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What is MDG?

These are eight international development goals that were established following the
Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United
Nations Millennium Declaration. They were set to be achieved by 2015.

These are time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme

poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of
adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality,
education, and environmental sustainability.
They are also basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet
to health, education, shelter, and security.
Since the adoption, there has been significant progress in many of the
goals. But the progress has not been uniform. The progress differs from
country to country and even within the country.

8 MDGs

1. Eradicate Extreme Hunger and Poverty

2. Achieve Universal Primary Education
3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women
4. Reduce Child Mortality
5. Improve Maternal Health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases
7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability
8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development

Each goal has specific targets, and dates for achieving those targets

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

What did the MDGs accomplish?

The United Nations says the MDGs a set of eight goals with 21 targets led to
achievements including:

more than halving the number of people living in extreme poverty, to 836
million in 2015 from 1.9 billion in 1990
gender parity in primary schools in the majority of countries
reducing the rate of children dying before their fifth birthday to 43 deaths
per 1,000 live births from 90
a fall of 45% in the maternal mortality ratio worldwide
some 37 million lives saved by tuberculosis prevention and treatment,
over 6.2 million malaria deaths averted, and new HIV infection rates down
by around 40%
access to improved sanitation for 2.1 billion people

Critically analyse Indias performance on the Millennium Development Goal for

gender Equity. Evaluate the initiatives taken by the government for gender equity
and shortfalls therein. (200 Words)

Spanning a range of development indicators poverty, gender, health, education and

the environment the MDGs essentially established a set of targets for the global
community to achieve by 2015.

3rd MDG is to eliminate gender disparities at all levels of education and women
empowerment. This is assessed to be on track for primary and secondary education,
but slow for higher education.

India currently ranks 136 out of 186 countries in the UNs Gender Inequality Index.
Which translates that India is in the bottom 25% of all countries. On the women

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

empowerment front, women are poorly represented in the workforce, have to face deep
seated prejudices and experience violence, prevalent across all sections of the society.
In the parliament, women represent just above 11% of total seats, so necessarily the
critical decisions on women empowerment are taken by men.

However as a signatory to the CEDAW and the CRC India has a number of progressive
laws that support gender equality and ending discrimination and violence against

1. Right to education and not merely a welfare programme

2. Beti bachao, Beti padhao campaign
3. Every state has its own programme along with other central programmes
for ensuring female education, health and empowerment
4. Under the Sexual Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, the
Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of 2013 expands the scope of sexual and
gender based crimes against women.

The implication for a robust national solution, then, is that region or state-specific
responses that are customised to local conditions need to be put in place. The glass,
half full shows a positive Indian progress and will act as a boost to further reduce
gender disparities in India.

Critically evaluate Indias progress in achieving the targets of the Millennium

Development Goals (MDGs). (200 Words)

The Millennium Development Goals are a list of 8 Goals envisaged by the UN for all the
countries to achieve by 2015. Now, after the expiry of this date, the Paris Summit will
decide upon the Sustainable Development Goals for its future course. Indias
performance in MDGs

Performed Well

Reduced poverty and hunger by half(MDG 1),

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

Achieved control on the spread of HIV, malaria etc. (MDG 6),

Improved access to adequate sanitation to eliminate open defecation;
has increased forest cover and has halved the proportion of population
without the access to cleaning drinking water, (MDG 7),
Indias international relations and expanding regional cooperation is
positive. (MDG 8)

Not reached the Goals in

Rising inequality in poverty (MDG 1),

lesser womens literacy, (MDG 3),
not satisfactory enough in MMR and IMR (MDG 5)

Some of the constraints for not achieving all the MDGs and relatively low performance
with respect to neighbouring countries is due to over-population, lesser economic
strength, government bureaucratic apathy etc.

Nevertheless India is on the right path in reaching the other goals too, especially
through its various flagship programs and an increased concentration on the UN MDGs
even in the Budget, Economic Survey and Five-Year Plans and also hoping to act as
early as possible on sustainable development goals post 2015.

India has met only four of ten health targets under the Millennium Development
Goals (MDG), and has made next to no progress on another four, according to
new data from the World Health Organisation. Elaborate and examine the causes
of poor performance by India. (200 Words)

Some of the Indicators where India has met the MDG targets or progress is satisfactory
are reduction in HIV incidences (57%), mortality rate for tuberculosis (50%), increase in
access to safe drinking water and birth attended by skilled health personnel.

