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DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY

BY COMBINATION PERMEAMETER
CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Contents
Introduction 2
Principle
Application
Procedural stages 3
Preparation of apparatus 4
Sample preparation 6
Saturation 9
Test procedure, falling head
Test procedure, constant head 10
Calculations 12
Report 13
Apparatus
Certificate of test 14
Worked examples 16

Health and Safety

This test method may involve the use of hazardous materials, operations and equipment.

It is the responsibility of management and the users of this document to ensure that appropriate health and safety
practices are adopted and to comply with current local health and safety regulations in force.

Disclaimer
This document has been produced taking into account the latest published standard test method and accepted good
practice.

JT Consultant Services can accept no responsibility for any test results and their subsequent use in any design,
control or other such activity obtained when using this document.

The application of the data obtained to the design process is outside the scope of this document.

Users are advised to consult the latest standard in force at the time of use.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

References
BS 1377-5 Methods of test for soils for civil engineering purposes. Compressibility, permeability and durability
BS 1377-1 General requirements and sample preparation.
Manual of soil laboratory testing. Volume 2, 2nd edition by K H Head.

Introduction
Permeability of a soil is a measure of its capacity to allow the flow of water through the pore spaces between solid
particles. The degree of permeability is determined by applying a hydraulic pressure gradient across a sample of
soil, which is fully saturated and measuring the consequent rate of flow.

Factors which affect permeability include;

particle size distribution;


particle shape and texture;
mineralogical composition;
voids ratio;
degree of saturation;
the soil fabric;
the nature of the fluid;
the type of flow.

Principle
The constant head test is suitable for the measurement of the permeability of sands in the range 10-2 to 10-5 m/s
containing little or no silt. The volume of water passing through the soil in a known time is measured and the
hydraulic gradient measured using a manometer tube.

The test is performed on disturbed samples which are recompacted into the cell using a specified compactive
effort or to achieve a specific dry density, i.e. voids ratio.

The test is not suitable for soils containing more than 10 % by mass passing the 63 m sieve in the sample
prepared for the test.

The falling head test is suitable for the measurement of the permeability of soils of intermediate and low
permeability, less than 10 4 m/s, i.e. silts and clays. The volume of water passing through the soil in a known
time is measured and the hydraulic gradient measured using manometer tubes.

The falling head test is performed on undisturbed samples or disturbed samples recompacted into a cell using a
specified compactive effort or to achieve a specified dry density.

A relatively short sample is connected to a standpipe which provides the head of water and the means of
measuring the flow of water through the sample.

Application
A knowledge of the permeability characteristics of soil is required for many construction applications, including
excavations in water-bearing ground, earth dams, seepage pressures, piping and erosion.

Other applications include drainage of highway and airfield bases and sub-bases, estimation of yield from aquifers
and the design of graded filters.

This document describes both the constant head and the falling head tests when using a combination permeameter.
Due to the relatively small diameter of the specimen, data obtained should be treated with caution.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

k=1 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12 m/s
Drainage Good Poor Practically impervious
characteristics

Permeability High Medium Low Very low Practically impermeable


classification

Fissured & weathered clays


Soil type Gravels Clean Intact clays
sands Very fine or
silty sands

Permeability of main soil types

PROCEDURAL STAGES

PREPARE PREPARE PLACE SPECIMEN IN


APPARATUS SPECIMENS CELL

CONNECT SATURATE AND ASSEMBLE AND


AND RUN DE-AIR SPECIMEN CONNECT CELL
TEST

DISMANTLE CALCULATE AND


APPARATUS REPORT RESULTS

Calibration of manometer tube (Falling head)


If the area of cross-section, a, is not known then this can be determined as follows;

Fill the tube up to a known level, h1, in mm, then run off water into a weighed beaker until the level has fallen
about 500 mm.

Record the new water level, h2, in the tube.

Determine the mass of water, mw, run from the tube to the nearest 0,01 g.

