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The Genizah Psalms

tudes sur le Judasme Mdival

Fondes par
Georges Vajda

Diriges par
Paul B. Fenton

TOME LVII

Cambridge Genizah Studies Series

Edited by
Siam Bhayro, University of Exeter
Geoffrey Khan, University of Cambridge
Ben Outhwaite, Cambridge University Library

VOLUME 5

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/ejm


The Genizah Psalms
A Study of MS 798 of the Antonin Collection

By
David M. Stec

LEIDEN BOSTON
2013
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In Memory of my Parents:

Jzef Marian Stec


26th March 19228th February 1970

Madeline Joyce Stec


3rd March 19259th November 2007
CONTENTS

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Abbreviations and Sigla. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
List of Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Hebrew Text and Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Analysis of Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


1. Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
A. Morphology of the Verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
B. Morphology of the Noun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
C. Use of Mater Lectionis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
D. Double Writing of Consonantal Ydh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
2. Features of Verbal Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
A. Ww Consecutive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
B. Hithpael Used in Passive Sense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
3. Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
A. Post-Biblical Vocabulary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
B. Words Used in Post-Biblical Senses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
C. Words Unique to the Genizah Psalms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4. Post-Biblical Phraseology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
A. Phrases Attested at Qumran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
B. Phrases Attested in Rabbinic Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
List of Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Index of Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Index of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am grateful to the National Library of Russia for granting me access to


MS 798 for the purpose of study within the Library, and to the Department of
Biblical Studies at the University of Sheffield for funding part of the cost of
my visit to St Petersburg. I am also grateful to the National Library of Russia
for providing a photographic copy of the manuscript, with permission to
include it in this book. I record my thanks to Siam Bhayro and Ben Outhwaite
for their assistance in obtaining this permission from the Library, and for the
help which they gave in the proofreading of this book.
ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGLA

1. Grammatical Terms and General Abbreviations

abs. absolute
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
concr. concrete
conj. conjuction
com. common
cstr. construct
demonstr. demonstrative
du. dual
edn edition
ed(s). editor(s)
Eng. English
EVV English versions
fem. feminine
fr. fragment
GnzPs Genizah Psalms
Heb. Hebrew
hi. hiphil
htp. hithpael
htpal. hithpalel
htpol. hithpolel
interrog. interrogative
intrans. intransitive
lit. literally
Kt kethibh
masc. masculine
MS(S) manuscript(s)
MT Masoretic Text
n.f. feminine noun
ni. niphal
n.m. masculine noun
ost. ostracon
part. particle
pass. passive
pers. person, personal
pi. piel
plur. plural
pl.n. place name
pol. polel
xii abbreviations and sigla

prep. preposition
pr.n. personal name
pron. pronoun
ptc. participle
pu. pual
Qr qere
rel. relative
repr. reprinted
sing. singular
sf. suffix
var(s). variant(s)
vb. verb

2. Scholarly Works and Bible Versions

AB Sir. Patrick W. Skehan and Alexander A. Di Lella, The Wisdom of Ben Sira: A
New Translation with Notes (Anchor Bible, 39; New York, 1987)
AHL Materials for the Dictionary. Series I. 200B.C.E. 300 C.E. (Academy of the
Hebrew LanguageThe Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language;
Jerusalem, 1988)
BDB F. Brown, S.R. Driver, C.A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the
Old Testament (Oxford, 1907, repr. 1953)
BHK R. Kittel (ed.), Biblia Hebraica (Stuttgart, 3rd edn, 1937)
BHS K. Elliger and W. Rudolph (eds.), Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Stutt-
gart, 1967)
Dav. Gib. J.C.L. Gibson, Davidsons Introductory GrammarSyntax 4th edn,
(Edinburgh, 1994)
Dav. Syn. A.B. Davidson, Introductory Hebrew Grammar: Hebrew Syntax (Edin-
burgh, 3rd edn, 1901; repr. 1964)
DCH David J.A. Clines (ed.), The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (IVIII;
Sheffield, 19932011)
DJD Discoveries in the Judaean Desert. For details of the individual volumes,
see List of Sources
Dr. Tenses S.R. Driver, A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (Oxford, 1892,
repr. 1969)
DSSSE Florentino Garca Martnez and Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar (eds.), The Dead
Sea Scrolls Study Edition (III, Leiden/Grand Rapids, 19971998).
FS Flusser and Safrai, see Bibliography
GK Gesenius Hebrew Grammar, ed. Kautzsch, 2nd English edn by A.E. Cow-
ley (Oxford, 1910; repr. 1970)
H Harkavy, see Bibliography
HDSS Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Harvard Semitic
Studies, 29; Atlanta, GA, 1986)
JPAP Geoffrey Khan, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic Phonology, in Alan S. Kaye
(ed.), Phonologies of Asia and Africa (Including the Caucasus) (I, Winona
Lake, IN, 1997), pp. 103113
abbreviations and sigla xiii

JPS Jewish Publication Society (1985)


MH M.H. Segal, A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew (Oxford, 1927, repr. 1970)
NEB New English Bible
NIV New International Version
REB Revised English Bible
RSV Revised Standard Version
RV Revised Version
TDOT G.J. Botterweck, H. Ringgren and Heinz-Josef Fabry (eds.), Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, 19742006)
W&OC Bruce K. Waltke and M. OConnor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew
Syntax (Winona Lake, IN, 1990)

3. Biblical Books
Gen. Exod. Lev. Num. Deut. Josh. Judg. 1Sam. 2 Sam. 1 Kgs 2 Kgs Isa. Jer. Ezek. Hos. Jl
Am. Jon. Mic. Nah. Hab. Zeph. Hag. Zech. Mal. Ps. Job Prov. Lam. Ec. Ca. Est. Dan. Ezr.
Neh. 1Chr. 2Chr.

Mt. Mk. Lk. Ac. Gal. Eph. 1Pet.

Sir. = Ben Sira

4. Rabbinic Works

B. Babylonian Talmud
Mish. Mishnah
Mekh. Mekhilta
Onk. Onkelos
PsJon. Pseudo Jonathan
Tg. Targum
TgCant. Targum of Canticles
TgJob Targum of Job
TgJon. Targum Jonathan
TgLam. Targum of Lamentations
TgPss Targum of Psalms
Tos. Tosephta

5. Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Texts

Siglum No Name/Description
1QH Thanksgiving Hymns (Hodayot)
1QLitPr 1Q34 Festival Prayers
1QM War Scroll
xiv abbreviations and sigla

Siglum No Name/Description
1QpHab Habakkuk pesher
1QS Community Rule
1QSa 1Q28a Community Rule
1Q39 1Q39 hymnic
4QAdmon 4Q370 Admonition on the Flood
4QapJosephb 4Q372 Joseph Apocryphon
4QBarka 4Q434 Bless, my soul
4QBarkc 4Q436 Bless, my soul
4QBarkd 4Q437 Bless, my soul
4QBat 4Q525 Beatitudes
4QBera 4Q286 Blessings
4QBerb 4Q287 Blessings
4QCatenaa 4Q177 Catena
4QCommMal 4Q253a Commentary on Malachi
4QDa 4Q266 Damascus Document
4QDc 4Q268 Damascus Document
4QDe 4Q270 Damascus Document
4QDibHama 4Q504 Words of the Luminaries
4QDiscourse 4Q374 Discourse on the Exodus /Conquest Tradition
4QDivProv 4Q413 On Divine Providence
4QFlor 4Q174 Florilegium
4QHalakhahA 4Q251 halakhic
4QHoda 4Q427 Thanksgiving Hymns (Hodayot)
4QHodf 4Q432 Thanksgiving Hymns (Hodayot)
4QInstrb 4Q416 Instruction
4QInstrc 4Q417 Instruction
4QInstrd 4Q418 Instruction
4QInstrg 4Q423 Instruction
4QJubd 4Q219 Jubilees 2122
4QMa 4Q491 War Scroll
4QMMT 4Q394399 halakhic
4QMystb 4Q300 Mysteries
4QNarrA 4Q458 Tree of Evil
4QpIsaa 4Q161 Isaiah pesher
4QPrFtesb 4Q508 Festival Prayers
4QpsEzeka 4Q385 Pseudo-Ezekiel
4QRitMar 4Q502 Marriage Rite
4QSefM 4Q285 related to War Scroll
4QSela 4Q522 Joshua Apocryphon/Rock of Zion
4QShira 4Q510 Songs of the Sage
4QShirb 4Q511 Songs of the Sage
4QShirShabba 4Q400 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice
4QShirShabbd 4Q403 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice
4QShirShabbf 4Q405 Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice
4QTime 4Q215a Time of Righteousness
abbreviations and sigla xv

Siglum No Name/Description
4QWays b 4Q421 Ways of Righteousness
4QWiles 4Q184 Wiles of the Wicked Woman
4QWorks 4Q392 Works of God
4Q408 4Q408 Moses Apocryphon?
6Q30 6Q30 unidentified
11QPsa 11Q5 apocryphal compositions
11QMelch 11Q13 Melchizedek
CD Damascus Document
MasShirShabb Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice
Xev/SeHymn Eschatological Hymn
LIST OF SOURCES

1. The Hebrew Bible

MTK. Elliger and W. Rudolph (eds.), Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Stuttgart, 1967).
1QIsaaM. Burrows (ed.), The Dead Sea Scrolls of St Marks Monastery (I; New Haven,
1950).
4QSamaAndrew Fincke, The Samuel Scroll from Qumran: 4QSama restored and
compared to the Septuagint and 4QSamc (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of
Judah 43; Leiden, 2001).

2. Ben Sira

The Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language: The Book of Ben Sira: Text,
Concordance and an Analysis of the Vocabulary (The Academy of the Hebrew
Language and the Shrine of the Book; Jerusalem, 1973).

3. Inscriptions

Graham I. Davies, Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions: Corpus and Concordance (Cambridge,


1991).

4. Rabbinic Texts

Rabbinic texts (except Targum) are either taken from AHL or given as quoted in
Jastrow.
For Targum a variety of sources have been used, including: Biblia Rabbinica (Venice,
15241525); Alexander Sperber, The Bible in Aramaic (vols. IIVb; Leiden, 19591973;
repr. 1992); David M. Stec, The Targum of Psalms: Translated, with a Critical
Introduction, Apparatus, and Notes (The Aramaic Bible 16; Collegeville, MN, 2004);
David M. Stec, The Text of the Targum of Job: An Introduction and Critical Edition
(Arbeiten zur Geschichte des Antiken Judentums und des Urchristentums, 20;
Leiden, 1994); Philip S. Alexander, The Targum of Canticles: Translated, with a
Critical Introduction, Apparatus, and Notes (The Aramaic Bible, 17A; Collegeville,
MN, 2003).
xviii list of sources

5. Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Texts

No Siglum Source
1QH DSSSE, 147204
1QM DSSSE, 112145
1QS DSSSE, 6999
1QpHab DSSSE, 1121
1Q28a 1QSa DJD, XXXVI, 536543
1Q34 1QLitPr DJD, I, 152155
1Q39 DJD, I, 142143
4Q161 4QpIsaa DJD, V, 1115
4Q174 4QFlor DSSE, 352354
4Q177 4QCatenaa DSSE, 362367
4Q184 4QWiles DJD, V, 8285
4Q215a 4QTime DJD, XXXVI, 178183
4Q219 4QJubd DJD, XIII, 4253
4Q251 4QHalakhahA DJD, XXXV, 2851
4Q253a 4QCommMal DJD, XXII, 214215
4Q266 4QDa DJD, XVIII, 3193
4Q268 4QDc DJD, XVIII, 119121
4Q270 4QDe DJD, XVIII, 141168
4Q285 4QSefM DJD, XXXVI, 232245
4Q286 4QBera DJD, XI, 1244
4Q287 4QBerb DJD, XI, 5060
4Q300 4QMystb DJD, XX, 100112
4Q370 4QAdmon DJD, XIX, 9097
4Q372 4QapJosephb DJD, XXVIII, 165197
4Q374 4QDiscourse DJD, XIX, 100110
4Q385 4QpsEzeka DJD, XXX, 1751
4Q392 4QWorks DJD, XXIX, 2744
4Q394399 4QMMT DJD, X, 4463
4Q400 4QShirShabba DJD, XI, 176196
4Q403 4QShirShabbd DJD, XI, 256292
4Q405 4QShirShabbf DJD, XI, 316393
4Q408 DJD, XXXVI, 303315
4Q413 4QDivProv DJD, XX, 169171
4Q416 4QInstrb DJD, XXXIV, 81141
4Q417 4QInstrc DJD, XXXIV, 151210
4Q418 4QInstrd DJD, XXXIV, 224474
4Q421 4QWaysb DJD, XX, 185201
4Q423 4QInstrg DJD, XXXIV, 507533
4Q427 4QHoda DJD, XXIX, 89123
4Q432 4QHodf DJD, XXIX, 213232
4Q434 4QBarka DJD, XXIX, 267286
4Q436 4QBarkc DJD, XXIX, 297305
4Q437 4QBarkd DJD, XXIX, 310325
list of sources xix

No Siglum Source
4Q458 4QNarrA DJD, XXXVI, 355365
4Q491 4QMa DJD, VII, 1244
4Q502 4QRitMar DJD, VII, 81105
4Q504 4QDibHama DJD, VII, 137168
4Q508 4QPrFtesb DJD, VII, 177184
4Q510 4QShira DJD, VII, 215219
4Q511 4QShirb DJD, VII, 219262
4Q522 4QSela DJD, XXV, 3974
4Q525 4QBat DJD, XXV, 115178
6Q30 DJD, III, 140
11Q5 11QPsa DJD, IV, passim
11Q13 11QMelch DJD, XXIII, 224241
MasShirShabb DJD, XI, 240248
CD DSSSE, 550581
Xev/SeHymn DJD, XXXVIII, 196200

DJD I D. Barthlemy and J.T. Milik, with contributions by R. de Vaux,


G.M. Crowfoot, H.J. Plenderleith and G.L. Harding, Qumran Cave I
(Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, I; Oxford, 1955).
DJD III M. Baillet, J.T. Milik and R. de Vaux, Les petites grottes de Qumrn
(Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan, III; Oxford, 1962).
DJD IV J.A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumrn Cave 11 (Discoveries in the
Judaean Desert of Jordan, IV; Oxford, 1965).
DJD V John M. Allegro, with the collaboration of Arnold A. Anderson,
Qumrn Cave 4, I (4Q1584Q186) (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of
Jordan, V; Oxford, 1968).
DJD VII M. Baillet, Qumrn Grotte 4 (4Q4824Q520) (Discoveries in the Judaean
Desert, VII; Oxford, 1982).
DJD X Elisha Qimron and John Strugnell, in consultation with Y. Sussmann
and with contributions by Y. Sussmann and A. Yardeni, Qumran Cave
4; V: Miqat Maae ha-Torah (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, X;
Oxford, 1994).
DJD XI Esther Eshel, Hanan Eshel, Carol Newsom, Bilhah Nitzan, Eileen
Schuller, and Ada Yardeni, in consultation with James VanderKam
and Monica Brady, Qumran Cave 4; VI: Poetical and Liturgical Texts,
Part I (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XI; Oxford, 1990).
DJD XIII Harold Attridge, Torleif Elgvin, Jozef Milik, Saul Olyan, John Strugnell,
Emanuel Tov, James VanderKam and Sidnie White, in consultation
with James VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4; VIII: Parabiblical Texts, Part 1
(Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XIII; Oxford, 1994).
DJD XVIII Joseph Baumgarten, on the basis of transcriptions by Jzef T. Milik,
with contributions by Stephen Pfann and Ada Yardeni, Qumran Cave;
XIII: The Damascus Document (4Q266273) (Discoveries in the Judaean
Desert, XVIII; Oxford, 1996).
DJD XIX Magen Broshi, Esther Eshel, Joseph Fitzmyer, Erik Larson, Carol
xx list of sources

Newsom, Lawrence Schiffman, Mark Smith, Michael Stone, John


Strugnell and Ada Yardeni, in consultation with James VanderKam,
Qumran Cave 4, XIV: Parabiblical Texts, Part 2 (Discoveries in the
Judaean Desert, XIX; Oxford, 1995).
DJD XX Torleif Elgvin, Menachem Kister, Timothy Lim, Bilhah Nitzan, Stephen
Pfann, Elisha Qimron, Lawrence H. Schiffman, and Annette Steudel,
in consultation with Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Qumran Cave 4, XV: Sapiential
Texts, Part 1 (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XX; Oxford, 1977).
DJD XXII George Brooke, John Collins, Torleif Elgvin, Peter Flint, Jonas Green-
field, Erik Larson, Carol Newsom, mile Puech, Lawrence H. Schiff-
man, Michael Stone and Julio Trebolle Barrera, in consultation with
James VanderKam, Qumran Cave 4, XVII: Parabiblical Texts, Part 3
(Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXII; Oxford, 1996).
DJD XXIII Florentino Garca Martnez, Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, and Adam S. van
der Woude, incorporating earlier editions by J.P.M. van der Ploeg, OP,
with a contribution by Edward Herbert, Qumran Cave 11 II. 11Q218,
11Q2031 (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXIII; Oxford, 1998).
DJD XXV Emile Puech, Qumrn Grotte 4; XVIII: Textes Hbreux (4Q5214Q528,
4Q5764Q579) (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXV; Oxford, 1998).
DJD XXVIII Douglas M. Gropp, Moshe Bernstein, Monica Brady, James Charles-
worth, Peter Flint, Haggai Misgav, Stephen Pfann, Eileen Schuller,
Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar, and James VanderKam, Wadi Daliyeh II: The
Samaria Papyri from Wadi Daliyeh and Qumran Cave 4; XXVIII: Mis-
cellanea, Part 2 (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXVIII; Oxford,
2001).
DJD XXIX Esther Chazon, Torleif Elgvin, Esther Eshel, Daniel Falk, Bilhah Nitzan,
Elisha Qimron, Eileen Schuller, David Seely, Eibert Tigchelaar, and
Moshe Weinfeld, Qumran Cave 4, XX: Poetical and Liturgical Texts,
Part 2 (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXIX; Oxford, 1999).
DJD XXX Deborah Dimant, Qumran Cave 4; XXI: Parabiblical Texts Part 4:
Pseudo-Prophetic Texts (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXX;
Oxford, 2001).
DJD XXXIV John Strugnell, Daniel J. Harrington, and Torleif Elgvin, Qumran Cave
4; XXIV: Sapiential Texts, Part 2 (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert,
XXXIV; Oxford, 1999).
DJD XXXV Joseph Baumgarten, Torleif Elgvin, Esther Eshel, Erik Larson, Manfred
R. Lehmann, Stephan Pfann and Lawrence H. Schiffman, Qumran
Cave 4; XXV: Halakhic Texts (Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXXV;
Oxford, 1999).
DJD XXXVI Stephen J. Pfann, Philip Alexander, Magen Broshi, Esther Cha-
zon, Hannah Cotton, Frank Moore Cross, Torleif Elgvin, Dorothee
Ernst, Esther Eshel, Hanan Eshel, Joseph Fitzmyer, Florentino Gar-
ca Martnez, Jonas C. Greenfield, Menachem Kister, Armin Lange,
Erik Larson, Andr Lemaire, Timothy Lim, Joseph Naveh, Dana Pike,
Michael Sokoloff, Harmut Stegemann, Annette Steudel, Michael
Stone, Loren Stuckenbruck, Shemaryahu Talmon, Sarah Tanzer, Eibert
J.C. Tigchelaar, Emanuel Tov, Geza Vermes, and Ada Yardeni, Qumran
list of sources xxi

