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ASME PTCs17 73 m 0759b70 0533093 03b

Reciprocating
Interna1 Combustion
1-
REAFFIRMED 1991
FOR CURRENTCOMMllTEE PERSONNEL
PLEASE SEE ASME MANUAL AS-11

, I
Engines

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ASME PTCUL7 73 m 0759670 0533092 T72 m

Reciprocating
PERFORMANU
Internal Combustion
Engines
- TEST
CODES

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ASME P T C * L 7 73 m O759670 0533093 909

Library of Congress Catalog No. 73-80628

No p w t of thisdocwnent mcry be reproducedin any form, in an


electronicretrievalsystem or otherwise,withoutthepriorwritten
permission of the publisher.

Copyright, 8 1973, by
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Printed in the IJnited States of America

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FOREWORD

T h i s Code i s intended for tests of all types of reciprocating internal-combustion engines for determin-
ingpower output and fuelconsumption. It i s not intended for general or specialized research or for
development of equipment or processes.
This Code purposelyexcludes a n y ratingstandards, as beingneitherpertinentto a Performance
Test Code nor essential to test procedures.
This Code follows the format specified by PTC 1: Object and Scope, Definitions and Descriptions
of Terms,GuidingPrinciples,Instrumentsand Methods of Measurement,Computation of Results. In
addition,supplementary information is included as an Appendix(Section 7). T o make this Code com-
prehensiveyetbrief,pertinentportions of othercodes and standardsareappropriatelyreferenced,
rather than duplicate such standards herein.
The original Test Code for Internal-Combustion Engines was published in 1901.Subsequentrevisions
wereadopted in 1915,1924, and 1929. Extensiverevisionswere begun in 1939, culminating in an
issuance of 1949. This was reaffirmed in 1952, thenmodified slightly in 1957 andagainreaffirmed.
Because of developments in the industry and in pertinent measurement techniques, and because other
pertinentcodes had beendeveloped in theinterim,needwasseen for totalreviewandrevision of
PTC 17. Work was begun in 1966 resulting in this entirely new Code.
This Code was approved by thePerformance Test Codes CommitteeonJanuary 15, 1973 andap-
proved and adopted by the Council of the Society by action of the Policy Board on Codes and Standards
on February 28, 1973.

...
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ASME PTC*L7 73 m 0759b70 0533095 7 8 1 W

PERSONNEL OF PERFORMANCE TEST CODES COMMITTEE NO. 17


ON RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

-4.J. Henriksen, Chairman


B. J. Kirkwood, Secretary

Rilliam Anderson, Head, Reciprocating Machinery Branch, Naval Ship Engineering Center, Philadelphia,
Penna. 19112
John II. Railey, Program Ilanager, Research Department, Caterpillar Tractor Co., Peoria, Ill. 61602
John J. arich, Jr., Manufacturing Manager, Enterprise Division, neLaval Turbine, Inc., Oakland,
Calif. 91621
Carl Y. Bauer, Project Engineer, Product Engineering, Joy Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, New York
14225 (formerly with Worthington C & EI)
James R . DeVent, hlanager. Technical Field Services, hite Superior, Box 540, 1401
Sheriden St.,
Springfield, Ohio 95501 (f~rmerlywith Cooper -Bessemer)
Henry F. Gramlich, Specialist, Internal Combustion Eng. Power Plants, Navy Facilities Engrg.
Command, Kashington, D. C. 20390
.4danl J. Henriksen, Manager, T e s t & Service Dept., Power Machinery Division, Nordberg Jlachinery
Group. Rexnord, Inc., Ililwaukee, Kisc. 53201
Erik Kelgard, Technical Advisor, Engineering, Trans Mountain Pipeline Co., 400 E a s t Broadway,
Vancouver 10, B.C..
R. J. Kirkwood, Partner, A . C. Kirkwood &. Associates, Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Mo. 64131
Glen \l. Vajors, Product Engr. Manager, France Products Div. of Garlock Inc., P. O. Box .4, Newtown,
Pa. 18940 (formerly with Ingersoll-Rand and Dresser-Clark)
Rico O. Vontenero, \lanager, Engine Laboratory, Fairbanks Morse Power Systems Div., Colt Industries,
Beloit, Wisc. 53511
Phillip S. \hers, Professor, Ilechanical Engineering, University of Risconsin, Iladison, Kisc. 53705
Thomas L. Novosad, Supervisor, Mechanical Division, Research nept., Tennessee Gas Pipeline,
Houston, Texas T036

Retired Members of PTC 1 7

J. Gene Edwards, (retired from Caterpillar Tractor Co.), Peoria, Ill.


Ernest R . \.iolett, Jr., Head, Vech. Engrg. Branch, Navy Facilities Engrg. Command, Washington,
D. C. 20390

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ASME PTC*L7 73 m 0759b70 053309b b L B m

Personnel of Performance Test Codes Committee

J. W. Murdock, Chairman
K. C. Cotton, Vice Chairman
R. P. Benedict J. L. Hilke S. L. Morse
W. A. Crandall E. L. Knoedler L. C. Neale
R. C. Dannettel Paul Leung W. C. Osborne
111. D. Engle F. H. Light W. A. Pollock
V. F. Estcourt S. W. Lovejoy J. H. Potter
J. H. Fernandes R. T. Mathews C. B. Scbarp
A. S. Grimes W. G. McLean J. F. Sebald
J. C. Westcott

vi

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ASME PTCxL7 73 D 0759b700533097554 m

ASME P E R F O R M A N C E TEST C O D E S
RECIPROCATING
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

CONTENTS
Section Pars.

1 OBJECT AND SCOPE ........................................................ 1.1 - 1.5


2 DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION OF TERMS .............. 2.1 - 2.8
3 GUIDING PRINCIPLES ...................................................... 3.1 - 3.6
4 INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT.... 4.1 - 4.13
5 COMPUTATION OF RESULTS .......................................... 5.1 - 5.6
6 REPORT OF T E S T .............................................................. 6.1 - 6.10

7 APPENDIX ............................................................................ 7.0 - 7.5

SECTION 1, OBJECT AND SCOPE

1.1 Purpose 1.2.3 For procedures to attain optional test objec-


tives, related cades or standards must be consulted.
1.1.1 This Code provides rules for testing, and
(See Par. 7.1.2.3)
for the computation and tabulation of the results of
tests, for all types of reciprocating internal-com- 1.2.4 Fith respect to any t e s t s to verify perform-
bustion engines, in order to determine power and ance, the objects and procedures of the tests shall
fuel consumption. (See Par. 7.1.1) be agreed upon and shall be defined clearly and
exactly, in writing, before t e s t s are started.
1.2 Obiect
1.3 Scope
1.2.1 The objects of testing under this Code are
the determination of: 1.3.Z Application of this Code i s limited to engine
(a) Net power output; and assemblies as defined i n Pars. 1.3.2 and 1.3.3.
(b) Rate of fuel consumption and/or e w g y 1.3.2 Code Engine Assembly. In the absence o f
input, as defined in Section 2. (Atten- specified stipulations the engine assembly to be
tion is directed to the fact that energy tested shall consist of the engine complete with
input is based on the low heat value of
essential apparatus for self-sustained continuous
the fuel.) operation. Generally these consist of the equip-
1 . 2 2 Only tests made in accordance with the provi- ment required for: fuel introduction; air induction
sions of this Code may be designated as complying (i.e., scavenging or supercharging); ignition;
therewith. lubrication; and primary engine and charge-air

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cooling. T h i s is termed the Code Engine credited to the Code Engine Assembly
Assembly. power output.
1.3.2.1 Specifically,aCodeEngine 1.3.2.2 The Code Engine Assembly does not
Assembly includes apparatus: a) to control, car- include any apparatus for starting, battery charg-
buret or inject fuel delivered to it at required ing, or other purpose which does not function
operating supply pressure, including booster fuel continuously, nor any apparatus for other purposes
supply pump or compressor when attached to not mentioned here.
engine; b) t o provide injection air or gas (if engine
i s of the air- or gas-injection type); c) to compress 1.3.3 Specified Engine Assembly (See Par.7.1.3.3)
intake air; d) to provide ignition; e) to circulate
lubricating oil throughout the engine lubricating
1.4 Performance Conditions
system, including oil cooler, strainers, filters and
mechanical force feed supply; and f) to circulate 1.4.1 Every effort shall be made t o conduct each
the primary coolants through the engine jackets, test run on the basis of specified operating condi-
lubricating oil coolers, and intake air coolers - tions. The maximum permissible deviations there-
a l l a s involved in the engine assembly being from shall not exceed the limits prescribed in Par.
tested. 3.4.4 and in Table 1 except by special agreement.

1.3.2.1.1 If any apparatus required for the


above functions i s driven by a separate
1.5 Tolerances

source of power, the power input to, or the 1.5.1 Tolerances or margins to allow for inac-
fuel consumed by, the driving unit shall be curacies in tests, which may be directly applied to
charged against the Code Engine Assembly. the final result, are outside the scope of the A S m
If any apparatus, systems or parasitic load Performance Test Codes. Such tolerances or mar-
not included in the Code Engine Assembly gins s e chiefly of commercial significance and
(such as an intake filter, exhaust silencer, or are t o be settled by agreement between the parties
radiator system) is attached to or driven by to a contract. Limits of error in instruments or
the engine, it should be detached during methods of measurement may be stated in the
engine tests, or, if detachment i s not prac- codes, but exact limits should be stipulated pref-
ticable, the power consumed thereby shall be erably in a contract or agreed upon prior to the
separately determined or agreed upon and acceptance test.

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ASME P T C * 1 7 73 m 0759670 0533099 327 m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMRUSTION ENGISES

SECTION 2, DESCRIPTWN AND DEFINITION OF TERMS

Par. Un it
No. Term Symbol Description FPS SI
2.1 Power

2.1.1 Veasured power Power delivered at the coupling power kW**


output, mechanica take-off connection of any of the engine
assemblies defined in this Code, as
determined by a dynamometer or other
approved measuring device, expressed
as brake power (Ref. PTC-19.7)

2.1.2 Correction for Net brake power quantity subtracted kW


auxiliaries and from (or added to) measured power output,
accessories, mechanical, when correcting for power.
charges and incidental to separately driven auxiliaries
credits, or abnormal accessories as prescribed in
mechanical Par. 5.2.2.

2.1.3 Net power Power determined from themeasured power kW


output output, mechanical, by application of
charges and credits.
2.1.4 Indicated Power exerted by the working medium in kW
power the cylinders or a n engine assembly, as
obtained by calculation based on the
indicated mean effective pressure, or by
summation of the net power output,
mechanical and the total power losses
including friction power (Ref. PTC-19.8).
2.1 .S Veasured power Power delivered at the generator kW
output, electrical terminals of a n y of the engine driven
generator units defined in this Code,
as determined by electrical measure-
ments.(Ref. PTC-19.6).
2.1.6 Correction for Net kilowatt quantity subtracted from kW
auxiliaries and (or added to) to measured power output.
accessories, electrical, when correcting for power
charges and incidental to separately driven
credits, auxiliaries or abnormal accessories as
electrical prescribed in Par. 5.3.2.

*Under the FPS system horsepower is the recognized term forpower and one hp equals
550 ft-lb/sec or 746 newton - metre/sec.
**Under the Si system watts or kilowatts are the recognized t e r m s forpowerand one
kW equals 1000 newton -metre/sec.

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ASME PTCxL7 73 m 0757670 0533300 979 m

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES

DESCRIPTION AND DEFINITION OF TERMS (CONTD)

Par. Description Un it
Symbol No. Term FPS SI
Power (Contd).
2.1.7 Corrections for Y, Net
kilowatt
quantitysubtracted from kW kW
cable losses, (or added to) to measured power output,
separately sup- electrical, at the generator terminals
plied generator for cable losses and conditions of
excitation and separately supplied generator excitation
ventilation and ventilation as involved for specific
test as prescribed in Par. 5.3.1.
2. I .R Net power out- P,, Powerdetermined from the measured kFF kW
put, electrical power output, electrical, by application
of charges and credits a s prescribed in
this Code.

pKA Watthour per disc revolution of watt- Wh,rev


Wh,rev
constant, hour meter.
primary
I

2.2 Pressures

2.2.1 Specified pres- Specified absolute pressure of gas psia Pa*


sure when reporting heating values.
2.2.2 Gas pressure Absolute pressure of gaseous fuel ps ia Pa
@ meter measured at intake of the metering
(gaseous fuel) device used for measuring the fuel
quantity.
2.2.3 Indicated mean The indicated mean effective pres- psi Pa
effective sure (II1IEP) i s that pressure which,
pressure assumed as acting at constant
magnitude on the piston, would pro-
duce or absorb during one piston
stroke an amount of work equal to
that produced or absorbed during
one complete working cycle by the
actually-occurring variable pressure.
The indicated mean effective pressure
may also be defined as the indicated
workof one complete cycle, divided by
the piston displacement in which this
work was done.
2.2.4 Water vapor The partial pressure of the water psi Pa
pressure vapor in the gas at the point when the
pressure pm w a s measured. This
value will vary with the temperature
and percentage of saturation.