Calculate the cross-sectional area, a, in mm2, from the following;

1000 mw / (h1 h2)

Repeat the procedure twice more and calculate the mean value as a, in mm2. Use this value in the calculation of k.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

PREPARE Prior to testing all apparatus should be cleaned, assembled and tested for compliance.
APPARATUS Essentially the apparatus can be divided into two separate parts;

The permeability cell The measuring system

The permeability cell


The permeability cell is formed from two clear plastic tubes; a top plate, perforated base and valve assemblies.

Permeability cell
De-airing valve

From manometer tube

Top plate with sealing ring

Upper chamber

Tie rods

Sealing ring

Lower chamber

Perforated base and sealing ring

Retaining spring

Outflow

Porous discs

When assembling, tighten the tie bolts


Ensure sealing rings are clean and free from grit. systematically such that an even tightness all
Apply a thin smear of silicone vacuum grease. round is applied. Only finger tightening should be
necessary to achieve a water-proof seal.
The measuring system
This comprises a 100 mL burette for falling head tests; a constant head funnel; measuring rule; support rods and
clamps with connecting tubing.

A maximum head of 550 mm for constant head tests and 1000 mm for falling head tests can be applied using the
system.
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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Falling head system


Downward flow Upward flow

Burette and
measuring
ho
rule
ho

h1 De-air De-air h1

V2

V3

Ls

V1

Constant head system


Downward flow Upward flow

Water in Water in
h
Drain h
De-air De-air

Ls

Both systems permit measurement of permeability using either downward or upward flow as shown above.

Water

If distilled or deionised water is not available in sufficient quantity, potable (tap) water which has been freshly
boiled and allowed to cool to room temperature may be used.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Initial sample preparation


Falling head

Undisturbed samples of the same diameter as the cell require no special preparation. Block samples and samples
of a larger diameter than the cell should be trimmed to size using a soil lathe.

Samples to be compacted should be cut into small pieces and the moisture content adjusted to that required for the
test then thoroughly remixed and stored for 24 h to homogenize the sample.

Constant head

Samples should be air-dried and particles larger than 5 mm removed by sieving.

For compacted specimens; take sufficient air-dried material for each test, ma, in g, and determine the moisture
content, wa, in % for each portion.

Adjust the moisture content to that required for the test, wp, in %, as follows;

Amount of water to be added = [(wp wa) / (100 + wa)] ma (in ml)

For specimens formed under water; calculate the dry mass from the air-dried moisture content.

Mix thoroughly with de-aired water and submerge under water. Boil for 15 m to remove air and allow to cool.

Assembly of cell and specimen Falling head


Measure the internal diameter of the cell at 3 different points and record the average diameter to the
nearest 0,5 mm (D).

Calculate the area of cross-section, A, in mm2, of the sample from the following:-

( D2) / 4

Check the sealing rings are in good condition and lightly coat them with silicone grease.

Boil the porous discs in distilled or deionised water for at least 15 min to remove the air from the pores. Allow to
cool and keep under water until required for the test.

Place a saturated porous disc on the cell base and fit the lower cell body.

For an undisturbed specimen; trim the ends parallel to the vertical axis so that the specimen when placed in the
cell body is about 20 mm below the upper rim. From the trimmings, take a sample for moisture content
determination.

Determine the mass of the specimen, m2, to the nearest 0,1 g then place it into the lower cell body.

Fill any cavities between the cell wall and the specimen with a fine mix of the soil or plasticine. This is important
as no water should be able to pass freely between the cell wall and the specimen.

Remove the upper halves of the tie rods and place a saturated porous disc on the specimen.

Place the retaining spring on the upper porous disc; fit the cell top tightening the tie rods to ensure a leak free seal.

Measure the length of the specimen, at 3 different points, and record the average length, Lo, to the nearest 0,5 mm.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

For a compacted specimen; from the bulk sample take a representative sample of about 1000 g and adjust the
moisture content to that required for the test. Determine the mass, m1, of the adjusted portion to the nearest 0,1 g.

From the adjusted portion, form a specimen in the lower cell body by compacting in layers about 15 mm thick
with a tamping rod.