Cave 4; XXVI: Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1 (Discoveries in the


Judaean Desert, XXXVI; Oxford, 2000).
DJD XXXVIII James Charlesworth, Nahum Cohen, Hannah Cotton, Esther Eshel,
Hanan Eshel, Peter Flint, Haggai Misgav, Matthew Morgenstern,
Katherine Murphy, Michael Segal, Ada Yardeni and Boaz Zissu,
Miscellaneous Texts from the Judaean Desert (Discoveries in the
Judaean Desert, XXXVIII; Oxford, 2000).
DSSSE Florentino Garca Martnez and Eibert J.C. Tigchelaar (eds.), The Dead
Sea Scrolls Study Edition (III, Leiden/Grand Rapids, 19971998).
INTRODUCTION

The subject of the present work is a document from the Cairo Genizah,
MS 798 of the Antonin Collection in the National Library of Russia at St
Petersburg. Its text was originally published more than a century ago by
A.A. Harkavy, who announced that he had found two pages of parchment
containing prayers and praises from
a man who apparently regarded himself as a prophet and messiah.1 Harkavy
evidently took the document to be a medieval composition, since he raises
the possibility that it could have been the work of David Alroy, the leader of a
12th-century messianic movement, or of the 13th-century cabalist Abraham
Abulafia, though he does also speculate that its author could have had the
name Abba Baruch.2
The most detailed study of MS 798 to date is that of Flusser and Safrai,
published in Hebrew, together with an edition of the text, in 1982.3 They
regarded it as a much earlier work, dating it to the time of the second temple.
Although this document has been available to scholarship since the beginning
of the 20th century, it is still not very widely known. I first became aware
of it when I began working on the Dictionary of Classical Hebrew in the
Department of Biblical Studies at the University of Sheffield, and was surprised
to find that no English translation had been published at that time. This lack
has since been made good, firstly in part with a translation of the first psalm
in an article by G.W. Lorein and E. van Staalduine-Sulman,4 and subsequently
by Azzan Yadin in his translation of Flusser and Safrais work, which includes
a rendering of the full text of these psalms into English.5

1 A.A. Harkavy, , ha-Goren 3 (1902), pp. 8285


(82).
2 From the first letter of each line coming after the acrostic arrangement of the first psalm,

which spell of Abba, and the first word of the final line, which is ( 1:272:3); ha-Goren
3 (1902), p. 82.
3 David Flusser and Shmuel Safrai, , in B. Uffenheimer (ed.), ,

Studies in Memoriam of Joshua Grintz, Teuda 2 (Tel Aviv, 1982), pp. 83105.
4 G.W. Lorein and E. van Staalduine-Sulman, A Song of David for Each Day: The Provenance

of the Songs of David, Revue de Qumran 85 (2005), pp. 3359 (3840).


5 David Flusser and Shmuel Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, in David Flusser,

Judaism of the Second Temple Period; Vol. 1: Qumran and Apocalyptism, translated by Azzan
Yadin (Grand Rapids, MI / Cambridge, UK, 2007), pp. 258282.
2 introduction

Flusser and Safrai named our document The Apocryphal


Songs of David,6 though this title is not altogether satisfactory, because
is a term used in 11QMelch 2:10 to refer to the canonical Psalms. Moreover,
the Songs of David from the Genizah do not directly claim to be the work of
David, and in them David is directly referred to only once (1:15), in the third
person. The Academy of the Hebrew Language describes the works in this
document as Apocryphal Psalms,7 and in the Dictionary of
Classical Hebrew they are known as the Genizah Psalms, the name that I shall
use in the present study.

The Genizah Psalms are written in what is essentially Classical Hebrew,


and consist of two pages set out in two columns, making up two complete
psalms, one almost complete psalm and about a third of another. Each
psalm (where the beginning and/or ending is attested) is preceded by a
title heading, and concluded by a benediction. The author sees himself as
a prophet, evidently identifies himself with David and writes in the style of
the psalms, even setting out the Tetragrammaton in its full form. He also
speaks as though he lives in the time of the temple: For I love the habitation
of your house more than any royal palaces (2:24). Such features led Flusser and
Safrai to the conclusion that this work is the remnant of pseudepigraphal
psalms attributed to David himself.8 They point out that there are also
Qumran psalms (evidently) attributed to David, in that 11QPsa includes some
apocryphal psalms alongside the biblical ones. More importantly, they suggest
that the Genizah Psalms are made up of some of the songs referred to in
11QPsa 27:211, a passage given the title of Davids Compositions by J.A. Sanders
in his official edition of this Qumran text.9 Sanders dates 11QPsa to the first
half of the first century ce,10 and if Flusser and Safrai are correct in what
they propose, the composition of the Genizah Psalms would have to predate
this.

6 In the English translation of their article, Azzan Yadin renders the title The Apocryphal

Psalms of David, but during the course of his translation he refers to these psalms as the
Genizah Psalms.
7 Materials for the Dictionary. Series I. 200B.C.E. 300 C.E. (Jerusalem, 1988), Microfiche,

pp. 5457.
8 Flusser and Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, p. 87 (Heb.); p. 264 (Eng.).
9 J.A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa) (Discoveries in the Judaean

Desert, IV; Oxford, 1965), pp. 48, 9193.


10 Sanders, The Psalms Scroll, p. 9.
introduction 3

11QPsa 27:211 reads:


2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
2. And David, the son of Jesse, was wise, and a light like the light of the sun,
and literate,
3. and discerning and perfect in all his ways before God and men. And the
Lord gave
4. him a discerning and enlightened spirit. And he wrote
5. three thousand six hundred psalms; and songs to sing before the altar over
the continual burnt
6. offering every day, for all the days of the year, three hundred and sixty-four;
7. and for the offering of the Sabbaths, fifty-two songs; and for the offering of
the New
8. Moons and for all the days of the Festivals and for the Day of Atonement,
thirty songs.
9. And all the songs that he spoke were four hundred and forty-six, and songs
10. for making music over the stricken, four. And the total was four thousand
and fifty.
11. All these he spoke through prophecy which was given him from before the
Most High.
Flusser and Safrai suggest that the songs of the Genizah Psalms might once
have been present among the literature of Qumran, and either were not
preserved or were removed from there.11 If so, they would be comparable with

11 Flusser and Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, pp. 8889 (Heb.); p. 265 (Eng.).

The authors also refer to a Syriac letter written about 800 ce by Timotheus, the Nestorian
Patriarch of Seleucia to Sergius, the Metropolitan of Elam. He reported that he had heard from
some trustworthy Jews, who had been instructed in the Christian faith, that some books of
the Bible and other books in Hebrew script had been found ten years earlier in a cave near
Jericho, including more than two hundred psalms of David. See Millar Burrows, The Dead
Sea Scrolls (London, 1956; originally published New York, 1955), p. 41. The Syriac text of the
letter was published together with a German translation by O. Baum, Ein Brief des Katholikos
Timotheos I ber biblische Studien des 9. Jahrhunderts, Oriens Christianus 1 (1901), pp. 300313
(304309). The finding of the manuscripts reported by Timotheus was first compared with the
discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls by Otto Eissfeldt in the October 1949 number of Theologische
Literaturzeitung. Flusser and Safrai speculate that copies of these works could have reached
4 introduction

the Damascus Document, which was found in the Cairo Genizah and also at
Qumran (and likewise fragments of the Aramaic Testament of Levi and the
Hebrew Ben Sira), except that no trace of our document was actually found
at Qumran. The main (and perhaps the only real) reason for identifying the
Genizah Psalms with the songs referred to in Davids Compositions is the
number given in the latter: songs to sing before the altar over the continual
burnt offering every day, for all the days of the year, three hundred and sixty-four
(11QPsa 27:56). This number, together with the fact that the three title
sequences in the Genizah Psalms are dated to consecutive days, on the
2nd, 3rd and 4th of Iyyar, are held to suggest that in these psalms we have a
mere fragment of a much larger document which originally contained a song
for each of the 364 days of the solar calendar.
Of course, we have no way of knowing how many psalms originally made
up the document partly preserved in the Cairo Genizah. But on a purely
practical level it might be observed that a document with 364 such psalms
would have been enormous. The extant text, consisting of two pages written
in two columns of 27 lines, contains only about three and one third psalms.
This means that a collection of 364 psalms thus written would have made up
a document of approximately 220 pages. This is much larger than any of the
Qumran texts (though none has been preserved in its entirety), and rather
longer than could be accommodated in a single leather or papyrus scroll. If a
document of this size had been present at Qumran, one might have expected
at least some fragments to have survived.
Other scholars have offered different explanations of the songs referred to
in Davids Compositions. Michael Chyutin turns to the contents of 11QPsa
itself for an explanation of these songs.12 He begins from the premise that the
redaction of the Book of Psalms is connected to the wars of the calendars,
and is found in two forms: the Qumranic Book of Psalms (as attested in part
by 11QPsa) based on the solar calendar of 364 days, and the traditional Book
of Psalms based on the lunar calendar of 354 days. In his view, this Qumranic
Book of Psalms presents a sample collection of Davids songs in calendrical
sequence: 25% of the psalms for every day, 50 % of the Sabbath psalms, all
the psalms for the New Moons and Festivals, and all for the intercalary days.13

the Cairo Genizah through the Jews of Jerusalem, but admit that there can be no certainty that
the psalms of David referred to by Timotheus belong to the same composition as that found in
the Genizah.
12 Michael Chyutin, The Redaction of the Qumranic and the Traditional Book of Psalms as

a Calendar, Revue de Qumran 63 (1994), pp. 367395.


13 Chyutin (p. 370) understands , translated by Sanders the stricken, to refer to the

four days that separate between the quarters of the year in the Qumran calendar.
introduction 5

Thus the Qumranic psalter consisted of 151 psalms: 91 psalms for every day
(i.e. 25% of 364), 26 psalms for Sabbaths (i.e. 50% of 52), 30 psalms for New
Moons and Festivals and 4 psalms for intercalary days. In 11QPsa the final part
of this collection has been preserved. At the end of the calendrical portion
was a prose conclusion, consisting of Davids Last Words (2Sam. 23:17) and
Davids Compositions. This is followed by another three psalms (140, 134, 151A,
151B), which Chyutin regards as additional, and suggests that they were not
included in the Qumranic Book of Psalms, because they describe the victory
of the Sons of Light over the Sons of Darkness in the future, as a unique and
non-calendrical event.14
A related but less elaborate view is proposed by Peter W. Flint.15 He also
believes that the key to understanding the structure of 11QPsa is the solar
calendar of 364 days and 52 weeks. He suggests that, although only 49
compositions are represented in 11QPsa, the original scroll contained 56. These
were made up of 52 psalms which correspond with the weeks of the solar year,
plus an additional 4 pieces that serve to assert Davids authorship of the entire
collection. The latter consist of Davids Last Words and Davids Compositions,
which together form an extended epilogue, and the autobiographical psalms
151A and 151B, whose function is to assert Davidic authorship of the 11QPsa
psalter.
Whether or not such explanations of the songs referred to in Davids
Compositions are judged to be any more plausible than their being identified
with the collection partly attested in the Genizah Psalms, it has to be admitted
that the evidence for what Flusser and Safrai conjecture (consisting of the
dates on consecutive days in the psalm titles) is really very slender. Moreover,
as observed above, the size of the document required by 364 songs presents a
real difficulty. It will probably never be possible to identify these songs with a
particular collection with any degree of certainty. If the Genizah Psalms have
any relevance to the works listed in Davids Compositions, perhaps it is not to
the songs ( )that are mentioned for the 364 days of the year (or those for
Sabbaths and New Moons, etc.), but as a sample of works that would fall into
the category of the 3,600 psalms ( )that David is said to have written.
It is true that the word never occurs in the Genizah Psalms, and we
cannot be sure what Hebrew word the author would have chosen to describe

14 Chyutin, The Redaction , pp. 381382.


15 P.W. Flint, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Book of Psalms (Studies on the Texts of the Desert
of Judah, 17; Leiden, 1997), pp. 172201; The Prophet David at Qumran in Matthias Henze (ed.),
Biblical Interpretation at Qumran (Studies in The Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature;
Grand Rapids, MI / Cambridge, UK, 2005), p. 163.
6 introduction

his work (he uses several words for liturgical song within these psalms: ,
, , , ) . But in 11QPsa 27:4 may be intended as a very
general term which covers a great variety of types of liturgical song, just as is
the case with its use as the name of the canonical Psalter.

A significant feature of 11QPsa 27:211 is the explicit association of David with


prophecy, found in the final line of this passage: All these he spoke through
prophecy ( )which was given him from before the Most High. David is
described as a prophet in the New Testament (Ac. 2:30),16 and likewise in
the Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 48b). Also in the Targum of Psalms David is
said to have sung a psalm in prophecy (18:1), to have spoken one in prophecy
(103:1) and to have prophesied (49:17). The Hebrew Bible, however, never
refers to David as a , nor does it ever clearly and unambiguously present
him as having engaged in prophetic activity, if by this one means anything
that might be represented by the verb .
It would seem, however, that the roots of this association of David with
prophecy are to be found in the Hebrew Bible itself. Sanders observes that
several of the attributes of David listed in lines 24 of 11QPsa 27 are found in the
account of Davids Last Words at 2 Sam. 23:17, a passage which immediately
preceded Davids Compositions in 11QPsa.17 In particular, we may note that in
line 2 David is described as a light like the light of the sun, and
compare this with the phrase like the light of the morning
when the sun rises at 2Sam. 23:4. We should also note that in line 4 God is
said to have given David a discerning and enlightened spirit,
and compare this with 2Sam. 23:2, where David says: the spirit
of the Lord speaks by me. Davids Last Words at 2Sam. 23:17 is apparently
the only example in the Hebrew Bible of a prophetic oracle attributed to
David, even though he is not called a , nor is the verb used here. This
passage opens with the words: The oracle of
David, the son of Jesse, the oracle of the man who was raised on high (RSV). The
word utterance, oracle is characteristically used of prophetic utterances,
and is found only in the construct state, almost always immediately followed
either by the Tetragrammaton or by a title for God in apposition with the
Tetragrammaton as nomen rectum. The only exceptions to this, out of a total
of 376 occurrences, are its use in connection with Balaam (Num. 24:34,

16 On the importance of 11QPsa 27:211 for illuminating the background to the description

of David as a prophet in Ac. 2:30, see Joseph A. Fitzmyer, David, Being therefore a Prophet
(Acts 2:30), Catholic Biblical Quarterly 34 (1972), pp. 332339.
17 Sanders, The Psalms Scroll, pp. 9293.
introduction 7

1516), David (2Sam. 23:1), Agur (Prov. 30:1) and apparently transgression
(Ps. 36:2), though there is some doubt about the text of this final passage and
some would remove by emendation.18 The four places in which is
used of oracles given by humans are remarkable not only for the position of
, preceding the words of the oracle in contrast to its normal position at
the end or in the middle of a prophetic speech, but also for the presence of a
stylised formula:
Num. 24:3, 15
2Sam. 23:1
Prov. 30:1
Neither Balaam nor David nor Agur are explicitly described as prophets
in these passages, but the use of , so closely tied to prophetic oracles
elsewhere, suggests that each of these persons is being introduced by this
formula as the bearer of the authentic word of God (note also at Prov. 30:1
the use of , another word often found in connection with prophetic
utterances). The reference to the Spirit of the Lord at 2 Sam. 23:2 is a further
indication that this passage is being presented as a prophetic oracle of David:
the Spirit of the Lord has spoken by me, and
his word is on my tongue (cf. Isa. 61:1; Ezek. 11:5; Mic. 3:8), though the Spirit of
the Lord might also be associated with a future Davidic ruler (Isa. 11:2). The
prophetic oracle is found in verses 3b7, and consists of two similes in which
just rule is compared with the rising sun and the effect of rain, a statement
about the enduring nature of the Davidic covenant, and a simile comparing
the wicked ( ) with thorns.
In the literature of Qumran David seems to have been regarded as having
had a prophetic function, even though outside 11QPsa 27:211 he is never
directly associated with prophecy. As Peter W. Flint points out, three pesharim
were written on the Psalms (1QPs, 4QPsa and 4QPsb), whereas virtually all the
other pesharim were written on prophetic books, which strongly suggests
that these pesharim on the Psalms associate David with prophecy or indicate
that he was viewed as a prophet.19 Whether or not Davids Compositions was
written by the Qumran community, its inclusion in the 11QPsa psalter shows
very explicitly that this community regarded him as having produced his
writings through the exercise of prophecy.

