20
*. * *: * * + * * | + * f, * * + * * * * * + * * * * * * + * * * + +,1 * * * i * * * *
* + , * * * * * * * * * * * + t + r i ' i t * * * * * * + * * * * * * + * '* * * * it * + * + * r * * 'i

P, G, G ift ins visiting Iarthmen.

8y the sameargument,hovever,tarth-iike
planetswouldseem likely to havetarth-like
(conctutlo) inhabitants. Uecannotpredicteverything of
course,but wedo haye a goodidea of yhat
Part4. Whatforrncouldextra-terrestrialIife rspace peoplerMIGHIlook like. Scientists
[5SI6ty tarei tlteorise they yill probably bear a strong
resemblance to the mannextdoor. Thereason
0uestions of this nature are sometimesapt to ve canmakethis assumption is that Science
encourage mantsimaginationto go beyond the has shornthat the shapeof a living body is
boundsof reason. Rather than discuss the not accidental. Ihereare rules,of 'biological
possibility or otherri.seof tyo-headed,four- construction first uorkedout by Christiaan
arned nonsters, cannibal plant life 0r Huygens in the 17thCentury.Laterscientists
humanoidinsect typesnI proBoseto offer a haveaddedto his list. Theserules helpus
conrbination of the ideasand*ggestionsput picturepresuned visitors beforetheyactually
foruardby |,lilty Ley and Carl Sigan - tyo stepout of their spacevehicle.
Americanexperts in this par.ticularfield -
and the ideas of the Russian expert, In applyingthe rules, ile haveto makejust
Shklovski tro assumptions:-
Hunanintelligence is hard to define, its (i) that the bodiesof spacepeopleconslst
originsare buriedin pre-history,and it is of a protoplasm like ours,
uniqueon Earth,so that assessing the chances (ii) that they ars intelligent
of intelligenceelseuhereis a highly spec- - an
inescapable fact oncerreacceptthe idea
that they are capableof buildinga
Human intelligencehasevolved,as hashuman sprcevehicle.
anatomy, hand in handrith the terrestrial Uith those
assumptions in nrind,ue canuse
environnent. But bizarre planets might methodto paint this portrait of the
produce Huygens,'
bizarreanatonyand physiology. A rmanfrsn planetXr.
planetwith a turbid atnosphere, transparent
only to radioraves, night produce organisns lle breatfiesair:
with radioeyes. But a radioeyeball(says tJater
breathers might developsomeintell-
Sagan)yould have to be half a nile in
igence, but they uould suffer fron a sevsre
dianeterto be as efficient as a light eye-
ha+dicap- they couldnot snelt netals ,under
ball. Io understand such a structure, let mter. This nlansthat anytechnolmvabove
alone decide whether it belongedto an the Ievel of our StoneAgeis the acdfolistr-
tintelligencefnouldbe a baffiing problemfor (to pase3)
OTSPACT (from pagc2 ) rhere along. the line ot hls developnent he
rould hayehad to frsc oneoair
'The of leos to
nent of air breathers. 0f coursothe type and allor themto becorne hands. only wa! to
conrpositionof the air maynot be the same as do this is to learn to stand.
that surrounding Earth. Andas air breathers
this pre-supposes theydre equipped rith some Furthernore, it is alnrostcertainthat onceon
organ similar to or on a parallel uith our his baclilegs he rould develop bending fingers
lungs. andan opposable thunb. Io producea high
state of technology,he rould needto be abie
He is probablynot muchlarger than the to pick thingsup, to
be able to grasp,hoid,
average human being: pushandpull. I'lhynot tentacles,suchas on
Ihe limiting factor here is the nathematical an octopus? Eecause yhilst tentacles can
square-cube law. If youdoublethe heightof pull, theycannotpusheffectively.
a personrithout changing his proportions,
you Heeatsbo,!!plantsandmeat:
have a being rith eight tines the rreight.
Ihis means that a person12 feet tall, for A strict plant eater spendstoo muchtime
exarnple,must be clumsyand cannotperform stuffing hinself rith unconcentrated food to
precisionuork - and precisionyork yill be build the kind of civilisation rhich is
essentialof course, in building the space necessary to producea spaceship. Animals
ship. whichcandigestmeatonly uouldnot be iikeiy
to survive the occasionaladverseperiods
He reighsat least 40 pounds - probabiy
more: nhichoccur on all planetsandripe out the
A brainof a certainsize andcomplexity uould less adaptable fornsof life. Eeing both a
be requiredfor the buiidingof a spaceship. piant and meat eater, it uouldalso be logical
Ihe brain of our.rspace mantuouldweigh at to assume that he wouldhave a digestiveand
Ieast 2 pounds.Andfromour study of tarth wastesystem similar in principleto that of
aninalsre cancalculate that a bodyveighing [arth men,
at least f0 poundsis requiredto support a Novthat ve havedrayna roughportrait of the
2 pound brain. manfromFlanetX, is thereanythingrle can
Hehas? eyes: guessaboutPlanetX itself?
Thepresence of light shouldproduce
sonething Hereagain the ansyeris a faniliar one- his
ue muld recogniseas an eye. A threi-eyed planet is probablyverymuchlike ours. Let
nanfromspaceis not a very likely creation. us considersomeessentialfeatures:-
Troeyesare better thanonefor the purpose Size:
of judging distancesand shape,but three
souldnot be better thantvo. PlanetX cannotbe muchlarger or snaller
than tarth. if it lere muchbigger the
Hehastro ears: gravityvould be s0 crushingly great(as on
A comnunications systemuould be absolutely the planetJupiter) that it is doubtful if
essential, so there is reasonto suppose our life, let alone intelligonce, youldhave
spacenanuould have something resembling an gottenstarted. If it ueretoo snall, it
ear. Asrith eyes, tvo are better thanone, muld not havesufficient gravitationalpull
but threerould not be better than tvo. to hang on to its gases(like the planet
andthereyouldbe nothingfor anyone
(}nearightargue that moreeyesandearsvould to breathe.
be useful as sparesin the caseof accidents.
Ihis is logical - but [arth organisnsat least Atnosphere:
do not run to spares. lhe planetrsatmosphere, too, youldbe nuch
lle hashandsandfeet: like ours. Thereare only trlo chenicalcom-
binations that are conplexenoughto support
tle knorthat our spacemanvill ualk erect.
In orderto survive,anybeingnust be able to life - the carbon-oxygen-hydrogencycle re
move aroundbut, in orderto build, he nould live on and the chlorine-fluorine-methane
needsomething resembiing our hands. Some- (to page{ )

IHr txPt0mll|li0r sPAct (fron page t) snall pendul0mnotion. Ihis, he cal-
culated,could be caussdby a fdark
cycle. companionr - a planetabouttuice the
Thelatter is a highlyexplosive mixtureand sizeof Jupiter, orbitingthe star once
thoughit is conceivablethat someuhere there every2\ larth years, andaffectingits
could be a life formon it, it is not likely. motion. if he is right, this is the
Ihis cycle is so complexthat the chances are first and only planetdetected outside
heavily in favour of oxygen-based life our solar system.
developingbeforethe chlorine-based formgot Iherecouldbe many others, but theyvouldbe
a chance. extremely difficult to detect - althougha
Landandsea: Iarge astronomical telescopeerected on the
i4oonmight just revealJupiier-sized planets
PlanetX wouldhave landandseanassesand orbiting the nearerstars.
a climate uith drastic changeslike ours.
Therevouldhaveto be land for ouespaceman Part 5. Where is everybody?
to live on anduater for himto drink. Ihe [arth is a tyoungr p]anet, thereforethe
CIimate: chances are that intelligent racesexist who
are much older thanman. It is not impossible
Weknou about the climate for the simple to imagine manyraces s0 far advanced that
reason that if it werestatic thererould be theyhavesolved the problems of interstellar
no incentivefor our Visitorrsrace to build flight. If this is true, then:
anything. Variablehot andcold, ret anddry
seasons are needed to pushhimaround. Uhereis everybody?trfhyhavetheynot estab-
lishedcontactwith us? 0r is the fact that
Location: ye have not receivedinterstellar visitors
AII this tells us that our visitor is from proof that l{0 intelligent iife exists in
outsideour solar system,since it is con- space?
sidered that none of our Sunts planets, Assuming that an advanced racecoulddevelop
besides Earth, is capableof : supporting interstellar travel, couldtheyexploreevery
intelligent life as ve knovit. oneof the f{ilky Uay's100billion stars in an
It also tells us something else: our space effort to find other intelligent races?
visitor is a goodbit noreadvanced thantre Statedin this nannerthe prospects sounddinr
are. indeed. But examining the argument, a little
morecloselywefind this is not the case.
Ihe approach throughoutthis paper is that EasicalIy, it involves tuo facets: the
rhabitablerplanetscouldrell be common in ability to achieveinterstellar flight andthe
the Universe. Ihe emphasis is on rcouldl ability to investigatevery largenumbers of
since there is no direct evidence. Ihe stars.- An intelligent racecoulddevelop the'
iargest[arth-based telescope built so far can technology necessaryfor interstellar flight.
not reveala planetof anotherstar. But the And it need not inspecteveryone of the
indirect evidence does:viz:- t4ilkyUayts100billion stars. Some stars are
(a) lhere are many trin stars orbiting each manifestlyinhospitableto the evolutionof
other in the sky: thushovever stellar life, othersare too youngto haveallored
and planetarysystemsevolve (stiil a intelligencetine enoughto develop. lbre-
matter of rnuchdebate)it is quite over, our solar system is situatedauay from
contnonfor one bodyto revolvearound the centreof the galaxy, out wherethe stars
another.ltanystars COULD haveorbiting are relatively far apart. At the galaxyrs
planets instead of an orbiting star heart, wherethe oldeststars are, inter-
tuin. stellar distances must be less thanhalf , of
thosein our regionof space.
(b) Anastronomer at SproulUniversity,USA'
Petervande Kanp,recorded the position It is possible, then, to envisage an intell-
of Barnardrs Star, in the consteilation igentrace scouting the galaxyin a highl
of Cygnus, for 2l years,anddetecteda (to pase rij'

