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Case

Building a High-performance South Asian Journal of


Business and Management Cases
Organization: Anna Bhau 4(1) 8799
2015 Birla Institute of Management Technology
Ajara Shetkari Cooperative SAGE Publications
sagepub.in/home.nav
Spinning Mill DOI: 10.1177/2277977915574042
http://bmc.sagepub.com

Bhavna Ghatge1
Diganta Chakrabarti2
Shilpa Shinde1

Abstract
This case highlights the noteworthy success of a cooperative organization located in a small and
undeveloped village Ajara in the Kolhapur district of the state of Maharashtra (India). It traces the prog-
ress of this small cooperative sector spinning mill from its conception in the late 1970s to its successful
transformation as a profitable export oriented unit in 2014. The case underlines the diverse challenges
the organization faced and the initiatives taken by the government to overcome those. It is an important
account of how a combination of visionary leadership coupled with strategic decision-making enabled
a struggling organization to establish itself into a distinguishably successful one. The application of
progressive management policies and practices are documented. This case also illustrates the role of a
cooperative organization in the context of socio-economic development of rural India.

Keywords
Transformation of a cooperative, leadership, high-performance organization, management practices

Disclaimer: Bhavna Ghatge, Diganta Chakrabarti and Shilpa Shinde have written this case solely for class discussion for
programmes in management education. The authors do not intend to illustrate either the effective or ineffective handling of a
managerial or an administrative situation. The case study does not represent or endorse the views of the management about
the issues in the case. The author may have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality
where needed. The case has been compiled from field data, information in the public domain and primary sources of the
organization studied.

1
Assistant Professor of HRM & OB, Flame School of Business, Pune.
2
Associate Professor of HRM & OB, Flame School of Business, Pune.

Corresponding author:
Diganta Chakrabarti, Associate Professor of HRM & OB, Flame School of Business, Vadzai, Pune.
E-mail: iganta.chakrabarti@flame.edu.in
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88 South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases 4(1)

Introduction
For Ajara, a small village in the Kolhapur district of Maharashtra, 26 June 2013 was a day of achievement
and celebration, as the National Co-operative Union of India (NCUI)1 formally awarded Anna Bhau
Ajara Shetkari Co-operative Spinning Mill (referred to as ABASCOSM henceforth) as one of the
best cooperative organizations in the country. Mr Ashok Charati (chairman), Mr Anil Deshpande
(deputy chairman) and Mr Chandrashekhar Phadnis (managing director) received the Award of
Excellence from the president of India, Mr Pranab Mukherjee.2 For a cooperative mill located in a
remote, isolated village like Ajara, this was a significant achievement. It was a success story with which
the people of Ajara identified strongly. It was an official recognition of ABASCOSMs continuous effort
towards attaining higher goals.
This was, however, not the first time that ABASCOSM was recognized for its distinguished
performance. The Maharashtra State Cooperative Textile Federation Ltd.,3 Mumbai, awarded the
organization five times for its achievements between 2009 and 2012. The Maharashtra Energy
Development Corporation in 20112012 awarded ABASCOSM the Best Organization for Energy
Consumption and Energy Management. All these achievements and awards belonged not only to
ABASCOSM but also to the entire population of Ajara.

About Ajara
Ajara, located in the taluka ofAjara in the district ofKolhapur, Maharashtra, is flanked by two rivers,
Chitra and Hiranyakeshi. It is located 76 km towards the south from the district head quarter Kolhapur.
It produces Ghansal rice (a high-quality variety of rice) because of its high rainfall. Census of India
(2011) reports the population of Ajara to be 18,000. The majority of the villages population is agrarian
cultivating cashew nuts and paddy, with a few small-scale cashew-processing and rice-processing units
as an additional source of employment to the landless. A section of the population earns its living from
the tourism business.