*One W (pascal) equals one newton/m*.


One psi equals 6894.757 pascals (see A S N E-380).

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ASME P T C r L 7 73 m 0759670 0533LOL 805 m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

Par. Unit
No. Term Sym bo I Description FPS SI
2.3 Temperatures

2.3.1 Fuel tempera- Absolute temperature of gaseous ("Ft459.7)


OR ("c+
OK
tures (gaseous fuel measured a t intake of the
b
fuels) metering device used for measuring 273.2)
fuel quantity.
2.3.2 Specified Specified absolute temperature of gas OR OK
temperature when reporting heating values. (oFt459.7) ("C+
273.2)

2.4 T me

2.4. I Rotation watt- rW Time for rd watthour-meter disc sec S


hour meter turns.
2.4.2 Rotation, watt-
' Arbitrarily chosen number of watt- re v rev
hour meter hour-meter disc turns.
2.4.3 Minute min S.
Used in some equations in Section min min
2.4.4 Hour h Used in some equations in Section S. h h
2.4.5 Test run period Duration of individual test time: sec S
ro I 1) Power measurement
r 2) Liquid fuel measurement
O2
3) Gaseous fuel measurement

2.5 Sped

2.5.1 Observed speed n Sustained governed speeds under


steady-state operating conditions as
observed during test periods

2.6 Volume and Weight

2.6.1 Total gas quan- Volume of gaseous fuel supplied CU ft m3


tity measured a t to the engine during test period r.
3
meter a s measured a t meter.
2.6.2 Total liquid Weight of liquid fuel supplied to lb kg
fuel consumption, the engine during test period t o 2 .
a s measured

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ASME P T C t L 7 73
0759670 0533302 741

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES

Par. Unit
No. Term Symbol Description FPS SI

2.7 Heat Quantities

2.7.1 Heat value, Low unsaturated heat value of Btu/cu ft J/,3


gaseous fuel gaseous fuel used for the test, at @P, i3 T, @Q,
specified conditions. T,
2.7.2 Heat value, Low-heat value of liquid fuel used Btu/lb J/kg
liquid fuel for the test.
2.7.3 Net specific Energy consumption of an internal Btu/hph J/kWh
energy combustion engine referred to net
consumption power output, mechanical, and based
on low unsaturated heat value of the
fuel used for the test.
2.7.4 (Same) Same as qa but based on net power Btu/kWh J/kWh
output, electrical.

2.8 General
~~ ~

2.8.1 Torque, gross Turning moment measured or computed lb ft N-m


at the engine coupling or power take-
off connection.
2.8.2 Compressibility Factor from equation P V = Z R T to nondimensional
factor correct for non-ideal gas bchavior.
2.8.3 Generator A value representing the ratio of nondimensional
efficiency, generator output divided by the
conversely generator input when both these values
accounting for are expressed in similar terms.
losses in the
generator unit.

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ASME PTC+L7 7 3 D 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0533303 6 8 8 D

SECTION 3, GUIDING PRINCIPLES


conditioning and calibrating instruments;
3.1 Limits of Code
special calibration agreements; limits of
3.1.1 Procedures established in Section 3 and 4 possible measurement error. (Par. 3.3.5 and
of this Code are limited to tests establishing net Section 4)
power output and energy consumption (as defined (P) Maximum permissible variations in operat-
in Section 2) for reciprocating internal-combustion ing conditions if these exceed the values
engines. Test procedures for all other objectives stated in Table 1. (Par. 3.4.2 and 3.4.4)
must be by special agreement. (q) Numerical values (if needed) for test cor-
rections or adjustments not elsewhere
3.2 Agreements covered in the Code.
(r) Dura'ion of t e s t s and general provisions
3.2.1 Agreements Refore Tests. Prior to testing, for operating engine throughout the testing
the parties to the tests shall reach definite agree- period. (Pars. 3.4.1, 3.4.5 and 3.4.6)
ment on items such a s the following (see pertinent (S) Methods of maintaining constant operating
paragraphs as noted): conditions within deviations allowed in
(a) Specific objects of the tests. (Par. 1.2) Table 1 and agreed to under (P) above.
(b) Clarification of any ambiguities or conflicts (t) Engine control and permissibleadjustments
within specifications and their intent, or to controls during tests. (Par.3.1.1)
between specification and Code procedures. 1 (u) Method of determining stable operation be-
(c) Designation of arbiter on necessary fore test readings are started. (Par.3.4.1.2)
decisions during test. (Par. 3.3.4.1). (v) Provisions for starting and stopping each
(d) Place where tests are to be conducted. test run. (Par. 3.4.5)
(Par. 7.3.2.1 d) ( W ) Number of observations. (Par. 3.4.6.1)
(e) When tests are to be run. (x) Methods of computing results. (Section 5)
(0 Preliminary t e s t s to verify readiness for
final tests. (Pars. 3.3.1 and 3.3.2) 3.2.2 Other Agreements. This Code and the agree-
(g) Designation of official test witnesses and ments called for above specify the procedures and
their responsibility and authority. calculations necessary to test for the primary objects
(Par. 3.3.4) hereof (net power output and rate of fuel consump-
(h) Selection and organization of other test tion and/or energy input) within limitations estab-
party personnel, including designation of lished in this Code. In addition, agreements should
the test director. (Pars. 3.3.4.1 and3.3.4.2) specify loads and speeds at which tests are to be
(i) Records to be maintained and responsibil- run and means of fuel measurement. In the absence
ity therefor. (Par. 3.5) of written agreement, Code procedures shall be
(j) Number of copies of original data required mandatory.
and t o whom to be furnished. (Par.3.5.2.J)
(k) Source of load for engine test and re- 3.3 Preparation for Tests
sponsibility for providing it. (Par. 3.3.5)
3.3.1 Preliminary Operalion and .4djustment.
(1) Means of adjusting for auxiliary loads to be
Before the tests, the engine assembly first shall
included in or excluded from engine assem-
be put in adjustment and be operated for suffi-
bly. (Pars. 1.3.2., 1.3.3, and Section 5)
cient time to condition it t o perform in a normal
(m) Fuel and other operating supplies to be
manner, so that test results will be a measure of
used for test, including source, characteris-
actual performance under stipulated or agreed
tics, and the party responsible for
conditions of the tests.
providing. (Par. 3.4.1)
(n)
Designation of laboratory
qualified for 3.3.1.1 Thenature and extent of running-in
determining pertinent fuel characteristics prior t o formal t e s t s h a l l be determined from pre-
and choice of Code method for such deter- liminary observations and all parties to the test
minations. (Section 4) shall be given a n opportunity to make an exam-
( o ) Provisions for anddesignation of all in- ination todeterminethattheengine is in con-
strumentsto be employed:arrangements for dition for testing.Following t h i s . agreementfor

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ASME PTC*tL7 73 m 0759b70 0533104 5tLq m

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST C O D E S


proceeding with the formal test is necessary; the accordance with the manufacturers recommendations
test director shall decide any disagreement on and. applicable specifications. The engine shall be
this point. controlled by its normal operating devices in simu-
3.3.2 Preliminury Tests. It i s recommended that lation of normal operation. It shall be operated
preliminary tests be run for the purposes of check- during all test runs at each test point without manual
ing instruments and for determining that the engine adjustments to controls, but controls may be ad-
i s ready for final tests. If mutually agreed upon, justed between test points (unless the applicable
specifications prohibit such manual adjustments).
such test may be considered as an ASME Code
test, provided it has complied with all the require- 3.4.2.1 N o special provisions or adjustments
ments for such a test. may be made to the engine asstmbly for purposes
of the tests that could prevent or limit immediate,
3.3.3 Equipment lnspectzon. Prior to conducting
continuous and reliable operation at all capacities
the tests, all facilities and instruments related to
or outputs under specified normal operating con-
(or to be excluded from) the engine assembly shall
ditions.
be inspected by the test director to assure com-
pliance with this Code and with any preliminary 3.4.1.2 Preparatory to a n y test, the engine as-
agreements. All parties to the test may participate sembly shall be run for a time sufficiently long to
in this inspection. All conditions noted shall be- establish a steady state or operating condition
come part of the permanent t e s t record. (See where power output, speed, jacket and lubricating-
Par. 3.5.1) oil temperatures, and fuel- or heat-consumption
rates remain essentially constant. The test can-
3.3.4 Selection of Test Personnel. The com-
not be started until a steady state has been at-
position of the test operating personnel shall be tained for the conditions under which the t e s t i s t o
the responsibility of the party at whose facilities be run, and until preliminary observations prove
the engine assembly is to be tested. Designated that such steady state has been reached. Length .
witnesses of parties to the test may be present at of time necessary to establish the steady state
all times during the tests to verify that they are will vary for engines of different classes, and
conducted in accordance with this Code and any
vary in any one class for different sizes.
other agreements.
3.4.1.2.1 If successive runs are t o be made,
3.3.4.1 A single individual shall be designated
each under different conditions, the con-
test director, with authority and responsibility
ditions of steady state shall be established
to determine readiness for testing, to initiate and
for each test run and proved by suitable prelim-
halt test runs, to certify compliance with proper
inary observations for each run.
test procedures, and to arbitrate necessary deci-
sions during the test. He a l s o shall be responsible 3.4.2AtmosphericConditions. The engine as-
for calculation of and reporting on test results. sembly shall be tested at the specified atmos-
pheric conditions, within deviation limits in Table
3.3.4.2 Prior to testing, parties to the test
1 (as may be modified by preliminary agreements
shall designate official witnesses to the tests who
in cognizance of the impracticability of simulating
shall have definitive authority in reaching agree-
atmospheric conditions.)
ment, before and during t e s t s , on t e s t procedures.
3.4.3 Fuel Conditions and Energy Consumption
3.3.5 Test Apparatus. If no agreement has been Rates. X11 energy consumption rates shall be
reached on responsibility for providing and cali-
based upon the net (low heat) value of the fuel
brating necessary test load and apparatus, this
under conditions of a s received. Fuel condi-
shall be the responsibility of the party at whose tions for testing shall conform to specifications
facilities the engine assembly is to be tested. Ap-
within limits of deviation in Table 1. (See Par.
paratus shall comply with this Code or a s other-
wise agreed to by the parties to the test. 7.3.4.3)
3.4.4 Permissible Deviations in Operating
Conditions. Each observation of an operating
3.4 OperatingConditions
condition during a test run shall not deviate from
3.4.1 General. Fuel and supplies and all operat- the reported average for that operating condition
ing conditions shall be as nearly as possible in during the complete run by a n amount more than

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ASME P T C * L 7 73 m 0759b70 0533305 450 m