18 See, e.g., BHS.


19 Flint, The Prophet David at Qumran, pp. 165167.
8 introduction

The Genizah Psalms also provide an important witness for the association
of David with prophecy,20 and they agree with 11QPsa 27:211 in some important
respects. In 1:1416 it is said:
14
15
16
14. You prophesied by your spirit, according to the word of your servant, I have
brought near the end, and you will delay no more.
15. You swore from the beginning to David your servant, and anointed in your
mercy the root of Jesse.
16. You upheld his arm with your sanctification, because he established your
praise to the ends of the earth.
This is the only direct reference to David in these psalms. It should be noted
that although David is mentioned in close proximity to the verb to
prophesy, it is not David who prophesies, but remarkably it is God, who
prophesies by his spirit. As far as I am aware, this is the only instance in
Classical Hebrew literature of God being the subject of this verb. In the
normal order of things it is God who speaks and the human who prophesies
(Am. 3:8; cf. Jer. 23:21; 25:13), though the concept of God as giving a prophecy
is not totally alien to the thought of the Hebrew Bible, since at 2Kgs 9:25
God is the subject of the expression utter a prophetic oracle. In our
psalm, David is apparently regarded as the recipient of Gods prophecies,
and according to the word of your servant may suggest that
these prophecies were expressed by him (at least in a general sense) in
his psalms.
What the particular prophecy quoted in line 14 concerns is not clear. It
may be a loose allusion to Hab. 2:3, where the words , and pi. are all
present. is probably here used eschatologically to refer to the end-time, as
it sometimes does in the Bible (e.g. Hab. 2:3; Dan. 8:17; 11:35, 40; 12:4, 9). The
use of in this psalm might also be compared with Sir. 33:10 (EVV 36:10):
hasten the end and appoint the time, which is found in
a prayer for God to punish the enemies of the Jews, i.e. the Seleucids, and
the hoped for end is apparently the end of their rule of the Holy Land (see
AB Sir., p. 422). occurs about 175 times in the Dead Sea Scrolls, where it is
used in several senses (as in the Bible) but most typically refers to a fixed

20 A short paper (unpublished), with the title David the Prophet, which I gave to the Winter

Meeting of the Society for Old Testament Studies in 2007, forms the basis for much of the
material presented in this Introduction.
introduction 9

time or epoch, especially as predetermined (e.g. 1QH 9:24; 14:29; 1QM 10:15;
1QS 1:14; 4:16; CD 1:5; 2:9, 10; 4:10), which may be compared with its use in
several places in the Bible (e.g. Ps. 39:5; Job 6:11; Dan. 11:45; also Sir. 43:6).
Davids role as recipient of Gods prophecies may also be indicated, at least
indirectly, by the title sequences of the Genizah Psalms. He is not mentioned
in them by name, but, in the light of 1:1416, it is likely that he should be
regarded as the speaker.21 In the first two of these the speaker says:
, which can probably best be translated, I considered the vision
and all his prophecies. could be either a qal passive participle of or
(more probably) an irregular plural with suffix form of prophecy.22 If the
latter is the case, it is of particular interest that the word used in 11QPsa 27:11
in connection with David is also found in connection with him in the title
sequences of the Genizah Psalms. For although the word is frequent in
Targumic Aramaic,23 it is not at all common in Hebrew literature. It is found
just three times in Biblical Hebrew (Neh. 6:12; 2Chr. 9:29; 15:8; plus once in
Aramaic at Ezr. 6:14), and four times in Ben Sira (44:3; 46:1, 13, 20). In the
writings of Qumran, apart from 11QPsa 27:11, this word occurs only once in a
very fragmentary text in 4QNarrA 15:8.
However the form is to be explained, a more pertinent question
is, to whom does its suffix refer? The most obvious referent would be the
person who gave the prophecy (as suggested by the use of at 2Chr. 9:29,
and perhaps 15:8). If the prophecies referred to in the psalm titles include
what is described at 1:14 (where God is the subject of the verb ), it would
seem that the suffix in refers to God, remarkable though this may seem.
Apparently the in the psalm titles are a revelation, of which
the psalmist is the recipient, and the title of each Genizah Psalm indicates
that what follows is the response of the psalmist to this revelation on the
date indicated, his meditation upon it. It should be noted that neither the
David of 11QPsa nor the speaker of the Genizah Psalms is directly said to
have engaged in prophecy. David is said in 11QPsa 27:11 to have spoken his
compositions through prophecy ( )which was given to him from before
the Most High. But what exactly does mean? It could mean through
(the gift of ) prophecy, which David exercises and is therefore a prophet. Or
else, it could mean in accordance with prophecy given to him by God. This is
not quite the same thing. For although David is still the recipient of revelation,

21 For a detailed discussion of the title sequences, see the Commentary on 2:4b5.
22 See the Commentary on 2:4b.
23 Marcus Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the

Midrashic Literature (Philadelphia, 1903; reprinted New York, 1975), p. 867.


10 introduction

he is not the originator of the prophecy. If the latter is the sense of at


11QPsa 27:11, it is being used in essentially the same way as in the titles of
the Genizah Psalms, and likewise the occurrence of God as the subject of
at 1:14. In 11QPsa David is given prophecy which originates from God, and
composes his psalms and songs in accordance with this, and in the Genizah
Psalms the speaker and central figure (whom we can assume to be David)
considers Gods prophecies and utters his psalms in response to these. In
neither text is David called a prophet or said to have prophesied himself,
but in both he is regarded as the recipient of prophecy, and his work as a
psalmist is made possible by this. That David is spoken of in the third person
within a psalm regarded as his work is not a problem, as is seen from 2Sam.
22:51||Ps. 18:51.
The addition of the word in or by the spirit in the title sequence of
the final Genizah Psalm (4:16) recalls the link between David, the spirit and
prophecy, as observed above to be present in the first psalm (1:1416) and
Davids Compositions (11QPsa 27:4, 11). It may be tempting here to cite the
Targumic phrase spirit of prophecy as providing a parallel for what
we find in these passages. According to the Targum of Psalms, the spirit of
prophecy is a means of revelation given to David (14:1; 49:16). Similarly in
Targum Jonathan words of David are attributed to a spirit of prophecy (2Sam.
23:2), or prophecy (2Sam. 22:1). Also at 1Sam. 16:13 some mss read: And Samuel
took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And a spirit
of prophecy from before the Lord dwelt upon David from that day forward;
other mss read spirit of might for spirit of prophecy.24 The
tradition about the spirit of prophecy here recalls the words of Josephus: But
the Divine Power departed from Saul, and removed to David; who, upon this
removal of the Divine Spirit to him, began to prophesy (Antiquities VI 8:2).25 But,
as far as the Targum is concerned, there is nothing very remarkable about any
reference to the spirit of prophecy in connection with David. For this is a fairly
frequent term in targum tradition as a whole, and might be considered to be
equivalent to holy spirit.26 In many cases where we find spirit of prophecy,

24 Alexander Sperber, The Bible in Aramaic (Leiden, 19591973; repr. 1992), II, p. 125; Eveline

van Staalduine-Sulman, The Targum of Samuel (Studies in the Aramaic Interpretation of


Scripture, 1; Leiden, 2002), pp. 340341.
25 William Whiston, The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus (London, 1848), p. 165.
26 See Philip S. Alexander, The Targum of Canticles: Translated, with a Critical Introduction,

Apparatus, and Notes (The Aramaic Bible, 17A; Collegeville, 2003), p. 109, n. 77; also J.P. Schfer,
Die Termini Heiliger Geist und Geist der Prophetie in den Targumim und das Verhltnis
der Targumim zueinander, Vetus Testamentum 20 (1970), pp. 304314.
introduction 11

the word is present in the Hebrew text, and the Targum specifies this as
the spirit of prophecy.27 Elsewhere spirit of prophecy is used as a rendering
for hand of the Lord in the Hebrew original,28 or else the Targum gives an
expansive paraphrase of the Hebrew original, and spirit of prophecy is one
element of this, or it is an insertion into a translation that is otherwise mainly
literal.29
In 11QPsa 27:23 David is said to have been wise (), and a light ( )like
the light of the sun, and literate and discerning ( )and perfect in all his ways
before God and men. This recalls what is said about, or by, the figure behind
the Genizah Psalms: You have given your mighty wisdom ( ) to your
servant, surely he has understanding ( )of them all, according to the desires
of your will (1:6); He (God) has increased wisdom and understanding (
)in his (servants) heart (4:7); His (Gods) knowledge and wisdom (
)are in all my heart (4:19); By your might you have made me the light
( )of the nations (2:8). All this lends support to the assumption that David is
both the speaker in the title sequences and the central figure throughout the
Genizah Psalms, and it suggests that Davids Compositions and the Genizah
Psalms have much in common in their understanding of David.
Much of what is said about the central figure behind the Genizah Psalms
may be taken to support his identification with David. In the first psalm, the
only one to mention him directly, David occupies a very exalted position. He
is described as Everlasting Pillar (1:17) and the Splendour of all the nations
(1:19), and when Ps. 118:22 is applied to him he is not merely the head of the
corner but the head over all the peoples (1:18); likewise, it is said of him, you
have made him king of all the peoples for ever (1:23). All this recalls what is said
of David at Ps. 89:28: And I will make him the first-born, the highest of the kings
of the earth. Likewise, when it is said, You have broken before him all the kings
of Midian (1:24), this may be suggestive of the reference to the day of Midian
at Isa. 9:3, where the victories associated with the reign of a future Davidic
ruler (cf. 9:6) are compared with the crushing of Midian in an earlier age.
What is said about David in the first Genizah Psalm is consistent with what is
said about the central figure elsewhere in these psalms. Thus he enjoys a
similarly exalted position in relation to other human rulers and the peoples

27 Tg. PsJon. Gen. 41:38; Exod. 35:21, 31; 37:8; Num. 11:17, 25, 26, 29; 24:2; 27:18; TgJon. Judg.

3:10; 1Sam. 10:6, 10; 19:20, 23; 1Kgs 22:24; 2 Kgs 2:9; Isa. 61:1; Ezek. 11:5, 24; 37:1; Mic. 3:8; Zech.
12:10[ms]; TgPss 51:13, 14.
28 TgJon. 2 Kgs 3:15; Ezek. 1:3; 8:1; 37:1; 40:1.
29 Tg. PsJon. Exod. 33:16; Num. 11:28; TgJon. 1Sam. 2:1; 2Kgs 5:26; TgPss 22:27; 45:3; 46:1; 68:34;

77:3; 79:1; TgLam. 2:9; TgCant. 7:2.


12 introduction

of the world. In the second psalm he says: Surely for the welfare of the world
you have placed me before you, and by your strength you have made me the
light of the nations. All the peoples ( ; cf. 1:23) shall tell of your glory, for
they shall see your righteousness by means of your faithful one (2:89). He adds:
The rulers shall be gathered together, and all the kings of the earth ( ; cf.
Ps. 89:28), the princes of the world and those who have dominion over mankind,
to see the mighty deeds of your right hand, and to consider the end of your holy
words (2:1011). In the third psalm, referring (presumably) to himself in the
third person, he says: He (God) has made his throne greater than that of all
princes, and made his strength greater than that of all rulers. And he has given
him all the desire of kings, and the wealth of nations and treasures of kings, the
daughters of kings as his glory, and the daughters of Jerusalem as the glory of
his kingdom (3:1416).
It is important to observe that this exalted position enjoyed by the figure
behind our psalms is preceded by his exaltation from a lowly status. He
describes this at the beginning of the third psalm in the following terms:
Blessed be he who makes poor and makes rich, and blessed be he who brings
low and exalts. For he has raised the poor one from the dust, and lifted [the
needy one] from the ash heap (3:1213). The latter part of this is based on 1Sam.
2:8a, which the psalmist behind Ps. 113:78 (assumed to be David?) evidently
applied to himself. The tradition about the humble origin of David (1Sam.
16:11; 18:23) later acquired a great deal of importance, as is evidenced from
LXX Psalm 151. It is of particular interest to note that the 11QPsalmsa scroll, in
which we find the account of Davids Compositions, also contains part of the
Hebrew text of Ps. 151.30 The references to the humble origins and exaltation
of the figure behind the Genizah Psalms found at 3:13 and 4:9, just as much
as the descriptions of his exalted position cited in the previous paragraph,
support his identification with David.
Further evidence for this identification with David is provided by the
association of the figure behind our psalms with song and praise. In the first
psalm it is said of David: By his mouth you have sanctified the Great Name,
and every day he recounts songs ( )of your might (1:22; cf. 4:25). Since
the Genizah Psalms are dated in their titles to consecutive days, and since
David is said to have recounted songs of Gods might every day, it might be
considered reasonable to conclude that these songs consist of the Genizah
Psalms themselves. Certainly, the figure behind these psalms has an important
role with regard to song. In the first psalm he says: All the worshippers of your

30 Sanders, The Psalms Scroll, pp. 5464.


introduction 13

name shall learn a song (), those who believe the word of your servant (1:8).
This is consistent with what we find in the second psalm, where he refers to
his mission to be the light of the nations (2:8) and the means by which the
peoples see Gods righteousness (2:9), and he speaks of kings and rulers as
gathering to see the mighty deeds of God (2:1012), and then describes his
own reaction to this, saying (of himself): The righteous one shall be glad when
he sees this, and rejoice before you with songs and praises (2:13). He adds: All
the inhabitants of the world shall learn from me, and turn to your way, and serve
you with faithfulness. And they shall come into your presence with thanksgiving,
with psalms and songs and praises (( ) 2:1415). Thus, as
in the first psalm, our psalmist is evidently the means by which others learn
song.
The use of the word servant to refer to the central figure throughout
the Genizah Psalms is yet another indication that he is to be understood
as David. The direct mention of David at 1:15 describes him as David your
servant, which recalls the fact that in the Hebrew Bible the word with
a pronominal suffix occurs in apposition with the name of David some 45
times. Elsewhere in the Genizah Psalms we have references to your servant 4
times (1:6, 8, 14; 2:21) and his servant 5 times (2:1; 3:7; 4:4, 6, 13), the pronominal
suffix always referring to God, depending on whether he is being addressed
in the second person, or spoken of in the third person. In view of the fact that
the figure behind our psalms speaks of himself as having been made the light
of the nations (2:8), a clear allusion to Isa 42:6 and particularly to 49:6, one
might ask whether his appropriation of the title of servant for himself is more
dependent on the use of this word in Deutero-Isaiah than in connection with
David. Certainly, he has drawn much upon Deutero-Isaiah in the second
psalm, especially in the concept of his having a mission to the peoples of the
world, and in his polemic against idols and their worshippers (2:1719; cf. Isa
42:8; 44:9 ff.; 45:16). But elsewhere in the Genizah Psalms he does not very
obviously draw upon Deutero-Isaiah. Moreover, our psalmists use of servant
seems to be more in accord with its application to David in the Bible than
with its use by Deutero-Isaiah both within and outside the so-called Servant
Songs. Thus in the Genizah Psalms is never found without a pronominal
suffix (unlike Isa. 42:19; 44:21; 49:5, 6, 7), nor is it ever used in connection with
Israel (as at Isa. 41:8; 44:1, 2; 45:4; 48:20; 49:3). Furthermore, the reference to
the covenant of his servant (4:13) may recall references to the covenant with
David at Jer. 33:21 and Ps. 89:4.
Of course, the question arises as to whether the David of the Genizah
Psalms is to be understood purely as an idealisation of the historical person,
or whether he is being presented as a future messianic figure, a fulfilment
14 introduction

of the hope inspired by such biblical passages as Hos. 3:5; Jer. 30:89; Ezek.
34:2324; 37:24. That the David of history is being referred to is suggested by
the use of past tenses (perfects) in the mention of David at 1:15 and in what
follows, down to the end of line 25. It is also suggested by the very phrase
David your servant. Yet even at 1:15 there is a hint that what is being thought
of is more than the David of history. For he is called the root of Jesse () ,
an allusion to Isa. 11:1, 10, a passage speaking about a future Davidic figure.
It is also to be noted that later in the first psalm, after all the past tenses in
connection with David in lines 1525, a change is made to future (imperfect)
tenses in line 26. Elsewhere, the central figure behind our psalms is spoken of
very much in future terms. His role as the light of the nations in the second
psalm (2:819) has already been mentioned. Through him the nations are
to see the righteousness and mighty works of God, to learn to serve God,
to magnify him and to do away with the worship of idols. Likewise, in the
third psalm, after speaking about the exaltation of this figure, with his being
raised from the dust and given a throne greater than that of all other rulers
(3:1216), it is said: All the worlds shall say, Happy is he! And all powers of
the earth shall bow down before him. And they shall trust in the Lord, for he
has done great things, and they shall no more go astray with vanity and error.
For they shall all know the Lord, from the greatest of humanity to the least of
mankind (3:1719). Thus the David of our psalms is both the David of history
and the David with a future mission for the peoples of the world. In the words
of Flusser and Safrai, Clearly, then, the Genizah Psalms cast David as a king, a
prophet, and a messiah in the end of days too, at which time he will cause all
of humanity to repent, returning them to the God of Israel and banishing
idolatry from the world. It would be artificial to separate the historical David
from the eschatological one, since the Genizah Psalms merge the two into a
single figure.31

The language of the Genizah Psalms is given detailed examination in


the section of this book devoted to the subject. The vocabulary used is
overwhelmingly that of Biblical Hebrew, and the phrases and images found in
these psalms draw heavily upon those of the Bible, as can be seen throughout
the Commentary. Our psalms do also have some features in common with
Mishnaic Hebrew, but do not seem to have been influenced by Aramaic.
This work could be a medieval composition deliberately written in a style

31 Flusser and Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, p. 96 (Heb.); p. 278 (Eng.).
introduction 15

intended to pass as Biblical Hebrew, or at least recall it. But this does not
seem likely. If it was intended as an artificial imitation of Biblical Hebrew, one
would have expected the Ww Consecutive to have been used, and the writer
would surely have taken greater care to have avoided the few non-biblical
words that he makes use of. On the other hand, the presence in the Genizah
Psalms of several phrases otherwise attested only in the literature of Qumran
strongly suggests that our psalms and the Qumran material arose in the
same literary environment. Features in common with Mishnaic Hebrew
might hint at a slightly later date of composition than that of the Qumran
literature.
Although allusions to biblical passages almost always suggest that the
author was using a text essentially the same as that of the MT, there are
just a few exceptions. At 2:19 in a quotation of Isa. 2:18 we find the plural
reading of ( where the MT has the singular ) , which is also read by
1QIsaa. At 3:13 the presence of the conjunction in , which is lacking in
1Sam. 2:8, does have some versional support (see BHS), and is also found
in some de Rossi mss. At 2:7 the reading may have the support
of LXX the afflicted bones, for MT the bones
which you have crushed in Ps. 51:10. Also at 4:3, an adaptation of Ps. 24:1, the
reading for MT is in agreement with the LXX. Of course, such
deviations from the MT could be attributed to our psalmist as deliberately
adapting the material for his own purposes, or even to the work of a copyist.
But they might also provide a hint that these psalms were composed in an
age before the text of the Bible had been standardised in the form as we now
have it in the MT. This would be consistent with an origin at about the same
time as the Qumran material. If our psalms display less deviation from the
readings of the MT than do many of the biblical manuscripts from Qumran,
this may in part be due to the fact that the only extant text of these psalms
is in a medieval manuscript, which may be the end result of copying over
several centuries, with copyists familiar with the MT making conscious or
unconscious corrections.
One feature of the use of biblical texts which our psalms do not have in
common with the literature of Qumran is that they display a knowledge
of the book of Esther. The clearest indication of this is to be found at 3:14,
where must be based on in
Est. 3:1. It is well known that Esther is the only book of the Hebrew Bible
not attested at Qumran, though it is impossible to say whether it is a mere
accident that no trace of this book has survived in the caves there, or whether
the community responsible for this literature deliberately excluded it. If it is
accepted that the Genizah Psalms arose in the same circles as the writings
16 introduction

of Qumran, the former may provide some indirect evidence to suggest that
the absence of Esther among the latter was not due to its rejection in those
circles.
The Tetragrammaton is written in full throughout the Genizah Psalms,
which Flusser and Safrai attribute to the wish of the author to write in the
name of a scriptural character, i.e. David.32 This feature may be another small
piece of evidence for an early date, and it is interesting that the copyist of
our manuscript has not felt the need to change it for reverential reasons.33
The scrolls of Qumran vary in their treatment of the Tetragrammaton,
some reproducing it in its normal Aramaic-Hebrew square script, others in
Palaeo-Hebrew script, and others representing it with dots.

