You are on page 1of 30

# nd

2 QUARTER
MATHEMATICS
LECTURE
-UNIT 3-
RATIO and PROPORTION
VARIATIONS
o Direct Variation
o Inverse Variation
o Joint Variation
o Combined Variation

## One of the topics in mathematics with variety of applications in real-

world situations is VARIATION. In this unit, different fields of study will act
as mathematical models in the applications of variation. Variation is very
useful in different areas especially in science like physics and chemistry.
Some physical laws that make use of variation principle include Hookes
Law. Charles Law, Boyles Law, Avogadros Law, Keplers Law of planetary
motion, and many others. Many situations in this field involve relations
that are combinations of different types of variation. For instance,
Newtons law of gravitation is a combination of direct and inverse
variation.
3.1 REVIEWING THE CONCEPTS OF RATION AND PROPORTION

RATIO
- Ratio is a comparison of two numbers, or different units of the same kind. It is
obtained by dividing the first number by the second number.

## The Ratio of a to b is written as a:b which is read as a is to b. It can also be written as

a
/b since it is an indicated division. Because it is a fraction, its denominator cannot be zero.

## EXAMPE 1: Simplify the ratio 2 feet: 3 inches

SOLUTION:

Feet and inches are different units but both are units of length wherein one can be
converted in terms of the other. In this case, convert feet to inches (1 foot = 12 inches). Thus,
2feet = 24 inches. The equivalent ratio is 24 inches: 3 inches. Dividing both quantities by 3
inches, the ration becomes 8:1

## Hence, 2 feet: 3 inches = 8:1

PROPORTION
- Proportion is a statement indicating the equality of two ratios.
- If a:b and c:d are two equivalent ratios, then a:b = c:d is a proportion.

## FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTION

- In any proportion, the product of the means is equal to the product of the
extremes.

This principle of proportion is the one used in the cross multiplication method of solving
fractional equations. A lot of care must be observed since there is a tendency to misuse it.

a:b=c:d

means
extremes

## THE MEAN PROPORTIONAL AND THE THIRD PROPORTIONAL

- In the proportion a:x = x:b, x is called the mean proportional between a and b,
and

x=+ ab
- Also, b is called the third proportional to a and x.

## - In the proportion a:b= c:b, d is called the fourth to a and b and c.

x=+ ab
- Also, b is called the third proportional to a and x.

## EXAMPE 2: What is the value of n in the proportion 4 : n = 3 : 5

SOLUTION:

The product of the means n and 3, is equal to the product of the extremes 4 and 5.

(3)(n) = (4)(5)

3n = 20

20 2
N = or 6
3 3

## EXAMPE 3: Solve the proportion (x+1) : (2x-1) = 2:3

SOLUTION:

Given (x + 1) : (2x 1) = 2 : 3

## Fundamental Principle Of Proportion (2) (2x 1) = (3) (x + 1)

Distributive Property 4x 2 = 3x + 3

x=5

## 3.2 DIRECT VARIATION

CONSTANT
- Constant is a quantity whose value does not change. An example of this is any real
number, say 2. Another example of a constant is (pi). It has a definite value,
which approximately equal to 3.14.

VARIABLE
- Variable, is a quantity whose value is changing. It stands in place of any one of a set
of constants, and is usually represented by a literal symbol. An example of this is the
distance travelled over a period of time, or the circumference of a circle at any given

DIRECT VARIATION
y
- For variables x and y and constant k, if the ratio equals k, then y is directly
x
proportional to x, or y varies directly as x. In symbols,
y = kx
- Where k is the constant of variation.

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

10
=k Solve for k.
2
5=k

## Substitute k = 5 in the equation. Solve for y if x = 4

y = 5x y = 5 (4) y = 20

## 3.3 INVERSE VARIATION

INVERSE VARIATION
- If two variables are so related such as one variable increases, the other variable
decreases proportionally, the relationship is called inverse proportion or inverse
variation.
- For variables x and y and constant k, if xy is equal to k, then y is inversely
proportional to x, or y varies inversely as x. In symbols
k
y=
x
- Where k is the constant of variation.