ABASCOSM: The Genesis


The birth of ABASCOSM can be traced back to the late 1970s. At that time, Ajara was just one of the
numerous underdeveloped villages dotting the landscape of the country. Mr Kashinath Charati and
Mr Madhavrao Deshpande were farmers of this village. They nurtured a vision of a developed, prosperous
Ajara village. However, none of them had a background of technical education or any prior experience
in running a business either, but they had a strong will and determination to contribute to the growth and
development of Ajara.
Long before the establishment of ABASCOSM, Charati and Deshpande had started the cooperative
movement in Ajara through the establishment of the Ajara Urban Cooperative Bank (in 1961) and
Janata Education Society (in 1962). After responding to the crucial needs of financial and educational
set-ups for people of Ajara, Charati and Deshpande wanted to take their initiative for the development of
the village even further. During the 1970s, the textile industry was witnessing significant growth and
future prospects seemed bright. Charati and Deshpande wanted to utilize this opportunity. The success of

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Ghatge et al. 89

the earlier initiatives in banking and education cooperatives provided them the required confidence and
motivation to look at solving the problem of unemployment of the rural youth of Ajara. With a vision to
start a cooperative business organization, they decided to apply for permission for a cooperative spinning
mill.4
However, the idea of starting a spinning mill at Ajara was met with scepticism by industry experts,
citing the relatively high climatic temperature and heavy rains of Ajara. Charati and Deshpande were
advised against setting up a spinning mill at Ajara. Moreover, the process of procuring a license for a
cooperative mill used to be long and tedious in those days due to the regulatory and operational obstacles
in the government departments. The problem was aggravated by the absence of significant political
patronage and strong financial background. However, Charati and Deshpande were strong-willed people,
who were not dissuaded by such hurdles. They strived relentlessly to procure the formal clearance
for starting the cooperative spinning mill. People aware of the experience of the founders fondly
recount how they used to frequently travel to Mumbai and virtually lived in a transport truck, for
procuring the licence.
Mrs A.K. Charati, the chairman of the mill and wife of founder Kashinath Charati recalls:

They had passion and would go and sit at the government offices for days as they did not have any political
contacts. But they were determined to start the mill.

They finally obtained permission from state government of Maharashtra authorities and ABASCOM
formally came into existence on 11 October 1979.

ABASCOSM: The Initial Days


ABASCOM obtained the license for running the mill as a cooperative unit, under the eighth five-year
plan, with a production capacity of 25,000 spindles/per day.5 The terms of contract during registration as
a cooperative spinning mill laid down the equity distribution as 1:9 (members of the cooperative society:
government). The initial estimated project cost was INR 26 crores.6 According to Mr Vishnu Powar,
chief accountant (ABASCOSM), this sum was supposed to be raised from three sources: 5 per cent from
members, 45 per cent from government and 50 per cent through loan. Promoters collected a sum of INR
1.45 crores from the members who were spread over the Kolhapur district, the jurisdiction of the
cooperative society. Initially, the state government had sanctioned and disbursed a part of the equity
(INR 23.56 crores). From the fund available, the management of cooperative commenced the work of
building construction. However, no further funds were disbursed from the government for a while and
the construction work remained incomplete. Over the years, the project cost escalated without any
significant development in construction. The production process was yet to start. In 1998, through
another fund inflow of INR 14.88 crores, some progress in the construction was made possible. By 2007,
the project cost had gone up to INR 52.36 crores. Some additional fund was procured by the founders but
they still struggled for survival. With the funds available, they could only build a small infrastructure of
building and machines. The implementation of the project started in real sense in 20072008. This year,
the cooperative received big funding from the government, which helped in starting the production
operations. Production started for one shift on 1 May 2008. The spinning mill with a capacity of 9,072
spindles went into full three shifts working in May 2009.

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90 South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases 4(1)

Transition through Strong Leadership


At this point, the founders strongly felt the need for an experienced professional from the textile industry
to run the operations.
They took a visionary decision by pursuing Mr Chandrashekhar Phadnis to join the ABASCOM.
Mr Phadnis was a textile engineer by qualification, with a rich experience in textile industry, working
with Spentex Industries Ltd at that time. Being an active member of textile federation in Maharashtra,
he was a renowned expert in the field of textile in Maharashtra. The founders were keen to convince
him to join ABASCOSM. In the words of Mr Kashinath Charati as told to Mr Phadnis,

I will not die before I see the yarn manufactured at our mill.