R E C I P R O C A T I N GI N T E R N A L - C O M B U S T I O N ENGINES
that s h o w n in the second column of Table 1. Each scription with accuracies, repeatabilities,
reported average operating condition during a test orifice sizes, deadweight corrections, etc.)
run shall not deviate from the specified operating ( f ) Engine assembly operating hours at start of
condition by an amount more than that shown in tests.
the third column of Table 1 . If any test run, or the (g) Observation of physical conditions of equip-
average operating condition, deviates beyond the ment and site.
limits prescribed in Table 1, the test run or entire
3.5.2 During T e s t . A log of a l l observations made
test conditions shall be discarded.
during the tests shall be entered in the test re-
3.4.5 Starting and Stopping of T e s t s . Measure- cords. The records shall show that stability had
ments for power output and related fuel consump- been achieved at the start of each series of test
tion on individual test runs should be started and runs at new load or speed points.
stopped virtually simultaneously. However, a s
3.5.2.1 A l l observations and notations shall
long as loads are stable and instrument readings
be carefully recorded in legible form and sufficient
are recorded frequently during a test, it is not es-
authenticated copies made so that a copy may be
sential to observe simultaneously those readings
given to each interested party to the test. All offi-
which are made a t the same intervals. Where the
cial copies of the records shall be signed by the
weighted average of a series of readings i s used
respective witnesses and countersigned by the
in calculating results, uniform time periods,
person in charge of each shift or test.
adapted to conditions of the test and nature of
data required, may be employed rather than attempt- 3.5.2.2 Records made before, during and after
ing simultaneous readings of all items. each test run shall show the extent of fluctuations
of conditions and observations in order that data
3.4.5.1 Such procedures should be part of the
preliminary agreements. Care should be exercised may be available .for determining compliance with
the limits of deviations.
that such procedures could not conceivably affect
the resultant calculated fuel consumption rates per 3.5.2.3 Observations critical to the test shall
unit of, power output by over ? 1.0 percent. be noted and recorded in duplicate by two wit-
n e s s e s and readings should be compared and an
3.4.6 Duration of T e s t s . Unless specified other-
agreement reached soon after the observations are
wise, no series of runs on fuel consumption tests
made. Alternatively, readings should be made by
at a load point shall exceed a period of three
two observers, recorded on a single log, and
hours nor be less than one hour. (If longer periods
initialed by both.
are agreed to, special agreements must be reached
on permissible deviations in conditions under 3.5.2.4 Every event connected with the pro-
Table 1 and/or on corrections therefor.) gress of a test shall be recorded on the test log
sheets together with the time of occurrence and
3.1.6.1 There shall be a minimumof three test
name of the observer. Particular care shall be
runs a t each test point (for power output and/or
taken to record any adjustments made to any equip-
fuel consumption). The computed result shall be
ment under test, whether made during a run or be-
the time-weighted average of related readings.
tween runs. The reason for each adjustment shall
3.5 Records a l s o be stated in the test log. Likewise, all
indications of distress or instability in the engine
3.5.1 Prior t o T e s t . Prior to the tests, a record assembly shall be noted.
should be made of at least the following - items:
All preliminary agreements. 3.5.3 After Test. Upon completion of the test
All items included and excluded from the series, a record shall be made of observed per-
engine assembly and the agreed correc- formance and site conditions, or changes from
tion values therefor, if any. (See Pars. 1.3. initial conditions, such as might affect the evalu-
2 and 1.3.3) ation of engine performance.
Serial numbers and nameplate data of
3.6 Rejection of Tests
facilities and auxiliaries under test.
Layout of equipment under test or related 3.6.1 Should serious inconsistencies arise, either
thereto, with pertinent dimensions. during a test or during the computation of results
A l l test instruments. (A full nameplate de- from a series of tests, the test or tests shall be E-

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ASME PTCx37 73 m 0759670 0533306 397 m

A S M EP E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C.ODES
jected, in whole or in part, and the test or test runs difficulty shall be investigated and its cause cor-
repeated a s required to comply with the objects of rected, after which the whole test series (such as
the tests. Whenever the results show insufficient might be affected by the adjustments) shall be
power or other malfunctioning of the engine, the repeated.

Table 1 - Maximum Permissible Deviations in Test Conditions'


~

Variable
Operating
Condition
Deviation of Any IndividualDeviation of Reported
Average
Observation From ReportedOperating Condition
During
a
AverageOperatingCondition Test Run FromSpecified Test
or Value Duringa Test Run Condition or Value

(a) Power output -


mean (for f 3 percent t 5 percent
rated output or fractional
loads)
(b)Torque t 2 percent t 3 percent
(c) Rotativespeed f 1 percent t 2 percent
(d) Barometric pressure at site f 1 percent No limit
(e) Ambient air intake tempera- 2 5 degrees F 2 5 degrees F
ture (2.8'C) (2.8'C)
(r) Relative humidity of air at No limit No limit
ambient air intake
(g) Water vapor pressure in No limit No limit
gaseous fuel
(h) Heat value - liquid fuel, t 0.5 percent t 3 percent
per pound (or per kg)
(i) Heat value - gaseous fuel, 5 2 percent t 6 percent
per cubic foot c (or per
cubic meter)

(j)Gaseousfuelconstituents' k 5 percent of each 2 5 percent of each


individual individual
constituent constituent

(k) Gas pressure (absolute), as f 2 percent t 10 percent,


supplied to meter - O percent
(1) Gas temperature, as t 5 degrees F No limit
supplied to meter (2.8'C)

(m) Exhaust back pressure, at Not applicable t -


O percent, not
engine (turbocharger below ambient
outlet, if so equipped)

(n) Intake air pressure drop, Not applicable t O percent, - no


from ambient to engine (to limit
blower or supercharger
inlet, if so equipped)

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ASME PTCxL7 73 0757670 0533307 223

R E C I P R O C A T I N GI N T E R N A L - C O M R U S T I O NE N G I N E S

* The limits shown in Table 1 specify maximum permissible variations without invalidating a test run or
s e r i e s of runs. If because of valid circumstances the actual test conditions differ from the specified
test conditions (or average conditions of a s e r i e s of runs) by an amount larger than that shown in Table
1, the parties may agree to a method of correcting the results therefor, which should become a part of
the test agreements. If s u c h a condition is anticipated for engines for which correction factors are not
well established (such a s turbocharging), it is suggested that correction for the engine being tested be
established on the test floor, where possible.

While correction is appropriate if moisture exists, pipeline gas usually contains minor amount of
moisture and correction may be omitted in most cases. (See Par. 4.11.5.3)

c Varyingconstituents(especiallyheavyends)canpresentproblemsinmaintainingpropercombustion.

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ASME PTClr37 73 D 0759b70 0533308 LbT m

ASME P E R F O R M A N C E T E S T C O D E S

SECTION 4, INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENT

4.1 General 4.4.1.1 Engine Mechanical Power Output


Measurement
4.1.1 This section describes the instruments,
4.4.1.1.1 For direct determination of mechan-
methods, and precautions that shall be employed
in testing reciprocating internal-combustion en- ical power output of an engine, a calibrated
dynamometer of a type suitable for the engine
gines under this Code. Alternative test methods
and the circumstances of the tests(PTC 19.7),
are included in some cases. For procedure to ob-
having a maximum inaccuracy of 2 1.0 percent,
tain erne of the supplementary information, other
shall be used. (For other acceptable means of
authoritative codes and standards are cited and
torque measurement s e e PTC 19.7 for types
shall be considered as part of this Code. (See
and related accuracies.)
PTC 19 series on Instruments and Apparatus.)
4.4.1.1.2 For indirect determination of mechan-
4.2 Classification of Measurements
ical power output of an enginedriven gen-
erator unit, a calibrated generator and var-
4.2.1 In preparing a list of measurements to be ious electrical meters are required. (See
made preparatory to selection of instruments it PTC19.6 and ANSI c50.2 and c50.4)
should be noted that the measurements required Maximum inaccuracy: calibrated generator,
fall into these groups: f 1.0 percent.

4.2.1.1 Measurements required for determina- 4.4.1.1.3 For other indirect determinations of
tion of the primary objects under this Code; Le., mechanical power output of engines, under
net power output, and rate of fuel consumption circumstances not permitting use of a dyna-
and/or energy input. mometer or calibrated generator, such as
compressor drives or commercial generators,
4.2.1.2 Measurements to indicate maintenance
other less accurate methods must be em-
or variation of important operating conditions de-
fined as the steady state required for the t e s t pre- ployed. (See Par. 7.4.4.1.1.3)
scribed, but which measurements do not them- 4.4.1.2 Fuel Quantity Measurements
selves enter into the test results except asshow-
ing conditions under which such results were ob- 4.4.1.2.1 For a liquid-fuel engine, appropriate
tained. tanks with weighing s c a l e s , for determin-
ation of fuel weights (see PTC 19.5.1).
4.2.1.3 Measurements for one or more deter- Maximum inaccuracy: 2 1.0 percent.
minations required for such optional tests a s may
be the subject of agreement by parties to the tests. 4.4.1.2.2 For a gaseous-fuel engine, a suit-
able flow (volume) measuring device:
4.3 Calibration of Instruments and Apparatus 4.4.1.2.2.1 Rotarypositivedisplacement
volumetric meter (ASME Fluid Meters
4.3.1 Instruments and apparatus usedfor primary
Part II). Maximum inaccuracy: t 2.0 percent.
object or optional determinations under this Code
s h a l l be so calibrated that parties to the test are 4.4.1.2.2.2 Sharp-edge orifice, Venturi, or
agreed that all instruments and apparatus are ac- flow nozzle (ASME Fluid Meters Part
curate within the stipulated limits of possible er- II). Maximum inaccuracy: t 1.5 percent.
r. Methods specified in the PTC 19 series shall 4.4.1.3 Fuel Heating Value (Btu or loule
govern as t o methods of calibration.
determination)

4.4 Check List of Instruments andApparatus


-
4.4.1.3.1 Liquid Fuel: LHV Bomb Ca-
lorimeter (ASTM D-2382). Maximum
Required for Primary-Obiect
inaccuracy: f 0.5 percent.
Determinations
4.4.1.3.2 Gaseous fuel:
4.4.1 T e s t s for the primary objects under this Code
require the appropriate use of the following instru- 4.4.1.3.2.1 Constituent analysis for heating
mente and apparatus: value and specific gravity calculations by

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ASME PTC*37 73 m 07596700533309 OTb m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

mass spectrometer (ASTM D-2650, D-1137). dynamometer shall be carefully balanced before
Maximum inaccuracies:? 1.0 percent; or by and after the test. (Further information con-
cerning dynamometers is given in PTC 19.7.)
4.4.1.3.2.2 Gas chromatograph (ASTM D-
1945, D-1946, D-2163). Accuracy: 2 1.0 4.6.3 For absorption dynamometers the torque-arm
percent; plus force shall be measured along a tangent to the
torque-arm circle, at the point of application to
4.4.1.3.2.3 Check HHV, saturated, by re- the weighing means, and acting normal to the line
cording calorimeter test (ASTM D-1826). of the force measurement. The maximum inaccuracies
Maximum inaccuracies: 2 1.0 percent. in making torque measurements by absorption
(See Par. 4.11.5.3 for explanation) dynamometers shall be within:
4.4.1.3.2.4 r a t e r vapor content: (ASTM f 0.2 percent - for effective length of torque arm
D-l142).Sufficient maximum inaccuracies: 2 0.2 percent - for amount of torque arm force
f 5.0 percent.
4.6.3.1 Links, struts, or levers connecting
4.4.1.3.2.5 See Par. 7.4.11.6 for specific dynamometers to weighing means shall be essen-
constants of heating values and specific tially free of friction. Flow of water or air used
gravities for fuel constitutents and Par. for the dynamometer operation or cooling, and any
4.11.5 for additional comments. electrical or hose connections, shall be so ar-
4.4.1.4 Temperaturemeasurements: For tech- ranged as to introduce no appreciable tangential
niques, instrumentation, and maximum force reactions on the external parts of the
inaccuracies, see PTC 19.3. dynamometer.
4.4.1.5 Pressure-measurements: For tech- 4.6.4 In case of a torsion-transmission dyna-
niques, instrumentation, and maximum mometer, the scale of the torsional member shallbe
inaccuracies, see PTC 19.2. calibrated before and after the test, to a maximum
inaccuracy of 0.5 percent. Readings for speed shall be
4.4.1.6 Speed measurements: For techniques,
instrumentation, and maximum inaccuracies; taken simultaneously with the deflection readinp.
s e e PTC 19.13.
4.7 Rotative SpeedMeasurements
4.4.1.7. Timemeasurement: For techniques,
instrumentation, and maximum inaccuracies, 4.7.1 Depending on conditions of the test, any of
s e e PTC 19.12. the revolution counters or speed indicators listed
in Par. 4.4.1.6 may be employed for determining
4.5 Measurements for Primary Obiect, General the rotative speed of the engine.
4.5.1 The power output of any of the engine as- 4.7.2 In c a s e s where the mean rotative speed
semblies, as defined in Pars. 1.3.2 and 1.3.3, may measurement directly influences the test results,
be measured either at the engine coupling with a the instrument shall be of the revolution counter
dynamometer or at the electric-output terminals of type. The maximum inaccuracies in counting rev-
a calibrated direct-connected generator.
olutions and in measuring time intervals shall be
4.6 Power-OutputMeasurements, Direct such that the resultant rotative speed shall be
within 00.2 percent. An instrument of the speed-
4.6.1 The net power output of an engine-assembly indicating type may be used for initial setting of
(as specified in Par. 1.3) i s expressed in power the test speed and for checking constancy of speed
referred to the engine coupling and shall include during test periods. (Further information concerning
adjustments in output incidental to any power ab- measurement of speed is contained in PTC 19.13,
sorbing auxiliaries or accessories as prescribed Measurement of Rotary Speed.)
in Par. 1.3.
4.6.2 The power output of an engine, when meas-
4.8 Power-Output Measurements, Indirect
wed directly, shall be determined by an absorp- 4.8.1 The net power output of an enginedriven
tion or a torsion-transmission dynamometer in con- calibrated generator with engine assembly ( a s
nection with rotative speed observations. In each specified in Par. 1.3) shall be obtained from elec-
case, the dynamometer shall be directly connected trical measurements suitable for determining the
t o oc mounted on the shaft of the engine. The performance in kilowatts referred to the generator

