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2 QUARTER

MATHEMATICS

LECTURE

-UNIT 3-

RATIO and PROPORTION

VARIATIONS

o Direct Variation

o Inverse Variation

o Joint Variation

o Combined Variation

world situations is VARIATION. In this unit, different fields of study will act

as mathematical models in the applications of variation. Variation is very

useful in different areas especially in science like physics and chemistry.

Some physical laws that make use of variation principle include Hookes

Law. Charles Law, Boyles Law, Avogadros Law, Keplers Law of planetary

motion, and many others. Many situations in this field involve relations

that are combinations of different types of variation. For instance,

Newtons law of gravitation is a combination of direct and inverse

variation.

3.1 REVIEWING THE CONCEPTS OF RATION AND PROPORTION

RATIO

- Ratio is a comparison of two numbers, or different units of the same kind. It is

obtained by dividing the first number by the second number.

a

/b since it is an indicated division. Because it is a fraction, its denominator cannot be zero.

SOLUTION:

Feet and inches are different units but both are units of length wherein one can be

converted in terms of the other. In this case, convert feet to inches (1 foot = 12 inches). Thus,

2feet = 24 inches. The equivalent ratio is 24 inches: 3 inches. Dividing both quantities by 3

inches, the ration becomes 8:1

PROPORTION

- Proportion is a statement indicating the equality of two ratios.

- If a:b and c:d are two equivalent ratios, then a:b = c:d is a proportion.

- In any proportion, the product of the means is equal to the product of the

extremes.

This principle of proportion is the one used in the cross multiplication method of solving

fractional equations. A lot of care must be observed since there is a tendency to misuse it.

a:b=c:d

means

extremes

Thus, ad=bc

- In the proportion a:x = x:b, x is called the mean proportional between a and b,

and

x=+ ab

- Also, b is called the third proportional to a and x.

x=+ ab

- Also, b is called the third proportional to a and x.

SOLUTION:

The product of the means n and 3, is equal to the product of the extremes 4 and 5.

(3)(n) = (4)(5)

3n = 20

20 2

N = or 6

3 3

SOLUTION:

Given (x + 1) : (2x 1) = 2 : 3

Distributive Property 4x 2 = 3x + 3

x=5

CONSTANT

- Constant is a quantity whose value does not change. An example of this is any real

number, say 2. Another example of a constant is (pi). It has a definite value,

which approximately equal to 3.14.

VARIABLE

- Variable, is a quantity whose value is changing. It stands in place of any one of a set

of constants, and is usually represented by a literal symbol. An example of this is the

distance travelled over a period of time, or the circumference of a circle at any given

radius.

DIRECT VARIATION

y

- For variables x and y and constant k, if the ratio equals k, then y is directly

x

proportional to x, or y varies directly as x. In symbols,

y = kx

- Where k is the constant of variation.

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

10

=k Solve for k.

2

5=k

y = 5x y = 5 (4) y = 20

INVERSE VARIATION

- If two variables are so related such as one variable increases, the other variable

decreases proportionally, the relationship is called inverse proportion or inverse

variation.

- For variables x and y and constant k, if xy is equal to k, then y is inversely

proportional to x, or y varies inversely as x. In symbols

k

y=

x

- Where k is the constant of variation.

SOLUTION:

using the first set of data given.

find the missing value in the problem.

3.3 JOINT VARIATION

JOINT VARIATION

- When we say z is jointly proportional to a set of variables, it means that z is directly

proportional to each variable taken one at a time. If z varies jointly with respect to x

and y, the equation will be of the form

z = kxy

- Where k is a constant.

EXAMPE 1: If p varies jointly as q and r squared, and p = 225 when q = 4 and r = 3, find p

when q = 6 and r = 8.

SOLUTION:

Step 1: Write the correct equation. Joint variation problems are solved using the equation y = kxz.

In this case, you should use p, q, and r instead of x, y, and z and notice how the word squared

changes the equation.

Step 2: Use the information given in the problem to find the value of k. In this case, you need to

find k when p = 225, q = 4, and r = 3.

Found in step 2.

Step 4: Use the equation found in step 3 and the remaining information given in the problem to

answer the question asked.

COMBINED VARIATION

- Combined variation describes a situation where a variable depends on two (or

more) other variables, and varies directly with some of them andvaries inversely with

others (when the rest of the variables are held constant).

kx

y=

z

EXAMPE 1: If y varies directly with x and inversely with z, and y = 25 when x = 10 and z = 2,

find y when x = 18 and z = 9.