The views of Flusser and Safrai about the early origin of the Genizah Psalms
have since been challenged by Ezra Fleischer,34 who argues strongly that this
work is a medieval composition:
1. Fleischer questions whether the headings of these psalms really do
suggest composition on successive days. The headings that have been
preserved do indeed date these psalms consecutively on 2nd, 3rd and
4th of Iyyar, but that which (presumably) belonged to the first psalm
is lacking. Fleischer observes that there is a change of wording in the
way in which the date is given in each of the extant headings. That
belonging to the second psalm begins , which is followed by
, while those which date each of the remaining two psalms
are worded and respectively.35 He
argues that the wording of the heading to the second psalm suggests
that it brings in for the first time a date that falls in Iyyar. This means
that the first psalm would have been dated to another month, in which
case the four psalms would not have had consecutive dates. This would
considerably weaken the case for identifying the Genizah Psalms with
the songs referred to in 11QPsa 27:211. Moreover, Fleischer points out

32 Flusser and Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, pp. 87, 100, n. 2 (Heb.); pp. 264265

(Eng.). But the authors acknowledge that this phenomenon is not definitive proof that the
author sought to attribute his text to the biblical period, and they cite the example of Sefer
Josippon witten in 953 ce, in which the Tetragrammaton is used, and the author did not deny
his own authorship.
33 Throughout his edition of the text, Harkavy represents the Tetragrammaton by .
34 Ezra Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems in Biblical Hebrew Style, Studies in Judaica,

Teuda 7 (Tel Aviv, 1991), pp. 199248.


35 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 208, n. 28.
introduction 17

that this Qumran passage states that David wrote 364 songs to sing over
the continual burnt offering every day, but not that he composed them,
a psalm a day, on consecutive days.36
2. Fleischer argues that the use of the Babylonian name of the month
Iyyar testifies of the author that he was not seeking to hide that he
was not King David, since it is certain that David was not familiar
with these names. Furthermore, the use of this name removes from
the Genizah Psalms any possible attachment to the sect of Qumran,
since the calendar of the sect was different from that of mainstream
Judaism.37
3. Fleischer points out that the author of the Genizah Psalms did not
make a great effort to imitate the style of the canonical Psalms. It is
inconceivable that he did not know that the canonical Psalms do not
begin with a title of the type that he placed at the beginning of his
psalms, and that there is no example of a canonical Psalm giving the date
of its being written. Likewise, he must have known that the authentic
psalms do not have fixed endings with a series of verses which begin
with , even if such doxologies are to be found at the end of the books
of the canonical Psalter.38
4. More significantly, Fleischer argues that several features of the Genizah
Psalms display the influence of the language and methods of the
paytanim. In this connection he cites the following:
a. Particular forms of words, that are otherwise unknown outside
paytanic circles, or unattested prior to the days of the paytanim:
,39 ,40 or .41
b. The doubling of lines beginning with the letters ( i.e. those
which have a different final form) in an acrostic poem is a feature
unknown in scripture, but is found in paytanic poetry.42
c. The mention of Midian and Kedar (1:2425), names which are well-
known in paytanic circles as appellations of the Muslim nations.43

36 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, pp. 209210, n. 32.


37 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 210, n. 36.
38 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, pp. 209210.
39 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 216, n. 59.
40 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 218, n. 68.
41 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 211, n. 37.
42 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 210, n. 34.
43 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 215, n. 54.
18 introduction

d. The use of reverse association is a paytanic method. The following may


be noted: , instead of ( 1:6);44 , instead of
( 2:21);45 , instead of ( 3:26; cf. 2:22).46
e. Also paytanic is the use of the adjectival construct, such as: ,
for ( 1:9);47 , for ( 1:10);48
, for ( 1:12);49 , for ( 1:21);50
, for ( 1:23).51
5. Fleischer also cites numerous examples of phrases which show that the
author was influenced by the language of the prayers in use at his time
(which Fleischer assumes to have been the Middle Ages),52 and these
include:

1:1
1:13
2:2
2:5
2:13
2:15
2:20
2:27
4:11
4:12
4:20
Indeed, Fleischer is of the view that the author of our psalms was more rooted
in the world of prayer than that of the rabbis. He also believes that the authors
intensive use of the language of prayer hints at his lateness, and it would be
difficult to place him before the tenth century.53 His overall conclusion is that
the Genizah Psalms were written, as already suggested by Harkavy, by some
medieval false Messiah or prophet, who preferred that his mystical prayers
reflect the archaic biblical style, rather than the paytanic poetics of his time.54

44 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 211, n. 40.


45 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 213, n. 46.
46 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 218.
47 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, pp. 121, n. 41; 218.
48 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 218.
49 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 218, n. 75.
50 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 218, n. 71.
51 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, pp. 218219.
52 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, pp. 216217.
53 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 221.
54 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. XVIII.
introduction 19

He does not dismiss out of hand Harkavys suggestion of David Alroy as a


possible author, but observes that there is no way to decide positively in
favour of this, and adds that the time of David Alroy was later than what
seems reasonable for the author of our texts.55
Fleischer raises the possibility that the author of our psalms might have
been of Persian origin or might have worked in the neighbourhood of Persia.56
As evidence, he cites the use in the first psalm of a word beginning with
)( to begin a line, for which the alphabetic acrostic would require
one beginning with , and he observes that the Persian language has no
equivalent for Hebrew , and so this is treated by its speakers as . He also
thinks that the dualism of 1:4 (But you have divided the world between darkness
and light, and between unclean and clean, and between righteousness and
falsehood) might display the influence of Persian religion.

The points made by Fleischer need to be taken seriously, particularly the


parallels that he finds with paytanic method and late liturgical usage. There
is, however, much that might be said in response to his arguments:
1. The question of whether or not the headings of our psalms suggest
composition on consecutive days is not of crucial importance here. It is
true that for Flusser and Safrai the consecutive dates in the three extant
headings were the main reason for identifying the Genizah Psalms with
the songs referred to in Davids Compositions. But even if Fleischer is
right that the wording of the headings hints that the first psalm had a
date belonging to another month, and therefore that the dates of these
psalms do not necessarily suggest that they should be identified with
the songs composed by David for the 364 days of the year, 11QPsa 27:211
does still provide evidence of a more general nature for the existence in
the 1st century ce of non-canonical psalms attributed to David, and also
for the association of David with prophecy.
2. Babylonian month names (albeit not Iyyar) are found in the Hebrew
Bible. Of course, critical scholarship must necessarily deny any knowl-
edge of these to the historical David. But Flusser and Safrai may be right
to point out that the author of our psalms would have been familiar
with these names, and to suggest that in view of their use in scrip-
ture he would not have regarded them as anachronistic in his work.57

55 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, pp. 222224.


56 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 224.
57 Flusser and Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, p. 90 (Heb.); p. 269 (Eng.).
20 introduction

Nevertheless, it has to be admitted that the lack of attestation of these


names in the literature of Qumran could be regarded as problematical
for the association of the Genizah Psalms with that body of literature.
3. That the Genizah Psalms do not follow the style of the canonical Psalms
very closely does not necessarily mean that their author did not identify
himself with David. One of the most distinctive features of the Genizah
Psalms is their association of David with prophecy. This is explicitly
stated in the only direct mention of David at 1:1415, and it is also
implied in the wording of the heading to each psalm, which presents
the psalm which follows as the response to a prophetic revelation from
God uttered by the psalmist on the date indicated. This David of our
psalms is neither simply the David of history, nor even the David whom
we might know from the canonical Psalter, but rather he is David the
psalmist with a particular role as one who conveys prophetic revelation,
and at the same time David the future messianic figure with a mission
for the peoples of the world. Since the author of the Genizah Psalms
wishes to present himself as David in this very characteristic way, it is
not surprising that his work differs in style from the psalms which we
find in the Bible.
4. The influence of the language and methods of the paytanim on the
Genizah Psalms is not a straightforward matter to assess, because so
much of what may be regarded as characteristic of their work has its
roots in scripture. The following observations might be made:
a. Fleischer is not able to attribute a great deal of the vocabulary of our
psalms to the paytanim. Of the forms that he cites, perhaps the best
example is . This precise form may be unknown outside paytanic
circles, but Classical Hebrew does have several other words from this
root (the total number of occurrences as given by DCH II and V is
shown in brackets): vb. be faint, menstruate (2), adj. faint,
menstruous (7), adj. faint (3), n.[m.] illness (2), n.m.
illness (2), and n.[m.] grief (1 at Qumran, but see Commentary
on 4:2; note that Mishnaic Hebrew also has n.m. grief ). Since
these words occur so infrequently in Classical Hebrew, it is difficult
to be certain that the language at this stage of its development did
not also have the form , and that this has simply not been attested
in its extant literature. Although forms like are to be found in
paytanic poetry, but not at Qumran or in works predating those of
the paytanim, there are some examples in the Bible of the loss of an
initial weak consonant in a verbal form (see Commentary on 1:7),
even if they might be textually dubious. Clearly the form is not
introduction 21

in doubt at 1:7, since a word beginning with is required here by


the acrostic arrangement of the poem. In view of the similar form
attested at 2Sam. 22:41 (though not as the initial word in the
verse) for ( as is read in || Ps. 18:41), there seems no reason why
such a form could not have been used in a text much earlier than
paytanic poetry, as indeed Flusser and Safrai remark.58 As far as the
form is concerned, I am not at all convinced that it is from
the word or , which Fleischer claims. As explained in the
Commentary on 2:4, I think it is most likely to be an irregular plural
with suffix form of prophecy.
b. So-called reverse association may be characteristic of paytanic
method, but it is not entirely unknown in the Bible. One might
cite such phrases as violent hatred, lit. hatred of violence,
instead of ( Ps. 25:19); pride of your strength, i.e.
your strong pride, instead of ( Ezek. 24:21).
c. Fleischer himself acknowledges that adjectival constructs are to
be found in the Bible.59 In fact, the adjectival construct is such a
well-established and important usage in Biblical Hebrew that the
following works on Biblical Hebrew syntax each devote a whole
section to it: Dav. Syn. 24, pp. 3234; Dav. Gib. 35, pp. 3234;
W&OC 9.5.3, pp. 148154.
5. Parallels between the Genizah Psalms and the language of prayer is
a matter that deserves more detailed study, but demonstrating the
existence of parallels is not the same as establishing priority. The
liturgical traditions that came to be formulated in the prayers might
well go back a long way in time and share common antecedents with the
poetry of our psalms, dating back to a much earlier age. Our sources are
too meagre to trace the origin, development and use of such traditions.
It is not beyond the realms of possibility that phrases already used for
liturgical purposes by the first century were taken up by our psalmist at
that time, and also found their way independently into the prayers used
in the early medieval period.
The arguments put forward by Fleischer for a medieval date are, therefore,
not as forceful as might at first appear. Nevertheless, the relationship between
the Genizah Psalms and the works of the paytanim is a vitally important
issue and merits further investigation. One of the aims of the present work

58 Flusser and Safrai, The Apocryphal Psalms of David, pp. 9091 (Heb.); p. 269 (Eng.).
59 Fleischer, Medieval Hebrew Poems, p. 218, n. 75.
22 introduction

is to provide a resource that can be used in future research. In this study I


do claim to make an exhaustive examination of all the factors that need to
be taken into account in arriving at a definitive conclusion about the date
and origin of the Genizah Psalms. I approach these psalms essentially from
the point of view of a Classical Hebraist, and my primary concerns are to
analyse their language and to look at how they relate to Classical Hebrew
literature as a whole, both biblical and non-biblical. The question of whether
the Genizah Psalms can properly be considered to belong to the corpus of
Classical Hebrew literature is clearly of some importance as far as the history
of the Hebrew language is concerned. This will probably remain a matter
of some dispute. My own view is that all the evidence is consistent with an
origin of the Genizah Psalms in about the 1st century ce, and that there are
no linguistic features that would suggest or require a date later than the 2nd
century. It seems likely to me that our psalms were composed in Palestine at
about the same time as, or slightly later than, the literature of Qumran. It is
my hope that this book will assist in making the Genizah Psalms more widely
known and more accessible to scholarly scrutiny.
PLATES
Column 1
Column 2
Column 3
Column 4
HEBREW TEXT AND TRANSLATION

Sigla Hebrew Text

[] Reconstruction by the editor because the manuscript is illegible or damaged


{} Insertion by the copyist as correction of original reading
() Erased reading
< Omission
AHL Academy of the Hebrew Language
FS Flusser and Safrai
FS* A reading in the text of FS which is due to editorial correction, and is marked
with an asterisk. Note that in such cases FS do not indicate what they
understood the original reading in the manuscript to have been
H Harkavy
H* A correction proposed by Harkavy in his Apparatus
x Next to a siglum indicates that the manuscript very clearly shows that the
reading given in the edition concerned is incorrect
Harkavys consistent representation of the Tetragrammaton by is not
noted in the Apparatus

Sigla Translation

* Indicates that the division into hemistichs as given in the translation is


contrary to that suggested by the layout of the manuscript
[] Editorial reconstruction
[] Damage to manuscript; no editorial reconstruction attempted
{} Insertion in manuscript, as correction of original reading
(( )) Erasure in manuscript
() Supplied for the purpose of translation
34 hebrew text and translation

Column 1

: 1
: 2
: 3
: 4
: 5
: 6
: 7
: 8
: 9
: 10
: 11
: 12
: 13
: 14
: 15
: 16
: 17
: 18
: 19
: 20
] [: 21

: *H FS 3
: Hx 4
: | Hx : Hx 10
: *FS 14
: Hx 17
: *FS* H 18
: | Hx ] : [ AHL 20
] [ :] [ AHL 21
hebrew text and translation 35

Column 1

First Psalm
1 The righteous one and the wicked one are revealed before you,
and you seek no human witnesses for them:
2 Judge of generations, and one who judges with righteousness,

knowing the ways of all living things:


3 You delight in righteousness and despise injustice,

and the boastful shall not take their stand before your glory.
4 But you have divided the world between darkness and light,

and between unclean and clean, and between righteousness and falsehood.
5 You have scattered from your people all the sons of strangers,

and cleansed your flock of unclean animals.


6 You have given your mighty wisdom to your servant;

surely he has understanding of them all, according to the desires of your will.
7 You have planted righteousness in the earth,*

and you have increased truth and justice in the worlds.


8 All the worshippers of your name shall learn a song,

those who believe the words of your servant.


9 Before all the earth they increase their almsgiving

and their good deeds, because they love with their heart.
10 You have directed their way to your commandment,

and made straight their might with all your wonderful works.
11 They shall worship your name for ever and ever,

and they shall extol your name to all eternity.


12 Who is there like your creatures, or who is there like your works,

or who is comparable to you for the greatness of all your deeds?


13 You have remitted and pardoned all our sins,

and in love you have made atonement for all our transgressions.
14 You prophesied by your spirit, according to the word of your servant,

I have brought near the end. And you will delay no more.
15 You swore from of old to David your servant,

and anointed in your mercy the root of Jesse.


16 You upheld his arm with your sanctification,

because he established your praise to the ends of the earth.


17 You named him Everlasting Pillar,

and Repairer of the Breach and Rebuilder of Ruins.


18 And the rejected corner-stone, which the builders rejected,

you exalted to be the head over all the peoples.


19 With a joyful shout you made him possess a turban and a crown,

and called his name Splendour of all the Nations.


20 You multiplied righteousness and justice in his days,

and peace and blessings without number.


21 All the chosen ones of righteousness shout for joy before you,

for they rejoice in a desir[able la]nd.


36 hebrew text and translation

: 22
: 23
: 24
}{: 25
: )(}{ 26
: 27

] : [ AHL FSx 22
:][ ][ AHL 23
:2][ AHL 24
H FS AHL : | }{ : H FS 25
)(}{ : | H, FS :2][ AHL 26
hebrew text and translation 37

22 By his mouth you have sanctified the Great Name,


and every day he recounts the songs of your might.
23 You have made his greatness the greatness of all the angels,

and you have made him king of all the peoples for ever.
24 You have broken before him all the kings of Midian,

and sunk into the depths all who hate his soul.
25 You have supported his right hand upon his sword,*

and strengthened his arm against all the mighty ones of K{e}dar.
26 His foot shall not slip, for he trusts in ((you)) / your {n}ame,

and his strength shall not fail, for you have helped him in love.
27 Happy is the man who trusts in your word,

for his face is never never put to shame.