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terminals and shall include adjustments in output fuel is supplied to the test and shall have a
incidental to any power absorbing auxiliaries or maximum inaccuracy of t 1.0 percent. Meters or
accessories as in Par. 1.3 and any deductions, vdumetric means for determining quantities
expressed in kilowatts, for power that is sepa- shall not be used, except by special agreement
rately supplied for generator excitation or venti- between parties to the test. If meters are used,
lation, as prescribed i n Par. 1.3. If generator cool- temperature corrections must be applied.
ing fans are separately driven, energy to the
4.10.2 Arrangement of weighing tanks and all
motors shall be deducted from the generator connections at tanks shall be such that nothing
output.
will influence weight observations except the
4.8.2 Power-factor must be maintained at speci- tank and the contained fuel. After f.uel'weight
fied and calibrated values, or agreement reached determination, there should be-no spilling or
for adjustments to results. (See Par. 7.4.8.2) losses by leakage or by evaporation, as when us-
ing volatile fuels or heavy fuels which must be
4.8.3 Instruments for Electrical Output T e s t s .
heated and which contain lighter fractions. Fuel
For three-phase, three-wire a-c generators, power drippings shall be credited to engine fuel con-
output shall be measured by a polyphase watt-
sumption quantities, but care shall be taken to
meter with two current coils and two potential
collect only for the time of the fuel consumption
coils, or by a two-element watthour meter or by quantity measurements.
two single-phase watthour meters. For three-
phase, four-wire a-c generators, power output shall 4.10.3 For these measurements time shall be de-
be measured by a polyphase wattmeter with three termined accurately. (For detailed information,
current coils and two potential coils, or by a s e e PTC 19.12)
three-element watthour meter or by three single-
4.10.4 Sampling Liquid Fuel. Samples of the fuel
phase watthour meters. Power output of single-
shall be taken so as to represent the fuel in its
phase a-c generators shall be measured by a
condition at the point of weighing. Sampling pro-
single-phase wattmeter or by a single-element
watthour meter. Power output of d-c generators cedure outlined by PTC 3.1, Diesel and Burner
shall be measured by the d-c voltmeter-ammeter Fuels, shall be followed.
method. 4.10.4.1 Care must be exercised to ensure
homogeneous fuel supply from storage throughout
4.8.3.1 Fattmeters are to be used only under
the test program. If this is not possible, fuel
conditions of constant power output.
samples must be taken and tested each time the
4.8.3.2 Portable indicating ammeters and volt- weigh tank is filled and correlated to fuel meas-
meters shall be installed in the measuring circuits urements.
to establish that generator outputs and, if in-
4.10.5 Liquid Fuel Characteristics. It is neces-
volved, power factors conform to the spcified
sary that the low heat value of the liquid fuel
conditions.
used for the test be determined by means of a
4.8.4 Meters used for measuring electrical power standard form of bomb calorimeter (see ASTM
output shall be calibrated and adjusted either in D-2382).
a n approved laboratory or in place by use of por-
4.10.5.1 Heat values and other pertinent char-
table calibration instruments. After such calibra-
acteristics shall be determined by a physical or
tions and adjustments, the instrument accuracy
chemical laboratory of recognized standing.
shall equal that established by the instrument
manufacturer. (For additional information refer to 4.10.6 Reported characteristics, unless other-
PTC 19.6) wise agreed upon between parties to the test,
4.9 Power-Output Measurements, Other shall be limited to those upon which the specified
performances are based. These may include:
Indirect
(See Pars. 7.4.4.1.1.3 and 7.4.9) 4.10.6.1 Applicable to all liquid fuels: low-
heat value, Btu per lb - AST41 D-2382; gravity
4.10 Fuel Consumption, LiquidFuels
- -
API ASTM D-287; sulfur ASTM D-90 or ASTM
4.10.1 Liquid fuel consumption quantities shall D-129; water sediment - ASTM D-96; distillation
be determined by direct weighing means a s the temperatures in OF at initial; 5 percent; 10 percent;

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ASME PTC*37 73 m 0759b700533333754 m

RECIPROCATING INTEFtNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES


and every 10 percent t o 9O percent; 95 percent; the 25 percent to 100 percent flow range where
end point; and percent recovery; residue and loss the corrections are less than 1.0 percent.)
ASTU D-158 or ASTM D-86; and
4.11.1.2 Gas consumption from flow measure-
ments by means of nozzles, concentric orifices,
4.10.6.2 Applicable to fuel oils (kerosene and
or Venturi tubes can be determined to a maximum
heavier): ignition quality; octane number - ASTM
inaccuracy of 1.5 percent when testing within the
D413 or accepted equivalent method; carbon resi-
proper Reynolds number. The technique and pre-
-
due - ASTM D-189;pour point ASTM D-97; ash - cautions for flow measurements as given in ASME
ASTM D-482; and viscosity Saybolt Universal or
Publication Fluid. Meters, Part II, shall be
Furo1 - AST31 D-88; and
carried out in detail. Use of standardized nozzles
or concentric orifice plates and their installation
4.10.6.3 Applicable to gasoline and tractor
procedures wili eliminate the need for special
fuels: ignition quality; octane number - ASTM
calibration at the time of the engine test.
D-357; or aviation fuel knock value - ASTM D-614;
tetraethyl lead - ASTM D-526 or ASTM D-2509; 4.11.2 Obseruatjons for Flow Measurement. For
-
gum ASTM D-381;and vapor pressure - ASTM flow measurements the following precise obser-
D-3 23. vations are required (see summary below).

4.11 Fuel Consumption, Caseous Fuels 4.11.3 General Precautions /or Flow
Measurements. There are several independent
4.11.1 Veasurements for gas consumption shall
factors that may introduce appreciable errors in
be made by means of calibrated rotary positive
the indicated volume. These are:
volumetric displacement meters, or sharp edge
Ratic? of throat diameter to pipe diameter.
concentric orifice, long-radius nozzle, or Venturi
Critical dimensions of metering elements.
meters a s available and if rates of flow fall with-
Condition of the meter flow surfaces.
in the rated limits of the available meters.
Ratio of downstream to upstream pressure.
4.11.1.1 Lse of the rotary (Roots type) posi- Location of the taps for determining
tive displacement meter for measurement of gas pressure.
consumption is recommended for low pressure Location and character of fittings in pipe-
lines (below 125 psig or 861815 pascals gage) linenear themeter.
ranging from 1300 to 150,OO CU ft or 42.48 to On nozzle and Venturi meters, Reynolds
4248 C U meters displacement per hr. High pres- number must exceed 150,000 to avoid ex-
sure types are available for pressures up t o cessive deviations.
650 psi (or 4481750 pascals). The percentage Steadiness of flow.
correction to be added to the observed volume Physical properties of the gas.
shall be determined from calibration curve Arrangement of manometers.
provided with each meter. (Use these meters in Liquid entrained in gas stream.

SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS

Positive
Orifice Nozzle Venturi Displacement
4 . 1 1 2 . 1 Pressure upstream X X X X

1.11.2.2 Temperature
upstream X X

4.11 2 . 3 Pressure drop X X

4.1 1.2.4 Actual


internal
diameter of X

pipe upstream and down-


stream
4.11.2.5 Complete dimensions of X X X

metering elements

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ASME PTCJt37 73 m 0759b700533332 h90 m

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES


4.11.3.1 Proceduresgoverningconditions of specific gravity, including the water
installation, method of use, and application of vapor content, a s outlined in ASTM
corrections relating to the above will be found in D-1070. These values must agree within
the references in ASVE Fluid Meters, Part II. 0.5 percent.
4.12.4 Sampling Gaseous Fuel. Samples of gas in
the fuel line near the engine shall be taken so a s 4.11. j.3 Vater Vapor Content. The water vapor
to rspre-nt the gaseous fuel being burned. Sam- content of the fuel should be obtained in accord-
pling procedure prescribed by the Test Code for ance with ASTM D-1142. If fuel gas from a 600
Cameoas Fuels, PTC 3.3, shall be followed, in- psi (4137000P a ) , or higher pressure line is
cluding the use of special bottles. used, the water vapor content will be l e s s than
0.1 percent and can be ignored.
4.11.5 Gaseous Fuel Characteristics
4.11.6 GaseousFuels,HeatingValueCalcula-
4.11.5.1 HeatingValue. The most accurate tions. Heat value of the gaseous fuel is to be
and recognized determination of the gas sample calculated from the mass spectrometer or gas
heating value will result from a mass spectrom- chromatograph analysis outlined in Par. 4.11.5.1.1
eter oc gas chromatograph analysis. This an- or 4.11.5.1.2 above. The low heat value (LHV)
a l y s t gives individual gas constituents in per- shall be the summation of the products obtained
centage volume on the unsaturated basis. When by multiplying the heat values of the individual
submitting a fuel gas sample for analysis specify constituent gases under standard conditions by
either of the following: the respective percent, by volume, of each
constituent (see Par. 7.4.11.6). The object is to
4.11.5.1.1 Heating Value, Mass Spec- charge the engine with only the actual energy
trometer. utilized. This is accomplished by correcting the
(a) Individual constituents determina- fuel gas flow for water vapor content and using
tion - ASTM D-1137 and ASTM D-2650, the LHV, unsaturated, of the gas.
coupled with
(b) Continuous calorimeter (HHV) - 4.12 Pressure Measurements
ASTM D-1826
4.12.1 If pressure measurements directly in-
4.11.5.1.2 Heating Value, Gas Chromato- fluence the results of the test, the instrument
PPh used shall have a maximum inaccuracy of 0.5
(a) Individual constituent determina- percent. In general this will require use .of
tion - ASTM D-1945, D-1946, and calibrated Bourdon gages and/or deadweight
D-2163,coupled with gages for the higher pressures, and mercury or
(b) Continuous calorimeter (HHV) - water manometers for the lower pressures. In
ASTM D-1826 cases where the measurement does not directly
4.11.5.1.3 The reason for specifying the influence the results of the test, a maximum
use of the continuous monitoring inaccuracy of 5.0 percent is permissible.
calorimeter for both methods i s t o be as- 4.12.2 Bourdon gages should be selected so that
sured that all gas components are meas- the pressure to be read will be between one-
ured. The HHV (saturated) recorded by the quarter and three-quarters of the total scale.
monitoring calorimeter must agree within Manometers should have connecting piping of not
0.5 percent of the calculated HHV l e s s than one-quarter inch inside diameter to in-
(saturated) from the composition analysis. sure against capillarity in the piping. For gas or
4.11.5.2 Specific Gravity. The determination air pressures, it is preferable to arrange the con-
necting piping so that it will run continuously u p
of the flawing gas must be measured by the lab-
ward from source of pressure to manometers, with-
oratory performing the gas composition t e s t s ( s e e
out loops of any kind. Where liquid pressure i s
ASTM D-1070).
being measured, connecting piping should run
4.11.5.2.1 The measuredspecificgravity continuously downward and the piping should be
must be compared to the calculated completely filled with the liquid being monitored.

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ASME PTC*L7 7 3 D 0759b70 0533113 5 2 7

R E C I P R O C A T I N GI N T E R N A L - C O M B U S T I O N ENGINES
4.12.2.1 See PTC 19.2 for further guidance ferences where applicable. (See PTC 19.2 for ad-
and correction for liquid legs, etc. ditional details.)
4.13 Tomperatwe Measurements
4.12.3 Barometerand Mercury Columns. The
4.23.1 Where temperaturemeasurementsdirectly
atmospheric pressure t o which mercury columns or
influence the results of the test, the potential
manometers are to be referred may be determined
combined temperature measurements shall be ac-
by means of a suitable barometer. It i s permissi-
curate enough to assure no more than 0.5 percent
ble to base atmospheric pressure conditions at
influence on the calculated results.
s i t e of test on a reading taken at the time of test
from a local National Weather Service Station, 4.13.2 Select the type of temperaturemeasuring
but recognize that the readings they give are al- instrument to best suit the application which will
ways corrected back to sea-level conditions. give the desired and necessary accuracies. These
Barometers, other mercury columns, and manom- can include engraved-stem mercury thermometers,
eters shall be corrected for temperature, menis- calibrated thermocouples and thermistors used in
cus (capillarity), gravity, and elevation dif- accordance with PTC 19.3

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ASME P T C * 1 3 73 0759b30 0533114 463

