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Birla Institute Of Technology & Science, Pilani

Work-Integrated Learning Programmes Division

Second Semester 2013-2014

Course Handout

Course No. : BITS ZG553

Course Title : Real Time Systems

Instructor : Swati Keskar

Course Description

Introduction to real-time systems, Modeling of a Real-Time System, Task assignment and

scheduling, Resource management, Real-time operating systems, RTOS services, Programming
language with real-time support, System design techniques, Intertask communication, Fault tolerant
techniques, Reliability evaluation methods; Performance analysis, Case studies of real-time

Scope and Objectives

At the end of the course, the student should be able to understand Real-Time systems, modeling and
Design of Real-Time Systems, Task scheduling, resource management, real-time operating systems,
fault tolerant techniques

Prescribed Text Books

T1. Liu, Jane W.S., Real Time Systems, Pearson Education, 2000.

T2. Laplante, Phillip A., Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, WSE, 3rd Ed., 2004.

Reference Books

R1. Li Quing, Real-Time Concepts for Embedded Systems, CMP books, paperback 2003
(Available on Books 24x7)

R2. Burns Allen and Wellings Andy, Concurrent and Real-Time Programming in ADA,
Cambridge University Press, paperback 2007
(Available on Books 24x7)
BITS ZG553 (Course Handout) Second Semester 2013-2014 Page 2

Plan of Self Study

S.No. Learning Objectives Topics Chapter/Section of Text

1 Understand the Real- Introduction to Real-Time Systems, Typical T1- Ch.1
Time Systems Real-time Applications, Time related
activities, common misconceptions
2 The importance of real- Jobs and Processors, Timing constraints, Hard T1- Ch.2
time constraints Versus Soft Real-time Systems
3 Be able to model real- A Reference Model of Real-time Systems : T1- Ch.3
time system according to Processors and resources, temporal, functional
reference model and resource parameters
4 Study various methods of Approaches to Real-time Scheduling: Time T1- Ch.4
task scheduling driven, priority driven, static, dynamic
approaches, Effective release time and
5 Clock-driven scheduling Clock-Driven Scheduling : Cyclic scheduler, T1- Ch.5
approach cyclic executive, practical considerations
6 Priority-driven Priority-Driven Scheduling of Periodic Tasks: T1- Ch.6
scheduling approach f ixed , dynamic priority, schedulability
analysis, practical factors
7 How to schedule Scheduling Aperiodic and Sporadic Jobs in T1- Ch.7: 7.1-7.3, 7.7
aperiodic and sporadic Priority-Driven Systems : Approaches,
jobs deferrable servers , simple sporadic servers
8 Resource Management Resources, their usage, resource conflict, T1-Ch.8 : 8.1-8.5
and protocols contention,
9 Review Session
Syllabus for Mid-Semester Test (Closed Book): Topics in S No. 1 to 9
10 Hardware issues in real- Computer Hardware: CPU, Memory, I/O, T2-Ch 2
time system special devices
11 Software issues in real- Programming Languages: assembly T2-Ch 6
time systems language, procedural languages, object
oriented languages
12 Programming approach The Software Life Cycle: properties of T2-Ch 5
software, phases in design
13 How to define specific Real-time Specification and Design T2-Ch.4
requirements and design Techniques : formal methods in software
techniques specifications
14 Real-time operating Real-Time Operating Systems , memory T2-Ch.3: 3.1-3.2, 3.4
systems management
15 Achieving multitasking Intertask Communication and T2-Ch.3: 3.3
and concurrency Synchronization
16 Validation and System Performance Analysis and T2-Ch 7: 7.1-7.5
verification tecnhiques Optimization
17 Achieving redundancy Reliability, Testing and Fault Tolerance T2-Ch.8:8.1-8.5
and reliability
18 Review Session
Syllabus for Comprehensive Exam (Open Book): All topics given in Plan of Self Study
BITS ZG553 (Course Handout) Second Semester 2013-2014 Page 3

Evaluation Scheme:

EC Evaluation Duration Weigh- Day, Date, Session,Time

No. Component & tage
Type of Examination
EC-1 Assignment/Quiz ** Details to be announced 15% ** Details to be announced on
on LMS Taxila LMS Taxila
website by website by
Instructor Instructor
EC-2 Mid-Semester Test 2 Hours 35% Sunday, 16/02/2014 (AN)*
(Closed Book)* 2 PM 4 PM
EC-3 Comprehensive Exam 3 Hours 50% Sunday, 06/04/2014 (AN)*
(Open Book)* 2 PM 5 PM

** Please check the details by January 10, 2014 on LMS Taxila web site.

AN: AfterNoon Session; FN: ForeNoon Session

Closed Book Test: No reference material of any kind will be permitted inside the exam hall.
Open Book Exam: Use of any printed / written reference material (books and notebooks) will be permitted inside the
exam hall. Loose sheets of paper will not be permitted. Computers of any kind will not be allowed inside the exam hall.
Use of calculators will be allowed in all exams. No exchange of any material will be allowed.

It shall be the responsibility of the individual student to be regular in maintaining the self study schedule as given in the
course handout, attend the online/on demand lectures as per details that would be put up in the BITS LMS Taxila
website and take all the prescribed components of the evaluation such as Assignment
(Course Page on LMS Taxila), Mid Semester Test and Comprehensive Examination according to the Evaluation
Scheme given in the respective Course Handout. If the student is unable to appear for the Regular Test/Examination due
to genuine exigencies, the student must refer to the procedure for applying for Make-up Test/Examination, which will
be available through the Important Information link on the BITS LMS Taxila website on
the date of the Regular Test/Examination. The Make-up Tests/Exams will be conducted only at selected exam centres on
the dates to be announced later.