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Wood ooring

ever, solid wood oors are still common and popular.

Solid wood oors have a thicker wear surface and can be
sanded and nished more times than an engineered wood
oor. It is not uncommon for homes in New England,
Eastern Canada, and Europe which are several hundred
years old to have the original solid wood oor still in use

Custom showroom

An example of solid wood ooring with a top coating of

polyurethane 1.1.2 Solid wood manufacturing

Solid wood ooring is milled from a single piece of tim-

Wood ooring is any product manufactured from timber
ber that is kiln or air dried before sawing. Depending
that is designed for use as ooring, either structural or
on the desired look of the oor, the timber can be cut in
aesthetic. Wood is a common choice as a ooring ma-
three ways: at-sawn, quarter-sawn, and rift-sawn. The
terial and can come in various styles, colors, cuts, and
timber is cut to the desired dimensions and either packed
species. Bamboo ooring is often considered a form of
unnished for a site-nished installation or nished at the
wood ooring, although it is made from a grass (bamboo)
factory. The moisture content at time of manufacturing is
rather than a timber.[1]
carefully controlled to ensure the product does not warp
during transport and storage.
A number of proprietary features for solid wood oors are
1 Types available. Many solid woods come with grooves cut into
the back of the wood that run the length of each plank, of-
1.1 Solid ten called 'absorption strips,' that are intended to reduce
cupping. Solid wood oors are mostly manufactured .75
1.1.1 Hardwood ooring inches (19 mm) thick with a tongue-and-groove for in-
Solid hardwood oors are made of planks milled from a
single piece of timber. Solid hardwood oors were orig- Other wood manufacturing styles
inally used for structural purposes, being installed per-
pendicular to the wooden support beams of a building
known as joists or bearers. With the increased use of Rotary-peel This process involves treating the wood
concrete as a suboor in some parts of the world, engi- by boiling the log in water. After preparation, the wood
neered wood ooring has gained some popularity. How- is peeled by a blade starting from the outside of the log


Wood ooring is a popular feature in many houses.

Oak herringbone parquet oor with two-strip wenge border

ity of engineered wood is achieved by running each layer

and working toward the center, thus creating a wood ve- at a 90 angle to the layer above. This stability makes it
neer. The veneer is then pressed at with high pres- a universal product that can be installed over all types of
sure. This style of manufacturing tends to have prob- suboors above, below or on grade. Engineered wood is
lems with the wood cupping or curling back to its original the most common type of wood ooring used globally .
shape. Rotary-peeled engineered hardwoods tend to have
a plywood appearance in the grain. The several dierent categories of engineered wood
ooring include:
All timber wood oors are made from sawn wood and are
Sliced-peel This process begins with the same treat- the most common category of engineered wood ooring.
ment process that the rotary peel method uses. However, They do not use rotary-peeled veneer, composite wood
instead of being sliced in a rotary fashion, with this tech- (such as HDF), or plastic in their construction.
nique the wood is sliced from the log in much the same
manner that lumber is sawn from a log straight through. Veneer oors use a thin layer of wood over a core that is
The veneers do not go through the same manufacturing commonly a composite wood product.
process as rotary peeled veneers. Engineered hardwood Acrylic-impregnated wood ooring uses a layer of wood
produced this way tends to have fewer problems with that is impregnated with liquid acrylic then hardened us-
face checking, and also does not have the same plywood ing a proprietary process.
appearance in the grain. However, the planks can tend to
Laminate and vinyl oors are often confused with engi-
have edge splintering and cracking because the veneers
neered wood oors, but are not; laminate uses an image of
have been submerged in water and then pressed at.
wood on its surface, while vinyl ooring is plastic formed
to look like wood.
Dry solid-sawn Instead of boiling the hardwood logs,
in this process they are kept at a low humidity level and
dried slowly to draw moisture from the inside of the wood
cells. The logs are then sawed in the same manner as for
2 Comparison of solid wood with
solid hardwood planks. This style of engineered hard- engineered wood
wood has the same look as solid hardwood, and does not
have any of the potential problems of face checking It is dicult to compare solid wood ooring to engi-
that rotary-peel and slice-peel products have, because the neered wood ooring due to the wide range of quality in
product is not exposed to added moisture. both product categories, particularly engineered. Solid
wood has some limitations. Recommended maximum
widths and lengths are typically 5 / 127mm wide and
1.2 Engineered 7' / 2100mm long. Solid hardwood is also more prone
to gapping (excessive space between planks), crown-
Main article: Engineered wood ing (convex curving upwards when humidity increases)
and cupping (a concave or dished appearance of the
Engineered wood ooring, is composed of two or more plank, with the height of the plank along its longer edges
layers of wood in the form of a plank. The top layer being higher than the centre) with increased plank size.
(lamella) is the wood that is visible when the ooring is Solid wood CANNOT be used with underoor radiant
installed and is adhered to the core. To give you the look heating.[2] However extra care is necessary with the plan-
of expensive wood at cheaper costs. The increased stabil- ning and installation of the heating system and the wood