Place the soil such that a homogenous specimen at the required density or voids ratio is obtained.

Tamp each layer with a controlled number of blows with the tamping rod distributing the blows evenly across the
surface of each layer. Level the surface of each layer and lightly scarify prior to placing the next layer.

When the specimen is about 20 mm below the upper rim, remove the upper halves of the tie rods and place a
saturated porous disc on the specimen.

Place the retaining spring on the upper porous disc; fit the cell top tightening the tie rods to ensure a leak free seal.

Measure the length of the specimen, at 3 different points, and record the average length, Lo, to the nearest 0,5 mm.

Determine the mass of the adjusted portion remaining and calculate the mass of soil used, m2, in g, to form the
specimen. From the remaining portion, take a sample for moisture content determination.

Note
The appropriate number of blows should be determined by trial and error.

Assembly of cell and specimen Constant head


Measure the internal diameter of the cell at 3 different points and record the average diameter to the
nearest 0,5 mm (D).

Calculate the area of cross-section, A, in mm2, of the sample from the following:-

( D2) / 4

Check the sealing rings are in good condition and lightly coat them with silicone grease.

Boil the porous discs in distilled or deionised water for at least 15 min to remove the air from the pores. Allow to
cool and keep under water until required for the test.

Place a saturated porous disc on the cell base and fit the lower cell body.

When pouring under water is used, assemble both parts of the cell body on the base.

Hand tamping; from the prepared sample take a representative portion of about 1000 g and determine its mass,
m1, to the nearest 0,1 g.

From this representative portion, form a specimen in the lower cell body by compacting in layers about 15 mm
thick with a tamping rod.

Place the soil such that a homogenous specimen at the required density or voids ratio is obtained.

Tamp each layer with a controlled number of blows with the tamping rod distributing the blows evenly across the
surface of each layer. Level the surface of each layer and lightly scarify prior to placing the next layer.

When the specimen is about 20 mm below the upper rim, fit a sealing ring and the upper cell body and continue
placing the soil in layers until the specimen is about 20 mm below the upper rim.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Place a saturated porous disc on the specimen and with the retaining spring in place, fit the cell top tightening the
tie rods to ensure a leak free seal.

Measure the length of the specimen, at 3 different points, and record the average length, Lo, to the nearest 0,5 mm.

Determine the mass of the representative portion remaining and calculate the mass of soil used to form the
specimen. From the remaining portion, take a sample for moisture content determination.

Notes
The appropriate number of blows should be determined by trial and error.

Damp sandy soils should always be tamped as the loose density obtained without tamping will lead to an unstable
specimen when flooded with water.

Placing under water

Thoroughly mix the soil with de-aired water and place the mixture in a funnel fitted with a bung and a length of
flexible tubing.

Support the funnel such that the tubing is about 15 mm above the lower porous disc.

Connect a de-aired water supply to the lower control valve and allow water to enter the cell to a height of about
15 mm above the porous disc taking care that no air bubbles are trapped.

Remove the bung and allow the soil mixture to enter the cell raising the funnel so that the tubing is maintained at
the waters surface at all times.

The surface of the water shall be maintained at about 15 mm above the level of the soil by admitting more water
through the control valve.

Continue until the soil is at the required level.

This method results in a saturated specimen of uniform density in a loose condition. To maintain this condition do
not disturb the specimen or jolt the cell.

If a higher density is required tamp or vibrate the soil as it is placed.

Measure the length of the specimen, at 3 different points, and record the average length, Lo, to the nearest 0,5 mm.

Dry and determine the mass of the representative portion remaining and calculate the mass of soil used to form the
specimen.

Notes

Dry pouring is not included as the removal of air after inundation is difficult to achieve.

For all types of assembly it is very important that watertight joints are formed when preparing the assembly.
Apply a liberal coating of grease to the joints of the cell prior to assembly. This will assist in ensuring a
watertight seal is made. Failure to observe this requirement will lead to inaccuracies in permeability data
obtained.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Saturation
Connect a de-aired water supply via the burette or the constant head funnel to V1 with the head of water above the
level of V2.