!tjri;. I
M ic h a e l Mc Na mara

Are t he m y s t er yc av ep a i n ti n g s , i n I,/e s te rn s i xteenfeet deep; but beyondthi s, several

Au stra l ia' s K im ber le yR a n g e , p i c tu re s o f s n a l ] branches ran further back. Its hei ght
extra -ter r es t r ial bein g s ? I b e l i e v e th e y a re . i n front w asrather morethan ei ght feet, the
An d I amnot alone in th i s b e l i e f. In th i s ro o f bei ng formedby a sol i d sl ab of sand-
arti cl e I s hall t r y t o g i v e th e re a s o n s fo r s tonenaboutni ne feet thi ck, andw hi chrapi d-
th i s b e lief . Iy i ncl i ned tow ards the back of the caver
t rJ o n d j i n a w h ichw asthere not morethan fi ve feet hi gh.
Th efir s t of t he p a i n ti n g s , fo r
th e re a re m any wer, edi s c o v e re d i n 1 8 1 6b y th e It0nthi s sl opi ngroof, the pri nci pal fi gure
e xp l o re rCapt ain( lat er S i r) G e o rg e G re y . w h ich I havej ust al l uded to, w asdraw ni n
o rd er to producethe greatereffect, the rock
\l CGRT tY' SJ O U R -
NIYSIN f ' |0t iT! H a b o ut i t r.l as pai nted bl ack andthe fi gure
ilt s l A US IR A IIA te l l u s th a t 0 n
i .tsel f col ouredw i th the most vi vi d red and
M a rch2 6 t h of t hat y ear G re y rv a s tra v e l l i n g
v h i te. It thus appeared to standout from the
th ro u g ht he K im ber ley sa n d n w h i i e l o o k i n ga t
th e to wer ings ands t onro ro c kg and I w as certai nl y rather surpri sedat
e c k s , h e rrs u d d e n isya w
fro m o n eof t hem a m o s te x tra o rd i n a rvl a ro e th e moment that I fi rst sar,r thi s gi ganti c head
part of the bodybendi ngover and
fi g u re peer ing down u p o n m e . U p o ne x a n ri i - a n dupper
ati o n , t his pr ov ed t o b e a d ra ri n g a t th e s tari ng gri ml y dow nat me.
en tra n c e t o a c av ew h i c h , 0 n e n te ri n g , I ItIt wouldbe impossibleto convey in uords
fo u n d to c ont ain, be s i d e s , ma n yre m a rk a b l e a n adequate i dea of thi s uncouthand savage
pai n ti n gs . fi g u re; I shal l thereforeonl y gi ve such a
rfTh ec av eappear ed s u cci nctaccountof thi s and the other pai nt-
t o b e a n a tu ra l h o i l o w
i n th e sands t one i n g s as w i l i serveas a sort of descri pti onto
r oc k s i i ts fl o o r u a s e l e v a te d
accotttpany the annexed plates.
ab o u tfi v e f eet f r om t h e g ro u n d , a n dn u me ro u s
fl a t b rok enpiec es of th e s a mero c k , w h i c h r rl hedi mensi ons of the fi gure w ere:
we resca t t er edabout , l o o k e d a t a d i s ta n c e
L e n gthof headand face ? ft.
l i ke steps leadingup t o th e c a v e , w h i c h w a s
W i d thof face 17 i n.
th i rty-fiv e f eet wide a t th e e n tra n c e , a n d
L e n gthfrombottomof face to navel 2ft. 6i n.
t tl ts headw asenci rcl edby bri ght red rays,
N0 l t: A point in r ega rdto A b o ri g i n a ln a m e s : s o m ethi ng i i ke the rays w hi ch one sees
be ca u s tehes elanguageuse re n o t tra d i ti o n a l l y proceedingfrom the sun, whichdepictedon the
re co rd e din wr it ing by th e A b o ri g i n e sth e m- s i g n-boardof a publ i c houseli nsi de 0f thi s
se l ve s. andbec aus seo m eo f th e i r s o u n d sh a v e c a m e a broadstri pe of very bri l i i ant red,
no e xa c t equiv alent in In g l i s h , th e re h a v e w h ichw ascopedby Ii nes of w hi te, but both
be e n d i f f er enc es of o p i n i o ni n re g a rdto th e i n si de andoutsi de of thi s red space, uere
m o sta p pr opr iat es pellin g . Ma n y A b o ri g i n a l n a rrowstri pes of a sti l l deeperred, i ntended
w o rd s h av e, t her ef or e , b e e n w ri tte n i n a p ro babl yto marki ts boundari eslthe face w as
v a ri e ty of way s : f or in s ta n c e , th e m y th i c a l p a intedvi vi dl y w hi te, and the eyes bl ack
be i n g sW onjina,V ' lanjin a r' r' J o n doj irnWa a n d j i n a . b e inqhow ever surroundedby red and yel l ovr
(to page 7)
A RIl |'IU X I\


IHt hIONDJi'{A PAII{TINGS (frompage5) endhavingevidently a verydifferent origin
to those'rhichI havefirst desmibed.
lines; the body,handsandarmsuereoutlined
in red - the bodybeingcuriouslypaintedwith Grey then uent 0n to anothercaveand
red stripes andbars. described it thus: rThecaveras tuentyfeet
deep,andat the entrance sevenfeet high' and
Ittlponthe rockuhich formedtho left hand aboutforty feet nide. As beforestatedthe
wall of this cave,anduhichpartly faced you floor graduallyapproached the roof in the
on enteringnuas a very singular painting directionof the bottomof the cavern'andits
vividly coloured, representingfour .heads uidth also contracted so that at the extrenity
joinedtogether. Fronthe mild expression of it t.rasnot broader than the slab of rock'
the countenances I imagined them to represent whichfornred a naturalseat. ihe principal
females,andthey appeared to be dravnin such painting in it uas the figure of a ntan
a nannerandin sucha positionas to lookup ten feet six inches in length, clothedfrom
at the principalfigure vhich I havebefore the chin dounuards in a red gannent,rhich
described;eachhad a very rernarkable head- reached to the wrists andankles. Beyond this
dress, coloured uith a deepbright bluer and red dress the feet andhandsprotrudedtand
onehada necklace on. Both of the lover werebadlyexecuted.
figureshada sort of dress, rflhe face and head of the figure rere
in- the sanemanneras that of the principal
fioure. andoneof thenrhada bandaround her enveloped in a succession of circular band-
waist.' Eachof the four faces vas marked by a ages or rollers, 0r that appearedto be
distinct expression of countenance, piinted to represent such. Iheseuerecolour-
andalthoughnoneof thenhadnouthst--tuo' I ed red, yellow andvhite, andthe eyes-rere
rather good looking. the only represented on the face.
thought, vere otheruise a series
Upon the highest bandage or roller,
lhe ihole painting uasexecutedon a uhite but although so
ground,andits dimensions uere: of lines were painted in red,
regularly done as to indicate that they rere
lotal length 5 tt- 6 1l\ in. intended to depicturitten charactersr 0r some
Breadth airosstwoupperheads 2 ft. .6 in. ornament for the head. This figure was s0
0itto acrossthe lorbi ones , ft. 1 llZ in. dram on the roof that its feet rere just in
trThenext nost renarkable drauing the front of the naturalseat, whilst its headand
doun on anyone lho stood
cavovas an ellipse, three feet in length' and face lookeddirectly but it uas
in the entrance of the caver
onefoot ten inches in breadth: the outside
painting uas of a deep blue totally invisible from the outside. The
line of this
colour, the bodyof the ellipse being of a paintiirg Has moreinjured by the damp and
and almosphere and had the appearance 0t berng
bright yellou dottedovervith red line
moredefaced andancient thananyof the
spots, whilst across it ran twotransverse much
others nhich rle had seen. Ihis figure brings
lines-of blue' Theportion of the painting of the prophet
the ground' or nain to mind the description
abovedescribedforned rt
part, of the picture, anduponthis ground was tzekiel.
bainteda kanqaroo in the act of feedingr ttro I have taken the full text of GreYrs
stonespearheids, andtro blackballs; so that descriptionof the hlondjina paintingsdirectly
the rrhoiesubject probabiy constituted-a sort frorn his own journals to shor just howfascin-
of charmby the luck of an enquirerin ating and tiuly remarkable these paintings
kilting ganecorld be ascertained. are. I hope that one day soon someone else
ttlhere uas anotherratherhumorous sketch vill find the particular caves he talked
vhich representeda native in the act of about.
carrying a kangaroo: the height-of the man I say this because thesepaintingsrhich
bein! three feet. Thenurnber of draringsin Greyfouirdhaveapparentlynever been found
the cave couldnot altogetherhavebeen less sinie. The figures he dreu, though'
thanfromfifty to sixty, but the majority of unmistakably of the same typeas thoselater
them consistedof ment kangaroos, and the found elsenhere, differ from them in several
and badly executed (to page16)
figures being carelessly