SOLUTION:

## Find the missing constant, k, by

using the first set of data given.

## Using the formula and constant, k,

find the missing value in the problem.
3.3 JOINT VARIATION

JOINT VARIATION
- When we say z is jointly proportional to a set of variables, it means that z is directly
proportional to each variable taken one at a time. If z varies jointly with respect to x
and y, the equation will be of the form
z = kxy
- Where k is a constant.

EXAMPE 1: If p varies jointly as q and r squared, and p = 225 when q = 4 and r = 3, find p
when q = 6 and r = 8.
SOLUTION:

Step 1: Write the correct equation. Joint variation problems are solved using the equation y = kxz.
In this case, you should use p, q, and r instead of x, y, and z and notice how the word squared
changes the equation.

Step 2: Use the information given in the problem to find the value of k. In this case, you need to
find k when p = 225, q = 4, and r = 3.

## Step 3: Rewrite the equation from step 1 substituting in the value of k

Found in step 2.

Step 4: Use the equation found in step 3 and the remaining information given in the problem to

## 3.4 COMBINED VARIATION

COMBINED VARIATION
- Combined variation describes a situation where a variable depends on two (or
more) other variables, and varies directly with some of them andvaries inversely with
others (when the rest of the variables are held constant).
kx
y=
z

EXAMPE 1: If y varies directly with x and inversely with z, and y = 25 when x = 10 and z = 2,
find y when x = 18 and z = 9.

SOLUTION:

## First, write the general form for combined variation:

Plug in the given values and solve for k:

k=5

## Now find y when x = 18 and z = 9

y = 10

RD
3 QUARTER
MATHEMATICS
LECTURE
-UNIT 6-
o PARALLELOGRAM
o SPECIAL PARALLELOGRAM
o TRAPEZOID
o KITES
Quadrilaterals are found almost everywhere. Since ancient times,
properties of quadrilaterals have been used in the field of arts,
architecture, engineering, and even in the field of medicine, psychology,
and education.

## Most of the things of modern times are in the shape of quadrilateral

ceilings, floors, tables, windows, doors, books, flags, kites, computer, and
computer-related paraphernalia. A lot of quadrilaterals are used in the
web pages.

## 6.1 PARALLELOGRAM AND THEIR PROPERTIES

- Quadrilateral is a four-sided polygon. The sides of a quadrilateral are segments, the
endpoints of which are referred to as vertices.

## 6.2 SPECIAL PARALLELORAM

SPECIAL PARALLELOGRAM
- These special parallelograms are rectangles, rhombuses, and squares.
The definitions of these are listed below. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles. A
rhombus is a parallelogram with four congruent sides.
The three special parallelograms rhombus, rectangle, and square are so-called
because theyre special cases of the parallelogram. (In addition, the square is a special case or
type of both the rectangle and the rhombus.)

## Here are the

properties of
the rhombus,
rectangle, and
square. Note that because these three quadrilaterals are all parallelograms, their properties
include the parallelogram properties.
The rhombus has the following properties:
o All the properties of a parallelogram apply (the ones that matter here are parallel
sides, opposite angles are congruent, and consecutive angles are supplementary).
o All sides are congruent by definition.

## The rectangle has the following properties:

o All the properties of a parallelogram apply (the ones that matter here are parallel
sides, opposite sides are congruent, and diagonals bisect each other).
o All angles are right angles by definition.

## The square has the following properties:

o All the properties of a rhombus apply (the ones that matter here are parallel sides,
diagonals are perpendicular bisectors of each other, and diagonals bisect the angles).
o All the properties of a rectangle apply (the only one that matters here is diagonals
are congruent).
o All sides are congruent by definition.

## o All angles are right angles by definition.

Now try working through a problem. Given the rectangle as shown, find the measures of angle 1
and angle 2:

Heres the solution: MNPQ is a rectangle, so angle Q = 90. Thus, because there are
180 in a triangle, you can say

## Now plug in 14 for all the xs.

Now find the perimeter of rhombus RHOM.