Destiny played its role; both the founders passed away within the span of a month in 2008, in the same
year Mr Phadnis joined the organization as the managing director.
The new managing director knew that the mill was in a difficult condition with practically nothing
more than a license and a small building to call its own. He admits that he had no intention to stay with
the organization for more than one year.
Mr Phadnis says,

I was influenced by the dedication and passion of the two founders to start manufacturing yarn at Ajara.
Non-disbursement of funds by the government created a big deficit. Everything had to be done from scratch.
Turnaround of the mill into a successful organization was a challenge.

He was absolutely clear that ABASCOSM had to be run like a business unit to be profitable and
sustainable. The first challenge was to get the sanctioned government funds disbursed. He organized the
annual conference for Maharashtra Textile Federation at Ajara in 2008. This highlighted the existence of
the mill as part of textile industry in Maharashtra. The funds were finally disbursed in 2008 after a long
struggle of pursuing the deputy chief minister. This propelled the establishment process. New machinery
was installed and production started in 2009 with a capacity of 9,072 spindles. During the economic
recession, it was difficult for most of the organizations to sustain. The industry was facing an absenteeism
rate of 20 per cent and high fluctuation in the rates of cotton and yarn. There was no source of uninterrupted
power at the factory location. It led to production losses. To add to the woes, the mill workers were
generally untrained. In 2009, there were 220 workers and 24 staff members at ABASCOSM.
After facing multiple challenges for many years, the management was determined and focused to
make all endeavours towards growth and sustainability of the mill. They identified that a deep asymmetry
existed between the environmental demand and the institutional capacity of ABASCOSM. It was
necessary to develop the overall capacity of the organization. The management decided to develop
organizational policies that would help them be flexible and selective to respond to the environmental
change in the long term. While their competitors were expanding fast using bank credits, they aimed
towards a conservative and self-sustained business model. They did not diversify their fund base and
relied heavily on reinvesting of the profits. Organizational capacity for high quality was achieved through
the careful and stringently monitored production process. It was aimed at maintaining the best fit between
the supply of quality raw material and the final product. The first lot of yarn produced fetched a premium
price. Improvement in product through continuous research and development (R&D) initiatives through
machine settings, layout and maintenance has been followed with lot of seriousness. Strong initiatives
were taken, which helped in conserving energy and the cost of production.
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Ghatge et al. 91

A vision for self-sustenance and development was strengthened through a disciplined and team-
oriented organizational culture, which has led to high commitment amongst the workforce. The leadership
believed in developing a stimulated workforce that acted as a source for energy. Over the last five
years (20092014), these endeavours have lead to an expansion of organizational capacity to 13,104
spindles. By the end of 2014, there is a plan for expansion of 7,200 more spindles (refer to Appendix 1,
Organization Chart).
Local newspaper Pudhari reports:

Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Co-operative Spinning Mill as an organization which has been a nucleus for develop-
ment of a small village like Ajara.7

From its modest beginning in production more than five years ago, ABASCOSM has come a long
way. At present, the mill runs from an area of 85 acres with a production capacity of 13,104 spindles/day
of 20 s32 s carded8 warp /hosiery yarn as per the requirement of the customers. The average count of
yarn produced is around 24 s carded. The mill runs at its full capacity to produce 9,000 kg of yarn with
high utilization of 97 per cent. Seventy per cent of its product is exported to various South Asian and
some European, African and American countries. The remaining 30 per cent is absorbed by the local
players in the west Maharashtra regions of Kolhapur and Ichalkaranji. The mills product sells under the
Ajara brand, known for its quality and consistency. This brand fetches them premium rates in the market.
The product is exported through brokers and export agents bringing in repetitive orders while dominating
the 20s21s carded count market.
Devanand Patil, production and quality supervisor at ABASCOSM, says,

Ajara brand has created a good name for itself. It has become a benchmark for rate fixation in the western belt of
Maharashtra. Yarn is known for its consistent strength, colour and elongation.

