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WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING:

DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS


WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

Water resources engineering includes engineering for both


water supply management and water excess management. It
also involves water quality management (environmental
restoration) The two major processes that are engineered are
the:
hydrologic processes
hydraulic processes
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water resources covers broad areas of study.

Water Resources
Engineering

Water Supply Water Excess Environmental


Management Management Restoration

Physical Social
Biological Sciences Engineering
Sciences Sciences
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

Water resources engineering has evolved over the past


9,000 to 10,000 years as humans have developed the
knowledge and techniques for building hydraulic
structures.

The worlds oldest large dam was the Sadd-el-Kafara dam


built in Egypt between 2950 and 2690 B.C.
Sadd-el-Kafara Dam (the dam seen from upstream)
THE WORLDS FRESHWATER
RESOURCES

Among todays most acute and complex problems are


water problems related to the rational use and protection
of water resources. Associated with water problems is the
need to supply humankind with adequate clean freshwater.
THE WORLDS FRESHWATER
RESOURCES
THE WORLDS FRESHWATER
RESOURCES

It is estimated that water for food production will have to


increase from current 7,000 km3/yr to some 9,00011,000 by
2050.

By 2050 two-thirds of the world's population will be living in


cities, and demand for water is expected to increase by 55%,
mainly from demands related to growing urbanization in
developing countries.
THE WORLDS FRESHWATER
RESOURCES

Some say that the next war would be war on water.


A well in the western Indian state of Gujarat is mobbed during a 2003
drought. (Reuters/Amit Dave)
CLIMATE CHANGE

Water cycle will become less predictable in the future. For


example, a changing climate will create more droughts and
floods more frequently in more places.
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals


(MDG) were 8 goals that all 189 UN Member States have
agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. The United
Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September
2000, committed world leaders to combat poverty,
hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation,
and discrimination against women.
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

The MDGs have been superseded by the Sustainable


Development Goals, a set of 17 integrated and indivisible
goals that build on the achievements of the MDGs but are
broader, deeper and far more ambitious in scope.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Everyone on earth should have access to


safe and affordable drinking water. While
many people around the world take clean
drinking water and sanitation for
granted, many others dont. Water
scarcity affects more than 40 percent of
people around the world, and that
number is projected to go even higher as
a result of climate change.
HYDROLOGY VS. HYDRAULICS

Hydrology is generally related to the study of rainfall and to


water in connection to geography and geology. Hydrology is
the science that deals with the occurrence, distribution, and
circulation of water on Earth.
HYDROLOGY VS. HYDRAULICS

Hydraulics is defined as the study of the mechanical behavior


of water in physical systems. It is more geared towards
physics, the study of the motion of liquids in relation to
disciplines such as fluid mechanics and fluids dynamics, etc.
HYDROLOGY VS. HYDRAULICS

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HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

Site condition at the intake dam


Addalam River, Quirino Province, Philippines
(Photo taken from upstream)
Photo taken from upstream

Photo taken from downstream


Generation Plan
HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT
HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

Turbine
USES OF WATER

1. Domestic
2. Commercial
3. Irrigation
4. Livestock
5. Mining
6. Public