SOLUTION:

Plug in the given values and solve for k:

k=5

y = 10

RD

3 QUARTER

MATHEMATICS

LECTURE

-UNIT 6-

QUADRILATERALS

o PARALLELOGRAM

o SPECIAL PARALLELOGRAM

o TRAPEZOID

o KITES

Quadrilaterals are found almost everywhere. Since ancient times,

properties of quadrilaterals have been used in the field of arts,

architecture, engineering, and even in the field of medicine, psychology,

and education.

ceilings, floors, tables, windows, doors, books, flags, kites, computer, and

computer-related paraphernalia. A lot of quadrilaterals are used in the

web pages.

QUADRILATERAL

- Quadrilateral is a four-sided polygon. The sides of a quadrilateral are segments, the

endpoints of which are referred to as vertices.

SPECIAL PARALLELOGRAM

- These special parallelograms are rectangles, rhombuses, and squares.

The definitions of these are listed below. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles. A

rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides.

The three special parallelograms rhombus, rectangle, and square are so-called

because theyre special cases of the parallelogram. (In addition, the square is a special case or

type of both the rectangle and the rhombus.)

properties of

the rhombus,

rectangle, and

square. Note that because these three quadrilaterals are all parallelograms, their properties

include the parallelogram properties.

The rhombus has the following properties:

o All the properties of a parallelogram apply (the ones that matter here are parallel

sides, opposite angles are congruent, and consecutive angles are supplementary).

o All sides are congruent by definition.

o All the properties of a parallelogram apply (the ones that matter here are parallel

sides, opposite sides are congruent, and diagonals bisect each other).

o All angles are right angles by definition.

o All the properties of a rhombus apply (the ones that matter here are parallel sides,

diagonals are perpendicular bisectors of each other, and diagonals bisect the angles).

o All the properties of a rectangle apply (the only one that matters here is diagonals

are congruent).

o All sides are congruent by definition.

Now try working through a problem. Given the rectangle as shown, find the measures of angle 1

and angle 2:

Heres the solution: MNPQ is a rectangle, so angle Q = 90. Thus, because there are

180 in a triangle, you can say

Now find the perimeter of rhombus RHOM.

Heres the solution: All the sides of a rhombus are congruent, so HO equals x+ 2. And

because the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular, triangle HBOis a right triangle.

You finish with the Pythagorean Theorem:

Factor:

(x 3)(x + 1) = 0

x 3 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

x = 3 or x = 1

You can reject x = 1 because that would result in triangle HBO having legs with lengths

of 1 and 0.

6.3 TAPEZOID

TRAPEZOID

- A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with two sides parallel. The trapezoid is equivalent to the

British definition of trapezium (Bronshtein and Semendyayev 1977, p. 174). An

isoscelestrapezoid is a trapezoid in which the base angles are equal so . A right trapezoid is

atrapezoid having two right angles.

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides (the parallel sides are

called bases). The following figure shows a trapezoid to the left, and an isosceles trapezoid on

the right.

o Each lower base angle is supplementary to the upper base angle on the same side.

Perhaps the hardest property to spot in both diagrams is the one about supplementary angles.

Because of the parallel sides, consecutive angles are same-side interior angles and are thus

supplementary. (All the special quadrilaterals except the kite, by the way, contain consecutive

supplementary angles.)

Statement 1:

Reason for statement 1: Given.

Statement 2:

Statement 3:

Reason for statement 3: The upper base angles of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

Statement 4:

Statement 5:

Statement 6:

Reason for statement 6: CPCTC (Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent).

Statement 7:

6.4 KITES

KITES

- In Euclidean geometry, a kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into

two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other. In contrast, a parallelogram also

has two pairs of equal-length sides, but they are opposite to each other rather than adjacent.

A kite is a quadrilateral in which two disjoint pairs of consecutive sides are congruent

(disjoint pairs means that one side cant be used in both pairs). Check out the kite in the below

figure.

Note: Disjoint means that the two pairs are totally separate.

One diagonal (segment KM, the main diagonal) is the perpendicular bisector of the other

diagonal (segment JL, the cross diagonal). (The terms main diagonal and cross

diagonal are made up for this example.)

The main diagonal bisects a pair of opposite angles (angle K and angleM).

The opposite angles at the endpoints of the cross diagonal are congruent (angle J and

angle L).