As of now, the cooperative has member strength of 11,989. It has around 350 workers and 40 staff
members to run the show. The board of directors is a team of 16 with Mrs A.K. Charati as the chairman.
It is presently being spearheaded by Chandrashekhar Phadnis acting as its managing director.

Role of Leadership in Transition


Leadership has been the focal point of Ajara spin mill as the founders, Kashinath Charati Madhavrao
Deshpande, were strong-willed visionaries who fought against the odds to get the license for a coopera-
tive spinning mill in an impassable area like Ajara. Mr Deshpande gave away his 85 acres of land in
the village Khede for the factory premise at a very minimal return. When Mr Phadnis joined, the
mill was struggling to start its production but within five years of commencement of production, the
mill has come a long way. He has transformed the organization into a profitable export-oriented unit
(EOU) while working on the foundation of the values of social change and growth the founders had
envisioned.
The managing director, Mr Phadnis, is looked up to by the employees as a mentor and a helpful
leader. He has been able to develop extremely cordial and respectful relations with the management
and the workers. He has helped them improve their standard of living and also helped many come out
their addiction to cigarette and alcoholic drinks. The people of the village are very grateful to him
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92 South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases 4(1)

and adore him. He is also a member of the happy thoughts association and counsels people towards
a stress-free happy life. He is personally involved in conducting career-counselling sessions with
school and college students in and around Ajara. He also invites these children to visit the mill campus
to create awareness and learning. All the above initiatives by Mr Phadnis have won him the support of
all his employees and their families. He is also responsible building a sense of family among the
employees.
His efforts have been rewarded at the state and national level. He follows a transformational leader-
ship style, aiming towards building a high-performance organization out of a cooperative mill in a
small village. According to most of his immediate reports, he is known to be task driven, disciplined
and systematic at his work. They feel he has been an effective strategic planner. They appreciate him for
taking care of the three crucial aspects for any businessoperations, finance and human resource.
Mr Phadnis, reflecting on his role at ABASCOM during the last six years, says,

I had been very sure that I wanted to run the mill as a business unit not like a typical co-operative unit. I put in
all work life experience to bring up this organization, focusing on three prime areasoperations, finance and
human resource.

He proudly discloses that their mill has surpassed the benchmarks subscribed by the South India
Textile Research Association (SITRA) norms.

Operations Management
The production process has been at the heart of the spinning mill business (refer to Appendix 2: Production
Process). The transformation of the mill involved high quality and maximum customer satisfaction. The
managing director and the production manager with their training and experience in the textile sector
have developed a process that has given extraordinary results. While utilizing the benefits of automation,
they researched on the machine settings which will produce the best results.
Production manager Mr Ammogh Waggh proudly talks about exceeding the SITRA norms. He says,

at our mill, we are far ahead of the SITRA norms.9 Our productivity (40s conversion) is 115gms while that laid
down by SITRA is just 110grams. (refer to Appendix 3: SITRA Norms)

To maintain appropriate temperature and humidity levels at each department, plywood partitions have
been used. It has also improved the efficiency of the air conditioning plant and fans, thus leading to
saving of energy. Turbo ventilators installed in the plant have helped in reducing the temperature of the
shed by providing fresh air throughout the year. The turbo ventilator is a zero operation cost arrangement
without any maintenance. This has led to a reduction in the plant temperature by 2 C and an increase in
the efficiency of the air conditioning and fans.
Quality is a big challenge in the spinning industry and has been stringently maintained at the Ajara
mill (refer to Appendix 4: Quality, Energy Management and Environment Policies). Most of the mills in
western Maharashtra follow the SITRA norms for quality. There is a well-developed quality laboratory
in the mill premise that helps in continuous monitoring of the process and the product manufactured.
There is a quality check at every level of the production process. The raw material that fulfils the
subscribed parameters of strength, colour and thread length is only accepted for further processing.
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Ghatge et al. 93