38 hebrew text and translation

Column 2

: : 1
: : 2
: 3
: 4
: 5
}{ : 6
: 7
: 8
: 9
: 10
: 11
: 12
: 13
: 14
: 15
: 16
: 17
: 18
: 19
: 20

: | FSx : Hx 1
}{ : | H FS : *H 6
: *FS 11
: FS 17
: Hx 18
: Hx 20
hebrew text and translation 39

Column 2
1 In you my soul trusts; be gracious to me and answer me.
Blessed are you, O Lord, a God who answers his servant whenever he calls:
2 O my God, the Merciful, have mercy upon us.

Blessed be his glorious royal name for ever and ever.


3 Blessed be his glorious name for ever and ever.

Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting.


4 And let all the people say, Amen.

Second Psalm
In the month of Iyyar, on the second (day) of the month, I considered the vision
and all his prophecies, 5 and I prayed before the Lord, and said:
6 May your mercy, O Lord our God, be upon {the} flock of slaughter,
which the shepherds have slaughtered without sparing them.
7 Bind in your mercy the crushed bones,

and heal in your love the fractures of your heritage.


8 Surely for the welfare of the world you have placed me before you,

and by your might you have made me the light of the nations.
9 All the peoples shall tell of your glory,

for they shall see your righteousness by means of your faithful one.
10 The rulers shall be gathered together, and all the kings of the earth,

the princes of the world and those who have dominion over mankind:
11 To see the mighty deeds of your right hand,

and to consider the end of your holy words:


12 That all of them may know your might,

that your hand, O Lord, does these things.


13 The righteous one shall be glad when he sees this,*

and rejoice before you with songs and praises.


14 All the inhabitants of the world shall learn from me,

and turn to your way and serve you with faithfulness.


15 And they shall come into your presence with thanksgiving,

with psalms and songs and praises.


16 They shall magnify your glory within their camps,

and they shall know that you, O Lord, created them.


17 And all those who worship idols shall be ashamed,

because they acted as though they were wise with their graven images.
18 They shall no more worship idols,

and they shall never bow down to the work of their hands.
19 And the idols shall utterly pass away;

their desirable things shall perish for evermore.


20 But you will be magnified and sanctified by the mouth of all your works

from this time forth and for evermore.


40 hebrew text and translation

: 21
: 22
: 23
: )( 24
: 25
: ][ 26
][ : 27

: H FS AHL 21
: H AHL 22
: FSx 23
)( : *H* FS 24
] :[ AHL 25
][ : H FS 26
][] :[ AHL H FS 27
hebrew text and translation 41

21 For your servant shall tell of your wonderful deeds,


according to his strength and the spirit of his words.
22 For I have no joy in anything,

except your words and your glorious vision.


23 In your great mercies, do not hide yourself from me;

and do not slay me, for the sake of their love.


24 For I love the habitation of your house

more than all the palaces of kings.


25 The law of your mouth is better to me

than a million talents of gold.


26 The sanctification of your [w]ord is better to me

than any precious thing.


27 Your gracious commandments are better to me

than any precious [ston]es or pearls, the desire of kings.


42 hebrew text and translation

Column 3

: 1
: 2
: 3
: 4
: 5
: 6
: 7
: : 8
: 9
10
: 11
: 12
][: 13
: 14
: 15
: 16
: 17
: 18
: 19
: 20
: 21

: FSx 2
: * H* FS * | H : Hx 3
: | H FS : *] | H[ : [ ] H FS AHL 13
: H H* FS 18
hebrew text and translation 43

Column 3
1 Happy is he who finds honour in the desires of your will,
so for your sake thus will I ask of you:
2 And this is my desire above my every petition,

that I should live continually in your presence:


3 And (that) I should walk in your righteousness without iniquity,*

and pursue your truth all day long, as is pleasing in your sight.
4 Do not withhold my request from me,

but perform my petition according to the desires of your will.


5 I shall remain in them for ever,

that I may know all the paths of your righteousness.


6 Blessed be God who does this,

blessed be the one who performs all these things.


7 Blessed be he who has chosen his servant,

and fulfilled for me all the requests of my heart.


8 Blessed be his glorious royal name for ever.

Blessed be his glorious name for ever and ever.


9 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting.

And let all the people say, Amen.

Third Psalm
10 On the third (day) of the month of Iyyar, I considered the vision and all his
prophecies, 11 and I prayed before the Lord, and said:
12 Blessed be he who makes poor and makes rich,
and blessed be he who brings low and exalts.
13 For he has raised the poor one from the dust,

and lifted [the needy one] from the ash heap.


14 And he has made his throne greater than that of all princes,

and made his strength greater than that of all rulers.


15 And he has given him all the desire of kings,

and the wealth of nations and treasures of kings:


16 The daughters of kings as his glory,

and the daughters of Jerusalem as the glory of his kingdom.


17 All the worlds shall say, Happy is he.

And all powers of the earth shall bow down before him.
18 And they shall trust in the Lord, for he has done great things,

and they shall no more go astray with vanity and error.


19 For they shall all know the Lord,

from the greatest of humanity to the least of mankind.


20 For the Lord executes judgment throughout all the world;

one he brings low, and another he exalts.


21 He gives to whom he favours,

and causes the poor of humanity to possess an inheritance.


44 hebrew text and translation

: 22
: 23
: 24
)(: )( 25
: 26
: 27

:] [ AHL 22
)( : | H FS)( : H FS 25
hebrew text and translation 45

22 For in his hand is the soul of every living thing


and the breath of all flesh; to him shall they bow down.
23 Sing to him, sing praises to him,

tell of all his wonderful deeds.


24 Sing to his name at all times,

for glory and might befit him:


25 Because he has delivered from distress the soul of the one((s)) who love(s) him,

and from the hand of all evildoers the spirit of his loyal one((s)).
26 For he trusted in his name and in the glorious vision

and in his holy words and in all the ways of life.


27 We will worship his name for ever,

and tell of his might to all eternity.


46 hebrew text and translation

Column 4

: 1
: 2
: 3
: 4
: 5
: 6
: 7
: 8
: 9
: 10
: 11
: 12
: 13
: : 14
: 15
16
: 17
: 18
: 19
: 20
: 21

:}{ | AHLx : FSx 2


: Hx 3
: FSx 7
:][ | AHL : FSx 9
H <: 16
:][ AHL 19
hebrew text and translation 47

Column 4
1 For he heals the broken-hearted,
and binds up the bones of the crushed.
2 And he turns grief into joy,

and trembling and shaking into great confidence.


3 For to him belongs the earth and its fullness,

the world and all that dwell in it.


4 For from his presence he has commanded for his servant

splendour and honour and the glory of his kingship:


5 Because he delights in the welfare of his people,

and has sent the healer and healed their flesh.


6 And he has glorified his Law through his servant,

and the commandment of his word by means of his faithful one.


7 He has increased wisdom and understanding in his heart,

and the greatness of his sanctification is beyond measure.


8 Who resembles him, or who is like him,

he who has not forgotten the cry of the needy one?


9 But in his mercy he has remembered the afflicted and poor one;*

and I for my part, have surely remembered the might and strength of his rule
and the glory of his strength.
10 Night and day I will stand before him,

and bless his name for all his deeds.


11 May you be blessed and exalted (as) the Lord of all the generations,

may you be sanctified and glorified (as) the one who rules over all his works.
12 May you be declared as one, O my king, by the mouth of all who serve you,

judge of righteousness and arbiter of truth.


13 Blessed are you, O Lord. May God remember in his mercy

the covenant of his servant for ever.


14 Blessed be his glorious royal name for ever and ever.

Blessed be his glorious name for ever and ever.


15 Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting.

And let all the people say, Amen.

Fourth Psalm
16 On the fourth (day) of the month of Iyyar, in the spirit I considered the holy
vision and all his prophecies, 17 and I prayed before the Lord, and said:
18 Blessed (be he), for he has broken the wicked
and established the horn of the righteous.
19 And his knowledge and wisdom are in all my heart.

Surely you are the judge of righteousness:


20 And no false judgment goes forth from your presence,

but only truth and faithfulness.


21 You render to a person according to his ways,

and according to the fruit of his deeds you repay him.


48 hebrew text and translation

: 22
: 23
: 24
: 25
: 26
: ] [ 27

:] [ | AHL : Hx 22
: Hx 23

] [ :] [ H FS] [ AHL 27
hebrew text and translation 49

22 There is no deceit in any of your deeds,


nor is there falsehood in all your word.
23 The whole of your doing is altogether perfect,

and no injustice is to be found in your work.


24 You have increased your justice like a flowing river,

and caused your righteousness to sprout like seed that is blessed.


25 Happy is he that is worthy of your sanctification;

he shall tell of your glory every day.


26 My help is from your glorious presence,

that I may be able to remain for ever in your favour.


27 For [] today;

happy are they that keep your precepts.


COMMENTARY

1:1 . The expression is not otherwise attested in Classical


Hebrew, but is found several times in Mishnaic Hebrew (e.g. Mish. Tamid 4:2;
Tos. Baba Kama 7:9; Mekh. Pisa 7:24; 11:38; 16:60; Mekh. b. Yoai 12:13). The
equivalent is frequent in Targumic Aramaic (e.g. Onk., PsJon. Gen. 3:5;
Deut. 31:21; TgJob 23:10); cf. comment on at 4:4; our psalmist also uses
Hebrew phrases which appear to have equivalents in Targum tradition at 1:3
and 4:26.

1:1 . The preposition evidently means for, i.e. on behalf of, rather
than against. For seek for, cf. also the idiom frequent in Mishnaic
Hebrew seek mercy, i.e. pray, for (Jastrow, p. 1468).

1:2 . Although the participle of is often clearly used as a noun


judge, the preposition following indicates more of a verbal usage here. The
phrase [ ]with reference to God occurs at 4QShirb 10:10, and likewise
in connection with his activity at Ps. 9:9; 96:13; 98:9; cf. also Isa.
11:4. Flusser and Safrai (pp. 91, 103, n. 15 [Heb.]; pp. 270271, n. 13 [Eng.])
observe that is used in the mourning liturgy of the sages, and cite
B. Berakhoth 46b and Mish. Semakhoth 14:15. Note also in GnzPs the use of
the phrases ( 4:19), ( 4:12) and ( 4:12). See comment
on 4:12.

1:2 . The use of the preposition to introduce the object of is


attested only rarely: in the Bible (Ps. 31:8), at Qumran (e.g. 1QH 12:32; 17:910;
1QS 8:18; 4QInstrc 1.1:13) and in the Mishnah (e.g. Gittin 4:7). could be a
hiphil imperfect in form, but is probably a qal participle with plene spelling.
A similar plene spelling of a participle is to be found in ( 4:11); cf. also the
use of ydh as a mater lectionis in the first syllable of the participles ( 1:6),
and ( 3:20). For the thought behind this stich, cf. from
you is the way of every living thing at 1QH 7:25, and with
God is the judgment of every living thing at 1QS 10:18; similarly 10:17. For the
phrase every living thing/all living things, see also Gen. 3:20; Ps. 145:16; Job
12:10; 28:21; 30:23; Sir. 7:33; 40:1; 42:1; 43:25; 44:23; 46:20; 1QS 4:26; 9:12; CD 12:21;
4QDibHama 6:22. It seems to be used generally, as here, to refer to human
life, though it could also be used of animal life (Sir. 43:25; perhaps Job 28:21).
52 commentary

1:3 . The first letter of this word apparently stands for in the acrostic
arrangement of the poem. is a curious choice to begin a line where
one would expect a word beginning with . It is interesting to note that
at 1QS 6:11 we have an example of the noun spelt with a . This may
simply be a scribal error (elsewhere in 1QS the noun [ 3:17] and the verb
[ 9:24] are spelt correctly with ), or else it may be an indication of a
weakening of the guttural force of among some speakers (another example
of this is for at CD 3:10). If the latter is the case, the word in our psalm
may originally have been spelt , and later corrected to , whether
deliberately or inadvertently by a subsequent copyist. Qimron refers to the
weakening of the gutturals at Qumran (HDSS 200.11) but gives no examples
of weakening to . Geoffrey Khan draws attention to a similar situation
in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, where was occasionally weakened to ,
apparently under the influence of Greek (JPAP, p. 107). Fleischer (p. 224)
suggests that the use of to begin the present line might indicate that
the author was of Persian origin or that he worked in the neighbourhood
of Persia.

1:3 . The copyist evidently wrote , though Harkavy


reads , and Flusser and Safrai give this as a corrected reading. may
be an error for this, or perhaps for , i.e. spelt with mater lectionis,
though the word is spelt at 4:23. For contrasted with , see Lev. 19:15;
Ezek. 3:20. For the use of the same verbs as those in this clause in connection
with the related fem. noun , cf. 1QLitPr 3.2:45:
][and you reject them because you do not delight in injustice.

1:3 . This is a quotation of Ps. 5:6, with the


substitution of your glory for your eyes. Such a substitution might
have been motivated by a wish to avoid anthropomorphisms in the same
way that these are frequently avoided in the Targumim, though it should be
remembered that the Targumim are neither thorough nor consistent in this
regard. Thus at Ps. 5:6; 11:4; 17:2; 33:18; 34:16; 66:7; 139:16 the Targum retains
references to Gods eyes, whereas at Ps. 18:25||2Sam. 22:25 the Targumim
have before his Memra as an equivalent for MT before
his eyes. Of particular interest as far as the present passage is concerned
is Ps. 31:23, where for MT from before your eyes the Targum has
from before your glory. One wonders whether familiarity with
the Targum at Ps. 31:23 could have influenced our Genizah psalmist here. If,
however, avoidance of anthrophomorphism was a concern of his, he was as
inconsistent as the Targumist, since he was able to use of Gods eyes
commentary 53

at 3:3. in the qal can share its meaning with the hithpael, i.e. boast, or
with the hithpoel, i.e. act foolishly, insanely. Here the context in both the
canonical Psalm and the Genizah Psalm suggests arrogance.

1:4 . It is possible that was originally written


and that the definite article was lost by haplography. On the use of in
GnzPs, see comment on 3:17. We have here an obvious allusion to the account
of the creation in Gen. 1:4: . There are, however,
some small but significant differences: the order is reversed (darkness and
light rather than light and darkness), the prepositional use is different
( rather than , perhaps under the influence of Lev. 20:25; Ezek.
22:26; 44:23; interestingly enough in 4QWorks 1:56, alluding to Gen. 1:4, we
find the phrase ) and our psalm lacks the definite article.
What we have here is much more than a mere allusion to the creation. The
lack of the definite article suggests that what is being referred to is darkness
and light in general rather than the darkness and light which existed at an
early stage in the creation. Moreover, that these are being used figuratively
is suggested by the other categories referred to here, i.e. unclean and clean
and righteousness and falsehood. What is envisaged is a division of the world
into these distinctive categories, and such a division may be suggestive of
a sectarian interest. One cannot help recalling the writings of the Qumran
community in this respect. A particularly graphic account of the division
of the world into light and darkness, truth and falsehood is provided by
1QS 3:1721:





He created man for the dominion of the world, and appointed for him two
spirits in which to walk until the appointed time of his visitation; they are the
spirits of truth and falsehood. Those born of truth are in the abode of light, but
those born of falsehood are from the source of darkness. And dominion over
all the sons of righteousness is in the hand of the prince of lights; (and) they
walk in the ways of light. But in the hand of the angel of darkness is all the
dominion of the sons of falsehood; and they walk in the ways of darkness.

Cf. 1Enoch 41:8, where it is said that the Lord has created a division between
light and darkness, and has divided the spirits of men, and has established the
spirits of the righteous in the name of his righteousness (Sparks, p. 225). The
interest in light taken by the Qumran community can be seen at a glance
54 commentary

from the DCH entry for , by paying attention to the number of references
from Qumran texts listed under 7, light as representing goodness, hope,
salvation, justice, etc. (DCH I, p. 161). It is also worth considering that whereas
(according to an estimate in DCH I, p. 28) Qumran and related non-biblical
texts make up only 10.9% of the whole of Classical Hebrew literature as
against the 86.4% made up by Hebrew Bible, the former actually have a few
more references to light than the latter (135 and 121 respectively, according
to a revised edition of DCH I at present in preparation). Nevertheless, our
Genizah Psalms do not reveal anything like the same degree of interest in
light as we find in the writings from Qumran. Except in the present verse,
light is only otherwise mentioned at 2:8, where the psalmist describes himself
as the light of the nations. Moreover the thought illustrated by 1QS 3:1721
goes far beyond what we find in our psalm. It should also be pointed out
that the word translated falsehood in the quotation from 1QS is , which
in our Genizah Psalms (1:3; 4:23) has been translated injustice, whereas in
the present line the falsehood spoken of is , which is contrasted with
righteousness. Note, however, that our psalm has already made a contrast
between and in the previous line.

1:4 . The verb hi. is used with at Lev. 20:25 and 4QMMT
B5657 in connection with and , and with followed by and
at Lev. 10:10; 11:47 (both with the definite article); the phrase
also occurs at Ezek. 22:26 (most mss read with the article, but
there are also mss which lack the article); 44:23; and at CD 6:17;
12:19. It should be noted that in each of these six places the order is the same
as in our psalm: followed by .

1:4 . The contrast between righteousness and falsehood is


somewhat unusual, though it is to be found in the less than perfect parallelism
of Ps. 52:5: you love falsehood more than speaking
righteousness, and Prov. 12:17: he who speaks
the truth gives honest evidence, but a false witness utters deceit (RSV). It is more
usual for words from the root to be contrasted with those from the root
. Thus we find contrasted with wickedness at Ps. 45:8 and Ec. 3:16,
while the adjectives and occur together in some 81 verses of the
Hebrew Bible. In this regard one might also cite in particular 1QH 15:12:
to distinguish through me between the righteous and the wicked
one. It may further be noted that the phrase ][ occurs at
4QPrFtesb 1:1, and is attested at 4QCommMal 1.1:4. tends
to be contrasted a little more often with words from the root than with
commentary 55

those from . Thus is contrasted with at Jer. 9:4; Prov. 11:18; 12:19,
and with at Jer. 9:2; Ps. 119:86; Prov. 12:22. It should also be noted that
at 4:20, in the only other occurrence of in our psalms, false
judgment is contrasted with both and .