De v i n J . Meye rs

Ournextdoor neighbouris an enigma. ()ur be lost. tlle cantt be sureof anydirection.

nextdoor neighbourhas been responsible for [ven the oceandoesntt lookas it
the apparentdeathof approxinatelyonethous- Ihe searas calm,andthe sunshone. Andyet
andpeople. Andafter countless investigat- this squadronof electronicallysophisticated
ions by countlessexperts, our enigmatic planes ueretogetherand, helplessly, lost.
neighbour unknoun.Io put it plainly,
remains At q.00 p.n. the regular patrol leader
rrelive on oneborderof the Bermudalriangie. relinquished command to a feilou pilot. !lhy,
onecanrtbe sure. Ihe newcommander relayed
ihe Bernuda TriangIe,also calledDevii's a message to basecontrol, tl'leare not certain
Triangte,also calledother names I vill not rhere-ueare. |./e think ue must be about
burnthe readerts earsuith here, is an area 225miles ll.t. of looks like $e
of the sea borderedby Florida, Eermuda, are.....rr ilo morenoise,norord, no static.
PuertoRico,andthe Bahamas. Given any nap llothing. A Martin l4ariner a tremendous
of said area, onecanseethe areathus in- -
flying boat yith paramedical rescuecreu
scribedforms a roughtriangle- the playing
and possessingthe ultimate in search
groundof forcesunknorn,or perhaps simply equipmentyas
- sent to the aid of the missing
not quite understood, by man. It is an area
Avengers. lChen the l,,lariner
ttasabout20 min-
rife vith UF0, fireballs, strange lighting
utes on its way, tover controlradioedthe
phenomena, andlegend. it is an area fre- rescuecraft. Ihereras n0 ans'{er. Ihe Coast
quentedvithoutmishap daily by heavyseaand
Guard uascaliedout. Ihe seasnerecalmuith
air traffic. Andyet it is an areaof peril. uavesof 2-{ feet. Ihe visibility uasclear,
TheIndiantribes of our areatracebackin andyet thereuasnothingto see. l{odebris,
their history as far as it goesthe strange no survivors. Fromuhat? A merchant ship in
happenings at certaintimes. Strange lights, the areaobserved uhat appeared to be a high
skyquakes, and uhatare definitely rtypical' altitude explosionnith particularlybright
UFO. visual effects later that night (7.10p.m.).
A government inquiryturnedup - nothing.
Fsr those of you unfamiliar uith our
fractiousforces nearby, let me relate an ()neof ny.friends, an electronicengineer,
incident oftengiven as a typical lriangle Has lost on his boat in the Triangle.
happening. 0n Decernber J, 19\5t five I8i{ Air l4r. Dinsrnore couldnot rely on his electrpnic
ForceAvenger bombers tookoff fromFt.Lauder- devices. Hecouldoffer no exolanations. l|e
daleNavalAir Station. As in mostIriangle sinplysold his boat.
incidents, the pilots wereexpert,andfamil- Anotherfriend, scientist Terryitartinez,
iallith the area. 0n a routine tuo hour had a sinilar experiencein his light air-
reconnaissance fiight, startingat 2.00p.m., craft. to Ft.Lauder-
Flyingfromthe Bahamas
ever:ythingseemed normal. FIying conditions dale, his instrunrents failed to function.
nerefine. At 3.45p.m. a message came fron
lleedlessuunguildly, and the sky tfturned
the patrol leader. Anemergency haddevelop- funnyandlookedlike it wasmovinq.rrHegot
ed. Iheycouldnot sight land,andseemed to (to page9 )
LMS ilt)(T000R? (frompageg ) (in the triangle) reporteda bright green
objecias iiig as the noon yith a longuhite
home somehow, andwithin a weekhadsoldhis tail. Nosound reported.
aircraft andmoved to Kansas.
...somemeteorologists who didntt see it
Ihis is the typicalIrianglephenomenon, tagged it a neteor. lhe PAA pilots saythat
Calmseas, clear sky, anddisappearance. ftlo whattheysauyasno neteor. A Marinepilot
bodies, nowreckage, no oil slick - evenover overAndros
Islandsaid it landed gradually on
shallovsea. At timesseaandair craft seem And ros.
fine andare in midnormal transmission nith
base. Perhaps theycouldseethe lights of Ihe lriangleis a home of another enigma,
the city, Craftuith flick-suitchemergencythe UF0. Many planecrashes are the results
S0Stransmitters send no signal. Ihe D.C.] of collisionswith UF0. 0r fireballs, as it
Ariel on January 17, 19{9,sent a nessage of tlere. BaIl lightning and other electro-
allrs uell. Theyuere changingfrsm the magneticphenomena not clearly understood
Bermuda frequencyto pick up Kingstonin havealso caused crashes. BaIl Iightninghas
Jamaica.Thereuasno sign of any troubie, beenknovnto condense, passthrougha key-
andthen - no sign of the Ariel. Kingston hole, expand,andwreckhavocinside. Its
heardnothing, Rescue sawnothing. movements havecaused some scientists to ex-
pound that ball lightningmay in fact be a
Compasses, electronicequipment,and per- typeof electro-magnetic tlife' foundin the
hapsradio, is affected by ulhatever forces upperatmosphere. AreUF0merelyanother type
causethesestrangehappenings. It is known of electro-magnetic phenomenon? Some experts
that rapidlychanging frequency of electro- think so. Therefollowsa reportby the noted
magnetic pulsescanaffect middleear balance, electronicstheorist, [von.
as well as causevisual andemotional disturb-
ances. Thereare theories of areas of ftlt is a well known fact that anyionized
electro-magnetic vortices existingat certain gaseous layer presentsa highly reflective
tines and in certainareas in parts of the surfaceto radartraves. Alsoknownis the
vorld. Conditions couldbe right frequently fact that twobeams of electromagnetic energy,
in the Triangle. But if this theory is yhenintersectingin a rarefiedgaseous atmos-
correct,trhatcauses the vortices? phere, lrill causeionizationto occurrhich,
when moving like a searchlight on a ceiling,
Fireballs are rife in the area, and trill present aIl the descriptive behaviourof
bolides. Ihe followingreport, not at' all sighted saucers- fron circular to cigar
atypicalof the 'fireballsr, uas sent in by shapes,from almost zerovelocity to many
Senior Captainl,r|illiaml'|ash, Pan-Anericantimes abovemachspeeds,and fromslov to
pilot, to OrbitMagazine (vol.11no.1). Ihe
extremely fast accelerations. CoupIe alI this
reportis as follovs:- with the mega-megawatt pulse energiesfrom
...a PAA airplanecrewwith Captain Charles parabolic radarantennaand youhaveall the
IImore in command sau three bright white necessary ingredients of the najority of
liqhts due south of their 0.C.68. ...the saucerreports.rl
tiqhts vere 150 higher than the aircraft. Irve been studyingUfO for abouteight
Theyueremuch brighter than aircraft flares yearsno!,r, andto methe greatestmystery, as
andiarger. Theyappearedto hoverrith the with the Triangle, is that moredefinitive
front twoconnected by a line of light between research hasnot beendone. Logically, one
them. Suddenly theyblinkedout. uith the properscientificattitudewouldwish
Thetorer sawthemtoo - couldnftidentify to searchout the answers. Irve beenout on
them. Ihe timewas8.15p.m. Ihe lights had the Bermuda Triangle myself,in craft as light
fuzzyedges andwereround. Clearnight, n0 as a Folbot,andin otherseaandair craft.
inversion,too bright for reflections. Four Irve beenuatchingthe skies(andthe seas-
persons0n Biscayne Bay reported oddlights - manyof my friends have seenunderwater
movingat sea from about8.05to 8.15p.m. UFO)andhaveseennothingthat nlay not have
Manypersons andpilots saw a very bright hada common, everyday explanation. Most of
streakingobject at ?.5\ p.n. ...airplanes (to paqe19)
Cor 'lstolled"
saucers I lt
F rr\