Heres the solution: All the sides of a rhombus are congruent, so HO equals x+ 2. And
because the diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular, triangle HBOis a right triangle.
You finish with the Pythagorean Theorem:

Factor:

(x 3)(x + 1) = 0

## Use Zero Product Property:

x 3 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

x = 3 or x = 1
You can reject x = 1 because that would result in triangle HBO having legs with lengths
of 1 and 0.

6.3 TAPEZOID

TRAPEZOID
- A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with two sides parallel. The trapezoid is equivalent to the
British definition of trapezium (Bronshtein and Semendyayev 1977, p. 174). An
isoscelestrapezoid is a trapezoid in which the base angles are equal so . A right trapezoid is
atrapezoid having two right angles.

## PROPERTIES OF A TRAPEZOID AND ISOSCELES TRAPEZOID

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides (the parallel sides are
called bases). The following figure shows a trapezoid to the left, and an isosceles trapezoid on
the right.

## o The bases are parallel by definition.

o Each lower base angle is supplementary to the upper base angle on the same side.

## o The diagonals are congruent.

Perhaps the hardest property to spot in both diagrams is the one about supplementary angles.
Because of the parallel sides, consecutive angles are same-side interior angles and are thus
supplementary. (All the special quadrilaterals except the kite, by the way, contain consecutive
supplementary angles.)

## Heres an isosceles trapezoid proof for you:

Statement 1:
Reason for statement 1: Given.

Statement 2:

## Reason for statement 2: The legs of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

Statement 3:

Reason for statement 3: The upper base angles of an isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

Statement 4:

Statement 5:

## Reason for statement 5: SAS, or Side-Angle-Side (2, 3, 4)

Statement 6:

Reason for statement 6: CPCTC (Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are Congruent).

Statement 7:

## Reason for statement 7: If angles, then sides.

6.4 KITES

KITES
- In Euclidean geometry, a kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into
two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other. In contrast, a parallelogram also
has two pairs of equal-length sides, but they are opposite to each other rather than adjacent.

A kite is a quadrilateral in which two disjoint pairs of consecutive sides are congruent
(disjoint pairs means that one side cant be used in both pairs). Check out the kite in the below
figure.

## Two disjoint pairs of consecutive sides are congruent by definition

Note: Disjoint means that the two pairs are totally separate.

## The diagonals are perpendicular.

One diagonal (segment KM, the main diagonal) is the perpendicular bisector of the other
diagonal (segment JL, the cross diagonal). (The terms main diagonal and cross
diagonal are made up for this example.)

The main diagonal bisects a pair of opposite angles (angle K and angleM).

The opposite angles at the endpoints of the cross diagonal are congruent (angle J and
angle L).

The last three properties are called the half properties of the kite.

Statement 1:

## Reason for statement 1: Given.

Statement 2:
Reason for statement 2: A kite has two disjoint pairs of congruent sides.

Statement 3:

## Reason for statement 3: Given.

Statement 4:

Reason for statement 4: If two congruent segments (segment WV and segment UV) are
subtracted from two other congruent segments (segment RVand segment TV), then the
differences are congruent.

Statement 5:

Reason for statement 5: The angles at the endpoints of the cross diagonal are congruent.

Statement 6:

Statement 7:

## Reason for statement 7: CPCTC (Corresponding Parts of Congruent Triangles are

Congruent).

TH
4 QUARTER
MATHEMATICS
LECTURE
-UNIT 7-
TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY
o The Six Trigonometric Ratios
o Trigonometric Ratios of Special Angles
o Solving Right Angles
o Solving Oblique Triangles
o Trigonometric Identities and Equations

## Trigonometry arose from the observation of the relationships that exist

between the measures of angle and sides of triangles. Basically, it was a
study of a part of a triangle.

## With the integration of various branches of mathematics, trigonometry

is now regarded as a pillar pf mathematics using the functional approach.

## A basic application of trigonometry makes use of triangles. The process

of solving triangles, whether right or oblique, is used in such fields as
surveying, navigation, engineering, astronomy, chemistry and even in
criminology. In these disciplines, the fundamental concepts of triangle
trigonometry are used.