1:5 . There is here a wordplay between and .


The use of followed by the preposition is very unusual (the only other
biblical instance is in beyond at 1Kgs 14:15) and may be deliberately
ironic. It is much more usual for this verb (piel and niphal) to be followed
by ( in)to, among to indicate the place or direction of the scattering of Israel,
notably lands at Ezek. 6:8; 12:15; 22:15; 29:12; 36:19; Ps. 106:27 (similarly
of a scattering of Egypt at Ezek. 29:12; 30:23, 26), and nations at Lev.
26:33; Ps. 44:12; it is also used with the preposition to with wind (of
a scattering of Elam) at Jer. 49:36. Here, however, it is from ( )Israel that
foreign elements are scattered. Whereas in the Bible is often used of the
scattering of Israel or some other nation before its enemies, here those being
scattered are individuals from among the people of God. Who exactly are
these ? This is an expression unique to our psalm. While the participle
of is common enough in its meaning of foreigner, stranger, its only other
use in connection with is in the phrase strange sons at Hos. 5:7.
This may be a significant parallel, for it refers to internal enemies, apostates
from the Israelite religion, whose practice of the Canaanite fertility cult
threatens the very existence of Israel. Similarly, in our psalm may
refer to those who have adopted the religious practices of strangers, practices
regarded as alien to the true religion of the people of God. These are
perhaps to be identified with Hellenists, and and could allude
to some particular setback for them in the Hasmonaean period, though
it would be pointless to try to speculate as to precisely what this might
be.

1:5 . For pi. used of cleansing from idolatry, see


Ezek. 36:25; 2Chr. 34:3; it is also used of cleansing from foreignness ( ) at
Neh. 13:30, and sin at Lev. 16:30; Jer. 33:8; Ezek. 36:33; Ps. 51:4. is to
be found at Lev. 5:2 (cf. also 11:47). In the present context it is probably to
be taken as applicable to the same people as those referred to as in
the first half of the line. It may allude to their sacrifice of unclean animals
or to their failure to observe dietary laws, or it may simply be intended as a
derogatory term.

1:6 This line does not obviously allude to any particular biblical passages.
56 commentary

1:6 . This phrase is not attested in the Bible, though wisdom


and might are to be found in association at Isa. 11:2; Jer. 9:22; Job 12:13;
Ec. 9:16, and occurs at 1QS 4:3.

1:6 . This is the first instance of servant being used by our psalmist
to refer to himself, other instances being found at 1:8, 14; 2:1, 21; 3:7; 4:4, 6, 13.
The only other occurrence of in these psalms at 1:15 is with reference to
David, which is significant. It should be noted that is frequently used of
David in the Bible; DCH II in its entry for ( p. 421), notes some 35 cases
(excluding parallels) of being used in apposition with . It should also
be noted that is often used by David to refer to himself in the third
person, both in speech addressed to humans (e.g. 1Sam. 17:32, 34; 27:5; 28:2;
29:8), and when addressing God in prayer (e.g. 1 Sam. 23:10; 2Sam. 7:20; 24:10).
The use by our psalmist of to refer to himself may be motivated by a
wish to identify himself with David. It should also be pointed out that in the
canonical Psalms is frequently used by the psalmist to refer to himself
(e.g. Ps. 19:12; 27:9; 86:2; 119:17; in total some 29 times). Since the composition
of the Book of Psalms is traditionally attributed to David, this would support
the supposition that our psalmists use of to refer to himself is due to his
wish to identify himself with David. Two notes of caution, however, need to be
sounded. Firstly, / is often used by the psalmist in the Hodayoth to
refer to himself (1QH 4:11, 23, 25, 26; 5:24; 6:8 ([)], 11, 25; 8:18, 20 ([)],
22, 26; 13:15, 28; 15:16; 17:11; 18:29; 19:30, 33; 22:16). This may be due to a copying
of the style of the canonical Psalms, but whether or not this is the case, it
does provide evidence for the use of by the author of a psalm-style
composition to refer to himself, without any obvious intention of identifying
himself with David. Secondly, it will be seen later that our Genizah psalmist
sees himself in terms which recall the servant figure of Deutero-Isaiah (see
comments on 2:8, 13, 16), which may be an important factor governing his
use of . But this does not preclude the possibility that our psalmist is
combining in himself the figures of (the messianic) David and the servant of
Deutero-Isaiah, and indeed it seems likely that this is just what he is doing.

1:6 . Here at the beginning of a clause is used with its intensive


force, yea, surely (BDB 1e, p. 472; DCH IV 9, p. 388) rather than in its more
frequent sense of because, for, since the first clause is not intended to express
the consequence of the second.
The lack of a grammatical subject for the participle is a little difficult,
though in the context it is understood to be . See also 4:18 for an example
of a (passive) participle without a grammatical subject. The omission of a
commentary 57

personal pronoun which would be expected as the subject of a participial


clause is not unknown in Biblical Hebrew, and GK 116s gives several such
examples, though it comments, But these passages are all more or less
doubtful. It is often difficult to know whether the hiphil of should be
translated as understand or give understanding, i.e. teach. Elsewhere our
psalmist, described as , does seem to have a didactic function (1:8; 2:21).
But it is also the case that his wisdom and understanding are referred to (4:7;
cf. also 4:19). On the whole, it seems preferable to translate give understanding
or teach only where the recipient is expressed either as a direct object (e.g.
Isa. 40:14; Ps. 119:27; Dan. 10:14; Neh. 8:7) or by means of the preposition ( e.g.
Job 6:24; Dan. 8:16; 11:33). It should be pointed out that elsewhere with this
verb the preposition is often used (as an alternative to the direct object)
to introduce the object understood or taught about (e.g. Dan. 1:17; Sir. 4:11;
1QS 4:22; CD 2:14), but appears not to be used to introduce the recipient of
what is taught. Since no recipient is indicated here the meaning is probably
understand. To what then does refer, as the object of the thing understood
by the psalmist? This is far from clear. It might be the prophecies and things
seen in vision referred to at 2:4; 3:10; 4:16 (note the use of the word ). Or else
it might be the word or commandments of God in general (cf. also 2:22; 4:6),
as may be suggested by the following .

1:6 . The phrase is found also at 3:1, 4, and as at


CD 3:15. It is perhaps to be regarded as an elaboration of alone with
reference to the will of God. That the phrase refers to the things acceptable to
God, is clearly seen from the context in the CD passage:


His holy sabbaths and his glorious appointed feasts, his righteous testimonies
and his true ways and the desires of his will, which a person shall do and live
thereby.
Flusser and Safrai (pp. 9495 [Heb.]; p. 276 [Eng.]) draw attention to the use
of the equivalent of at Eph. 1:5 in
, which the RSV renders according to the purpose of his will.

1:7 . is qal perfect 2nd masc. sing. of , this highly


unusual form being used to provide for the acrostic arrangement. As Harkavy
observes, the employment of this form recalls the methods of the paytanim.
Fleischer (p. 218, n. 68) likewise states that no witness for a usage like this is
to be found until the appearance of the paytanic poetry, and so this could be
evidence for a late date. It should, however, be pointed out that there is also
58 commentary

an analogous form in the MT at 2Sam. 22:41, with for ( the reading


in || Ps. 18:41). GK 19i gives some other apparent examples of aphaeresis of
a weak consonant with a full vowel ( for at Judg. 19:11, for at
Jer. 42:10; cf. also for at Ezek. 17:5, and for at Hos. 11:3), but
regards them all as textual errors.
It is very unusual for to have an abstract object such as . This verb
normally has a plant or a place of planting (e.g. vineyard, garden) as object,
though it is also used figuratively, particularly of God planting his people (e.g.
Exod. 15:17; 2Sam. 7:10||1Chr. 17:9; Jer. 11:17; Ps. 44:3). It is used with law
as object at 4QDibHama 12.2:13, and the phrase plant of truth is
attested at 1QH 16:10, and ] [is reconstructed at 4QJubd 2:30 (cf.
also seed of truth, i.e. true seed, as object of at Jer. 2:21).
It is not clear how this line should best be divided into hemistichs. The
copyist has very clearly set out the division as coming after the word ,
and Flusser and Safrai follow this in their edition of the text, which Yadin
translates: You have planted righteousness in the land of truth, multiplying
justice throughout eternity. Harkavy also sets out the text as it is found in the
manuscript. But the phrase land of truth is not attested elsewhere,
whereas the combination is to be found at Ps. 111:7 (cf. also Zech.
8:16, where is probably to be deleted). Moreover, a parallelism earth /
world would be better than land of truth / eternity. It should also be noted that
there are a few other lines in which the copyist has placed a space at a point
which does not seem to be the most logical place for the hiatus between the
hemistichs (1:25; 2:13; 3:3; 4:9). In each of these cases our transcription of the
Hebrew text sets it out as the copyist has done, but the English translation
follows what seems to be the most satisfactory division of the stich, and an
asterisk has been placed at the point of division.

1:7 . There are no biblical parallels to this combination,


though is found as the object of hi. at GnzPs 1:20 and 4:24; the
latter passage is also related to the thought of the present line in that it also
speaks of God causing righteousness to sprout. It is possible that occurs
as object of hi. at 1QH 8:12, though the text is too fragmentary to be at all
certain of this.

1:7 . The parallel suggests a meaning of worlds rather than eternity,


as Yadin translates. See comment on 3:17.

1:8 The general thought behind this line is essentially that of 2:1315; see
comments thereon.
commentary 59

1:8 . This does not have any particular biblical parallel, but is based
on the strong biblical tradition associating David with song. The use of the
word servant is sufficient to indicate that David is being alluded to here
(see comment on 1:6). Several psalms which include in the title were
apparently attributed to David (Ps. 30:1; 65:1; 68:1; 108:1; 122:1; 124:1; 131:1; 133:1).
Davids compositional work is particularly underlined at 11QPsa 27:10, where
it is said that he wrote a total of 4,050 psalms and songs. In the Bible he is
credited with having invented musical instruments (Am. 6:5; Neh.
12:36; 2Chr. 7:6; cf. 29:27). He is also associated generally with the provision of
song and music in temple worship (Neh. 12:46; 1Chr. 6:16; 15:16; 2Chr. 23:18;
35:15; cf. 1Chr. 13:8).

1:8 . The use of as object of is to be found also at 1:11


and 3:27, and appears to be unique to our psalmist, though there are some
well-attested semantic parallels, most notably as object of pi. praise
(e.g. Jl 2:26; Ps. 69:31; 74:21; 113:1; 135:1; 145:2; 148:5; 149:3; Sir. 51:11; 1QH 20:3;
1QM 14:12; 4QInstrd 126.2:10; 4QRitMar 9:3; 11QPsa 19:8), pi. bless (Ps. 96:2;
100:4; 103:1; 145:1; Neh. 9:5; Sir. 39:35; 51:12; 1QH 10:30; 19:6; fr. 4:17; 1QM 13:7;
1QS 10:13; 4QBerb 3:1; 4QAdmon 1:2; 4QShirb 63.2:2), hi. give thanks to
(Ps. 106:47||1Chr. 16:35; Ps. 122:4; 140:14; 1QLitPr 3.1:6), pol. exalt (Ps. 34:4;
1QM 14:4; 4QShirb 35:6). is also used with reference to the name of God at
1:11, 11, 22, 26; 2:2, 3; 3:8, 8, 24, 26, 27; 4:14, 14.

1:8 . The words of our psalmist referred to here are


evidently those given under prophetic inspiration, and therefore convey the
word of God (see 2:2122; cf. 2:4; 3:10; 4:6, 16).

1:9 . Perhaps an allusion to Isa. 61:11b:


The Lord God will cause righteousness and praise to
spring up before all the nations. The theme of Gods planting of righteousness
has already been found in our psalm in the immediately preceding context
in line 7. The word song in line 8 might also allude to praise, song
of praise at Isa. 61:11b. If 1:9a is an allusion to Isa. 61:11b, evidently means
before, and is used in a similar sense to at 1:3, which is the only other use of
in our psalms, being chosen here because of the acrostic arrangement
of the psalm. In later usage developed more of a sense of opposite, contrary
to; but while it might be possible to translate as contrary to
all the earth, this seems too strong in the context, since the psalmist is not
making such an explicit contrast between the worshippers mentioned in
line 8 and the rest of the earth (even though some contrast is implied). For
60 commentary

earth in the sense of the inhabitants of the earth, see e.g. Gen. 11:1; 1Kgs
2:2; 10:24; Ps. 33:8; 66:4. But if 1:9a is an allusion to Isa. 61:11b, it is also a radical
reworking of that passage. It would be possible, with Yadin, to take as
qal with ( understood as plural) as subject, but it seems preferable to
take it as hiphil with ( probably singular) as object. Here the of
the worshippers evidently refers to almsgiving, and is the only such use of
this word in GnzPs. Elsewhere, is used of the righteousness of God (2:9;
3:3; 4:24), or of that established by God in the earth (1:7). That here
refers to almsgiving is indicated by the following phrase and also
by a comparison with Sir. 3:3031, which in MS A reads: As water quenches
flaming fire, so almsgiving ( ) atones for sin, and a good deed ()
will cross ones paths, and in the time of falling one will find support. Ben Sira
also uses evidently with reference to almsgiving at 7:10; 12:3; 16:14; 40:17,
24(Bmg).

1:9 . is probably used here as a conjunction introducing


a causal clause (DCH I 4c, pp. 432423). For , cf. at
Deut. 6:5; 13:4; 30:6.

1:10 . This is the only use of the polel of with as object, but
cf. the use of the hiphil of this verb with as object at Deut. 19:3; Prov.
21:29(Kt); 2Chr. 27:6, and the niphal with as subject at Ps. 119:5; Prov. 4:26.
It is to be noted that in the acrostic arrangement of this psalm the letters ,
, , and , i.e. those for which Hebrew has a final form different from that
used at the beginning and in the middle of words, are each represented by
two lines instead of one. Fleischer (p. 210, n. 34) points out that the doubling
of lines for these letters is also found in acrostic paytanic poetry, whereas
there are no such examples in the Bible.

1:10 . The noun is a most unusual object for pi., and you have
made straight their might does not seem to make much sense. It is possible
that their might is an error for their path. This would provide a
good parallel for , and it should be noted that occurs as object of
pi. at Prov. 3:6; 9:15.

1:10 . This phrase is not attested in the Bible (though cf. at


Exod. 15:11; Isa. 25:1; Ps. 77:15; 78:12; 88:11), but is found at 1QS 11:20; 1QH 15:32;
18:11; 19:4, which draw a contrast between frail humans and these ( cf.
Ps. 8:5, where the insignificance of humans is set against the heavenly bodies
as works of Gods creation). In all these passages from Qumran /
commentary 61

may be translated your wonderful works, and be understood to refer


to the works of God in creation. But some degree of personification of these
works may also be envisaged, and a translation of your wonderful creatures
may sometimes be appropriate (see especially 1QH 18:11). The plural of
also apparently means creatures at 1QH 19:24, and in the Songs of
the Sabbath Sacrifice it might to refer to the angels and spirits as the greatest
of Gods creatures (4QShirShabba 1.1:5; 4QShirShabbd 1.1:35; 4QShirShabbf
19:3). It should be pointed out that this use of does not mark a radical
departure from what is found in the Bible. There are at least two places in
the Book of Psalms which seem to suggest a personification of Gods works.
At Ps. 103:22 his works is used as subject of the imperative of pi.
bless, and is parallel with his ministers, his hosts and his
angels. Similarly, at Ps. 145:10 your works is subject of the imperfect
of hi. give thanks, and is parallel with your loyal ones. Thus the
use of the plural of in Qumran texts to refer to the works of God as
personified is only a development of what is already present in biblical
texts. There are good reasons for believing that our psalmist in his use of
to refer to the works of God sometimes envisages them as personified:
(a) the interrogative , which normally has a personal predicate is used
with at 1:12, as also at 1QH 18:11; 19:24, (b) the use of mouth in the
phrase at 2:20, (c) the parallelism of with generation
at 4:11. Throughout our translation works rather than creatures has been
preferred as a translation of , though it needs to be borne in mind that
our psalmist evidently thinks of these works as personified. Of course, it
hardly needs to be said that the plural of is frequently used in the Bible
(as at Qumran) to refer to Gods works of creation in general, without any
personification necessarily being implied, and the same may be sometimes
true in GnzPs.

1:11 . The same repetition is found also in line 27 of the present


column of our psalm, but is apparently not otherwise attested in Classical
Hebrew literature. The Genizah Psalms do, however, make use of other
phrases involving which are frequent enough in the MT: alone
(3:8), ( 3:5), ( 2:2, 3; 3:8; 4:14, 14), ( 2:3; 3:9;
4:15), ( 2:20).

1:11 . See comment on 1:8.

1:11 . This phrase is to be found at GnzPs 3:27; Isa. 34:10; Sir. 51:20(B);
1QH 15:3132.
62 commentary

1:11 . For as object of pol., see comment on 1:8.

1:12 . On the translation of , see comment on 1:10. The


reference is to Gods works of creation, and the use of the interrogative is a
clearer indication of the personification of these works than is found in any
of the other occurrences of in GnzPs. , which is used synonymously
with this, occurs some 36 times in the Bible, mainly in the sense of deed, i.e.
thing done. It is used much less often in the sense of work, i.e. thing made,
clearly having this meaning only at Isa. 45:9, 11 (of humans as the work of
God) and Isa. 1:31 (apparently of idols as the work of humans). This word
does not occur in the Dead Sea Scrolls (except in biblical quotations) but is
attested 6 times in Ben Sira, where the meaning is mainly deed, though it
does refer to product of human labour at Sir. 14:19. It is used in GnzPs also at
1:9 of human deeds, and at 4:23 of the activity of God. The use of here to
refer to the things made by God is, therefore, somewhat unusual. It is likely
that this use is influenced by the fairly frequent occurrence of in parallel
with , albeit mainly in the sense of deed, activity (Isa. 5:12; 59:6; Jer. 25:14;
Ps. 28:4; 64:10; 92:5; 143:5; Sir. 11:4; 14:19; 37:16; 42:15). These words are also in
parallel in GnzPs at 4:23. is probably to be understood as a plural with
suffix, but it could be a singular pausal form, with as a mater lectionis to
indicate seghl (as it does in at 4:8). In the MT, out of 36 occurrences of
this word, the plural is found only at 2Sam. 23:20||1Chr. 11:22. But the use of
the plural construct in line 9 of the present psalm makes it likely that is
another instance of the plural.