Mrs. W. Iwo,rtlrl, ol
' Who would hove guessed thot there Boirnsitate;' retatd h.q
exwriences tn 1968wlpn
is o flying souccr ployground in SA? lt her cal uas "stalbd" bg
is in our Mid-North, occording to o young a flving obleet, to the
mon who coma in yesterdoy. montld! meetlng ol tlrg
Botrnsira,Ie. Anliterftifld'
f,.ctth $ptcrflcld, tO, One msy tatrgh Flgtns Oblec* (AF.O.)
ol Alcxandc,r crt{cont, jpcoplc do - but-Kcltlh- grow.
Ohrl.tlcr hrw11, r lreys hc ber thc ne,anct
mcmbcr of tltc .i|cdol lof wttncasco, end'thc/rc
Itlrs Martin sald she crr-
countered the objeet rphlle
Fhcnornenr R.rca,tlch ,wtlllng to bc quotcd. xtr drlvtng home abng Bredt
Group, cinc ln rltlr hts igroup rpcnt ?30 men- 'Street.
lrltc, Fctcr Forcg f6, lhourt tnvcctlgrilng MId, ghe seld that tlrls was
of Sltrey d.roct, Olon- lNorth dghtlntl.
eldc, e mdlbc of Up i KcttJr and Pctcr ny: not an lsolated hctdent tn
Rfldrlh |.I|d InvGrtcr- i'Ttc dqr't ny therc tbe distrlct, ss tso oths
tlon. iAntr nying ,errufr - cars hot'o bcia rDortedly
followed by ItF.O.'s for
Thclc Ybtc tr. r lol- rhs Y.t bGtlcrc.-tlrac
qprtn mv!t-
ebqrt 20 E$6;.
lm-up to my tta l:S:rytlf t! addltton, llrs !fiartln
r,Dots-tlhtportrg ntun- iEt&Hn8'" sald lnterfelltrce vltlr e
ur or u$o radrn rn i^ + ,.thq tnv{tlsrte bcrd ttr tJrc area
84. E {th r'yr tlrc r,ua lAnS tinl:.c q !c.n9!r1
ttrc pa,ralleled g, $mfhr oc-
Nohh--il-Uccn ihc ,r-rd-$TplblG *qs, curgnco at Wtllow Gnoveltr
plryFilnd d It!O. 1q4 rbolc trun8 gbcy cvcn 1968.
Drrv tir1. brvc XE tqrlctlnd
ApDarently tbe clcc
BlaL !n tit ls| prodtrrl ty of a II.F.O. bd
pcoplr t*l thodt UShti c&urcd tlre cottle lctrt6
in itrc fu,-hc rrri * 'ADlfEllSF dlstrr6s, atrd ln tho locrl
rn{ t dry l|ld l$ddli lnoldent the cott'ls toots
p! @ h t tr ttrrn tl tour hqrrs to gCt'lpdoqm
ftIrttr norc tn thf Adahlda, S.A. aft.r fllG tncsmtcr.
ift Tldr|l to brp b Tha. Dclrn|ddo .i'pup
t&cn d rt... tZ/g/lt. tecb &rt thq dcdtr @.
ca!F tDd" es@ lndloeti
Tno FtFtprodc rv that tlr.. !t!ng Sreta.isc
r t f Y hlf . H rx r rttrdylnt fld*t! d rr!s.
hutrr . . ,.t' Ddl o(: "i$ca
lltr Slr tda nrr Gtrro,
tttdr rf!,. ;.. ilh rrAD\tERTISERTt

B A T RNS DA L E ,V rC. , 1 5 / 1 1 / 7 1 .
IHtl'lt0f AT N'CLIFF
A Nightcliff man rnd his fiveyear.old
daughter sew what rhey fhink wa3 rn unldenfi.
Audnllrn *lcntlstr
fied {lying obiect over ihe .northern tubrlrbr oo
Sunday night.
ScnGrrlly h.d mrolGailnc Mr Mick Taytor., of Bougsinvillea $treet. sald
rttttuda to thc Dr,oblcur yesterday he was driying along progress Drive to-
ol unllcntlici lylnl ob- wardsrhe city sbout 8.30pm.
JGcE Dr. E E. Eor.lon, ol "I saw rhree bright lights to iite south,- he sald.
A ddr Llc Ullrcrrlty "They were in e triangular fornrltion, and were
Dbydcs al"trrrtmcnt *itt like white fhrorescent llghts,
todey. '{lhe;r didn't move and tlre1. rnade ns noise,
just hr.i.rg ihele.
Fcrr of rlillculc rra thc
main terson. "I watched them for aboub l0 minutes then
dBut by ilirml$lng canied on with my drive.
the "When I returned they *ere gone.
rbolc prdblcn of UFOs.
"Later we founci our five-year.-olil daughter un-
they coutd rell bc neglect- del her bed.
Int investigrtlona yhicb
could lced to sEnlncrnt "11'e a:ked her why and she said she had woken
sc{cntinc allrcov.rlcr .bout 3p _qlq -ceen thnc bright ghts in the iky, so rhe
hail bidtleu under tbe beil."
the nrturc ol thc uni- Mr Ta)'lor said the lights ri:re definitely not
Ycilc," hc lrld. ah aircraft.
llr. Ilorton till bc one of
thc !scg3 rpoakeir al a ollEws,
symposlua1 rt Adelatilc
Unlvcnlty on Oeiobcr !O
rimcd rt cha4llag thc at- Dlrwln, N.T.
iitrde ol the nafurlty of
Other rtrcr'Lcrs at thc
synporinn, helil by tbe
Austrrllu and New Zea-
btrd A&ocbtlon for the
Advaaceiacnt of Bclcnce
Inc. rln hcluilc notcd
Irhyrlctrtr. trtrroag6s6
.d Dctcorolotlrl& 12/'t o/71 .
toliq rlll Ineludc
Brisbene, Qld.
crrolartlou ol ihc hypo-
thdr- tl.f ttFO. rG!
el'rrt\ coolnrhf
tGr of dthC!3t iltl BELGBADE, MoD" {AAP) ! Spccutrtlon rbont un-
brr lr ae rrlr& ldGntlllGd tlylng obl.otl, UFOI, hrg grlpDqf YuSos-
Ele fi*rr$a l6DDl|rd. lrrlr.ilth $ rceat.d dtbtlrye ln lf drrs.
r.a i,
tle ct dtilr d VeeernJe Novostl. thc ferglgE clrcuLtloD news-
peper ln tlie countr:r, puburhc.l r ffrotosrBph ssld to
Irtroa Irava becD taken by r tacbnicsl scbool tcacl[r rt
fedulln" on tJro Adi{rtsc oast of . bltrrrcd thlttch
rurnd obJect wtth e cotl $rpcd llko e ennr.
ol,lAll" j6/ ja/tt. It wrs said to crnlt Ughtstron8?r tIen tbc moqr.
The DaDar elso Srid tbc Astrumical gocftriy of
Seralevo-sightcd tro I'FS In &ylLbt tlroufh r
teleaop. Ooe was dc*rlbcd !a r r.hltG trlaniular
AdbLide, S.A. objeet. rnd the other ?hltc rlth a,n trrclulrr shape"

by L. E . Ada m

(c o r u cL u n r o) Thusfor a gi ven thrust, a smal i ermass-

fLow i s possi bl e i f the vel oci ty of the
i^]ORK? exhaustcan be i ncreased. Thi s i s obvi ousl y
an economiconsi c derati ondi rectl y i n l i ne
I he c onc epto f i o n e n g i n e si s n o t n e w . In
1 9 n a r oc k e t e n g i n e e r, H e rma n nO b e rth , vi i h our earl i er comment uponthe useful pay-
d is c us s edt he t he o ry o f s u c h a s y s te mi n a l oad stati sti cs.
p a per pr es ent ed b e fo reth e 1 9 2 9t' j u n i c htn g i n - Thesi gni fi cance of exhaustvel oci ty i s
e e r ing Conf er en c e . H o w e v e r,, i t t.ta s o n i y brought out by exami nati on of the fol l ow i ng
theor y and not a c c e p te w d i th e n th u s i a s d mu e equati onw hi chappl i es to any rocketor j et:-
p robablyt o lac k o f k n o w l e d g e T . ra n s l a ti o no f
h is t heor ies int o p h y s i c a lh a rd u ra re Vr = Ys loge (U/l'to)
h a s h a d to
wait unt il m ode rnd a y d e v e l o p m e n ts i n th e w hereV r = i s the vel oci ty i m-
n ec es s arengine
y e ri n ga n d s c i e n ti fi c d i s c i p - partedto a rocket,
l i nes . f ur t her n o re , u n ti l th e re c e n ta d v e n t of i ni ti al massl ' 1by
o f s pac ef light t h e n e e dfo r s u c ha p ro p u l s i o n the consumpti on of a
sy s t emf ailed t o s h o wa n y s i g n i fi c a n c e . rnass (u-lto; of fuel
I n t he ion en g i n e , a s w i th th e a l re a d y w i th an exhaustvel -
fam iliar c hem ic a l fu e l e n g i n e , th ru s t i s oci ty of V e.
d e r iv edby t he r a p i d e x p u l s i o no f e x h a u s fro
t m |\OIt: Themassof the rock-
wit hin t he engin e . B u t, i n s te a do f a c h e m i c a l et w henal l the fuel
p r oduc tof c om bu s ti o n th n e e x h a u so t f th e i o n has beenconsumed is
e nginec ons is t s o f p o s i ti v e l y c h a rg e da to rn s , Mo.
o r ions . I he t h ru s t g e n e ra te db y a n i o n
e nginedepends( a g a i n a s w i th a c h e mi c afu l el It i s cl qarl y desi rabl ethat the percent-
age fuel w ei ghtshoul dbe as l ow as possi bl e
e ngine) on t wo t h i n g s - th e ra te a t w h i c hth e
s0 that the massrati o M/Moshoul dtend to-
u nit c ons um es f ue l , a n d th e v e l o c i ty o f th e
w ardsuni ty.
e x hau st.
The most acti ve chemi calrocket fuel i s
Let us ex ami n th e i s k n o w l e d o ema th e ma ti c-
l i qui d-hydrogen/l i qui d-oxygen, w hi chgi ves an
a lly : -
exhaust vel oci ty of 1.5 K M/second. B y
P = l4V/T contrast, exhaustvel oci ti es of from 10l (| u1/
secondto 100K M/second are fai rl y common w i th
wher eP = th ru s t
the experi mental i on engi nes.
l'4fT= mass-flow/second
Ihe fi rst experi mentali on propul si on
V : e x h a u svt e l o c i .ty . (to page11)