Close V3; open V1 and V2 to allow water to flow upwards through the specimen.

With cohesive specimens, this saturation (soaking) process may take longer than 24 h.

If a vacuum source is available, connecting a low vacuum to V1 will speed up the process.

When water flows from V2 and saturation is deemed to be complete, close V2. and briefly open then close V3 to
fill the tube to V3 with water.

Measure and record the length of the saturated specimen at 3 different points, and record the average length, Ls, to
the nearest 0,5 mm.

Notes
The water level should rise slowly enough not to cause disturbance or piping in the sample. The rate of flow can
be controlled using the lower inlet valve.

It is absolutely essential that the specimen is fully saturated and all air is removed prior to continuing with the test
procedure. Failure to achieve full saturation will lead to inaccuracies in permeability data obtained.

If distilled or deionised water is not available in sufficient quantity, potable (tap) water which has been freshly
boiled and allowed to cool to room temperature may be used.

Test procedure Falling head


Downward flow

Connect the burette to V3 taking care not to entrap any air.

Fill the burette with de-aired water and raise the assembly above V2 to give a suitable head of water.

Connect a line from V1 to a suitable receptacle and with V2 closed; open V3 then V1 allowing water to flow
through the specimen until a steady flow is obtained. Close V1 and V3 and top up the burette with de-aired water.

Clearly mark a point, ho, about 10 to 20 mm below the upper level of water in the burette and measure the distance
from this point, in mm, to the outflow of the receptacle.

Clearly mark a second point, h1, some way down the burette and measure the distance, in mm, from this point to
the outflow of the receptacle.

Open V3 then V1 and start the clock when the water level reaches ho on the burette.

Stop the clock when the level reaches h1 and record the time, t, in min.

Close V1 and V3 and re-fill the burette above ho then repeat the test at least twice more.

Note

During each test run the time taken for the level to fall from h1 to ho should be the about the same for each
test + 10 %. If the difference is greater, reject the test and repeat.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Upward flow

Connect the burette to V1 taking care not to entrap any air. Fill the burette with de-aired water and raise the
assembly above V2 to give a suitable head of water.

Connect a line from V3 to a suitable receptacle and with V2 closed; open V1 then V3 allowing water to flow
through the specimen until a steady flow is obtained. Close V3 and V1 and top up the burette with de-aired water.

Clearly mark a point, ho, about 10 to 20 mm below the upper level of water in the burette and measure the distance
from this point, in mm, to the outflow of the receptacle.

Clearly mark a second point, h1, some way down the burette and measure the distance, in mm, from this point to
the outflow of the receptacle.

Open V1 then V3 and start the clock when the water level reaches ho on the burette.

Stop the clock when the level reaches h1 and record the time, t, in min.

Close V3 and V1 and re-fill the burette above ho then repeat the test at least twice more.

Test procedure Constant head


Downward flow

Connect the constant head funnel to V3 taking care not to entrap any air. Fill the funnel with de-aired water up to
the outflow and adjust the pressure of the incoming water to give a constant flow which will maintain the head
level. Raise the assembly above V2 to give a suitable head of water.

Notes
Control the rate of flow such that it is constant but not sufficiently strong to cause turbulence in the specimen.

The hydraulic gradient selected should initially be between 0.2 and 0.5 of the sample height. 0.5 being more
appropriate for finer-grained or denser specimens.

Connect a line from V1 to a suitable receptacle and with V2 closed; open V3 then V1 allowing water to flow
through the specimen until a steady flow is obtained. Close V1 and V3.

Measure the distance from the constant level in the funnel to the outflow of the receptacle, h, in mm.

Open V3 then V1; when a steady flow of water is running, place a suitable measuring cylinder under the discharge
outflow and simultaneously start the stop clock.

Observe the water flowing out and record if this contains any solid particles.

Measure and record the quantity of water collected (Q) over a given interval of time (t) or alternatively record the
time to collect a given volume of water.