Once the raw cotton is put in the automated process, there is a quality check at every step against
the benchmarked standards. This helps to curb the imperfections in the yarn early on, thus improving
the quality of the final product and getting premium rates. As cotton is hygroscopic,10 the settings
of the machine are even changed based on the climatic changes to maintain consistent quality of
production.
Machines are well maintained on a regular basis for proper drafting, twisting, roving and spinning
activities, which help in maintaining consistent quality of the product. The cleanliness of the shop floor
is also stressed on and strictly maintained to avoid settling of the waste on the yarn. This prevents
imperfections such as uneven yarn with continuous neps11 and increases the strength of the final yarn.
The process of spinning has been re-engineered to batch/block creeling12 rather than being conti-
nuous at main frame. This has been done after considering the practical problems in handling work in
continuous processes. It also helps to reduce the manpower requirement as one man can be trained to
efficiently handle one block. Numbering of carding cans was introduced so that they can be matched
with the number of the machine, which finally helps in maintaining the homogeneity of maintaining
good quality of the product in terms of colour and strength.

Financial Management
A no-loan policy has been strongly followed for management of the mill. It has made the mill self-
sustainable. The initial establishment was done through either the funds from government or the
investments from the members. As the mill achieved its break-even rapidly and started producing profits,
the further expansion was done by reinvesting the profits. Most of the earnings in initial years were
ploughed back for installing new machinery and as working capital.
Vishnu Powar, chief accountant, says,

the vision in terms of procurement and utilization of funds has been very clear since the beginning. Good
financial planning and professional attitude towards managing a co-operative mill like a corporate unit has led to
self sustainability and growth. We have orders for three months in advance.

The delay in disbursement of government aid was the biggest challenge in running the mill in
earlier days. The final instalment of government funds will be disbursed in 2015, which will help
ABASCOSM reach their maximum permitted establishment capacity of 25,000 spindles. The mill
will have to start making provisions for the repayment of government funds after 5 years of disburse-
ment of the final instalment and the actual repayment starts after 20 years. The financial planning
and conservative approach towards the borrowed funds has made the mill self-sustained and profitable.
This will also help the shareholders reap good benefits and easy repayment to the government (refer to
Appendix 5Financial Results).
Generally, the cooperative sector organizations in India survive using the funds from the government.
In spite of losses, most of them are never shut down due to the social commitment. At ABASCOSM,
by contrast, self-sustenance was a top-priority goal and steps to achieve that goal have been taken.
Cost effectiveness has been achieved through the maximum utilization of the raw material, efficient
energy utilization, quality control, high level of customer satisfaction and high employee engagement.
Strong steps were taken to develop very good relations with raw material suppliers, who gave raw
material on credit.
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94 South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases 4(1)

The substantial profits in the last four years due to these initiatives have been judiciously ploughed
back. The mill does not have accumulated inventory of finished goods. The goods are manufactured on
demand.
The small loans taken from banks were paid back very efficiently. Impressed by their banking
behaviour, KDCC bank, Kolhapur, referred to ABASCOSM in its advertising campaign stating that
every customer should be like ABASCOSM.

Human Resource Management


The founders of ABASCOSM were passionate and motivated to contribute to the welfare of the society.
The same vision was taken forward by the board members and the managing director.
New human resource management (HRM) policies and procedures were introduced after Mr Phadnis
joined, which were aimed at higher employee satisfaction and engagement. Subsequently, this led to low
employee turnover and absenteeism. Systematic procedures and processes were laid down which could
reduce waste and utilize maximum capacity of the mill. The work culture at ABASCOSM promotes
teamwork and participation in decision-making .The management has always believed in profit sharing
with the employees. The employees have been given a high bonus of 15 per cent since last two years.
Tanaji Patil, union leader, says,

Ajara mill is the only mill which is giving such high bonus of 15 per cent continuously for last two years. Most of
the other mills in the area have either shut down or have been giving the minimum bonus. We have good relations
with the management. They take care of the employees well.