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES

SECTION 5, COMPUTATION OF RESULTS

5.1 Computations for PrimaryObject that is separately supplied, as detailedin


Determinations:PowerOutput and Fuel Par. 4.8.1
Consumption 5.3.2 In order that the foregoing shall give the net
5.1.1 In computation of results of tests for the power output, electrical, in kilowatts, of an
primary object, a point result for each test run i s enginedriven calibrated generator, obtained in
computed from the averaged or integrated values accordance with Par. 4.8, it is imperative that
of observations made during that run, after apply- components of the actual enginedriven calibrated
ing instrument and other corrections as necessary generator under test shall consist only of the
and as prescribed in this Code. The reported net engine assembly and generator apparatus as de-
power output and fuel consumption for each test fined in Par. 1.3 of this Code. Corrections (Zr,)
load and speed shall be the time-weighted shall be made to adjust for power charges and
average of the several corrected values. credits introduced by separately driven auxil-
iaries 'or accessories as prescribed in Par. 1.3.
5.2 Net PowerOutput, Direct This correction, evaluated in kilowatts, shall be
5.2.1 If the power output of an engine assembly made against the measured power output, elec-
(Par.1.3) i s measured with a dynamometer, the trical, before other prescribed corrections have
brake power output i s computed (PTC 19.7) by: been applied a s above; then net power output is:

(FPS) Pmg =(S) hp*


5.3.3 If an alternating-current generator i s used,
the measured power output, electrical, P e g , may
be calculated (PTC 19.6), upon agreement, by
counting and timing the disc rotations of a poly-
'One "hp" is equal t o 33000 ft-lb/min phase watthour meter, and shall be corrected as
**One*'kW" is equal to 60000 N-m/min indicated in the preceding paragraph for Y, and
for Y,. Then net power output is:
5.2.2 If separately driven accessories are in-
cluded in the engine assembly, or if under pro-
visions of Par. 1.3 power charges or credits must
be made, corrections (2Y, ) for the net power re-
quired by such additional accessories or auxil-
iaries shall be made.
Thus: 5.4 Net Power Output, Other Indirect
5.4.1 If, as in the case of integral engine-com-
pressors, the power output cannot be measured by
calibrated generator or by dynamometer (in any of
5.3 Net PowerOutput, Indirect the forms approved in Par. 4.6.2), there should be
mutual agreement as to how P,, i s t o be
5.3.1 Where power output i s determined from elec- determined.
trical measurements of an enginedriven calibrated
generator, the measured electrical power.output at
5.5 ConversionsBetweenMechanical and
the generator terminals, expressed in kilowatts,
Electrical Power Outputs
will be the resultant sum of the electrical power
output measurments plus cable or other losses 5.5.1 If it is desired to convert power output,
( L Y S ) , in kilowatts, between the generator ter- electrical, to power output, mechanical, at the
minals and switchboard, if any, and less that engine coupling, the net power output, electrical,
portion of any excitation power, in kilowatts, that .
i s divided by the generator efficiency,? In order
is separately supplied and less any power meas- to obtain FPS units it is also necessary to divide
ured, in kilowatts, used for generator ventilation net output electrical by 0.746. (See Par. 7.5.5.1)

18

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ASME PTCx17 73 m 0759b70 0533115 3 T T m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGISES


nependin upon the type
" . - of generator
- involved its determined from measured fuel consumption rates
will include some or all of the following: (on a weight or volume basis), net power outputs
Stator I R loss and low heat value of the f u e l used for test.
Rotor 12R loss
5.6.2 On a P,, basis:
Shunt field loss
Shunt field rheostat loss 5.6.2.1 Where liquid fuel weight is measured
Series winding 12R loss
Exciter losses
Friction and windage
Brush friction loss
Brush contact loss
*3600 sec/min.
Core loss
5.6.2.2 Where gaseous fuel volume i s
Ventilating loss
measured:
Stray load loss
5.5.1.1 In addition, cable losses must
culated and included.
be cal-
4, = (--
- V,
PS
h) T,
x-x-
Tm
3600'
roj
x -
Pm 1
5.5.2 In accordance with Par. 5.5.1, the net power Btu
output, mechanical, in brake power at the engine (FPS) or -
J (SI)
coupling, i s computed from the net power output, hPh kKh
electrical (determined in Par. 5.3), and conversely *3600 sec/min.
the net power output electrical, in kilowatts at the
generator terminals, i s computed from the net 5.6.2.2.1 The value of P,, watervapor
power output, mechanical (determined in Par. 5.2), pressure, will varv with T,, and the per-
as follows: centage of saturation of the gas. For ex-
Net Power Output, Mechanical or Electrical ample, if T,,, i s T O O F or 21.1oC, then pw
will be 0.7392 in. Hg or 2503 pascals
(FPS) P,, =
( -v)
0.72x
I
(as commonly expressed, or 0.491 x
0.7392 = 0.363 psi or 2503 pascals) for
saturated gas; 0.36% in. Hg or 3.3878 mm
Hg (0.181 psi or 1251 pascals) for 50 per-
cent saturation: and zero in the case of
a dry gas. Tables showing pu, at various
(FPS) P,, (P, X 0.746 X v ) kW Tm's can be consulted. However, by
(SI) P,, = (P, X 7) kW mutual agreement pu, may be considered
zero, as noted in Par. 4.11.3.3
5.5.3 Total losses in the electric-generator a s
referred to in Par. 5.5.1 shall be determined from 5.6.2.2.2 If it is agreed that the measured
results obtained by t e s t s made in accordance with volume V, is to be corrected for non-
PTC 19.6 on Electrical Measurements. ideal gas behavior (compressibility), it
should be divided by the compressibility
5.5.3.1 On the basis of these data, a curve of factor Z as noted in the formula.
the total losses in the electric-generator against.
power output, electrical, shall be plotted and
5 . 6 . 2 . 2 . 3 If V,,, i s obtained in C U ft or d
from this shall be read the values used to de-
per hr as i s customar when using an
termine the correction t o be applied to the spe-
orifice, the
factor is unity.
cific test load. Ehen electrical power measure- r03
ments are made at the switchboard, cable losses
5.6.2.3 Where bothweight andvolume are
to the generator terminals are determined sep-
measured (as in a gasdiesel engine),
arately and applied a s in Par. 5.3.1
5.6 Net Specific EnergyConsumption Rates X q , = q,(computedper Par. 3.6.2.1) t
q, (computed per Par. 5.6.2.2)
5.6.1 Net specific energy consum'ption rates are

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ASME PTC*L? 73 m 0759b700533LLb236 m

A S M EP E R F O R M A N C E TEST C O D E S
5.6.3 On a P,, basis:
5.6.3.1 Where liquid fuel weight i s measured:

Qb = (. x
3600*
-
r &)%
o2
X
Btu
(FPS ) or *3600 sec/min.

J 5.6.3.2.1 Also see Pars. 5.6.2.2.1,


-
kWh
(SI) 5.6.2.2.2, and 5.6.2.2.3.

*3msec/min.
5.6.3.2 Where gaseous fuel volume is 5.6.3.3 Where both weight and
volume
are
measured
measured: (as in a gasdiesel engine),
Z gb = gb (computed per Par. 5.6.3.1) t
v,
- x -
( P m - Ru)
x - x -
T=
9b =( 2 gb (computed per Par. 5.6.3.2).
PS

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ASME P T C + 1 7 73 D 0759b70 0533117 1 7 2 D

6.1 General 6.3 Part II Index


6.1.1 The report of tests shall be prepared as a 6.3.1 T h i s part should be included in everyreport
document in suitable form for the purpose of for- and i s particularly useful in test reports covering
mally recording observed and computed data and a number of different test objects which are re-
for the conveying of sufficient supporting infor- ported as separate subdivisions.
mation to prove that all objects of any t e s t s con-
ducted in accordance with this Code have been 6.4 Port III Conclusions
attained.
6.4.1 A part shall be included in which are for-
6.1.2 The report of tests shall include essential- mulated conclusions concerning attainment of the
ly the following parts, in the order given: objectives of the tests and any recommendations
I Title Page or supplementary comments considered pertinent
II Index thereto. A statement shall be included indicating
III Conclusions that all objectives have been determined in ac-
IV T e s t Hethods cordance with the AShIF, T e s t Code for Recip-
v Description Record rocating Internal-Combustion Engines.
VI Obsened and Computed Data
VI1 Test Performances -'Curve Sheets and
Summaries 6.5 Port IV Test Methods
VI11 Record of Guarantees, Supplementary 6.5.1 This part, depending upon the purpose and
Agreements, and Contingent Operating nature of the testing, shall include items selected
Conditions from the following:
..
IX Supporting n a t a Incident to Test
The use of special forms is recommended to facil- 6.5.1.1 Explicitstatement of:
itate standardized presentation of test data. In any
event the substance of these forms shall be in- 6.5.1.1.1 Objectives of testing. ........
corporate in the report of tests as further detailed 6.5.1.1.2 Instrumentsandapparatus
in the paragraphs which follow. employed and their calibration. ..
6.5.1.1.3 Methods of test procedureand
6.2 Part I T i t l e Poge measurement. ..............
6.2.1 This part shall show the following
6.5.1.1.4 Methods of calculations .......
information:
6.3.1.1.5 Resuits of testing. ..........
Item No. 6.5.1.2 Certification conformity:

6.1.1.1 Test Number. ............... 6.3.1.2.1 Statement by the Test Director


6.8.1.2 Date of test ................ certifying that all measurements and
6.2.1.3 Title of the report ( s u b t i t l e s if determinations have been obtained in
needed). .................. strict accordance with the provisions of
6.2.1.4 Manufacturer's name and engine type
and serial nember. ............ this Code, with statement of exceptions

6.2.1.5 Location of test. ............. and their import.

6.8. I .6 Test made for ...............


6.2.1.7 Owner or purchaser represented by. . 6.5.1.3 Details of methods of measurements
employed for:
6.2.1.8 Other parties to the test represented
by ....................... 6.5.1.3.1 Primary objects
62.1.9 .............
Test directed by 6.5.1.3.1.1 Net power output,direct ...
6.2.1.10 ............
Test approved by. 6..j.1.3.1.2 Net power outputs,indirect.
6.3.1.11 Report made by.............. 6.5.1.3.1.3 FuelQuantities .........
6.9.1.12 ...........
Address of reporter. 6.5.1.3.2 Additionalobjects (if any) ....
6.3.1.1.3 ...............
Date of report 6.3.1.3.2.1 Other appropriate details....

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6.5.1.4 Additional information as follows: 6.7 Port VI Observed and Computed Doto
6.5.1.4.1 Description of methods of meas- 6.7.1 This part shall include a record of observa-
urement if different from the pre- tions and conditions pertinent to measuring power
scribed rules of Section 4 . ..... output and fuel consumption, and may include
6.5.1.4.2 Statement of departures from the other items which are not actually required for
rules of this Code, if any, that calculating results. (Attention i s directed to the
have been agreed to by parties to requirements of Pars. 3.5.2, 3.5.2.2 and 3.5.2.4.)
the test, including any extensions 6.7.2 Record of observations and computations
of permissible deviations from for each test run and/or series of runs at each
operating conditions of the test test point:
from those specified in this
Code ................... 6.7.2.1 Test run numbel (for each run) ......
6.5.1.4.3 Identification of calibration cer-
6.7.2.2 Time and rotative speed
tificates and bywhom made; des-
cription of calibration methods if
6.7.2.2.1 Time,Start ...............
not carried out by a recognized or
6.7.2.2.2 Time,finish. .............
6.7.2.2.3 nuration of run, ro, (Item 6.7.2.2.2-
national authority, and if methods
other t h a n those prescribed in
Item 6.7.2.2.1) .............
Section 4 or in ASME Supple-
6.7.2.2.4 Revolutioncounter atstart .....
ments on Instruments and Appara-
6.7.2.2.5 Revolutioncounter atfinish ....
tus, have been employed ..... 6.7.2.2.6 Resultanttotalrevolutions
-
(Item 6.7.2.2.5 Item6.7.2.2.4)
6.5.1.4.4 Supporting data including refer-
6.7.2.2.7 Average or meanobserved speed,
ences to tables, charts, or curves
n (Item 6.7.2.2.6 + Item 6.7.2.2.3)
employed in calculations of test
results .................. 6.7.2.3 Power output, direct (mechanical)
6.5.1.4.5 nerivation of fuel characteristics
6.7.2.3.1 Netweightonbrake or dynamom-
and heat values and designation of
laboratories utilized.
eter ....................
6.7.2.3.2 Brake or dynamometer constant
6.6 Port V Description Record [ Brake arm, R, + 5252 (FPS)
or 7040 (SI)]
6.6.1 This part shall include a suitable des-
6.7.2.3.3 Poweroutput,mechanical,gross,
cription of the engine and its accessories and aux-
iliaries employed as part of the engine assembly
P, (per Par. 5.2.1). .........
6.7.2.3.4 Corrections for auxiliariesand
(see Pars. 1.3.2 and 1.3.3) including information
on make, type and serial number, construction and
accessories, Y1 ............
6.7.2.3.5 Poweroutput,mechanical,net
operating data, specifications and dimensions of
importance, data on fuels, and other characteris-
P,, (per Par. 5.2.2) .........
6.7.2.3.6 Percent of rated power output,
tics as detailed in this Code.
mechanical (Item 6.7.2.3.3 or
6.6.1.1 Engine, type and design 6.7.2.3.4) x 200 + rated power out-
features ................. put, mechanical, gross or net ...
(including specifications and
dimensions of importance) 6.7.2.4 Power output, indirect (electrical)
6.6.1.2 ..
Class of service or application
6.7.2.4.1 Volts per phase ............
6.6.1.3 Auxiliaries and accessories driven
................ 6.7.2.4.2 Amperes per phase ..........
by engine
6.7.2.4.3 Power factor ..............
6.6.1.4 Auxiliaries and accessories not
........... 6.7.2.4.4 Watthour meter constant, P&. ...
driven by engine.
(include description and horse-
....
6.7.2.4.5 Watthour meter disc turns, rd
power of driving equipment) 6.7.2.4.6 nuration of run, watthour meter,
6.6.1.5 Generator efficiency, T ) . . . . . . . r,..... ................
6.6.1.6 Liquidfuelemployed ........ 6.7.2.4.7 Poweroutput,electrical,
P, ....................
gross,
6.6.1.7 Caseousfuel employed .......