Record the volume to the nearest ml; the time to the nearest second and the temperature of the water in the
discharge reservoir in o C. Close V1 and V3.

Take and record four to six more repeat readings spaced at about 5 minute intervals or until consistent readings
are obtained.

Measure the length of the specimen. If this has decreased due to collapse of the grain structure the voids ratio
relevant to the test should be calculated from this new length (Lc).

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Test procedure Constant head


Upward flow

Connect the constant head funnel to V1 taking care not to entrap any air. Fill the funnel with de-aired water up to
the outflow and adjust the pressure of the incoming water to give a constant flow which will maintain the head
level. Raise the assembly above V2 to give a suitable head of water.

Notes
Control the rate of flow such that it is constant but not sufficiently strong to cause turbulence in the specimen.

The hydraulic gradient selected should initially be between 0.2 and 0.5 of the sample height. 0.5 being more
appropriate for finer-grained or denser specimens.

Connect a line from V3 to a suitable receptacle and with V2 closed; open V1 then V3 allowing water to flow
through the specimen until a steady flow is obtained. Close V3 and V1.

Measure the distance from the constant level in the funnel to the outflow of the receptacle, h, in mm.

Open V1 then V3; when a steady flow of water is running, place a suitable measuring cylinder under the discharge
outflow and simultaneously start the stop clock.

Observe the water flowing out and record if this contains any solid particles.

Measure and record the quantity of water collected (Q) over a given interval of time (t) or alternatively record the
time to collect a given volume of water.

Record the volume to the nearest ml; the time to the nearest second and the temperature of the water in the
discharge reservoir in o C. Close V1 and V3.

Take and record four to six more repeat readings spaced at about 5 minute intervals or until consistent readings
are obtained.

Measure the length of the specimen. If this has decreased due to collapse of the grain structure the voids ratio
relevant to the test should be calculated from this new length (Lc).

Constant head tests at different hydraulic gradients


If a series of tests at different hydraulic gradients is required proceed with the test as described for downward or
upward flow repeating the test on the specimen at different gradients by either opening the control valve further or
adjusting the height of the water reservoir.

The hydraulic gradients selected shall cover the range of interest within the range of laminar flow.

Laminar flow is indicated when the relationship between rate of flow and hydraulic gradient is linear. Deviation
from the straight line at high gradients indicates turbulent flow.

Constant head tests for voids ratio permeability relationship


Where a relationship between the coefficient of permeability and a range of voids ratio is required carry out the
test as described for downward or upward flow but using different specimens of the same soil placed and
compacted at different densities.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY
Calculations
Falling head
Calculate the permeability, kT, in m/s, at the test temperature in o C, from the following;

kT = 3,84 (a Ls / A t) log10 (ho / h1) 10 5


where
ho is the initial hydraulic head difference in mm.

h1 is the final hydraulic head in mm.

a is the cross-sectional area of the manometer tube in mm2

A is the cross-sectional area of the specimen in mm2

Ls is the saturated length of the specimen in mm

t is the time in min.

Calculate the permeability at 20 o C by multiplying kT by a factor obtained from the temperature correction graph.

Constant head
Calculate the permeability, kT, in m/s, at the test temperature in o C, from the following;

kT = QLs / Ath or kT = qLs / Ah where q = Q / t mL/s


where
h is the distance between the constant head and the outflow in mm

A is the cross-sectional area of the specimen in mm2

Ls is the length of the specimen in mm

Q is the quantity of water discharged in mL

t is the time in s.

Calculate the permeability at 20 o C by multiplying kT by a factor obtained from the temperature correction graph.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Report
name of the testing organisation;
sample identification reference or number and location;
type of sample;
location and orientation of test specimens within the original sample;
visual description of the soil, including soil fabric and any unusual features;
comments on observed or inferred sample disturbance, including possible loss of moisture;
unavoidable variations from specified procedure, with reasons;
The report shall affirm that the test was carried out in accordance with this document;
whether or not de-aired water was used;
the method of preparation, placing and compaction;
the dimensions of the permeameter;
the dry density and if required, the voids ratio;
the coefficient of permeability to two significant figures;
if appropriate, the coefficient of permeability for other conditions;

Note. Examples of suggested data sheets and report formats are included in this document.