It was identified that the rural youth was unemployed but could be trained to be employed in the
mill. The employees recruited from the local population are initially taken as trainees and trained for
one to three months. A trained or skilled employee is taken up for a trial for one month after which
his employment is confirmed as a skilled employee. Generally, the employees are trained to be multi-
skilled.
The present management believes in the value of the human resource as a crucial resource for
organization. They are focused on providing benefits to all the employees of the organization, as well as
the villagers of Ajara. Employees are given some benefits beyond the monetary compensationthat
employees enjoy, ranging from accidental insurance, free medical check-ups, easy credit through the
employee credit society, tea coupons, etc. This has developed highly engaged employees forming a
competitive advantage for the mill.
Megha Batkadali, assistant at the personnel and time-keeping department, says

employees are very happy with the management. Our mill runs all 365 days for 24 hours, employees work on
festivals too willingly.

There are activities where the families of the employees are also involved, which make them all close
knit towards a social development cause. It has also created a strong sense of belongingness.

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Ghatge et al. 95

Ajara Spin Family Initiative


A feeling of ownership was created amongst the employees through Ajara Spin Family initiative, which
helped to unite employees and generate a culture that promoted loyalty, ownership of employees and
employee welfare. It has been an essential cornerstone in transformation of ABASCOM into a successful
and profitable unit. It is also looked as by industry experts as a source of competitive advantage. When
most of the cooperative spinning mills were suffering with a very high level of employee absenteeism
and turnover, ABASCOSM has had 0 per cent absenteeism. The Ajara Spin Family initiative brought
together the workers, management and their families as one family that cared for every member. The
initiative has led to a good emotional bond and engagement amongst the members at all levels. It has
helped achieve organizational goals and targets.
This sense of family and belongingness can be explained with incidences such as employees
volunteering to do the painting and fabrication work at premises and save money for the mill.The
employees at ABASCOSM hold high respect and loyalty towards their organization. Progressive HR
practices such as providing retirement benefits, training, counselling and spiritual development
programmes have led to a high level of employee commitment, which helps the organization to run 247
for 365 days. The employees have taken the responsibility of running it even on holidays. The mill also
took initiatives to raise the standard of living of the villagers by providing them with information on
employment opportunities, educational institutes and cooperative banks. Other initiatives include an
Aadhar card camp, health check-ups, blood donation camps, etc. In addition, the management, with the
support from the employees, is successful in creating a pollution-free environment through plantation of
trees and keeping the surroundings clean.

Challenges and Way Forward


Mr Phadnis shared his experience of the challenges faced by most of the small sector and cooperative
spinning mills. He pointed out profitability and sustainability as the biggest challenge. Profits margins
are lowest for spinning mills and highly affected by the fluctuating rates of raw material and the finished
product. High levels of inventory and very high-quality requirements make spinning least profitable.
Due to the recent changes in the government regulations regarding export duty waivers and subsidies
to cotton farmers, the spinning industry is under a lot of pressure. Many of the cooperative organizations
have not been able to adapt to these changes and are facing severe financial crises, while some of
them have been forced to shut down. However, due to the far-sightedness of ABASCOSMs management,
it has shown exemplary operational as well as financial management and is running profitably. The mill
runs in three shifts and on full capacity, with continuous profitability year on year. It aims to reach its full
sanctioned capacity of 25,000 spindles in the coming two years. It also aims to get into value addition
processes such as processing, knitting, garment projects and provide employment opportunities to at
least 3,0004,000 villagers. In addition, the management plans to start a separate unit for empowering
the village women at Ajara by providing them with a good and safe employment. People of Ajara are
looking forward to the future with a lot of expectation and enthusiasm.

Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the support extended by the Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Cooperative Spinning Mill, Ajara,
for the collection of data from within the organization, the preparation of this case study and consent for the case to
be published in an academic journal.
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Appendix 1. Organization Chart

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Source: Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Cooperative Spinning Mill.
Ghatge et al. 97

Appendix 2. Production Process

Source: Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Cooperative Spinning Mill.