Ioil tilGIl{ts (frompage12) mercury vapourwithin the tiny confinesof the

ion chamber for as longas possible. Thisis
system,StRI-1 (Space tlectric Rocketlest), accomplished by the ueaknagneticfield abort
yasflovn by the UnitedStatesof Anericain
the ion chanber. Throughout this lengththe
1964anda number of othersystemsare under engine is maintainedat the tenperature
developmentin the U.S.A. [urope and requircdto boil the nercuryinto vapour. Ihe
(presunably)Russia. Ihe U.S.A.' is currently
plasma,vith the nerarryatonsionised, now
pursuingtm ign propulsionprogrammes. Ihe entersthe plasmachamber.Ihe plasmachanber
first is StRI-l1,directedtorardsdemonstrat- is in fact an anode(the ralls are positively
ing the longtem operatibn of an ion engine charged) and,therefore,attractsandcollects
in- space,rtrile the secondSCTPSI (Sett-
the excitedelectronsbut repelsthe positive
containedIlectric PropulsionSystens Tech- mercury ions. At the ropenrendof the plasna
nology), is designedto developthe po,rer chamber a fine screengrid which is main-
generationapparatus for the supportof flight tainedat a negativepotentialslightly less
ratedsystems-in orbit.
than the cathode,and uhich repels the
Tro possiblefuels, mercuryand caesium, electronsbackinto the plasma chamber.
naybe employed in ion engines,but mercuryis Further control is exercised by an
easierto handle andis less reactivechemic- electromagnetic field aboutthe plasma chanber
ally and so is preferred. lihrcury also vhichforcesthe positivenercuryions totards
satisfiesall the requirements:- the exhaustend but tends to restrainthe
(a) Lo, boiling point - necessary in order lighter electrons. As an electronueighsonly
to save on the pouer generation oneeighteen-hundredth the ueightof a proton
requirements I or neutron, any reaction of forcesis insig-
nificant. l.lhenthe positive mercuryions
(U) tov ionisationpotential - in other
speedthroughthe screengrid theycome into
vords ,easily ioniseC; again saving the influence of a secondgrid the
pouer; -
accelerator grid. Ihis secondgrid is
(c) Highatomicueight(200.61)- in other maintained at betreen 1000 to 1000 volts
uords very heavy therebyextending negative with respectto the cathodeandthus
this densityandreight to the nassof the mercury ions, whichare alreadymoving at
the particles. For a conparison,, the a veryhigh speedr'are further accelerated to
atornic reight of hydrogen is 1.008. an extremely high velocity. Ihis velocityis
directly proportionalto the voltagepresent
Threebasic operationscharacterise the grid therebyaffording.a
on the accelerator
operation of the ion engine. These are:- the veryeffectivespeed iontrol. (to page1{)
production of ions; their accelerationin an
electric field; anC the neutralisingof the
resultantion beam.
(ns vill be seenin the diagram),mercury
is heatedandboils into a hot vapour. Ihe
vapourthenpasses into a holloucathodetthe
innerralls of rhich are coatedtith a mixture
of barium, strontiumandcalciunbarbonates. THISSOCITTY UOUID APPRICIATI
Thiscoatingemitsfree electronscopiouslyat READIRST RtP0RlS 0ll U.F.0.s.
relatively lou tenperatures. Ihe engine is
virtually staried by the extremeiJhigh PLIAST FOR}'ARDIO P.O.BOX 4',
frequency arcing of vhat is essentially a yooRABBIilrVICToRIA 1189,
sparkplug. A greatprofusionof fast moving
electronsis thus liberatedand tlris excited AUSIRALIA.
plasnathen flor{s into a narrouorifice rhich
is the ion chamber.
Ions are produced by electronbombardment
thereforeit is necessary to hold the neutral
IONI NG I NT S (fro m p a g e1 J ) consi derabliemportance nowbecauseoal though
the i on engi nei tsei f w ei ghsaboutthe sameas
I he m agnit ud e0 f th e th ru s t a tta i n e d i s a rocketengi ne, the fuel requi rement i s onl y
by t h e fo rmu l a :-
d e m ons t r at ed 4,015l us. i or a l aunchas agai nstl t6' 000l bs.
W. P\l\z of chemi cal fuel . Furthermore,the total
w ei ght of the atorni cgeneratori s Iess.than
hl = the Power
where of the ex- 1J,000l bs. i ncl udi ngshi ei di ng. i here i s an
haustbeam. evi dent useful payl oad extensi on of about
P = the thrustgenerated. 28,955l bs. w hi ch real l y means a rnuchsmal l er
rocket can do the samej ob as the presentsi ze
V = the velocity of the systems.
ions in the beam.
T IONtN GIN i s:
5. T[! FU IU R9F
Z = the efficiencyof the
engine. Thevi der use of the i on engi nehas unti l
very recentl ybeeni nhi bi ted by the l ack of a
Iypicalvaluesfor thesequantitiesare:- y zed pow erpl ant for
sui tabl e, economi cal lsi
W= 500Watts. the suppl y of the hi gh order of vol tages
requi redto attai n useful thrust from the i on
V = J0 KM/Second. engi ne. H ow ever,w i th the advent of the
I = 9AX. developrnent by the Atdrnictnergy Commission of
the mi ni ature atomi c generati on pl ant' the
whichleadsto a thrustof probl emw oul dappear to have been sol ved.
or about0.0i KgperWatt/Second.Thi s i s not yet the case. There ari se nou
Thecontinued expulsionof positiveions severalprobl emsaffecti ng the practi cal use
wouldresult in a graduallyincreasingneg- of sucha system.
ative charge buildingup on the engine andits ti rstl y, the di sarmament agreements sti l i
spacecraft, whichwouldeventually preventthe bei ngpursuedcoui dbe retrogressi vel yaffect-
engine fromfunctioning. It is, therefore, ed by the pl acement of an atomi cdevi ce i nto
important to maintainan electrically neutral space. N extw oui dappearthe resi stance,out
spacecraft structure,andthis is achieved by of uneducated fear, to the propui si onof an
neutralisingthe ion bearn after the ionshave atomi creactor i nto the upperatmosphere and
beenaccelerated. Ilectrons,vithdravn from out i nto space. Onehas onl y to recal i the
the plasmain the plasma charnber,are dis- tremendous resi stance to the rtS avanahrr, an
charged into the beanfrom a suitablyshaped atomi c pow eredmerchantshi p. Therew erea
probewithoutdisturbingthe beam. consi derablnumber
e of ports throughoutthe
4. POt,'tIR.RiOUIRTMTNIS: w orl d w hi ch w oul d not permi t entry of the
S avanah. Thi s w asdespi tethe perfectl y safe
Thepacingfactorin the development of an reactor systemaboard. S trangel ythough'the
efficient and economic ion propulsion system w orl dfs nucl earpow ered submari neshave not
has been,until recently,the iackof a iight encountered thi s sameresi stance. P erhaps we
weightelectrical powersource. |l|hilechem- are ostri ches. !/hat' re cantt l ee can' t affect
icai fuel enqinesare self sufficient(needing usi l he poi nt, perti nentl y, i s that there i s
onlyfuel ani oxidant), ion enginesrequire a substanti alanount of effort to be exerted
iargequantitiesof electricpower. to attunemanrsthi nki ng tow ardacceptanceof
Recently a miniatureatomicreactor'based thi s formof pouer.
0n the principleof the greatheatgenerated hl hen the ,rorl d does acceptthi s useful
beingappliedto a Peltiereffectgenerator of formof propul si onnot onl y w i l l ' re see the
150fu output,hasbeendeveloped. Based on great benefi ts i n terms of spaceronecan
the earlier formuladiscussed, wecanachieve i eadi l y i magi netransportand i ndustryof the
around41,000|(gof thrust. Thisequalsabout future leaning more toward an ion pouered
993.761lbs. of thrust, whichis quite compar-
systemof thrust or force.
abtewith chemical fuel systems.
(to page15)
Theweightfactorof the ion engineis of
I U! \ LI lrJ l N t : f f r nm nanp ' tL \ ti resel aci .sappear w hen comgared
w i th riata
OOlllOtleC IfOfi " " -,+6;
SUTngnIl(.,ri.fiii .i ^;+;.^^
:,tiliii iiiil5 ^+ UI U3'
b. lNiL R L s l l N { . r l ' U I N l 5 :
L e t us pr e- s upp o sth e a t a n o th e r c i v i l -
i sa ti o n s ay 0nLy 5 0 y e a rs a h e a d o f u s ,
te ch n o logic ailys peaki n gth a t i s , w o u l d h a v e
o ve rcomtehe pr oblemw s e fa c e to d a y . T h i s i s
n o t a n unr eas onabl e p re -s u p p o s i ti o na n d a
n u mb e0f r int er es t ing f a c ts e me rg e :-
(a ) iv en in our p re s e n ti o n e n g i n e sth e
ex haus t v eloc i ty o f th e p o s i ti v e
m er c ur yions c a n b e ma d eto g re a tl y
ex c eedt he s pe e d o f l i q h t. B y th e
laws of physicswe knowthat we must
ac hiev ea t hr u s t v e i o c i ty g re a te r th a n
t hat r equir edi n s p e e do f th e th rrrs t- A U S TR A LIA
R IV Ii l ' /
ing v ehic le. T h e re fo re , i f our
ex haus vt eloc i ty e x c e e d th s e speed of NUt: ii has beendeci dedthat A U S IR A LIA N
light by a c o n s i d e ra b lm e a rg i nth e n FLYIl.lG
SAUCIRRIVItI,' vi l l revert to bei no
t heor et ic ally o u r s p a c e c ra ft c o u l d
c r os sv as t v oid s o f s p a c e i n s ma l l
numbered in tvolumes? and there ui 11, i n
s ec t ionsof t im e . Thus it is not fu ture, be si x i ssuesto a vol ume.
unr eas onable to o re s u mth e at civii-
is at ions f r om a n o th e r g a l a x y c o u l d
r eac hus in m o n th sw h e re a sa j o u rn e y of thosew hopossessback-
F o r the conveni ence
of s ir nilar m a g n i tu d ev o u l d ta k e c e n t-
n u mbers
of A IS Rn;ryi t be know nthat the fi rst
ur ies by c her n i c aful e l p ro p u i s i o n .
(b) trJehaveused mercurypowerediighting s even i ssues, dati ng from January1960 to
s y s t em sin our s tre e ts fo r m a n yy e a rs N ovember
1962,ui l t become
V 01.1.N os.1-7.
and m any of u s a re . q u i te w e l l
ac quaint ed wit h th e b l u e /p u rp i el i g h t
r adiat ed. T h ee x h a u s t fro m a n ' i o n Ih e next ei ght i ssues,dati ng froml 4ay1964to
engineus ing p o s i ti v e me rc u ryi o n s i s
1 9 68,w i l l become
V ol ,2. N os.1-8.