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ASME PTCs17 73 m 0759b70 0533119 T45 m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMO r'STION E N G I N E S


6.7.2.4.8 Corrections for auxiliaries and 6.7.2.8.10 Engine jacket coolant, inlet at
accessories, Y2 ............ heat exchanger. ............
6.7.2.4.9 Corrections for cablelosses,etc, 6.7.2.8.11 Engine jacket coolant, outlet at
Y3 ..................... heat exchanger. ............
6.7.2.4.10 Poweroutput, electrical, net, 6.7.2.8.12 Exhaust back pressure........
.........
P,,.(per Par. 5.3.3) 6.7.2.8.13 Combustionpressures, maximum
6.7.2.4.11 Percent of rated power output, for designated cylinders, ......
electrical, (Item 6.7.2.4.7 or 6.7.2.8.15 Compression pressures, engine hot,
6.7.2.4.10) x 100 + rated power for designated cylinders. ......
output, electrical, gross or net. ..
6.7.2.9 Temperatures
6.7.2.5 Liquidfuel consumption

6.7.2.5.1 &eight, start .............. 6.7.2.9.1 Atmosphere, dry-bulb .........


6.7.2.5.2 &eight, finish. ............. 6.7.2.9.2 Atmosphere, wet-bulb. ........
6.7.2.5.3 -
"eight used, K2 (Item 6.7.2.5.1
6.7.2.9.3 Intake air, manifold on engine ...
Item 6.7.2.5.2) ............. 6.7.2.9.4 Gaseous fuel at meter on engine,
'P
1, .....................
6.7.2.5.4 Duration of run, fuel weighing,
ror .................... 6.7.2.9.5 ...
Exhaustatdesignatedpoints
6.7.2.9.6 Enginejacketcoolant,inletat
6.7.2.5.5 Liquidfuelenergy consumption
rate, qo (per Par. 5.6.2.1) or
engine ..................
6.7.2.9.7
q b (Per Par. 5.6.3.1) ......... Enginejacketcoolant,outletat
engine ..................
6.7.2.6 caseous fuel consumption 6.7.2.9.8 Enginejacketcoolant,temperature
rise through engine (Item 6.7.2.9.7-
6.7.2.6.1 Veter reading. start. ......... Item 6.7.2.9.6) .............
6.7.2.6.2 Veterreading,finish ........ 6.7.2.9.9 Enginejacketcoolant,inlet at
6.7.2i6.3 Gas volume used, as measured, heat exchanger. ............
V , (Item 6.7.2.6.2 - 6.7.2.9.10 Engine jacket coolant, outlet at
Item 6.7.2.6.1) ............. heat exchanger .............
6.7.2.6.4 Duration of run, fuel measurement, 6.7.2.9.11 ..
Lubricating oil, inlet at engine.
ros..................... 6.7.2.9.12 .
Lubricating oil, outlet at engine.
6.7.2.6.5 Gaseousfuelenergy consumption 6.7.2.9.13 Lubricatingoil,sump ........
rate, qo (per Par. 5.6.2.2) or qb 6.7.2.9.14 Lubricatingoil,inletatcooler . .
(per Par. 5.6.3.2) ........... 6.7.2.9.13 Lubricating oil, outlet at cooler. .
6.7.2.7 Gasdiesel fuel consumption
6.7.2.10 Characteristics of fuel, or fuels, used
6.7.2.7.1 Gas-dieselenergyconsumption for T e s t s
rate, qa (per Par. 5.6.2.3) orqb
(per Par. 5.6.3.3) ........... 6.7.2.10.1 Liquid Fuel
(a)High-heatvalue. ...............
6.7.2.8 Pressures (b) Low-heatvalue,&. .............
(c) Cetane number ................
6.7.2.8.1 Barometric ............... (dl Gravity .....................
6.7.2.8.2 Gaseous fuel at meter inlet, P,,, (e) Other data as required ...........
6.7.2.8.3 Partial water pressure in gaseous
fuel, h ................. 6.7.2.10.2 GaseousFuel
6.7.2.8.4 ...
Intake air manifold on engine. (a) High-heat value, (Saturated). .......
6.7.2.8.5 Injection gas before fuel nozzles (b) Low-heat value, Q, (Unsaturated) ....
6.7.2.8.6 ..
Lubricating oil, inlet at engine (C)Composition,constituentgases .....
6.7.2.8.7 ..
Lubricating oil, inlet at cooler (d) Specified gas pressure, ps .........
6.7.2.8.8 Lubricating oil, outlet at cooler. . (e) Specifiedgas temperature, T, ......
6.7.2.8.9 Engine jacket coolant, inlet at (f) Compressibilityfactor, 2 .........
engine .................. (g) Other data as required . . . . . . . . . . .

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ASME P E R F O R M A N C E TEST C O D E S

6.8 Part VI1 Test Performance - Curve Sheets 6.9 Part Vlll Record of Guarantees, Supple-
and Summaries mentary Agreements, and Contingent
In this part, final results of tests shall be re- Operating Conditions
ported in the form of graphs and tabular summaries.
6.9.1 In this part of the report a statement shall
6.8.1 Primary ObjectPerformance be included of all agreements made in conformity
with requirements of this Code. There m u s t also
6.8.1.1 Operation at constant speed and var- be included a record of any other agreements, such
iable torque as those covering predicted, guaranteed, or spec-
ified performances, operating conditions upon
6.8.1.1.1 Curvesreportingthedetermined which the performances are based, and others per
values at recorded speed of net specific
Pars. 3.2.1 and 3.2.2
energy-consumption rates, plotted against
net power outputs, hp or kW 6.10 Part I X Supporting Dota Incident to Test

6.8.1.1.2 Tabular summary of net specific 6.10.1 In this part shall be included pertinent
'energy consumption rates determined from material supplementing data presented elsewhere
these curves, to correspond with specified in the test report, which would be of assistance in
or guaranteed power outputs. making an independent verification of the reported
results.
6.8.1.2 Operation at variable speed and torque
6.10.2 The supplementary material, depeading
6.8.1.2.1 Curves (or afamily of curves) re-
upon the nature of the test covered by the report,
porting point results of the individual tests
may include:
for net power output, hp or kW, and the net
(a) Detailed log sheets
specific energy-consumption rates, plotted
(b) Variouscurves
against speed, rpm
(c) Sample calculations
6.8.1.2.2 Tabular summary of net power (d) Blueprints, photographs, and bulky material.
outputs and c onsumptionrates determined (e) All other items called for in Par. 3.5,
from these curves, to correspond with spec- especially including Pars.3.5.2.2, 3.5.2.4
ified or rated speeds. and 3.5.3

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ASME PTC+17 7 3 m 0759b70 0533121 bT3 m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

SECTION 7, APPENDIX
7.0 General 7.1.2.3.i Such t e s t s might be concerned
7.0.1 The preceding Sections contain the details with :
essential to the planning, execution and analysis (a)Combustionpressures
of a Code test of a reciprocating internal-com- (b) Coolingperformance
bustion engine. This Appendix provides addi- (c)Lubricationperformance
tional information and commentary considered (d) Criticalspeeds
complementary to the basic guidance provided (e)Governing
hereinbefore. ( f ) Cyclicirregularity
(g) Exhaust gas analysis, back pressure,
7.0.2 For ease in cross-reference, paragraphs in etc.
Section 7 are numbered the same as the paragraphs (h) Enginereversal
in prectding Sections to which they are m o s t (i)Startingrequirements
closely related, preceded by the number 7. For
example, 7.1.1 refers to Par. 1.1 Sub-para- 7.1.2.3.ii Various codes and standards
graphs within Section 7 not referring to a partic- exist for some of these tests, such as
ular sub-paragraph in the main body are designa- PTC 26 on Speed Governing, and should
ted by a letter suffix: for example 7.1.l.i be used. Since the state of the art i s
changing rapidly in respect to some, the
7.1.1 This Code is applicablesto all types of re-
techniques and instrumentation must be
ciprocating internal-combustion engines, for m y
developed specifically therefor and be
purpose, where power output and fuel consumption
subject to special agreement by the
rates are the primary objects of the tests. Thus,
parties involved.
i t i s intended equally for small and large, station-
ary and mobile, or peaking and base-load engines.
7.1.3.3 Preferably, the engine assembly to be
Generally, it is intended (and so written) for ap- tested shall be the engine and that assemblage of
plication to tests to verify performance. auxiliaries and systems to be charged or credited
7.1.1.i However, it is not designed for proto- to the measured power output of the engine in de-
type or research and development testing, which termining the net power output and the energy in-
frequently employs specialized objects, instrumen- put thereto a s i s stipulated in the pertinent spec-
tation and techniques not appropriate for inclusion ifications, and i s termed the Specified Engine
herein. Assembly. (All such auxiliaries and systems
shall be itemized on the test records.) Engine
7.1.1.ii It is also realized that for particular practice varies widely with regard to attached and
types of engines (e.g., automotive, aircraft, etc), independently driven auxiliaries. Some engines,
particularly those mass produced for incorporation particularly the larger ones, have no attached aux-
in other products, such as trucks, for which there iliaries; consequently, the user, in comparing
customarily i s not a specification by the ultimate different engines, should carefully evaluate all
user for the engine itself, there are other recog- ratings, performance parameters, and fuel con-
nized codes or standards in common, effective sumption rates when the attached auxiliary
use. While this Code i s equally applicable, it be- equipment varies, since such variation affects
hooves parties to the tests to be entirely clear as the amount of auxiliary power which must be
to the standards being used in specifying, and provided, a s well a s the overall rate of fuel
later testing, such engines. consumption.
7.1.2.3 In addition to testing forpower output 7.1.3.3.i It was in recognition of this con-
and fuel consumption there are potentially siderable variance between customary
numerous optional tests desirable for determining practices (especially between large
other performance capabilities. These are not the and small engines) that two standard
province of this Code; such tests are too numer- Engine Assemblies were devised. In the
ous, too seldom needed, and frequently too un- absence of specifications stipulating the
proven to justify inclusion in t h i s Code. auxiliaries to be included in the test, a

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A S M EP E R F O R M A N C E TEST CODES

Code Engine Assembly will be the rec- actual water-vapor content in gas con-
ognized basis for Comparison between sumed.
engines.
7.3.4.3.iii The heating value of fuels con-
7.1.3.3.ii The rating of an engine shall be -taininghydrogen includes some energy
the power that the engine will deliver no! available for conversion into work in
continuously at its coupling when in good any internal-combustion engine. Hence,
operating order, and under conditions a s under this Code, fuel and heat consump-
specified. Exhaust back pressure, and tion rates shall be determined on basis
pressure drop through intake air system, of low heat values of the fuels, thereby
should not exceed limits specified. eliminating the heat of-vaporization of
7.1.3.3.iii Because of the different ways in the water formed by the burning of the
which engines maybe equipped with re- hydrogen in the fuel. The difference be-
spect to their attached or independently tween the high and low heat values of
driven essential apparatus, it is nec- commercially available petroleum fuels
essary to consider the parasitic load of used in liquid-fuel engines is a fairly
such power consuming apparatus in de- constant percentage. For gaseous fuels
termining net power for comparative pur- the percentage difference between the
poses. The parasitic load of the power high and low heat values may range from
consuming equipment, only, is to be in- zero to more than 1.j percent.
cluded as a basis for establishing net
7 . 3 . 4 . 3 . i ~ Various terms included in this
power and fuel consumption unless other
Code relative to gaseous fuels and heat
conditions are invoked by the spec-
values are amplified a s follows:
ifications.
(a) High (Gross) Heat Value. The total
7.3.2.1.(d)With few exceptions, the engine energy released from a unit of fuel
manufacturers' shops are the only facilities that as the products of combustion are
are adequately equipped with calibrated test brought to the same state of pressure
equipment; therefore, it i s recommended, unless and temperature as the fuel-air
otherwise specified or agreed, the performance mixture.
tests be conducted at the works of the engine (b) Low (Net Meat \'alue. The high heat
manufacturer. value of a fuel less the latent heat
of vaporization of the water vapor
7.3.4.3 Fuel (or energy)consumption rates are present in the exhaust gas at its
to be expressed in terms of Btu per hp-hr (FPS) or exit partial pressure (ie, the HHV
Joules per kWh (SI). In so doing it i s unnecessary less the unusable products of burn-
t o refer t o any standard fuel weight or volume ing the contained hydrogen).
basis (liquid or gaseous fuels, respectively) for
the fuels, hence no standards are specified herein. (c) Dry Gas. A misture of hydrocarbon
However, it is necessary to correlate the measured gases with relatively low percentages
quantities with the basis used by the laboratory in of propane and heavier hydrocarbons
establishing the energy content of the fuel. components.
(d) Wet Gas. A mixture of hydrocarbon
7.3.4.3.i Gas volume measurements referred
gases with relatively high percent-
to standard conditions adopted by ASTM
ages of propane and heavier com-
and the gas industry are recognized
ponents.
under terms of this Code, provided the
(e) Saturated Gas. .A hydrocarbon mixture
basic conditions for referring measure-
saturated with water vapor.
ments are stated in the test report.
(f) UnsaturatedCas. A hydrocarbon mix-
7.3.4.3.ii In c a s e s where gases being ture with negligible water vapor
measured are partially or completely present.
saturated, corrections shall be applied to (g) Compressibility iZ). That charac-
gas-volume measurements to adjust for teristic of a gas which measures i t s