Apparatus
Permeameter Cell, upper and lower chamber with top cap, perforated base plate, sealing rings, tie rods and
connection fittings.

Porous discs, two discs with diameters equal to the internal diameter of the cell.

De-aired water reservoir, with connections for water supply, vacuum source and delivery.

Manometer tube or burette glass or other transparent material.

Overflow tank, with inlet and outlet.

Measuring cylinders, 50 mL and 100 mL capacity.

Thermometer with a range covering the likely ambient temperature during the test and readable to 0.5 oC.

Stop clock Readable to 1 sec.

Steel rule graduated to 0.5 mm

Internal Calipers

Notes
Quality assurance requirements specify that the equipment used shall be recorded and be within its valid
calibration period.
All apparatus should be clean, in good condition and comply with the dimensions specified.
Where a dimension or other specified requirement has a tolerance applied, this should be checked regularly for
compliance and a record maintained.
Where a dimension is specified with manufacturing tolerances or limits, it shall be an essential dimension.
Dimensions stated without tolerances are given for guidance.
For mass, the manufacturing tolerance shall be within + 1 % of the specified mass unless otherwise stated
Working tolerances apply to apparatus after being subjected to wear in use, and shall not exceed twice the
manufacturing tolerance unless other requirements are specified.

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Certificate No.
CERTIFICATE OF FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Date of Test Testing Organisation Name of Project

Sample Identification Sample Type * Sketch of specimen


Undisturbed/Compacted location in original
sample
Sample Description

Comments

Method of preparation Mass of sample m2


g
Specimen diameter D mm Length Lo mm Specimen area A mm2 Particle densitys Mg/m3
Length Ls mm
Moisture content % Bulk density Mg/m3 Dry density d Mg/m3 Voids ratio e = (s/d) - 1

Tube diameter mm Area of tube a mm2 Test temperature o


C Correction factor Rt
Test Initial head ho Final head h1 Test time t min Height ratio
No. mm mm min - sec r (ho / h1)
1
2
3
kT = 3,84 (a Lo / A t) log10 (ho / h1) 10 5 m/s
Run 1 kT = m/s Log10 ( r ) =
Run 2 kT = m/s Log10 ( r ) =
Run 3 kT = m/s Log10 ( r ) =
o
Mean kT at C m/s
o
Permeability (20 C) k m/s

Name of Tester
Signature of Tester

The tester certifies that the test was carried out in accordance with this document

Name of person responsible for testing Checked by Approved by


Signature of person responsible for testing

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Certificate No.
CERTIFICATE OF CONSTANT HEAD PERMEABILITY
Date of Test Testing Organisation Name of Project

Sample Identification Method of placing and compaction Permeameter No.


Tamping/Under water *
Sample Description Internal diameter D mm
Area A mm2
Comments Downward/Upward flow *

Mass of initial sample m1 g h mm


Moisture content w % Lo mm
Dry mass of initial specimen m3 = m1(100 / 100 + w) g Ls mm
Dry mass left after preparation m2 g Lc mm
Dry mass of specimen m3 m2 g Particle density Measured/assumed * s Mg/m3
Dry density d = 4000(m3 m2) / D2 Lo Mg/m3 Voids ratio e = (s / d) 1

Time from start Time interval Measured flow Rate of flow Measured Remarks
min (t) s (Q) mL (q) mL/s temperature oC

o
Rate of flow q mL/s Measured temperature C Temperature correction factor (Rt)
o
Permeability Permeability (20 C)
kT = (qLs / Ah) m/s k = (qLs / h) (Rt / A) m/s

Name of Tester

Signature of Tester

The tester certifies that the test was carried out in accordance with this document

Name of person responsible for testing Checked by Approved by

Signature of person responsible for testing

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Certificate No.
CERTIFICATE OF FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY
JTC/12/1
Worked Example