Appendix 3. SITRA Norms

Particulars Year 20112012 Year 20122013


40s Conv. production in Kg 14.88 lacs Kg 15.39 lacs Kg
Power consumption required (Kwh) 70.25 lacs kwh 72.63 lacs kwh
Actual power consumed (Kwh) 60.00 lacs kwh 63.18 lacs kwh
Saving of energy in % 14.59% 13.00%
Power cost saving in INR 67.63 lacs INR 71.10 lacs INR
Source: Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Cooperative Spinning Mill.
Note: Figures are in INR lacs (lakhs). 1 lac = 100 thousands.
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98 South Asian Journal of Business and Management Cases 4(1)

Appendix 4. Quality, Energy Management and Environment Policy

Quality Policy
ABASCOSM is committed to produce international quality yarn. Customer satisfaction by understanding expec-
tations is the prime motto. Strict policies are laid, regarding selection of high-standard machines, raw material,
reduction of waste and good maintenance of machines.

Energy Management and Conservation Policy


ABASCOM is committed towards energy management and conservation and less power consumption. Policies
laid for energy management and conservation which include creating awareness amongst the workers, utilizing
renewable energy sources, minimizing loss of energy proper maintenance and settings of machines, proper plant
layout and utilization of turbo fans which improve the efficiency of the air conditioner. Above all, creating a green
zone around the plant.

Environmental Policy
ABASCOSM is committed to be eco-friendly and ensures that through stringent policies like developing plantations
in and around plant premises, use of plant waste as manure, using proper pollution control measures, usage of
masks and cleanliness maintenance at the plant premises.
Source: Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Cooperative Spinning Mill.

Appendix 5. Financial Results

Particulars 20082009 20092010 20102011 20112012 20122013


Assets 2,161.06 2,522.54 2,868.93 3,106.36 3,801.39
Turnover 50.80 1,769.40 3,788.48 3,770.74 4,169.62

Source: Anna Bhau Ajara Shetkari Cooperative Spinning Mill.


Note: Figures are in INR lacs (lakhs). 1 lac = 100 thousands.

Notes
1. The National Cooperative Union of India (NCUI) is the apex body representing all the cooperative organizations
in the country. It was established in 1929. Details about NCUI are found at http://www.ncui.coop/welcome.html
2. Source: Ajara Spinning Mill wins best organization award Dainik Punya Nagari (a newspaper published in
Marathi language from Maharashtra) reported on 2 July 2013.
3. The Maharashtra State Cooperative Textile Federation, Mumbai, is a multifaceted apex organization for the
cooperative textile fraternities in the state of Maharashtra (http://www.texcofed.com/about.html).
4. Spinning is a major part of the textile industry. It is part of the textile manufacturing process where three types
of fibre are converted into yarn, then fabrics, which undergo finishing processes such as bleaching to become
textiles. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinning_(textiles)
5. A spindle is a straight spike usually made from wood used for spinning, twisting fibres such as wool, flax, hemp
and cotton into yarn. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindle_(textiles)
6. 1 crore = 10 millions.
7. Reported on 5 September 2014.
8. Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or
sliver suitable for subsequent processing (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carding).
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Ghatge et al. 99

9. http://www.sitra.org.in/index.php/sitra-publications
10. Definition of HYGROSCOPIC: (a) readily taking up and retaining moisture, (b) taken up and retained under
some conditions of humidity and temperature (source:- http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
hygroscopic).
11. A small knot of entangled fibres commonly regarded as a fault but sometimes introduced as an effect.
Small knots of fibre embedded in the yarn, may be intentional or unintentional (source: http://www.textile
glossary.com/terms/nep.html).
12. Creeling: Creeling is the placement of full packages in position ready to be unwound as part of the transfer
operations. An alternative meaning is the removal of the exhausted packages and their replacement with full
ones (Source: http://textilelearner.blogspot.in/2012/03/auxiliary-function-of-winding.html).

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