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

Yet it missed most of the MDGs targets such as; reduction in under-five mortality rate,
infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, measles immunization coverage of 1 year
children, only 22 % reduction in proportion to population in access to improved

The main reasons for not achieving the MDGs by 2015 are:

Lack of quality and accountability in sterilisation surgeries

Staff vacancies and non-availability of Health personnel
Low Budgetary allocation to health sector
Lack of awareness among public about sanitation
Prevalence of open defecation
High levels of pollution
Insufficient access to PHCs and logistical difficulties in rural and tribal
Lack of demand and confidence in vaccines among public
Inefficient reporting and management

If you are asked to enumerate next set of Millennium Development Goals for least
developed and developing countries to achieve between 2015 and 2030, what
would be your priorities and goals? Also highlight, in your opinion which
institutions might play crucial role in helping countries achieve these goals and
why. (200 Words)

MDG has achieved very good result in last 15 years and responses it received from
Developed and funding nations are good. We must remember that we already achieved
great success in primary education, eliminating extreme poverty, gender equality,
checking IMR and MMR, control of AIDS. But not much progress is done on
environmental side. For the next MDG for 2015-2030 for LDW and developing nations
some priorities:

Equipping young population with some minimum skill set regime and
setting up vocational training centre. Reducing unemployment.
Cheaper medical facilities and medicines.

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

Clean and Sanitation surroundings.

Increasing the green cover.
Ground water recharging.
River and water body revival and cleaning.
Spreading the use of IT and Communication in all parts of world.
Reducing racism, casteism or any kind of discrimination.

As we can observe in last decadal development that, developing nations holds

promising future and potential to bring positive change in world. So, organisation like
ILO can monitor Skilling youth programme, AIIB+NDB can provide soft loans for small
projects in LDN and Developing nations in fast way as compared to World bank, G20
can come up with mandates for every central bank of nations to focus on some priority
sectors so that bank provide loans easily for those sectors. CITES, UNESCO can play
role in conserving biodiversity, nation heritag.

As per UN assessment, India has not fulfilled the MDG targets of

Universal primary school enrolment
The millennium development goals are a list of eight international
development parameters which envisage to improve the living standards of
the people across the world. India has been trying to achieve 18 targets set
by MDG by bringing in various targeted schemes.

Goal 1 : Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty
Evaluation : Though India has halved its incidence of extreme poverty(49.4
to 24.7) a lot more has to be done in terms of eradicating hunger. Schemes
like Food Security Act, MNREGA to ensure employment thereby to
increase the purchasing power of the rural people, Mid day meal schemes
have been directed in this regard.
Goal 2 : achieve universal primary education
Evaluation : many states have already achieved this target. Enrollment of
children in schools has significantly improved. By stress needs to be laid
on increased dropout % as well. Sarva shiksha abiyan, mid day meal etc
are the schemes intiated by GoI.
Goal 3 : Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

India has wide disparities with regard to literacy rates in women and men
with 65.4% and 82.14% respectibely.Beti bachao beti padao etc are the
targeted schemes.
Goal4 :Reduce Child Mortality
India needs to reach a target of 42/1000 . Currently the rate is 55/1000
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health
Indias target for MMR is 140 per 100,000 live births by 2015, taking a
baseline of 560 per 100,000 live births in 1990. India might miss the target.
Goal 6 : Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
India has become polio free. It has also made significant process in
reducing the incidence of tuberculosis and malaria.
Goal 7 :Ensure Environmental Sustainability
India emitted 0.65 kg of carbon dioxide per $1 of GDP in 1990, which fell to
0.53 kg in 2010. India has also taken up an ambitious target of generating
175 GW power from renewable sources by 2022.
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
India has been playing a major role in WTO, bilateral and multilateral
forums and has been also receiving aid from global financial institutions to
fund its projects.
Though has made progress with regard to few MDG it still lags behind
when compared to its immediate neighbours. India needs to gear up and
come up with a comprehensive strategy which would plug the loopholes in
the existing framework.

Empowering women through wage employment and political participation

Reducing child and maternal mortality
Improving sanitation to end open defection
Halved poverty rates from 1990 level
Reversed incidence of HIV/AIDS
Reduced malaria and TB deaths

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /

NARESH SEHDEV / 9810945387 / 43104668 / POCKET C-2 / FLAT 8-C ; KESHAV PURAM /