t he s am eblue/p u rp l el i g h t w h e ni n th e
at r nos pher e.H o w e v e r, th e c o l o u r d o e s
under goa c h a n g ea c c o rd i n g to th e
po'rerof the thrust. At lott powerthe Ih e current seri es, al readyi ssued to | t| o.4.,
I es s er am oun to f m e rc u ryi o n s b e i n g w i l l become
V ol .J. N os.' l -6. S uch i denti fi c-
ex haus t ed m ix e sw i th th e o ra n g e sa n d
a t i on vi l l henceforthappear 0n the front
blues of t he a tm o s p h e reto c a u s ea
bluis h gr eenli g h t to a p p e a r,u h i l e a t c 0 ver.
high power t he p o w e rfu l b l u e Ii g h t
c onr est hr oughi n i ts fu 1 1 c o l o u r.
(c) T henois e of a n i o n e n g i n e i s v e ry
muchakin to the humof an electric
gener at or at l o w 0 r c ru i s i n g p o l te r,
wher eas y hent h e th ro tti e s a re o D e n e d
f uil out t he n o i s e c h a n g e sto o n e
s im iiar t o a v a c u u mc l e a n e r. Ih e
v olum eof t his n o i s e i s o n l y a b o u to n e
per c ent t hat o f a Bo e i n g7 0 7 .
N ow t he int er es ti n qc u e s ti o ni s : l l o wd o
PAIIIIIII6S (frompagef ) the portraits of the t/ondjina. Ihe creatures
r o t 5.
r l- . . ^ I tL^
Llr E IEu
rL- L--f who the portraits representdid themthem-
R u u vc - 1rr:,
a -^f udr !u 6luuilu Lilu iludu
is, as Greydreuit, obviously a fhalot,and selveswhentheyrere on earth. t{outheyhave
on the halo appearcertainmarks uhichlook returnedto the skyandcanbe seenat night
Iike charactersin rlriting. Ihe striking as lights movinghigh abovethe earth, but
thing aboutthesecharacters is that they also since their creativeyorkyas completed they
appearcarvedon stonesin certainparts of havenot openlyreappeared.
SouthAmerica. Professor Homet, whoexamined Ihe discouery that the Aborigines are auare
thesecarvedstones, concluded that the marks of strangemovinglights in the sky is
rere madeat least 10,000andpossiblyas interesting,to saythe least. ll|hoknoyshow
long as J0,000years ago. (10,000years, manyU.f.0. reports,downthroughthe years,
intetestinglyenough,is the dategiven;for the Aborigines couldprovide us r,rith if ue
the Aboriginalrs migrationto Australia). Ihe couldonlyaskall of them.
fact that the markswhichHomet reproduced in
Ihe Aborigines do not seetimeas a fixed
S0NS 0F THtSUtlare the sameas those which
and orderly force, moving everonrardsat the
Greyfound in the halo aroundthe headof the pace, but as a kind of statewheremove-
Aborigines'sacredfigure, the f/ondjina,nust
mentsin any direction can be made.Ihe
strengthenthe belief that the paintings are trJondjina,
portraits of a superiorpeopleonceknown which to [uropeansare unreal
otherpartsof the worldandeveryvhere figures living only in myth, are to the
ident- just as materialas are the kanga-
ified with the inrmortalgods. Aborigines
roos, snakes andotheraninaispaintedalong-
Attemptshavebeenrnade to explainauaythe side them. They are associatedwith the
figuresas relics of a religiouscult perhaps lights in the sky. Ihe Aborigines believe
introducedby early missionaries.llouever, theselights to be the embodiment of their an-
this doesnot standup to examination as the cestors,the creators of their world;thusthe
paintingsare too old for this to have been Wondjina andthe strangelights are identical.
the case. Thepaintings, horever,do prove
that [uropean colonists were not the first A featureof nativeart rhichhasconsider-
civilized visitors to Australia. Mostim- able bearingon the interpretationof the
portantof all is the fact that the Aboriqines hlondjinapainiingsis that the Aborigines are,
tipace above all, naturalisticpainters. Apartfrom
lhemselves seem to support the
visitors' hypothesis. a fer conventional stylizationsanddecorative
motifs, all the figures theypaint on rock
Ihe lJondjina,they S?y, were tcreative surfaces are takenfrornIife, oftenaccurately
ancestral beingsrwho visited them in the detailed. Amongthe more modernpictures
earliesttimesandare still alive. At their found in the Kirnberley Range areaare shorn
first appearance theycame as creators, form- Japanese sailorsandsoldiers in 19thCentury
ing the landscape andestablishingall the uniform,an early Dutchcolonist'rearingclogs
institutionsof nativelife. When theilrork and a remarkable Crucifixionsceneshouinq
uasdonetheyenteredinto a caveanddied, a nativesnaiiedto the cross andcenturians ii
conpanion paintingtheir portraits on a rock uhatlookslike the uniform,of the RoyalAust-
tla11. Then,according to the Aborigines, they ralian Air Force. Wouldit not be strangeif
passed on to anotherplaneof existence.lhey the Uondjinauere the only purelyimaginary
are still responsiblefor the continuation of figures in the Aboriginesrrockgalleries?
naturallife, birth of babies, the corning of Andis it not presumptuous of the rhite manto
rain and all aspectsof fertility and, to disrnissthem as such, simply becausethe
maintaintheir pouerr the natives retouch creatures they representhave not appeared
their portraitsat a certaintimeof the year, during the shortperiodof [uropean coloniz-
a dutywhichtheystrictly observe. ations? Ihe nativeshave an explanation for
all their pictures, includingthoseof the
Uponone thing the Aborigines are insist-
ent. Although theyadmitto their racehaving colonists,andwhentheysaythat the Wondjina
paintedaIl the other rock figuresnthey wereearlyvisitors to Australiait is hardto
absolutely denyhavinghadanything to douith (to Pagetf )
TIII UOI{DJII{A PAII{TINGS (frompage16) horseshoe synbol of the nen fron the sky
becamethe synbol of their vehiclat the
disbelievethem on that point alone: part- seroent.
icuiarlysincesimilarbeings,menuith uhite
skinandfair hair, play such an important Ihe Aborigines tell of a tDreamtimerr a
part in the early legends of CentralandSouth wonderful idytiic age in the past. whena
Ame ri ca. people'fortmilly knovnon earth, lived in a
state outsidetimeandtrhen the languageof
Besidesthe legends,which explain the the animalscould be understood by men. I
}londiina portraits, there are otherindicat- seemto remember a certain Garden of [den
ions' that the Aborigines uereoncein contact rhosestoryuasvery similar.
with a superiorraceof creative,civilizing
people. It is clear that at onetimethey 0f the ancientrockdrauingsfoundin many
iorineda far more advanced and organized parts of the norld PeterKolosimo,writing in
society than theydo nov - before hot of mts hl0RLD, hasthis to say, trInAust-
theyare at this time, in dangerof losing ralian caverns and on the rocksthereue find
alm6st every vestige of their culture' innumerable designs of this nature,only a fer
religion. of uhich have been accurately examined and
including anyformof coherent
photographed under the auspices of the t{ation-
Certainof the Aboriginesr artifactsare 'at Uuieumbut they are enoughto shouthe
outstanding.the boomerang, example,is
for extraordinary affinity with those of the
something far abovetheir presentlevel of Sahara. Heads withoutmouths,and clothes
culture.-In a stagnant societylike that of seemingable to suggestonly overalls 0r
the Aboriginalthe evoiution of sucha tech- suits:- howcan r,,e interprettheseextrenely
nically sophisticatedobject uould be i1- ancientrockpictures, considering that the
conceivable.Iherecanbe no doubtthat this aborioinesIived and still livsn (in theii
is a survivalfromtimesvhen the lavs of naturil state) rtquitenaked- rhuman symbolst,
aerodynamics, 0n vhich it is undoubtedly as one anthropologist hasput it, tof a most
based,uereactivelystudied. Thefact that rernoteprehistoricPeriodt?il
some tribes haveentirely forgottenthe useof in
it andotherskeepit only as a toy, shot'ls how Kolosimo,describingfiguresdiscovered
the !{oomera area bf South Australiat goes on
easily it mighthavebeenlost in the general
decline (particularlyafter coming in contact to say, tt0neof themhason his chestcertain
marks-uhich at oncesuggest the snrallorifices
vith the uhite man) of
0n sonespace-suits, uhile in anotherone
Ihe lJondjina, the gods from the sky vho thereare tuo objectssketched nhichappearto
first established the lawsof men, appearin be head-phones. But the most curiousdrauing
the cavesrearing over their headsthe in- is the oneon a rounded rocknhichcanonly be
verted horseshoe.'So do the god figures seenin its entirety fromonepoint. rUeare
carvedthousands of yearsago on the rocksof almosttemptedto think that the artist must
Mexico,SouthAmerica andCentralAsia. In havewantedto shovbotha space-ship andthe
this syrnbolof the superiorracecanalso be sceneqoinq on at the foot of the vehiclera
seenthe origin of the halo. journalist (Seep.51of rllot of lhis
0n the rockualls placed in relationship I.Jorldt).
uith the Uondjina appearsthe figure of..the Ihe bookcontinues, tttfhsssdesignsr,Prof.
rainbouserpeit, archinghis backprotective- Atexei Kasanzev says' fallude to unknovn
ly overthe vorld in exactlythe same uayas beings rho must have visited [arth several
Itut, the Egyptiangoddess of the dead. Ihe thouiand yearsago. blemustcontinueto study
rainbouserf6irt alio figuresin the-mythology anddiscuis them. hlecantalk it overwith
of the Iniians of the rest coastof America. everyconceivable argumentbut there is . no
Ihe invertedhorseshoe shape of the rainbow iustification for ignoringthem. I Theresult-
serpent demonstrates a reversal of the tnore ino discoveries and details emerging from
usualprocess by rrhich, fromrepresenting the caieful examinations confirm the validity of
vehicle of the gods,the snakecame to stand this O
for the godsthemselves.In this case the