## 7.1 THE SIX TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

THE SIX TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS
- For any right triangle, there are six trig ratios: Sine (sin), cosine (cos), tangent (tan),
cosecant (csc), secant (sec), and cotangent (cot). Here are the formulas for these six trig ratios:
Given a triangle, you should be able to identify all 6 ratios for all the angles (except the right
angle).

A triangle in which one angle is a right angle, , is called a right triangle. The side
opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse and the remaining two sides are calledlegs.

In the picture below, the length of the hypotenuse is c and the lengths of the two legs
are a and b.

The acute angle opposite side b is called theta (a Greek letter) and its symbol is . The
acute angle opposite side a is called beta (a Greek letter) and its symbol is .

The sides of a right triangle are related via the Pythagorean Theorem as
follows:

## This allows us to define the length of side c as found by the Square

Root Property from algebra.

## In mathematics, the trigonometric ratios (also called trigonometric functions) were

created with the sole purpose of allowing us to show certain relationships between the sides of a
right triangle.

Please note that in their definition, only the two acute angles are used and never the right
angle. The trigonometric ratios are called sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent.

Let's use the acute angle in the right triangle above to define the six trigonometric
ratios.
Cosine Ratio: , where
Sine Ratio: , where
the angle is called the argument.
the angle is called the argument.
Pronounce cos as "cosine
Pronounce sin as "sine theta".
theta".

## Tangent Ratio: Cosecant Ratio:

and the angle is called , where the angle is called
theargument. the argument.

## Pronounce tan as "tangent Pronounce csc as "cosecant

theta". theta" (koseekent theta).

Cotangent Ratio:
Secant Ratio: , where
and the angle is called
the angle is called the argument.
theargument.
Pronounce sec as "secant theta"
Pronounce cot as "cotangent
(seekent theta).
theta".

## NOTE: YOU MUST MEMORIZE THE DEFINITIONS OF THE

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS.

## Alternate Definition of the Trigonometric Ratios

Please note in the triangle above, side b is opposite (opp) the angle and
side a is adjacent (adj) to the angle while side c is the hypotenuse (hyp). Therefore, the
trigonometric ratios are sometimes expressed as follows:
NOTE: YOU MUST MEMORIZE THE ALTERNATE DEFINITIONS OF THE
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS.

Trigonometric Identities

## In trigonometry, a great deal of time is spent studying relationships between

trigonometric ratios. We call these relationships "identities." The following identities will be
used many times in trigonometry and later in calculus. Learn them well !!!

Reciprocal Identities

Quotient Identities

NOTE:

## Sometimes textbook authors will introduce three Pythagorean Identites at this

point. Although, I feel that they are not yet necessary for you to know, let me state them
just in case MyMathLab suggests their use. Later on, we will disucss how they came about.

## Pythagorean Identity, namely .

7.2 TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF SPECIAL ANGLES

PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
- In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a
fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states
that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other two sides.

Example 1: Find the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle if the lengths of the other two
sides are 3 inches and 4 inches.

Solution:
Step 1: Write down the
c2 = a2 + b2
formula
Step 2: Plug in the values c2 = 32 + 42
c2 = 9 + 16
c2 = 25

c=
c=5
Example 2: Find the length of one side of a right triangle if the length of the hypotenuse is 10
inches and the length of the other side is 9 inches.

Solution:
Step 1: Write down the
c2 = a2 + b2
formula
Step 2: Plug in the values 102 = 92 + b2
100 = 81 + b2
Step 3: Subtract 81 from
19 = b2
both sides

b=
b 4.36

## 7.3 SOLVING RIGHT ANGLES

SOLVING RIGHT ANGLES
- To SOLVE A TRIANGLE means to know all three sides and all three angles. When we
know the ratios of the sides, we use the method of similar figures. That is the method to use
when solving an isoscelesright triangle or a 30-60-90 triangle.

## The general method

Example 1. Given an acute angle and one side. Solve the right triangle ABC if angle
A is 36, and side c is 10 cm.

## Make the unknown side the numerator of a fraction, and make

. the known side the denominator.
Un
known a
=
Known 10
Name that function of
. the angle.
U
=
nknown a
= sin 36
Known 10
Use the trigonometric Table to evaluate that
. function.
U
= sin 36
nknown a
= = .588
Known 10
Solve for the
. unknown side.
a = 10 .588 cm = 5.88 cm

(Lesson 4 of Arithmetic.)
Problem 1. Solve the triangle for side b.