ooring, such as limiting the temperature to 85 F (29 The piece used for the connection can be made from
C), avoid sharp temperature uctuations, utilizing an wood, rubber, or plastic. This installation system al-
outdoor thermostat to anticipate heating demands, and lows for dierent materials (i.e. wood and metal) to
monitoring the moisture content for the suboor before be installed together if they have the same connec-
installation. tion system.
There are some characteristics that are common to each 4. Wood ooring can also be installed utilizing the
category: solid wood is more frequently site-nished, is glue-down method. This is an especially popular
always in a plank format, is generally thicker than en- method for solid parquet ooring installations on
gineered wood, and is usually installed by nailing. En- concrete sub-oors. Additionally, engineered wood
gineered wood is more frequently pre-nished, has bev- ooring may use the glue-down method as well. A
elled edges, is very rarely site-nished, and is installed layer of mastic is placed onto the sub-oor using a
with glue or as a oating installation. trowel similar to those used in laying ceramic tile.
Engineered wood ooring has other benets beyond di- The wood pieces are then laid on top of the glue and
mensional stability and universal use. Patented installa- hammered into place using a rubber mallet and a
tion systems allow for faster installation and easy replace- protected 2x4 to create a level oor. Often the par-
ment of boards. Engineered wood also allows for a oat- quet oor will require sanding and re-nishing after
ing installation where the planks are not adhered to the the glue-down installation method due to the small
suboor or to each other, further increasing ease of re- size pieces.
pair and reducing installation time. Engineered ooring
is also suitable for underoor and radiant heating systems. 5. Floating installation: A oating installation is where
the ooring is laid down in a glueless manner on top
of a layer of underlay. The individual planks are
locked together, and are not glued or nailed down
3 Installation systems to the suboor. By doing this the oor is oating
above the underlay, and can be laid on top of exist-
Wood can be manufactured with a variety of dierent ing tile or marble, without the risk of damaging the
installation systems: subooring.

1. Tongue-and-groove: One side and one end of the

plank have a groove, the other side and end have 4 Finishing, bung, and sanding
a tongue (protruding wood along an edges center).
The tongue and groove t snugly together, thus join-
ing or aligning the planks, and are not visible once 4.1 Floor nishes
joined. Tongue-and-groove ooring can be installed
by glue-down (both engineered and solid), oating The two most popular modern nishes for wood ooring
(mostly engineered only), or nail-down (not recom- are oil-modied urethane and water-based polyurethane.
mended for most engineered). Within both categories there are many variations and
other names used to describe the nish. Oil-modied ure-
2. Click or Woodloc systems: there are a number of thane and water-based polyurethane also have very dier-
patented click systems that now exist. These click ent renishing and maintenance regimes.
systems are either unilin or boloc A click
oor is similar to tongue-and-groove, but instead of
1. Natural shellacs, lacquers, and varnishes were used
tting directly into the groove, the board must be
in the past, as were waxes, often blended with oils.
angled or tapped in to make the curved or barbed
tongue t into the modied groove. No adhesive is 2. Oil - Oiled oors have existed for several thousand
used when installing a click oor, making board years and is the most common oor nish used glob-
replacement easier. This system not only exists for ally. Oil nished oors are made from naturally de-
engineered wood oors but also engineered bamboo rived drying oils, and are not to be confused with
and a small number of solid oors (such as parador petroleum based oils. Pre-nished oil oors can be
solido click) and is designed to be used for oating UV cured. Most vegetable based oils are 100% nat-
installations. It is benecial for the Do-It-Yourself ural and contain no VOCs.
(a) Brushed and oiled - Steel brushes are used
3. Floor connection system: There are a wide range in the direction of the grain which opens up
of connection systems, as most of them are mill- the surface of the wood and removes splinters.
specic manufacturing techniques. The general The wood is then oiled.
principle is to have grooves on all four sides of the
plank with a separate, unconnected, piece that is in- 3. Polyurethane - Polyurethane oor nishes were rst
serted into the grooves of two planks to join them. introduced around 1942. There are several types of

polyurethane nishes that exist, but the two most [4] Field, Anne. Wood Floors and Finishing. Michigan
common are oil-modied polyurethane and water- State University. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
based polyurethane. Water-based urethane is harder
than oil-modied polyurethane and is much safer for
the user. 7 External links
World Floor Covering Association
4.2 Bung
The Flooring Contractors Association
Generally, hardwood oors need to be bued every 35
years. The process usually takes about one day. Bung National Wood Flooring Association Association
refers to the process of using a stand up oor buer. The
oor is abraded with 180 grit screen on the buer. This
allows for the new coat of nish to mechanically adhere
to the oor. This process works with great results as long
as the oor hasn't had any waxes or synthetic cleaners.