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peldnoc ol sI 'VSn eql - plrol eql l0 slueuurarog (T)
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- aqo.rd peuueu Jo aqo.rd palueunJlsul ue puTJ ol aiqe eq 1q6rus.leroldxe le11e1sla1dr
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asor& lo euns leql alqlssod li sl (II) lnl.rerrodJo esneql qlln 'e1r11ua6111e1u1
pe:osuods earq ol ,qbnouaelqels pue plo
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ol rmul ler {ue uI Jol pelumcceoq tgll 'uo1qse1
uer sOuIlqOIsoros leql l!rye peuollueu (t a0ed uorl1 tSvdsJ0 t0llvu0ldx3 lHl
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t[L LAI LUt\il tVlt vt JrnuL \ | | uu ^^^- t(, ,, UIUJ UTLN JUUIN AUJINALIA - I"I.
ft--- r--:J- !-^r. -\
|| uil r||sluB u6un uuvct, --..-
Fortunatelythroughthe centuries a fev \
" -r' andlearned nenhavesneculated a narcnts- and navp hi s arrnrrnt i n a etrai nhi
Iittle noreobjectively and yith the rise of andlogical nanner. Crossquestioning failed
Science,the egocentric vieu of the Universe to revealanydiscrepancies in the account.
hasbeendealt a seriesof deathblors. Ihese
men'began A physical check of the areaconcerned
to formulatetheoriesto account for failed to produce
rhat they hadobserved,andthesetheories- anylikely explanation.
some of themquite fantastic - shoyedthe mind (Credit:Hr, K. Easterfieid for A.P.R.G.)
of man at trorkon the problens andpuzzlesof
the Universe. Iheir theories yere the
steppingstonesto our presentday knorledge.
TheCopernican Theory,for instance,displaced
the tarth fromits centralposition to become
just one 0f the many planetscircling round !{HoLivrsiltxl D00R ? (tron page9)
the Sun. Andthe Sun,in turn, las recognised myfriendshave. I shall continueto research
to be just one of the countless billions of UF0, as well as the lriangle. My neighbour
stars - in no uayunusual. next doorhasnot shoun his face, s0 perhaps
if Itm given enough free time and the proper
Then fossil evidence,buried deep in the
craft, I shali go to visit him. If he proves
[arthrscrust, establishedthat the ]iving
kind enoug.h,I shall introduceyouto him. If
species, includingman, uereno specialtAct
he'suilling. O
of Creationt.Culminating in the 0arninian
Iheoryof [volution,the scientific viey of
mandisposed, as nothingelse had,of his vain
illusions of specialprivilegein the scheme
of cosmicthings.
Thebroader perspective
thusgained, posedin
turn a bolderquestion. If, as astronomycon- EACKISSUIS AVAILABLE
firms, our microscopiccornerof the llniverse
is a fair averageexanplerith nothingextra- COPITS
ordinaryaboutit, uhyshouldthe tarth be the
oneandonly hauntof living creatures? Does ISSUISOFIHI AIJSIRALIAII
life exist elsewherein the Universe?Llhv
indeedshouldbiologicaldevelopnent be limitl v01.2,ilO.5.(pnmtrD) posIAGt.
{7c, it{cLUDrnc
ed to just oneisolatedspeck? p0sTAGE.
v01.2,ilo.7.(pntrte0){70, rilcLUDIilG
It rould seemthen, that in the faceof all p0sTAGt.
v01.2,tt0.8.(pnlntro){7c, ItrcLUoIilG
that nanhaslearned, to believethat he yas
tspeciallycreatedtandthat of all the vast
stellar systens, tarth is the sole abode
life, is ludicrous.I v0L.lrilO.r. '2',
(Dupttcltro) posl.
t20, IficLUDInG
T0:- V.U.F.0.R.S.,
SOCITil p.0. 80x+r, M00RA3BI[{,
f,,tttis 0f{iHi stcol{D
tAcHttr0ilIH (txcrptJAilUARY)"

U F O s O V ER S OU T H AU ST RALI A - 1971.