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ASME PTC+&? 3 3 0359b30 0533323 436 m

RECIPROCATING INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

deviation from ideal gas behavior ex- 7.4.4.1.1.3.iiiSimilar circumstances and


pressed as Z = P V / R T. precautions pertain to pump drives, pro-
peller drives, gear drives, etc. Attention
is directed to PTC 19.7 for pertinent
methods of power measurement.
calculation.
7.4.8.2 In c a s e s where alternating-current gen-
7.3.4.3.v Selecting a laboratory for analyz- erating sets are operated in parallel with other
ing the fuels in accordance with this such sets, the power factor for the engine genera-
Code is critical to its effectiveness. tor se: Inder test shall, if possible, be adjusted
Although there are many chemical and by regulating excitation of other sets and of the
physical laboratories which profess a s e t being tested until the power factor of the set
capability to analyze fuel heating under test is at the value stated in the specifica-
values, relatively few are actually ca- tions, or a s agreed upon by the parties to the test,
pable of performing the analyses including values for adjusting results for different
specified in Pars.4.4.1.3,4.10.5,4.10.6, power factor.
4.11.5 and 4.11.6. Hence, selection of
analysis method and laboratory must be
correlated and assurance obtained that 7.4.9 The net engine power input to an engine-
the selected laboratory i s equipped, driven compressor (with engine assembly as spec-
staffed, capable and experienced in such ified in Par. 1.3) s h a l l be determined from com-
procedures. pressor-cylinder indicator diagrams (expressed in
indicated mechanical power) with adjustment made
to compensate far compressor mechanical effi-
7.4A1.1.3 There are circumstances where ciency. The compressor mechanical efficiency
engine-driven mechanisms realistically must be agreed upon by parties to the test prior to
prevent direct or indirect determination of
testing. (See Par. 7.4.4.1.1.3.ii)
power output in accordance with Pars.
4.4.1.1.1 and 4.4.1.1.2. Such instances
include commercial generators, certain 7.4.9.i The power output of an engine, when
compressor drives, propeller drives, etc. measured by compressor-cylinder indicator dia-
grams, shall be determined by use of either a
7.4.4.1.1.3.i In field testing one i s quite balan6ed-pressure indicating system or an elec-
often confronted with a commercial tronic indicating system, preferably one which
generator (normally uncalibrated) for employs digital electronics. (See PTC 19.8)
measuring engine power output. Though
inaccuracy is usually closer than 25.0 per- 7.4.9.ii Although the intrinsic accuracy of both
cent, it i s not normally so guaranteed. indicating systems can be high, usually the accuracy
Hence, results must be weighed resulting under the conditions of use will control
accordingly. overall accuracy. For example, a 1-degree top center
displacement may result in an error of from 2 to 5
7.4.4.1.1.3.ii For enginedriven com- percent in the measurement of the indicated power
pressor units, the horsepower generally of the machine. Cyclic irregularity due to either
must be measured from compressor cyl- speed variations or pressure pulsations transmitted
inder indicator cards. It i s recognized from adjoining compressor units operating at different
that piston ring and rod packingfriction speeds can affect interpretation of the mean pressure
reduces efficiency. Efficiency values path of the diagram. Further information concerning
should be obtained from the compressor indicating instruments and practice is given in PTC
manufacturer ( s e e AGA x20170). (Also 19.8 - Measurement of Indicated Power.
s e e PTC 19.8.) Maximum inaccuracy:
balanced pressure indicator, t 3.0 percent;
electronic indicator, 25.0 percent. 7.4.11.6 For purposes of evaluating heating
(See also Par. 7.4.9) values of fuel constituents Table 2 i s included. It

27

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME PTCUL7 7 3 0759670 0533124 302 m

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES


'is provided by the Natural Gas Processors Sup- rely on the generator efficiency guaranteed by the
pliers Association, Tulsa, Oklahoma. generator manufacturer a s the basis for converting
net electrical power output to net engine power
7.5.5.1 Where anancalibratedgeneratorisusedoutput. In addition,cablelosses must be cal-
forpowermeasurementitgenerally is necessarytoculatedandincluded.

28

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME PTC*37 73 m 07596700533325 2119 m

TABLE 2

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME PTC*L7 73 m 0759b70 0533L2b L85 m

ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODES


Table 2 - Physical Constants of Hydrocorbons p(l)

Tt I?
1 h n s i t y of Liquid; 60F.,
14.896 psi.. a b .

i
Compound
!
i

Methane
Ethane
Propane

n-Bu(.ne
! CH,
~

i C::H,
44.0941
16.042 1-2.58.68
30.068!--127.53
C,H.
-43.73

' C,H,,, 58.1201 +31.10


I l

il90
1 51.6
--
; -305.84"
I
'
-296.464
-297.89'
617.4
_
206.26

-217.03
1 673. I
l 709.8

550.7
hi
a

T
T-
-115.78
+90.32

305.62
,
!
!
0.0991
0.0788
0.0728

0.0702
l
1
i
-ti -,6.4'
9.58.

10.42h ,
-
- !

O-Methylpropanc (iaobutanc) ! 1 72.2 i 529.1 274.96 !


11.93" O.OOll7~
0.00152"

I
C,Hw
58.120: +10.69 ' -255.28 0.0724 12.38h 0.00119~ !

i
T
j
1
n-Pentsnc CA, 72.146! -201.50 489.5 385.5 y 0.0690
2-Methylbutane (isopmtane) , C:HB1 72.1461
96.93
0.13 j 15.570
10.44 -255.82 483. 369.0
13.71 0.00087
i 0.0685 0.6248 13.85 0.00090
~

2.2-Dimethylpropnc
(nfopcntanc) C,H,, I 72.1461 +2.2 I 464.0 321.08 ' 0.0674 14.50" 0.00104"
+Hexane 1 Cb,,
.I 86.1721
"
49.10
11.73
~ 35.9
4.956 -139.83
"
+
440.0 454.1 ' 0.0685
-
0.6640
I

'
- ~

2-Methylpentme C,;H,, 86.1721 140.49 6.767 I I


5.536 5.526 15.57 0.00075 1
I-Methylpntsne C,;H,,
86.1721
145.91 j 6.098 -
-244.61 440.1
453.1
435.7
448.2 I
0.0681
0.0681
0.6579
0.6690 !
5.465
5.578
5.476
5.568
15.71
15.45
0.00078
0.00075 I
Lf-Dimethylbutane
(ncehexanc) I C.,H,, 86.1721 121.53 , 9.856 -147.77 450.7 420.1 0.0667 0.6540 I 5.453 5.443 15.80
,

0.00078
2.3-dimethylbutane ' C.,H,, 86.1721 136.38 i 7.404
~

+Heptane ' CIH,. 100.198! 209.17 1 1.620


c
-199.37
i 455.4 440.2 . 0.0665 0.6664 j 5.556 5.546
+i 5.728
15.51 0.00075 1

I-Mcthylhexane 100.198' 194.09 I 2.271


-131.10
- 180.90
-
396.8
400.
512.62
495.
'

I
0.0682
0.0685
0.6882
0.6830
5.738
5.694 5.685
17.46
11.60
0.00069
0.00068 '
I-Methylhexme
I-Ethylpentane
100.198'
100.198:
197.33
200.26
, 2.130
2.012
I
-181.49
413.
420.
504.4
513.8
1' 0.0668
0.0665
0.6915 5.765 5.758 17.38 0.00069
I 0.7026 5358 5.849 l 17.10 0.00070
!.Z-Dimethylpentane 100.1981 174.55 1 3.492 -190.86 417. 477.9 0.0646 0.6783 5.655 5.645 17.72 0.00072
!.4-Dimethylpen(.ne 100.198' 176.90 I 3.292 -182.64 403. 476.9 0.6772
505.0
; 0.0671
! (0.067) 0.6977
5.646
5.817
5.637
5.807 i 17.75
17.23
0.00072
0.00065
497.0

563.7 I
' 0.0631

0.0682
0.6945

0.7088
t-
5.790

5.893
5.582

5.883
i 17.31

19.38
0.00069

0.00062
530. 0.8980 I 5.819
1
--
0.0676 5.810 19.63 0.00065
520.1 0.0676 0.6963 5.805 5.795 19.68 0.00065
~

-
610.5 j 0.0679 0.7217 6.017 6.008 0.00063
21.31
i- "-
651.9 0.0679 0.7341 6.120 8.112 I 23.25
0.00055
t-.."
:yclopentane
dethylcyclopentane 181.26
I C,H,,,
/
84.156i
C;;H,,
70.130 i 120.67
1 E: I

i -22462
-136.96 :

,
~
654.7
.
i
549.0
I 461.48
499.30
0.0607 ,
0.0593 0.7505
0.7535
6.257
6.282
8.247 1
11.21
6.274 j 13.40
0.00070
0.00071
:yelohexme
blhylcyclohexsne
I
177.33 84.1561 C,,H,,
1 C:H,, 98.182; 213.88 1.609
; +43.80
-195.87 i
' 591.5(19) I 535.6(19), 0.0587(17)
504.4
I 570.2 i 0.0562
0.7834
0.7740
6.531
6.453
6.522 j 12.89
6.443 ' 15.21
0.00068
0.00063
!thme (ethylene) 1 C,H,
28.052/-lM.(M
1
-272.47'1 t49.82 0.0706
i::' - - - -
0.35(16)
1
I - '
'ropne
-Butm +20.73 56.1041 I C7H.;
42.078
C,H.
~ -53.86 I226.4
63.05
: -301.45~ ~

I 197.4
295.8 I 0.0689 D.5220h
3.6013"
I 4.352h
5.013" 1.343h
0.00189h
9.67" 0.00116"

1
j -301.63'1
583. 0.0689 ' 5.004" I 11.19"
is-Z-Butene
ranr-2-Butene I
56.1041
C,H.
38.70
C,H.
56.1041
33.58
45.54
49.80
324.3
31 1.9 ~ 0.0503
0.0503
3.6271h
1.6100"
5.228"
5.086h
5.219"
5.076"
1
I
10.73" 0.00098h
11.09h 0.00107"

II
,
-Methylpropem (imbutene) 56.1041
19.58
C,H. 63.40 292.5 I 0.0513 1.6004h , 5.006h 1.996h I I 21" 0.00120h
-Pentme C;H,,.
70.130j
85.94 1 19.12 376.9 ~ (0.0672) 1.6457 5.383 5.374
13103 , 0.00089
1
.2-Buladiene C& .M.O881 51.53 '(20) 339) l(0.0649) D.658h 5.486h
.3-Butadiene
-Methyl-1.3-butadiene (isoprene) 1;:2 54.088 24.06
68.114~ 93.32
/((O)
16.672
(0.0654) D.6272
.r3861
5.229"
5.720

1.6150k

Toluene

-
1.8845
1.8719
1.8717

h8687
).8657
,
i
1

i 7.218
I
7.374
7.269
7.268

7.243

M Methyl Alcohol
GH,: 120.186

CH40 32.042 148.1(2)


308.31 0.188

4.63(22)
-140.86

-143.82(22) 1174.2(21)
J.9111
0.8663
"
0.796(3) I
7.598
7.223

8.64
1.586
7.213 I 13.71
18.64 i
; 0.00057
0.00054

51 Ethyl Alcohol C,&;O


46.0601 17252(22) 2.3(7) -173.4(22) 925.3(21)
52 Carbon Monoxide 9 . 0 1 0 -313.6(2) -340.8(2) 507.(17)
S3 Carbon Dioxide 44.010
CO,
-1OB.3(2) 1071.(17)
SI HydrogenSulfide
I S Sulfur Dioxide
H S
S O:
34.076
-78.8(24
394.0(6)
64,060 +l4.0(7) 8847)
-117.2(7)
-103.9(1)
1306.(17)
1145.(24)
0.79"(6)
1.397"(14) I 6.59"
11.65"
S8 Ammonia -107.9(2) 1638.(17)
I7 Air - 547.(2)
58 Hydrogen -434.8(24) 188.1(17) 399.8(17) 0.5167(24)
59 oxypn -361.8(24) 736.9(24) 161.1(17) 0.0382(24)
R Nitmen -346.0(24) 493.0(24) 232.4(24) 0.0514(17)
)I Chlorine -149.8(24) 1118.4(24) 291.(17) 0.0281(17)
I2 Water 32.0 3208.( 17) 105.6(17) 0.0500(11) 1.000 8.337

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
Table 2 - Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons p(l), (Cont'd)
I
T Specific Heat
do F.,14.196
psi.. abs.