4.3 Renishing
Sanding the nish o old wood oors and smoothing
them out.

4.4 Floor sanding

Main article: Floor sanding

Sanding provides a method for smoothing an installed

oor, compensating for unevenness of the suboor. Ad-
ditionally, sanding is used to renew the appearance of
older oors. Sanding using successively ner grades of
sandpaper is required to ensure even stain penetration
when stains are used, as well as to eliminate visible
scratches from coarser sandpaper grades used initially.
Prior to modern polyurethanes, oils and waxes were used
in addition to stains to provide nishes.[3] Beeswax and
linseed oil, for example, are both natural crosslinking
polymers and harden over time.[4]

5 See also
Reclaimed lumber
Reclaimed Wood Council

6 References
[1] Taylor, Adam M. (2003). Bamboo Flooring: Better than
wood?". University of Tennessee. Retrieved 6 March

[2] Wood Flooring by Charles Petersen, Chapter 3

[3] Great Floor Sanding (2015). Wood Floor Finishes. Re-

trieved 2015-03-26.

8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

8.1 Text
Wood ooring Source: Contributors: William Avery, Julesd, Radiojon,
Chuunen Baka, BenFrantzDale, Askewchan, Discospinster, Snowolf, Wtmitchell, Dennis Bratland, Stephen, Mandarax, Graham87, Er-
icbg05, Hiberniantears, MarnetteD, TheDJ, Tedder, Hairy Dude, SilentC, Closedmouth, John Broughton, Je Silvers, SmackBot, Hardy-
plants, Deli nk, Rrburke, BullRangifer, Adamarthurryan, General Ization, Jaywubba1887, JHunterJ, TastyPoutine, Hu12, Ghughesarch,
Courcelles, Progea, Cydebot, Gogo Dodo, Odie5533, Alaibot, Nick Number, JimScott, Seaphoto, QuiteUnusual, Matteo Amato, Har-
ryzilber, Barek, MER-C, Albany NY, Theroadislong, Trusilver, Kocisz, Nubi78, Mydogtrouble, Bonadea, DASonnenfeld, Theorize, Philip
Trueman, Myoldcamera, GcSwRhIc, Silmar~enwiki, Javox~enwiki, Jackfork, Robennals, Floorpro, Plutonium27, Meters, Lamro, Dmcq,
WereSpielChequers, Dawn Bard, Iceman.onizuka, Happysailor, Flyer22 Reborn, Permacultura, EnOreg, Shadygrove2007, Bdarbs, Fyyer,
The Thing That Should Not Be, Thingg, XLinkBot, Joshmarques, Facts707, MatthewVanitas, Timber oors, Youre dreaming eh?, Dti-
van, Download, Epzcaw, Tide rolls, Chipotheold, Yobot, Dede2008, Jtnoonan90, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Sgsluke, AnomieBOT,
Jim1138, Materialscientist, Nifky?, LilHelpa, Zad68, Helper123abc, Capricorn42, Hammersbach, Martnym, NFD9001, JayJay, Who
then was a gentleman?, TheToddMan, Hardwoodooringguy, I dream of horses, Fraser360, Palmettohardwood, SpaceFlight89, Allen
Thomas Joy, White Shadows, TBloemink, Onel5969, John of Reading, J.sanders1637, Nordrume, Klbrain, Winner 42, Wikipelli, As-
ceticRose, Dusty8940, Simon Patel, AvicAWB, Jsadvantage, Krsimmonds, Kokorovii, Bulwersator, Kellylim2010, MondaysChild, Kj650,
Sven Manguard, Davey2010, Questalico, ClueBot NG, Brubj7a0, Altruwood, Zolcsi68, Rdnaturals, Helpful Pixie Bot, Courduhardwood-
oors, Flanders51, KLBot2, BG19bot, Mossiano, Stljohnd, Crybud, Pratyya Ghosh, Springmata, Hamfastt, SFK2, Epicgenius, Howicus,
Doug2523, Euroescritor, Sam Sailor, Pazzo4562, Neyosingle, The Reclaimed Flooring Company, Raedhodroj, Cornersss, Elastilonusa,
Tbone321, Rarucap, KH-1, ANONYMOUSLY CLANDESTINE, Pab49, Rjnelson259, Ace Hammerton, Lukedennit, TimberzoneLon-
don, Patrick reacherd, Patrick Hardik, Timber zone, Poyekhali, Customhardwood, Fhju456, Sarah Olivia-Taylor, Aoziwe, Thangmaycr,
Llcoolj89, Citeboot, Roth wyatt and Anonymous: 160

8.2 Images
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