U
= cos 36 = .
nknown b
= 809
Known 10

= 10 .809 =
8.09 cm
Problem 2. To measure the width of a river. Two trees stand opposite one another, at
points A and B, on opposite banks of a river.

Distance AC along one bank is perpendicular to BA, and is measured to be 100 feet.
Angle ACB is measured to be 79. How far apart are the trees; that is, what is the width w of the
river?

U
nknown w tan 79.
= =
Known 100

100 tan 79
=
100 5.145 =
= 514.5 ft,
from the Table.

(To measure the height of a flagpole, and for the meaning of theangle of elevation, see
the Example in Topic 3.)

Example 2. Find the distance of a boat from a lighthouse if the lighthouse is 100 meters
tall, and the angle of depression is 6.
Solution. The angle of depression is the angle below straight ahead -- horizontal -- that
an oberver must look in order to see something below the observer. Thus in order to see the boat,
the lighthouse keeper must look down 6.

Now, the triangle formed by the lighthouse and the distance d of the boat from the
lighthouse, is right-angled. And since the angle of depression is 6, then the alternate angle is
also 6. (Euclid, I. 29.)

## If d is the distance of a boat from the lighthouse, then

= 9.514, from
d
ot 6 the Table.
100
Therefore,

d = 951.4 meters.

Example 3. Given two sides of a right triangle. Solve the right triangle ABC given that
side c = 25 cm and side b = 24 cm.

a
2 2 252
+ 24 =
a 625
2
= 576 = 49

=
a
= 7.

## Next, to find angle A, we have

c , on multiplying each
os A = 4 96
25 = 100 term by 4.

= 96
(See Skill in Arithmetic: Fractions into decimals.)

We must now inspect the Table to find the angle whose cosine is closest to .96, or, since
this is a three place Table, .960.

We find

cos 16 = .961

Therefore,

Angle A 16.

Finally,

Angle B = 90 16 = 74.

## We have solved the triangle.

Problem 3. Solve the right triangle ABC given that c = 10 cm andb = 8 cm.

## To find the remaining side a, use the Pythagorean theorem:

2 = 102
+ 82
= 100
2
64 = 36

= =
6 cm.
To find angle A, we have
c
8
os A = = .8.
10
Now inspect the Table to find the angle whose cosine is closest to .8, or, since this is a
three place Table, .800.

## THE LAW OF SINES

- The Law of Sines is the relationship between the sides and angles of non-right (oblique)
triangles. Simply, it states that the ratio of the length of a side of a triangle to the sine of the
angle opposite that side is the same for all sides and angles in a given triangle.
When to use the law of sines formula

You should use the law of sines when you know 2 sides and an angle (case 1 in the
picture below) and you want to find the measure of an angle opposite a known side. Or when you
know 2 angles and 1 side and want to get the side opposite a known angle (case 2 in picture
below). In both cases, you must already know a side and an angle that are opposite of each other.

Example 1: In , side a = 8, m<A = 30 and m<C = 55. Find side c to the nearest
tenth of an integer.
Since this problem refers to two angles and two
sides, use the Law of Sines.

This answer makes sense, since the larger side is opposite the larger angle.

## THE LAW OF COSINES

- When to Use. The Law of Cosines is useful for finding: the third side of a triangle when
we know two sides and the angle between them (like the example above)

Example 1. In triangle DEF, side e = 8 cm, f = 10 cm, and the angle at D is 60. Find
side d.

Solution.. We know two sides and their included angle. Therefore, according to the Law
of Cosines:

d2 = e2 + f2 2ef cos 60

d2 = 164 80

d2 = 84.

d = .

## THE EIGHT FUNDAMENTAL TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

The following equations are eight of the most basic and important trigonometric
identities. These equations are true for any angle. From them, countless additional identities can
be formed. These eight should be memorized.

csc() =

sec() =

cot() =

tan() =

cot() =

(sin())2 + (cos())2 = 1
MATHEMATICS
LECTURE