The last three properties are called the half properties of the kite.

Statement 1:

Statement 2:

Reason for statement 2: A kite has two disjoint pairs of congruent sides.

Statement 3:

Statement 4:

Reason for statement 4: If two congruent segments (segment WV and segment UV) are

subtracted from two other congruent segments (segment RVand segment TV), then the

differences are congruent.

Statement 5:

Reason for statement 5: The angles at the endpoints of the cross diagonal are congruent.

Statement 6:

Statement 7:

Congruent).

TH

4 QUARTER

MATHEMATICS

LECTURE

-UNIT 7-

TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY

o The Six Trigonometric Ratios

o Trigonometric Ratios of Special Angles

o Solving Right Angles

o Solving Oblique Triangles

o Trigonometric Identities and Equations

between the measures of angle and sides of triangles. Basically, it was a

study of a part of a triangle.

is now regarded as a pillar pf mathematics using the functional approach.

of solving triangles, whether right or oblique, is used in such fields as

surveying, navigation, engineering, astronomy, chemistry and even in

criminology. In these disciplines, the fundamental concepts of triangle

trigonometry are used.

THE SIX TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

- For any right triangle, there are six trig ratios: Sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan),

cosecant (csc), secant (sec), and cotangent (cot). Here are the formulas for these six trig ratios:

Given a triangle, you should be able to identify all 6 ratios for all the angles (except the right

angle).

A triangle in which one angle is a right angle, , is called a right triangle. The side

opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse and the remaining two sides are calledlegs.

In the picture below, the length of the hypotenuse is c and the lengths of the two legs

are a and b.

The acute angle opposite side b is called theta (a Greek letter) and its symbol is . The

acute angle opposite side a is called beta (a Greek letter) and its symbol is .

The sides of a right triangle are related via the Pythagorean Theorem as

follows:

Root Property from algebra.

created with the sole purpose of allowing us to show certain relationships between the sides of a

right triangle.

Please note that in their definition, only the two acute angles are used and never the right

angle. The trigonometric ratios are called sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent.

Let's use the acute angle in the right triangle above to define the six trigonometric

ratios.

Cosine Ratio: , where

Sine Ratio: , where

the angle is called the argument.

the angle is called the argument.

Pronounce cos as "cosine

Pronounce sin as "sine theta".

theta".

and the angle is called , where the angle is called

theargument. the argument.

theta". theta" (koseekent theta).

Cotangent Ratio:

Secant Ratio: , where

and the angle is called

the angle is called the argument.

theargument.

Pronounce sec as "secant theta"

Pronounce cot as "cotangent

(seekent theta).

theta".

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS.

Please note in the triangle above, side b is opposite (opp) the angle and

side a is adjacent (adj) to the angle while side c is the hypotenuse (hyp). Therefore, the

trigonometric ratios are sometimes expressed as follows:

NOTE: YOU MUST MEMORIZE THE ALTERNATE DEFINITIONS OF THE

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS.

Trigonometric Identities

trigonometric ratios. We call these relationships "identities." The following identities will be

used many times in trigonometry and later in calculus. Learn them well !!!

Reciprocal Identities

Quotient Identities

NOTE:

point. Although, I feel that they are not yet necessary for you to know, let me state them

just in case MyMathLab suggests their use. Later on, we will disucss how they came about.

7.2 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF SPECIAL ANGLES

PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM

- In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a

fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states

that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the

squares of the other two sides.

Example 1: Find the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle if the lengths of the other two

sides are 3 inches and 4 inches.

Solution:

Step 1: Write down the

c2 = a2 + b2

formula

Step 2: Plug in the values c2 = 32 + 42

c2 = 9 + 16

c2 = 25

c=

c=5

Example 2: Find the length of one side of a right triangle if the length of the hypotenuse is 10

inches and the length of the other side is 9 inches.

Solution:

Step 1: Write down the

c2 = a2 + b2

formula

Step 2: Plug in the values 102 = 92 + b2

100 = 81 + b2

Step 3: Subtract 81 from

19 = b2

both sides

b=

b 4.36

SOLVING RIGHT ANGLES

- To SOLVE A TRIANGLE means to know all three sides and all three angles. When we

know the ratios of the sides, we use the method of similar figures. That is the method to use

when solving an isoscelesright triangle or a 30-60-90 triangle.

Example 1. Given an acute angle and one side. Solve the right triangle ABC if angle

A is 36, and side c is 10 cm.