CP
Btu./lb/'F
T
Net
Calorific Value, 60 F*

Gross
I F
3
T T Flammabilitv A.S.T.M.
Octane
Number

No.
I l
'gj Liquid
-
0.013
0.105
0.152 1
I
0.9981
0.9916
0.9620
I
I
0.5538

/:.% l
23.66 59.'
39.7'
36.43"
1.5271
1.4097
1.3885
0.926*
0.592h
808
1618
2316
9.55
1 1 5.0 15.0
13.0
9.5
1
2
3
31.81h
30.68"
3011
3001 -
1.3326" 31.03
31.03 1 i: I 8.4
8.4
89.61
97.8
93.w
--
t0.101..
4
5

0.252
0.206
0.195
0.9435
0.9482
~(o.Qs)
2.491
2.491
12.491 1 5.260
5.260
5.280
27.68
27.40
26.17"
1.3883
1.3827
1.3914
0.542
0.5353
0.554
3707
3698
3685
4009
4000
3987
1%~ I
20.836
103.850
110.:20 153.8
1
106.800 147.1
!
135.6
1.35748
1.35373
1.342h
62.61
90.3
80.2
61.71
92.3
85.5
8
7
8
-
0.290
- I 24.38
24.18 0.5264
4403
4395
4756
4747
20.784
20.758
115.r160
1113.850 1
~ 144.0
138.7
1.37488
1.37145
26.0
73.5
24.8
73.4
9
10

0.352
24.58
24.01
24.47
-
21.73
0.507
0.5165
0.5127
4398
4382
4391

5100
4751
4735
4744

5502
i
I
20.768
20,711
20.743

120.681
l115.a40 1
112330
11$.250 1 138:l
I
1186601 136.0
140.1
131 2
1.37852
1.36876
1.37495

1.38784 52.51 1
I
1.0
I
I 7.0
74.3
93.4
94.3
-
0.0
74.5
91.8
t0.3'
-
0.0
-
14
11
12
13

21.57 0.522 5092 1.38485 46.4 42.4 15


21.83 0.511 5095 1.38864 55.8 52.0 16
22.19 0.506 5098 1.39339 69.3 65.0 17
21.42 0.517 5079 1.38213 SS.8 92.8 18
21.38 0.522 5084 1.38145 83.8 83.1 19

-
3.787
3.459
22.03
21.93 ,498
5084
5081
5487
5483 I i1119
125 150 i 127.2
430 124.2
~
1.39092
1.38944
88.6
+0.1'
-
80.8
t1.8'
20
21
-
-I= I
-
-
3.943 I
3.943
3.943
1I
3.322
3.322
3.322
19.58
19.33
-
19.29
0.5114
0.4892
5796
5780
5778
1.39743
1.39246
1.39145
55.7
100
-
-
22
23
24
-
17.80
-
0.5220

0.5207
6493

7189 20.495 125 440 118.7


1.40542

1.41189
-
-
25
-
26
16.32
-
0.234
33.88
28.33
0.4216
0.4407
3512
4198
3763
4500
20.187
20.129
'i2j.310 167.31
j 125 450 ' 147.8
1.40645
1.40970
84.9i
80.0
27
tO.1'
91.3
28
- -- -
Ofs I -- 4.509 2.905
13.390 1 3.865
29.45
24.94
0.4332
0.4397
41 80
4864
4482
5218
20.038
20.003 j
maaoI
129 O80 1
153.7
139.9
1.42823
1.42312
77.2
71.1
-
83:O 29
74.8 30
--
- - -
I
+0.03' 31
0.9940 0.9884 i 13.53 1.3622 I499 1599
- 75.6
0.143
0.203
0.9839
0.9894
1.453
11.937 19.019
6.764
39.29
33.91"
2183
2879 -
-
84.9
80.8j
tO.2'
97.4
32
33
35.36h
34.40" 1.3654
2872
2888 -
-
-
83.5
-- 35
- 90.9
100. 34

33.86" 2860 36
29.13 0.5198 3576 3827 20.550 1:5.6301 154.5 1.37148 77.1 37
- "

- - 3938 -
38.49"
36.89h
0.3458
0.3412
0.5408
0.5079
2789
2730 - 26.25 - 99.1 40
31.87 0.357 3411 1.42194 81.0

1.3968
0.5245

- 1422 - -- - - - 41
- - I I
-
35.83
29.94
25.98
-
-
0.4098
0.4017
0.4114
3591
,4273
4970
3742
4475 I 192.670 169.3
i132.670I 156.2
1.50112
1.49693
1.49588
C2.8'
+0.3'
t97.9
C5.8'
+O#
42
43
44

28.37 - 0.4418 4958 1.50545 50.12


-
100.
-
45
25.89 - 0.4045 4957 1.49722 50.12 +2.8' 48
25.80 - 0.4083 4957 18.445 132 1301 148.1 1.49582 50.12 8.8- Cl.?' 47

t___
27.68 - 0.4122 4830 1.54882 47.73
-
+0.2'
-
48
I- - (0.41)

7KpqG
22.81 5861 1.49145 99.3 49
-
I l -
- -
-
78.6
54.5 - 0.594(7:
0.562(7: -
9.760(16) 4 8 1 0 473(2)
12.780(16) 34 500 387(2)
1.3288(8)
1.3814(8)
- 14.30I7) 3.28(5) 18.95 -
-
50
51
- D.2484(13) -
59.4h ).1991(13) -
-
-
-
-
-
52
53
73.4" 54
69.0"
1238(4)
1,145(7)
0.32597 - - 55
- -
14.7 587.2(14) 58
- 57
- 58
- 59
- 87.8(14) 60
63.1 81
75.6 82
-
74.3
-
83
" "_
See the following pages for references

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME PTCs17 73 m 0759670 0533328 T58 m

A S M E P E R F O R M A N C ET E S T CODES
REFERENCES AND NOTES FOR TABLE 2

1. Values for
hydrocarbons 1-49 were selected or Cyclohexane
System,
Industrial
Engineering
calculated from data in ASTM Special
Tech-
Chemistry, 48, 422
(1956).
nical Publication No. 109A, Physical Con-
D., Calculations for NGPA.
-
stants of Hydrocarbons CI CIO, 1963,
20. Rossini, Frederick
American Society for Testing Materials, 1916
Race Street, Philadelphia. NOTES

2. International Critical Tables. (a) Air saturated hydrocarbons.


3. Hodgman, Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, (b) Absolute values from weights in vacuum.
31 edition (1949).
(c) The apparent values from weight in air are
4. West, J. R., Chemical Engineering Progress, shown for users convenience and compliance
(1948).
44, 287 . with ASTM-IP Petroleum
Measurement
Tables.
6. Jones, Chemical
Review, 22, 1 (1938). In the
United
States and Great
Britain,
all
commercial weights are required by law to be
6. Sage and Lacey, API Research Project 37, weights in air. All other mass data are on an
monograph (1955). (weight
mass
absolute in vacuum) basis.
7. Perry,
ChemicalEngineers
Handbook,
4th (d) At saturation
pressur5
(triple point).
edition (1963).
( e ) Subliminationpoint.
8. Matteson and Hanna, Oil and Gas Journal, 41,
No. 2, 33 (1942). (0 The + sign and number following
signify the
octane number corresponding to that of 2, 2, 4
9. Keenan & Keyes, Thermodynamic Properties trimethylpentane with the indicated number of
of Air (1947). mlof TEL added.
10. Grahl, Edw. R., Thermodynamic
Properties (g)
Determined at 212F.
a t Hgh Temperature and Pressure,
Petroleum
Processing (April, 1963). (h) Saturation
pressure and @F.
11. NBS Circular No. 142,ThermodyuamicProp- (i)Apparentvalue formethane a t 60F.
erties of Ammonia (194).
(j) Average value from octane numbers ofmore
12. Keenan & Keyes,
Thermodynamic Properties
than
one
sample.
of Steam 29th printing (1959).
(k) Specific Gravity, 119 F/60F (Sublimation
13. A.P.I. Project 44. point).
14. Dreisbach, Physical Properties of Chemical
(m) Density of liquid, gr/ml a t normal boiling
Compounds, American Chemical Society,
point.
1%1.
(n) Heat of sublimation.
15. institute of Gas Technology, Research Bul-
No. 32
letin (1961). (P) Values in parenthesis
estimated.
are
16. Maxwell, J. B., Data Book M Hydrocarbons,
(q) Calculated from other properties.
Van Nostrand Co. (1950).
17.
Kobe, K. A. & Lynn, Jr., R. E., Chemical (r) Values at 77OF.
Review, 52, 117-236 (1953). (S) Extrapolated
to room temperature from higher
18. Jownal American
Chemical
Societx, 77, 3434
temperature.
(1955).
(t) Values for Cp in ideal gas column for i&
19. Kay, W. B. & Albert, R. E., Liquid-Vapor n-C, n-C6 n-C, and n-C,, are for
information
Equilibrium
Relations in the
Ethane-
only. For components 31 thru Cp
shown
64 for

32

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R E C I P R O C A T I N GI N T E R N A L - C O 1 1 R U S T I O NE N G I N E S

either gas OF liquid depending on the physical Lb/gal 6 0 0 (weight-in-air)


@ ~ = see
ASTM l O 9 ~
s t a t e a t 60F and 14.696 psia or a s otherwise pg. 61 and API Physical Constants of
noted. Hydrocarbons (1961) pg. 4.
Gal/lb
*Calculated
Values mol wt = mol
60F
%/gal @ 60F (weight&-
CONSTANTS FOR USE IN CALCULATIONS vacuum).

Atomic weights: carbon -


12:Ol; hydrogen - 1.008; See ASl
Temperature Coefficient of Density.
1 gal 3785.41 milliliters
109A pg. 61 and API Physical Constants of
Molecular weight of air = 28.966 Hydrocarbons (1961) pg. 5.
1 CU ft = 7.4805 gal
1 CU ft = 28.317 liters
Density of Gas @ 60F and 14.696 psia (Ideal Gas)
1 lb = 453.59 grams
Ideal gas @ 60 F and 14.696 lb/sq in abs = 379.49 Sp gr @ 60F = mol weight
CU ft/lb mol 28.%6
Ideal gas @ 32F and 14.696 lb/sq in abs = 22.414
liters/gram mol C u ft gas/lb = 379.49
760 mm Hg = 14.696 lb/sq inch. = 1 atm mol wt
0F = 459.69 Rankine
Cu ft gas/gal liq =
Density of water @ 60F = 8.3372 lb/gal = 0.999015
lb/ual 60F (weiuht-in-vacuum) X 379.49
g/cc (weight in vacuum)
mol wt
Sp gr @ 6O0F/60F x 0.999015 = density at 60F
in g/cc
Heat of Combustion@ 60F. See ASTM pp. 61, 62
F = 1.8 (C + 40) - 40 and API Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons
141.5
API =
s p gr @ 6OoF/60F
- 131.5 (1961) pg. 5 .

CALCULATED VALUES
Air Required for Combustion (Ideal Gas) - Ca Hb
b
Density of Liquid @ 60F and 14.696 pria Cu ft air = (a + T ) See ASTM 109A pp. 61,62
Cu ft gas 0.2095 and API Physical Con-
Lb/gal@ 60F (weight-in-vacuum) = s p gr @ 60F stants of Hydrocarbons
x 8.3372 lb/gal (weight-in-vacuum). (1%1)pg. 7.

33

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