1:12 . For the use of the qal of be like with as


subject and a preposition to indicate the person compared, see 4:8 and also
Ps. 89:7: who is comparable to the Lord?, and 4QMa 11.1:15:
and who is comparable to me in my glory? Elsewhere,
is found with the qal of at Ezek. 31:2, 18, and with the piel at Isa.
40:18, 25; and is found with the piel of the verb at Isa. 46:5. is to
be found in the MT only in the phrase abundance of all wealth at
Ezek. 27:12, 18, and absolutely meaning abundance of everything at Deut.
28:47. It is also to be found at the beginning of line 23 of the present column,
where evidently means greatness of all the angels. Similarly,
in the phrase is probably to be translated greatness, though
multitude would also be possible. If is here used in the same sense as
the preceding and , it refers to the works of God in creation. It
seems more likely, however, that is refers to the deeds of God described in the
following lines, particularly his forgiving of sin (line 13).
commentary 63

1:13 . This is the only occurrence of the verb remit,


forgive, pardon in a document reckoned as belonging to the period of Classical
Hebrew, though it is well-attested in the literature of Mishnaic Hebrew. It is
also possible that the proper name Mahli (e.g. Exod. 6:19) may be derived
from this root, perhaps meaning the Lord forgives. In the Bible may be
used absolutely (e.g. Num. 14:20; 2 Kgs 24:4; Am. 7:2) or with the preposition
to introduce the object, whether consisting of the sin (e.g. Exod. 34:9; Num.
14:19; 1 Kgs 8:34, 36||2Chr. 6:25, 27; Jer. 31:34; Ps. 25:11), or the sinner (e.g. Deut.
29:19; 1 Kgs 8:50||2Chr. 6:39; Jer. 5:1), but it is never used as here with the direct
object introduced by .

1:13 . For pi. in connection with the sin, see


Ps. 79:9 ( ;)Jer. 18:23 ( ;)it is also used in connection with the person,
e.g. Lev. 5:10, 13; Num. 17:11, 12; Sir. 45:23; 11QT 26:7, 9; 11QMelch 2:8. Nowhere
else is used with , though this noun is found with at Lev.
16:16, and it occurs as the direct object of the verb at Ps. 65:4. in love is
also used in GnzPs with help at 1:26, and pi. heal at 2:7; in both cases
God is the subject of the verb.

1:14 . This hemistich is very remarkable in that it involves


the reversal of what are the usual roles of God and his prophet in the process
of revelation. Whereas normally it is the prophet who is the subject of the
verb , here uniquely it is God. Yadin attempts to remove any perceived
difficulty by translating as your spirit prophesies. But it is difficult
to see how this can be a valid translation, unless one emends the text by
deleting the preposition . As the text stands, some such translation as you
prophesied by (or in) your spirit seems unavoidable. Furthermore, whereas
according to the word of the Lord is quite frequent, occurring
some 21 times, mainly in the Pentateuch, and mainly in contexts indicating
compliance with a divine command given through Moses (whose agency is
indicated by at Num. 4:37, 45; 9:23; 10:13; Josh. 22:9), here it is God who
prophesies according to the word of his servant, who is (as we see from
the following line) to be identified with David. Although it has to be admitted
that in the Bible is also used quite often in relation to commands given
by humans (e.g. Gen. 45:21; Exod. 38:21; Num. 4:27; 2 Sam. 13:32; 2Kgs 23:35),
this does not lessen the remarkable character of the use of in a
context of divine revelation in our psalm. The verb occurs in the Bible 87
times in the niphal and 28 times in the hithpael, but is rather uncommon in
other Classical Hebrew texts, occurring only about 6 times in the writings of
Qumran.
64 commentary

1:14 . The change from 2nd person (in the preceding


context) to 1st person and then back to 2nd person is a little harsh, but can
be sustained if is understood as introducing direct speech. Flusser and
Safrai correct to , i.e. 2nd person, in which case must mean that
or for. Thus Yadin translates this: for you draw the end near, it will tarry no
more. Eveline van Staalduine-Sulman offers a rather different translation
of this corrected reading: that the end is near and will not tarry anymore
(p. 666). But there are two difficulties with this translation. Firstly, although
the 3rd fem. sing. perfect ending in - is attested in the Bible (GK 44f.),
it is rare; note also that the only other instance of a 3rd fem. sing. perfect
in GnzPs is in the form of at 2:1. Secondly, the gender of end is
masc. not fem., as evidenced at Ezek. 7:2, 6. It is to be noted that in a later
article written jointly by G.W. Lorein and E. van Staalduine-Sulman the
original reading is retained and translated: for I have brought nigh the end
and you will no longer delay it (p. 39). The whole hemistich may be a loose
allusion to Hab. 2:3, where the words , and pi. are all present.
Whereas in Hab. 2:3 the subject of the verb is vision, in our psalm it is
the addressee, i.e. God. is probably here used eschatologically to refer to
the end-time, as it sometimes does in the Bible (e.g. Hab. 2:3; Dan. 8:17; 11:35,
40; 12:4, 9). The use of here might also be compared with Sir. 33:10:
hasten the end and appoint the time, which occurs in a prayer
for God to punish the enemies of the Jews, i.e. the Seleucids. The hoped for
end is apparently the end of their rule of the Holy Land. occurs about
200 times in the Dead Sea Scrolls, where it is used in several senses (as in
the Bible) but most typically refers to a fixed time or epoch, especially as
predetermined (e.g. CD 1:5; 2:9, 10; 4:10; 1QS 1:14; 4:16; 1QM 10:15; 1QH 9:24;
14:29), which may be compared with its use in several places in the Bible
(e.g. Ps. 39:5; Job 6:11; Dan. 11:45; also Sir. 43:6). As well as Hab. 2:3 another
two particular biblical passages might be mentioned in connection with the
second half of line 14: Lam 4:18, in which is found as the subject of the
qal of ;and Isa. 46:13, in which pi. and pi. both occur in same
verse.

1:15 . This reference to the Davidic covenant reflects in


particular Ps. 89:4; cf. also Ps. 89:50; 132:11. One might have expected some
reference to what was sworn, but if our Genizah psalmist is deliberately
alluding to Ps. 89:4, he may have thought this to be unnecessary since the
whole of that psalm is concerned with the Davidic covenant. For in the
sense of from the beginning or from of old, see Isa. 40:21; 41:4, 26; 48:16; Prov.
8:23; Ec. 3:11. For , see comment on 1:6.
commentary 65

1:15 . Cf. Ps. 89:21: I have found


David my servant; with my holy oil I have anointed him. In our psalm David is
anointed, not with oil, but in your mercy. is also found at 2:6, 7,
23, and at 4:9, 13. On the form of , see comment on 2:6.

1:15 . This is an allusion to Isa. 11:1, 10, the phrase actually occurring in
the latter verse. The biblical passage is speaking about a future Davidic figure,
but the parallelism of with indicates that our psalmist
applied this title to King David (with whom he identified himself). Elsewhere
the association of the historical David with the name of Jesse is normally to
be found in the phrase , which occurs 17 times in the Bible and also at
Sir. 45:25; 11QPsa 27:2; 28:3 (the only other occurrences of the name of Jesse
in Qumran literature are at 4QSela 9.2:3 and in the quotations of Isa. 11:1 at
4QpIsaa 819:11 and 4QSefM 7:2).

1:16 . There are no biblical or other Classical Hebrew


examples of the use of as object of , but this verb does have a noun in
parallel to ( with reference to the arm of God) as its subject at Isa. 59:16;
63:5. Here, however, it is God who supports the arm of David. This is another,
though less clear-cut, example of the reversal of the divine and prophetic
roles as noted in our comment on 1:14. In this connection it should also be
pointed out that whereas elsewhere Gods arm is spoken of as the
arm of his holiness (Isa. 52:10; Ps. 98:1), here it is God who in his sanctification
or holiness ( ) upholds the arm of David. There is a slight negative parallel
at Ps. 37:17 where it is stated that the arms ( ) of the wicked will be broken,
but the Lord upholds ( )the righteous. The noun does not occur in
Biblical Hebrew, and in Classical Hebrew might otherwise be attested only
at 1QS 3:7, if the phrase is to be understood as literally spirit of
holiness rather than (as seems more likely) holy spirit (with as fem.
sing. of the adj. ). It is, however, quite frequent in Mishnaic Hebrew,
meaning holiness, sacredness, sanctification, and in particular proclaiming the
holiness of the Lord, in which connection it is used as a name for the third
section of the Prayer of Benedictions (see Jastrow, p. 1314). The occurrence
of the noun praise in the same context as might suggest that the
latter here has something approaching its more specialised sense in Mishnaic
Hebrew, in which case would have to mean the proclamation of your
holiness (by David), i.e. you upheld his arm in (his proclamation of) your
holiness. If so, then this would suggest a relatively late date. But the simple
meaning of holiness or sanctification would suit the context perfectly well.
Indeed it would perhaps be more natural to understand the suffix in as
66 commentary

referring to Gods sanctification of David, rather than Davids proclamation of


Gods holiness. Elsewhere in GnzPs seems to refer to the sanctification
conferred by God (4:7, 25), and this is probably the case here.

1:16 . The noun praise does not occur in the


Bible, and in Classical Hebrew it is otherwise attested only at Sir. 16:16; 44:1;
4QShirShabbd 1.1:2; 11QPsa 19:16, though it is relatively frequent in Mishnaic
Hebrew. The cognate verb is, however, found 9 times in the MT. Clearly
what is referred to here is Davids reputation as a composer of psalms and his
role in establishing the system of temple worship in Jerusalem as recorded in
the Books of Chronicles (see in particular 1Chr. 16:7ff., and note the presence
of the verb htp. at 1Chr. 16:35||Ps. 106:47). The phrase occurs 14
times in the Bible and also at Sir. 36:22; 44:21.

1:17 . Yadin translates: You set his name as an eternal


pillar, and Lorein and van Staalduine-Sulman translate: You established his
name as a pillar of the world. But although with a double accusative often
has the sense of make someone or something into (DCH VIII 6a, pp. 140141),
what we have here must surely be an instance of in the sense of to
name, give a name, together with an accusative of appellation (DCH VIII 8a,
p. 144). Other uses of in this sense are to be found at Judg. 8:31; 2 Kgs
17:34; Dan. 1:7; Neh. 9:7. Thus may be translated: You
named him Everlasting Pillar. Confirmation that this is how the present usage
is to be understood is provided by the presence of pu. in the sense of be
called, i.e. named, at Isa. 58:12 (on the relevance of this verse to the present
line, see comments below).
is a phrase without parallel in either the Bible or any other text
of Classical Hebrew. The lack of the definite article suggests that is to
be translated everlastingness rather than world, despite the fact the latter
would have the support of a semantic parallel in the reference to the pillars
of the earth ( ) at Ps. 75:4; Job 9:6. It should be noted that in both
of those places is used in its literal sense, whereas if is here translated
world, would have to be understood in a figurative sense (as at Jer. 1:18).
The context provided by the following two lines might favour such a use: in
line 18 the rejected corner stone is exalted to become the head over all the
peoples, and in line 19 David is named Splendour of all the Nations. But what
would it mean to describe him as the pillar of the world? This would seem to
go beyond ascribing to him an exalted position in relation to the peoples of
the world, and to suggest that somehow the world was dependent on him
for its support. It is not impossible that the phrase could have this meaning
commentary 67

here. Flusser and Safrai (p. 91 [Heb.]; pp. 271272 [Eng.]) quote Exod. Rabbah
2:13, which states that God said to Moses, You are standing on the site of the
pillar of the world () , referring to Abraham. They also cite the
reference to Rabbi Yohannan ben Zakkai as the right pillar ( ) in
B. Berakhoth 28b; cf. 1Kgs 7:21; Prov. 10:25, and the designation of the most
important disciples of Jesus as pillars at Gal. 2:9. It is possible, however, that
the phrase has its origin in the presence of the word in the
phrase at Isa. 58:12, a verse to which the second half of the present
line of our psalm clearly alludes. If so, then the permanence of the promises
to David is being contrasted with the idea of impermanence suggested by
the reference to ancient ruins in this verse of scripture. On the use of in
GnzPs, see comment on 3:17.

1:17 . As already noted, this is an allusion to Isa. 58:12,


where the name is applied to the community after the return from
exile. The noun is also found as the object of at Am. 9:11; cf. Ezek. 13:5;
22:30. The phrase is found at both Isa. 58:12 and 61:4.

1:18 Based on Ps. 118:22:


GnzPs
Ps. 118:22

The use of the participle of provides a link with the preceding line, but
whereas in the previous line David (and therefore our psalmist) is the builder,
here he is the corner-stone rejected by the builders. Our psalmist has made
something of an inversion of the biblical Psalm. In the latter it is simply
a stone ( )which the builders have rejected, and this has become the
chief corner-stone () , whereas in our Genizah Psalm they reject
what is already a corner-stone () , and this is then exalted to an even
greater position as head ( ) over all the peoples. This inversion is probably
occasioned by more than the acrostic arrangement of the our psalm. David as
the anointed one is the corner-stone. His rejection and subsequent exaltation
may allude to the fortunes of the nation in Maccabaean times, though this
can only be speculation. It is of some interest that a verse of scripture which
was taken in the NT as referring to Jesus as Messiah (Mt. 21:42; Mk. 12:10;
Lk. 20:17; Ac. 4:11; Eph. 2:20; 1Pet. 2:7) is here applied to David. Likewise the
Targum of Psalms treats Ps. 118:22 as concerning David.
is presumably the piel of in the sense of exalt, which in Classical
Hebrew is otherwise attested only at 11QPsa 28:6 with a meaning of cherish,
praise, though it is also found somewhat infrequently in Mishnaic Hebrew
68 commentary

(Jastrow, p. 1081). In view of the unusual use of the piel and unnecessary
use of the conjunction here, Harkavy and Flusser and Safrai would correct
to read the hiphil . It is possible that a has been corrupted
into a .
The reading of is difficult. Flusser and Safrai place an asterisk
against it to note an editorial correction in their edition of the text. It is
possible that the copyist originally wrote a second and then corrected
it to , but there seems no doubt that is the intended reading. The
noun people, tribe is found also at 1:23 and 2:9 (both ) , but
elsewhere is attested in Classical Hebrew only at Gen. 25:16; Num. 25:15;
Ps. 117:1; 4QDa 11:10. In the occurrences outside GnzPs, only Ps. 117:1 has the
plural as , rather than the plural or plural + suffix form in - as is also
found (frequently) in Mishnaic Hebrew. The proximity of to
in the following line (similarly at 2:8, 9) suggests that and are
being used synonymously.

1:19 . In Biblical Hebrew always refers to a head-dress. It is


used of a linen turban worn by priests (Exod. 39:28; Ezek. 44:18), and also
of a head-dress worn by a bridegroom (Isa. 61:10) or by extravagantly dressed
women (Isa. 3:20); and it was removed as a sign of mourning (Ezek. 24:17,
23; cf. Isa. 61:3). This word occurs in the literature of Qumran apparently
only twice: at 1QM 7:11 clearly refers to the head-dresses of the
priests; and at 4Q408 3:5 adornments of his glory evidently refers
to the luminaries (DJD XXXVI, p. 307). here is clearly the absolute
form of the noun, whereas in the Bible this form is only found as the
construct of the noun, the absolute being ( Ezek. 21:31; Ca. 3:11). But
having the alternative absolute form is perhaps not remarkable, on
the analogy of ( e.g. Jer. 33:19) as an alternative absolute form of
( Isa. 28:5; Jer. 48:17). is not associated with in the Bible,
but it is found in parallel with other nouns which refer to a head-dress:
turban (Ezek. 21:31), turban (Isa. 62:3[Qr]), perhaps diadem
(Isa. 28:5). Nevertheless, is used in association with the nouns and
glory, beauty, which are from the same root as . The phrase
crown of glory or glorious crown is relatively frequent (Isa. 62:3;
Ezek. 16:12; 23:42; Prov. 4:9; 16:31; Sir. 6:31[A]; var. Jer. 13:18). Also and
occur in parallelism at Prov. 17:6. That a turban and crown might
be worn together is suggested by the use of with at Ezek. 21:31
with reference to princely attire, and at Sir. 45:12 in connection with Aarons
dress. In our psalm is evidently used of the kingly head-dress of
David.
commentary 69

1:19 . The phrase is not attested elsewhere


in Classical Hebrew. is much more frequent (particularly in the Bible)
than , which was used in line 17 above.

1:20 . For this combination, see Ps. 89:15; Prov. 1:3; 2:9; cf. also
at Ps. 119:121; Ec. 5:7.

1:20 . This combination is not attested in the Bible, but


is to be found at 1QM 1:9; 17:7; 4QDibHama 12.4:13.

1:20 . There is some staining to the manuscript at this point.


AHL reconstructs ] [, but this is unnecessary since all these letters are
quite readable. Flusser and Safrai (p. 102, n. 13 [Heb.]; p. 270, n. 11 [Eng.]) take
not as the preposition unto, but as the noun perpetuity, and understand
to mean blessings for ever, on the basis of at Ps. 21:7.
But this seems very doubtful, since not only is it not a precise quotation of
Ps. 21:7, but the phrase is found also at GnzPs 4:7, where the
prepositional meaning of is clearer. Moreover, although the phrase
is not otherwise attested in Classical Hebrew (and neither is ) ,
the semantically equivalent phrase is to be found at Ps. 40:13;
Job 5:9; 9:10 (and occurs 17 times in the MT as well as at Sir. 37:25
and a few times at Qumran). Note also the use of the similar collocation
in connection with at Mal. 3:10. For the combination ,
see also Ps. 72:7.