. the known side the denominator.

Un

known a

=

Known 10

Name that function of

. the angle.

U

=

nknown a

= sin 36

Known 10

Use the trigonometric Table to evaluate that

. function.

U

= sin 36

nknown a

= = .588

Known 10

Solve for the

. unknown side.

a = 10 .588 cm = 5.88 cm

(Lesson 4 of Arithmetic.)

Problem 1. Solve the triangle for side b.

U

= cos 36 = .

nknown b

= 809

Known 10

= 10 .809 =

8.09 cm

Problem 2. To measure the width of a river. Two trees stand opposite one another, at

points A and B, on opposite banks of a river.

Distance AC along one bank is perpendicular to BA, and is measured to be 100 feet.

Angle ACB is measured to be 79. How far apart are the trees; that is, what is the width w of the

river?

U

nknown w tan 79.

= =

Known 100

100 tan 79

=

100 5.145 =

= 514.5 ft,

from the Table.

(To measure the height of a flagpole, and for the meaning of theangle of elevation, see

the Example in Topic 3.)

Example 2. Find the distance of a boat from a lighthouse if the lighthouse is 100 meters

tall, and the angle of depression is 6.

Solution. The angle of depression is the angle below straight ahead -- horizontal -- that

an oberver must look in order to see something below the observer. Thus in order to see the boat,

the lighthouse keeper must look down 6.

Now, the triangle formed by the lighthouse and the distance d of the boat from the

lighthouse, is right-angled. And since the angle of depression is 6, then the alternate angle is

also 6. (Euclid, I. 29.)

= 9.514, from

d

ot 6 the Table.

100

Therefore,

d = 951.4 meters.

Example 3. Given two sides of a right triangle. Solve the right triangle ABC given that

side c = 25 cm and side b = 24 cm.

a

2 2 252

+ 24 =

a 625

2

= 576 = 49

=

a

= 7.

c , on multiplying each

os A = 4 96

25 = 100 term by 4.

= 96

(See Skill in Arithmetic: Fractions into decimals.)

We must now inspect the Table to find the angle whose cosine is closest to .96, or, since

this is a three place Table, .960.

We find

cos 16 = .961

Therefore,

Angle A 16.

Finally,

Angle B = 90 16 = 74.

Problem 3. Solve the right triangle ABC given that c = 10 cm andb = 8 cm.

2 = 102

+ 82

= 100

2

64 = 36

= =

6 cm.

To find angle A, we have

c

8

os A = = .8.

10

Now inspect the Table to find the angle whose cosine is closest to .8, or, since this is a

three place Table, .800.

- The Law of Sines is the relationship between the sides and angles of non-right (oblique)

triangles. Simply, it states that the ratio of the length of a side of a triangle to the sine of the

angle opposite that side is the same for all sides and angles in a given triangle.

When to use the law of sines formula

You should use the law of sines when you know 2 sides and an angle (case 1 in the

picture below) and you want to find the measure of an angle opposite a known side. Or when you

know 2 angles and 1 side and want to get the side opposite a known angle (case 2 in picture

below). In both cases, you must already know a side and an angle that are opposite of each other.

Example 1: In , side a = 8, m<A = 30 and m<C = 55. Find side c to the nearest

tenth of an integer.

Since this problem refers to two angles and two

sides, use the Law of Sines.

This answer makes sense, since the larger side is opposite the larger angle.

- When to Use. The Law of Cosines is useful for finding: the third side of a triangle when

we know two sides and the angle between them (like the example above)

Example 1. In triangle DEF, side e = 8 cm, f = 10 cm, and the angle at D is 60. Find

side d.

Solution.. We know two sides and their included angle. Therefore, according to the Law

of Cosines:

d2 = e2 + f2 2ef cos 60

d2 = 164 80

d2 = 84.

d = .

The following equations are eight of the most basic and important trigonometric

identities. These equations are true for any angle. From them, countless additional identities can

be formed. These eight should be memorized.

csc() =

sec() =

cot() =

tan() =

cot() =

(sin())2 + (cos())2 = 1

MATHEMATICS

LECTURE

-GRADE 9-

2ND QUARTER

3RD QUARTER

4TH QUARTER

-MOZART-

ANGEL JOY VALENCIA

SOPHIA YSABELLE LAGASCA

ANGELICA ALEXIS VERZOSA

GRACE ACOSTA

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