Date of Test Testing Organisation Name of Project


120103 JT Consultant Services Training
Sample Identification Sample Type * Sketch of specimen
21/3/4 Undisturbed/Compacted location in original
sample
Sample Description
Fissured grey clay GL

Comments 3m
Specimen formed from block sample

Method of preparation Mass of sample m2


Using soil lathe 400 g
Specimen diameter D Length Lo 63,5 mm Specimen area A Particle densitys
63,5 mm Length Ls 63,5 mm 3167 mm2 1,900 Mg/m3
Moisture content Bulk density Dry density d Voids ratio (s/d) 1
15 % 1,991 Mg/m3 1,731 Mg/m3 e = 0,10
Tube diameter 6,35 mm Area a 31,67 mm2 Test temperature 25 o
C Correction Rt 0,87
Test Initial head ho Final head h1 Test time t min Height ratio
No. mm mm min - sec r (ho / h1)
1 500 300 4,25 4,42 1,67
2 500 300 4,05 4,08 1,67
3 500 300 3,58 3,97 1,67
5
kT = 3,84 (a Lo / A t) log10 (ho / h1) 10 m/s
Run 1 kT = (5,43 / 4,42) * 10 6
= 1,230 * 10 6
m/s Log10 ( r ) = 0,2227
Run 2 kT = (5,43 / 4,08) * 10 6
= 1,331 * 10 6
m/s Log10 ( r ) = 0,2227
Run 3 kT = (5,43 / 3,97) * 10 6
= 1,368 * 10 6
m/s Log10 ( r ) = 0,2227
Mean kT at 25 o C 1,310 * 10 6
m/s
Permeability (20 o C) k 1,140 * 10 6
m/s

Name of Tester John Smith


Signature of Tester J. K. Smith

The tester certifies that the test was carried out in accordance with this document

Name of person responsible for testing John Turner Checked by Approved by


Signature of person responsible for testing J. M. Turner BCD KLM
120103 130103

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CONSTANT & FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY

Certificate No.
CERTIFICATE OF CONSTANT HEAD PERMEABILITY JTC/12/1
Worked Example

Date of Test Testing Organisation Name of Project


120103 JT Consultant Services Training
Sample Identification Method of placing and compaction Permeameter No. 12
21/9/4 Tamping/Under water *
Sample Description Internal diameter D 63,5 mm
Fine to medium light brown, silty sand
Area A 3167 mm2
Comments Compacted in layers, 10 blows per layer Downward/Upward flow

Mass of initial sample m1 1000 g h 300 mm


Moisture content w 2% Lo 140 mm
Dry mass of initial specimen m3 = m1(100/100 + w) 980 g Ls 140 mm
Dry mass left after preparation m2 10 g Lc 140 mm
Dry mass of specimen m3 m2 970 g Particle density Measured/assumed s 2,65 Mg/m3
Dry density d = 4000(m3 m2) / D2 Lo 2,21 Mg/m3 Voids ratio e = (s / d) 1 0,2

Time from start Time interval Measured flow Rate of flow Measured Remarks
min (t) s (Q) mL (q) mL/s temperature o C
2 120 39 0,325 25
4 120 35 0,292 25
6 120 34 0,283 25
8 120 33 0,275 25
10 120 33 0,275 25
15 300 79 0,263 25
20 300 78 0,260 25
25 300 77 0,257 25
30 300 76 0,253 25 Steady rate
35 300 76 0,253 25 of flow
45 600 151 0,252 25
o
Rate of flow q 0,253 mL/s Measured temperature 25 C Temperature correction (Rt) 0,87
o
Permeability Permeability (20 C)
kT = (qLs / Ah) 3,73 * 10 5
m/s k = (qLs / h) (Rt / A) 3,24 * 10 5
m/s

Name of Tester John Smith


Signature of Tester J. K. Smith

The tester certifies that the test was carried out in accordance with this document

Name of person responsible for testing John Turner Checked by Approved by


Signature of person responsible for testing J. M. Turner BCD KLM
120103 130103

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