By kind perrission of tuo SouthAustralian A SouthAustraliancountryneuspaper clipp-

groups ue are able to publlsh the follouing ing cameto light on September 2t' 19?1'
recent reports of sightingsreceived and headlinedrrBuzzedby UF0trtuhich promisedan
investigatedby thosegroups. interesting report. An investigationuas
thereforecarried out by Mr. K. Basterfield
lCequote fromthe detailednReportSheetsrr of (Aerial PhenonenaResearch 6roup), on 0ct.2.
the AtRiALPtltl{01,'lillA
GROUPof South
Australia,P.0. Box11{, ChristiesBeach 5'155, Firstly, the editor of the paperuhichhad
nouincorporated rith published the .item tas intervietedandcon-
the ttustralian UFOReporilr publishedby firned the details given in the brief item.
U.f.0. R'ISEARCH P.0. 8ox51,
& IIIVISTIGATI0II' Hestatedthat the ritness, a male 51 years
Glenside,SouthAustraliaj065. o1danda P.l,l.G.enployeevas highly regarded
by all uhoknerhin, and that he personally
rculd vouchfor him.
At 12.35a.a. on 11thFebruary1971, a Ihe uitness ras subsequently interviered
group of vharfmenrere un'loadinga uheat andthe follovingdescriptiongained.
ship at Ceduna (someS0 miles north-uestof
Adelaide)vhenthey obsorved an unusualobject At 1810 0n the 8th August1971he stated
in the sky. that he had been travelling eastuardsfron
Uallarooto Kadina,SouthAustralia' alonein
Ihe desmiption given ras of an oval- his car. Approxinatelythree rniles fron
shaped,bluish-uhiteobject fron lhich vas Kadinahe reportedly noted: that the entire
projecteda beanr of rhite light' onto the sea. areaaroundhimvas lit rith an orangeglor.
Thediarneterof this beamon the vater vas He looked around for sooeexplanationbut
estinatedas 15 feet, and the objectitself couldfind nothingto accountfor the glor.
ras about500feet in altitude.
Suddenly,his car enginestoppedandhis
Ihe object approached fron the south-east lights uent out, He stoppedthe car and
at aboutthe speedof a light airraft' passed pulled in to the side of the road' there being
over the ship andcontinuednorth-vesttorards no other cars on the roadat the tine. Hegot
Oenial8ay. As it passedsoundlessly overr n0 out hoping to find some explanationfor the
associated lights $ereseenr e.g. navigation occurronce.
Iights. Oneuitnessuhouas imnediatelybelou
the object sav only the vhite beanas it srept Uponlookingfor the source of the bright
over the ship. glou he noted,almostoverhead, a dark colour-
id, oval-shaied object, vith l-4 tindorsn in
Thevitnesses uere adanantthat the object it, out of vhich streanedthe orangelight.
vas not an aircraft due to the absenceof lhis orangelight also eminated fron the ott-
noiseandnavigationlights. Tuoof the uit- side of the object, andlit all of oneside of
nessesalso contactedthe airfield at Ceduna the roadandthe adjacentl(adinarace-course.
andvere independently informedthat there had
beenno traffic in the area at the time Ihe object hadonered andonegreenlight
concerned. on it, andhe estinrated that its dianetervas
someJ0 feet. It appearodto be, thoughit
Investigationsrevealed ex- ras difficult to judge, 1fl feet abovethe
no conventional
planationfor the report. ground,as it hovered for 2-J minutes in the
(credit:*r". to, A.P.R.c.) onespot. Hecouldonly standanduatch.
:..*:'lu:':nl (to next page)


AUSIRALIA g l o wi ngw i th a fl uorescentw hi te. It w asnot
(from page20) F e r fectl v shapedas i t tapered at oneend,
Ih e re w eredefi ni tel y no l .ti nqs cr an' 1| i ' ' :Cof
Afte r t his dur at ion, th e o b j e c t m o v e o ff pr0 t ru0erances.
to th e s out h- easov t e r th e ra c e -c o u rs e . At
th i s p oint he r e- ent e re d h i s v e h i c l e a n d The obj ect movedeastvards 0n an even
sta rte d t he m ot or , andd ro v eh o m e to i n fo rm c o u rse i n an apparent strai ght l i ne. at a
hi s w i fe of t he inci d e n t. H i s w i fe h a d c o n stantspeed,w hi chw asesti mated at about
i rn rn e diat elygoneout s id e a n d i n th e n o rth - 2 0 0m.o.h.
n o rth -eas t er n s k y r epo rte d l yo b s e rv e dth e s a m e I t di sappeared fron vi ew i n the di stance.
typ e o f light s as des c ri b e db y h e r h u s b a nodn F u r therreports from[udunda, as yet uncon-
th e o b j e c t . S he r et ur n e d i n s i d e a n d te l e - fi rmed, i ndi cate that other obj ectsof si mi l ar
p h o n e dthe loc al news p a p e rd i to r w h oq u i c k l y n a t urehavebeenseeni n recentw eeks.
we n to u t s ide uit h c anre ra a n db i n o c u l a rs , b u t
to n o a v ail. T he edi to r l l a s o u ts i d e s o me (R eport.r' ,.:r.* :,:u:' :' : to' A .P .R .G.)
1 0 -'1 2n rinut esaf t er t he i n i ti a l i n c i d e n t.
Fro mt he uit nes s r de s c ri p ti o n th e p o i n t o n
th e ro a dwher e t he al l e g e di n c i d e n t o c c u rre d A n i nteresti ng report l ras recei vedon the
u a s i o ca t ed. I t uas im m e d i a te lnyo te dth a t a 5 th October1971,and i nvesti gatedon the 6th.
h o u sewas, , r it hin50 y ar d s o f th i s s p o t. T h e At 8.40 p.n. 0n the 22ndSeptember 1971,an
h o u se holderr rser eint er v i e u e d a n d i t tra n s - 1 B year oi d apprenti ce w asmotor-cycl i ng home
p i re d th at on t he night a n da t th e ti me s ta te d fro m trade schooi tow ards hi s home i n
b y th e ri t nes s , t he hu s b a nhda db e e nu s i n g a n S e m aphore, a suburbof A del ai de. A s he H as
in fra -re d lam o in t he h o u s ew i th n 0 o th e r a p p roachi nghi s home he reported noti ng a
e l e ctri c al equipm ent on . T h i s l a m ph a dg o n e Ii g h i i n the sky, at about50uel evati on i n
o ff fo r s ev er alm inute s ,a t 1 8 J 0 ,fo r re a s o n s th e w esternsky, w hi chcaughthi s attenti on as
un kn o utno t he us er . Ih e y h a dn o t me n ti o n e d i t apgearedto descend tow ardsthe sea (S ema-
th i s to any onebef or et h e i n v e s ti g a to r. n h oreP arkbeach).
Al l o t her oc c upiedh o u s e s(2 ) w i th i n a h a l f H e hl as mysti fi edas to w hati t coul dhave
mi l e o f t he indic at edsp o t r,re rev i s i te d , h o w - b e enanddetoured, taki ng the road to i he
e ve r n o addit ionalef f e c ts w e red i s c o v e re d . b e achto i nvesti qatefurther, i ni ti al i y l osi ng
Ih e w it nes s wis hesn o fu rth e r p u b l i c i ' ty o n th e } i ght behi ndsomehousesas he drewcl oser
h i s re p or t , and im pr e s s ethd e i n v e s ti g a to ra s to i t.
a d o wn- t o- ear t h,r elia b l e , a n dw e II i n fo rm e d H e proceededto the l aterfront w herehe
per son. reports he notednabout 2r' above the sea'
(Cre dit : M r . l( . B aste rfi e i dfo r A.P .R .G.) s o nredul l form w i th l i ghted secti ons. It
appearedto be about 50 feet abovesea-level
and about 150 feet auayfrom him, out from the
s h ore,and remai ni ngmoti onl ess.
Date:18Auoust 19?1.
Tifr6:0640hours. Duration:10 ninutes. H e then poi nted hi s motor-bi ke i n the
of witnesses:
SulfffiTs, S.Aust. direction of the object and switchedon his
wind. l i g hts. H e shonehi s hi gh beamat the form
ilffier;mffiTittle and ihe lighted section dimnred. lihen he
. . & R . J e n k e , 1 0 t.a u re n c e s wi tchedoff hi s l i ghts the obj ect' s l i ghti ng
| ,/i tn e s s esM: es s r s A
, o u thA u s tra l i a .
S t r eet , I ud u n d a S re t urned to the previ ous l evel . W henhe
R e p o rt :T heir at t ent io n w a sd ra w nto a b ri g h t re p eatedthi s tryi ng to fl ash hi s i i ghts' the
glow in t he ea s te rns k y . U p o nl o o k i n g o b j ect di d not respondand faded sl ow l y,
a ro u n dt hey s aw in e a s te rns k y , a t a n movi ngout and aw ayover the Gul f of S t-V i n-
^t h e
e i e va tionof s om e10u, a c i g a r-s h a p eodb j e c t. c e nt.

Th ewit nes s esnot edth a t th e s i z e w a sa b o u t Ihe uri tnesstl as i ntervi ew edi n front of hi s
th a t of a r ailway c a rri a g e ,a n dth a t i t w a s (i o paqe19)
v ictorian

researc h

This societywould appreciatereaders'

reports on U.F.O.s.Please forward to
P.O.Box 43, Moorabbin,Victoria,'3189,