1:21 . The verb neigh, shout (usually for joy) is rare in Classical
Hebrew, occurring just 8 times in the Bible, and not being attested for certain
at Qumran outside biblical quotations; the present passage represents its
only use with . It is used in parallel with at Est. 8:15.

1:21 . Although chosen ones of righteousness does not


occur in the Bible, it is to be found at 1QH 10:13; 4QTime 1.2:3; 4QWiles 1:14
(so e.g. AHL, DSSE; DJD V reads with the same meaning). In these
Qumran texts the phrase seems to refer to members of the covenant, as
contrasted with those outside it. Elsewhere other uses of seem to refer
to the same group (e.g. 1QH 6:15; 1QpHab 10:13; 1QS 8:6; 9:14; 11:16). It is not
surprising that should have been used in this way by the Qumran sect,
since in the Bible this word always refers to those chosen by God. Here is
probably not to be understood as referring to the ethical conduct of the elect
but to the righteous judgment of God. The occurrence of in our
70 commentary

psalm may well be an indication of a link between these psalms and the
literature of Qumran, though it does also seem to have been used in wider
circles. The Aramaic equivalent is to be found in the Targum to
Isa. 12:3, which renders the verse: And you will receive new instruction with joy
from the chosen ones of righteousness. Flusser and Safrai (p. 94 [Heb.]; p. 276
[Eng.]) also cite the use of the Aramaic phrase in Mandaic literature to refer
to those who belong to the dominion of the good, apparently the Mandaeans
themselves.

1:21 ] [. There is some damage as well as staining to the manuscript


here. AHL reconstructs ] [. The can, however, be read. Only part
of the is visible, though reading of this letter is not in any doubt. For the
phrase , see Jer. 3:19; Zech. 7:14; Ps. 106:24; cf. also at
4QDiscourse 2.2:5, and at 4QDibHama 12.4:11.

1:22 . The phrase obviously refers to the


name of God, and could be translated either name of the Great One or the
Great Name. The latter seems more likely for two reasons. Firstly, is used
attributively with reference to the name of God several times in the Bible
(Josh. 7:9; 1Sam. 12:22; 1Kgs 8:42||2 Chr. 6:32; Jer. 44:26; Ezek. 36:23; Ps. 99:3).
Secondly, the omission of the article with a noun qualified by an adjective
which has the article is sometimes found in Biblical Hebrew (GK 126w, x;
likewise in Mishnaic Hebrew, MH 376). This is the only instance of this in
GnzPs. In Rabbinic literature the piel of is often used with as object in
the sense of sanctify the name of God, sometimes by means of martyrdom or
other noble deeds. But in such uses the verb normally has a human subject.
Here, although Gods name is sanctified by the mouth of David his servant,
the subject of the verb is in fact God. This suggests that an allusion is being
made to Ezek. 36:23, which is the only instance in the Bible of pi. with
as its object: and I will sanctify my great
name which has been profaned among the nations. It should be noted that, as
in this biblical passage, the sanctification spoken of in our psalm seems to
take place in the presence of the nations; note the references to in
lines 18 and 23, and in line 19.

1:22 . There is slight damage to the and the . Classical Hebrew


lacks any parallel to the phrase , though the verb occurs with
as its object at Ps. 59:17, and is found in proximity with at Ps. 21:14.
There are apparent semantic parallels in at 4QShirShabbd 1.1:6, which
Newsom translates a mighty praisesong (DJD XI, p. 260), and also in
commentary 71

praise of strength, i.e. strong praise, at Sir. 45:12. In both these cases, however,
as nomen rectum of a construct phrase in effect functions as an adjective,
whereas here seems to mean songs of, i.e. about, your might. That
it has this meaning is suggested both by the use of the suffix in and by
the verb ;cf. Ps. 78:4, where his (Gods) might is the object of .
Flusser and Safrai (pp. 91, 102103, n. 14 [Heb.]; p. 270, n. 12 [Eng.]) cite the use
of in the qedusha prayers in the prayer book of Rav Amram and in
Ashkenazic liturgical tradition.

1:22 . Staining in the manuscript makes very faint, but it can be


read, as can the two words which follow; thus it is not necessary to reconstruct
these words, as AHL does. Flusser and Safrai are wrong in their reading of
. The combination is found at 4:25; cf. also at
Ps. 71:15, and the semantic equivalent with at Ps. 35:28; 71:24. The phrase
without the definite article is a little unusual, though it does occur again
at 3:3. In the canonical Psalms it is found only at Ps. 140:3, though is
also found a further 3 times at Ps. 7:12; 88:10; 145:2, and is likewise used at
GnzPs 4:25. , however, is a frequent liturgical phrase, with some 26
occurrences in the Book of Psalms. For the purpose of English translation
)(is more naturally translated every day, and all the day or all
day long, but such a distinction in meaning is not absolutely clear in all the
contexts. In reality, the phrase with or without the article means continually
or all the time.

1:23 . For with two accusatives in the sense of


make, i.e. cause to be, see DCH VI 4b, p. 596; cf. also the related sense of
make something into something, DCH VI 2b, pp. 593594; BDB II.1g, p. 794;
GK 117ii. For , see comment on 1:12. The use of here in connection
with indicates that the former means greatness, though had the phrase
been encountered in isolation, one might more naturally have
expected a meaning of multitude of all the angels, since in the sense of
greatness is generally used in reference to things rather than persons; cf.
his (Gods) excellent greatness at Ps. 150:2. The only use of as object of
in the Bible is at 2 Sam. 7:21||1 Chr. 17:19; 2 Sam. 7:23, where refers to
the great deeds of God. Yadin translates the present hemistich: You made him
greater than all the angels; and Flusser and Safrai (p. 92 [Heb.]; pp. 273274
[Eng.]) argue that the meaning is that the greatness of David was above ()
that of all the angels, and they cite similar statements from Tanuma [Buber]
Toledot 134138; Yalkut ha-Makhiri to Psalms [Buber], section 2, p. 233; and to
Zechariah, p. 42, and in their view the requirement of the acrostic determined
72 commentary

the beginning of the line. However, while the present passage may reflect the
same general midrashic tradition, this goes beyond what is actually written
here, and we must not attribute to our psalmist ideas which he does not
explicitly express.

1:23 . For , see comment on 1:18. In the Bible is not


used together with , but there is a semantic equivalent in the phrase
with reference to God at Jer. 10:7 (cf. also at Isa. 14:9, 18). The
phrase at present under discussion may well be an allusion to Jer. 10:7, where
it should be noted that the preceding verse includes the words
, which may be compared with the use of earlier in the present line
of our psalm. If it is such an allusion, this would be yet another instance of
our psalmist, identified with David, taking a role which elsewhere is seen as
belonging to God (see comment on 1:14, 16). The choice of rather than
may be deliberate (likewise the insertion of the word ), in order that
the central figure in our Genizah Psalm should not directly be given what is
found in scripture as a divine title, even if the role attributed to him amounts
to the same thing. It should be noted that elsewhere and are used in
equal measure in the vocabulary of the Genizah Psalms (both occur 3 times,
the former at 1:19; 2:8; 3:15, and the latter at 1:18, 23; 2:9).

1:23 . AHL reconstructs [][ ], but despite the staining in the


manuscript it is possible to read all the letters in both words. For with
two accusatives in the sense of make someone into something, see BDB 3a,
p. 681; DCH V 5a (1), pp. 807808.

1:24 . The verb has a wider range of meaning than


its standard English equivalent break. It can have a human object, as also
at GnzPs 4:18 and sometimes in the Bible (e.g. Isa. 14:25; Jer. 17:18; Lam. 1:15;
Dan. 11:26, where some such translation as crush or destroy might be more
appropriate than break; cf. also 1 Kgs 13:26 of a lion tearing a human being).
Its use here, therefore, with as object is not very remarkable, and a
translation of break may be retained, because the meaning is really break (the
power of ). In the Bible this meaning is sometimes expressed by giving a
concrete object to represent power; thus in connection with kingly power it
is the yoke (Jer. 28:2, 4, 11) or arm of the king (Ezek. 30:21, 22, 24) that is
broken. Midian was a North Arabian tribe, descended from a son born to
Abraham by his wife Keturah (Gen. 25:2), and the phrase occurs
in two biblical passages (Num. 31:8, 8; Judg. 8:5, 12, 26). The only Qumran
occurrences of Midian are at 4QapJosephb 3:11, 12 (in the latter,
commentary 73

evidently refers to Num. 31:8). Perhaps the biblical reference to Midian


most relevant to the passage at present under discussion is that to the
day of Midian at Isa. 9:3, which evidently alludes to Judg. 78. Two things in
particular should be noted about Isa. 9:3. Firstly, the occurrence of the verb
hi, break, which provides a loose semantic parallel to the use of in
the our psalm, its objects being yoke, staff and rod. Secondly, Isa.
9:3 is part of a passage which is messianic in the sense that it looks forward
to a future Davidic ruler. The victories associated with his reign are compared
with the crushing of Midian in an earlier age. Similarly, the success attributed
to David in the present psalm is likened to the defeat of the kings of Midian.
Fleischer (p. 215, n. 54) points out that Midian and Kedar (line 25) are well
known in the piyyut as appellations of the Muslim nations.

1:24 . The verb is here used transitively, and so is presumably


piel, even though the piel is not attested elsewhere in Classical Hebrew. It
should be noted that the pual of this verb is found just once in the Bible at
Exod. 15:4, where it is used of the Egyptians being sunk in the Red Sea, and
where the next verse speaks of their going down ( )into its depths ().
The present passage, referring to a victory given by God over the enemies of
David, may well allude to Exod. 15:5 and involve a deliberate change from a
passive to an active verb, with God as subject. In this way, Davids victory is
likened to the deliverance at the Exodus, and at the same time the role of
God in achieving this is emphasized.

1:24 . The is obscured by a crease in the manuscript, but it is


certainly present, and there is no need to reconstruct [], with AHL. For
with as object, see Prov. 29:24 and particularly the Kt of 2Sam. 5:8
(). The latter refers to the lame and the blind who have hated the soul of
David ( ;) the Qr, however, has the pass. ptc. ones hated by the soul
of David. Similar in effect to the Qr is the emendation to with as
subject (as it is at Isa. 1:14; Ps. 11:5), which was suggested in BHK, and the
reading was later attested in 4QSama. Since the antecedent of the pronominal
suffix in is David, this may well have been inspired by 2Sam. 5:8,
and if so, it presupposes the Kt (unless is a corruption of ).

1:25 . The verb here means support or hold up rather


than grasp. The idea is that God supports the right hand of his servant as he
grasps his sword in the conflict against his enemies. This use of may be
compared with Exod. 17:12, where it is used of Aaron and Hur holding up the
hands ( , as object of the verb, introduced by )of Moses as the Israelites
74 commentary

fought against Amalek. It was only while Moses held up his hands that the
Israelites prevailed, and he had become too tired to do this for himself. The
idea in our psalm is that without the support of God the right hand of his
servant might become too tired to continue holding on to his sword.

1:25 }{. The copyist placed the hiatus between the


hemistichs after , but the division of the line followed by our translation
(and likewise Flusser and Safrai in their arrangement of the text) gives a
better parallelism between the two halves of the line. For as object of
pi. in the sense of strengthen, see Ezek. 30:24; Hos. 7:15; similarly Ezek.
30:25 with hi. Harkavy, Flusser and Safrai and AHL all read for ,
having failed to see the which is obscured by a crease in the manuscript,
but very definitely present. For pi. strengthen with against, see Judg.
3:12; similarly 2Sam. 11:25 with against and hi. For Kedar the copyist
originally wrote without the and then added this letter above the line.
It should be noted that in the MT the vowel is always written defectively.
Kedar was a North Arabian tribe descended from the second son of Ishmael
(Gen. 25:13||1Chr. 1:29). For , cf. Isa. 21:17 () . Kedar
is apparently not mentioned in any Qumran texts, and is rarely found in
Rabbinic literature.

1:26 . For as subject of , see Deut. 32:35; Ps. 38:17; 94:18. It


should be noted that here is apparently masculine, whereas in the Bible it
is always feminine (unless Ca. 5:3 is an exception).

1:26 )(}{. AHL is probably right in its observation that the copyist
originally wrote in you and then corrected this to in your name.
The error may have been due to his familiarity with the relatively frequent
occurrence of in connection with in liturgical texts (e.g. Ps. 9:11; 22:5,
6; 25:2; 55:24; 84:13, and indeed GnzPs 2:1). The use of with reference to
trusting in God is quite frequent in the Bible; DCH II, p. 140, notes a total of 33
instances. Elsewhere in GnzPs is used of trusting in God at 2:1; 3:18, in
Gods name at 3:26, and in Gods word at 1:27 (cf. also 3:26). For with
reference to trusting in the name of God, see also Isa. 50:10; Ps. 33:21; 1QM 11:2.

1:26 . For as subject of , see Ps. 31:11; Neh. 4:4; cf. also Lam.
1:14, where is the object of the hiphil of this verb.

1:26 . The and are partly obscured by a crease in the manuscript,


but both can be read, and it is unnecessary to reconstruct [ ]with AHL.
commentary 75

1:27 . This is probably loosely based on Prov. 16:20:


The one who gives heed to the word
will find prosperity, and as for the one who trusts in the Lord, happy is he; cf.
also Ps. 40:5: happy is the man who has made
the Lord his trust. happiness of (i.e. the plur. cstr. of happiness),
used as an interjection happy is, occurs 5 times in GnzPs (1:27; 3:1, 17; 4:25, 27),
which is a relatively high frequency, considering that it is found only about 8
times in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 45 times in the Bible and 7 times in Ben Sira.
For followed by , see Ps. 34:9; 40:5; 94:12; 127:5. For with
reference to the word of God, see GnzPs 3:26 and also Ps. 119:42.

1:27 . Both words are damaged by a tear in the manuscript, but the
reading is not in any doubt. See comment on 1:11.

1:27 . The of is partly obscured by a crease in the manuscript.


The verb normally has a personal subject; this is the only place where
is attested as subject. It occurs 38 times in the Bible, 5 times in Ben Sira,
and apparently not at all in the Dead Sea Scrolls, except in the reconstruction
][at 4QInstrg 4:2 (though the cognate noun occurs 5 times in
the Scrolls).

2:1 . The thought behind the first line of this column is linked
with that in the last two lines of Column 1 by the verb , and this is the
only place in Classical Hebrew literature where is found as subject of this
verb. Here stands for the person, being equivalent to the 1st pers.
sing. pronoun I (BDB 4a, p. 660; DCH V 9a, p. 732).

2:1 . This petition is to be found at Ps. 27:7; for the use of the verbs
and in close proximity with each other, see also Isa. 30:19; Ps. 4:2.

2:1b The first of the series of benedictions at the end of the first psalm. All three
of the psalms for which we have their ending are closed in the same manner,
with the same three benedictions at the very end (2:2b4a; 3:89; 4:1415).
These are preceded by one (2:1; 4:13) or more (3:6, 7) benedictions, which are
different for each psalm, but which all (except 3:7) have in common that they
use the noun ( not used outside these benedictions in our Genizah Psalms)
together with a participle to describe some attribute of God.

2:1 . For the formula of blessing which


became widely used in the prayers of post-biblical Judaism, see Ps. 119:12;
76 commentary

1Chr. 29:10; cf. also variants with at 1QH 8:16; 18:14, and at 1QH 22:15. For
this whole blessing, cf. the blessing in the Mishnah at
Berakhoth 4:4 and Taanith 2:4. is to be found as the subject of answer at
Gen. 35:3; Ps. 17:6; 55:20; cf. 99:8. It should be noted that the Tetragrammaton
is written in full as in all fourteen of its occurrences in GnzPs. It is to be
assumed that the copyist of this manuscript was representing what was in
the original document in front of him, and it is interesting that he did not
feel compelled to change it for reverential reasons. Harkavy represents the
Tetragrammaton as throughout his transcription of the text. For ,
Harkavy reads . His reading of the first letter as is inexplicable, since is
very clearly written. It is true that the and the run into each other, giving
a superficial appearance of , but when this is compared with the way in
which is formed elsewhere in the manuscript it evident that should be
read here. It is unusual for the object of answer to be introduced by ,
though there are instances of this with the qal at 1QH 12:18, and the niphal in
the sense of give answer at Ezek. 14:4, 7.

2:1 . The phrase at all times is found some 15 times in the


Bible (cf. Job 27:10 for its use in connection with call), and also occurs
further at GnzPs 3:24. The form is presumably to be understood as an
infinitive construct with 3rd masc. sing. suffix. The ydh may perhaps be due
to the error of a copyist who, having used ww to write the first vowel plene,
inadvertently lapsed into writing the form of the participle plural with suffix
(a form found in the Bible only as at Ps. 145:18). Here the verb is
clearly used with reference to calling on God in prayer, as it is frequently
in the Bible (see, e.g., Ps. 4:2; 27:7, where the verbs used in this line,
and are all to be found).

2:2a This first half of the line is probably to be understood as direct speech,
representing the petition of the psalmist. This is suggested not only by the
preceding , but also by the first person plural suffix in . Unless it was
part of the petition of the psalmist, the use of the first person plural would be
rather intrusive. Indeed, the whole petition would be out of place here, if
it did not represent the prayer of the psalmist. When the benedictions at
the end of the first psalm (2:13) are compared with those at the end of the
second and third psalms (3:69 and 4:1315 respectively), it can be seen just
how unexpected is this use of the first person plural. As a matter of fact, the
only other use of the first person plural in the whole of the Genizah Psalms is
at 3:27. But if the petition in the first half of 2:2 is understood as direct
speech, the first person plural suffix is by no means intrusive here. That the
commentary 77

Davidic figure central to these psalms has an intercessory role is clear from
the opening of the next psalm (2:67). Presumably the words of the petition
represent what was a familiar liturgical usage at the
time when our Genizah Psalms were composed.

2:2 . The ending of is to be understood as a 1st pers. sing. suffix,


which reinforces the vocative use of the word here. Thus the meaning is
literally O my God, the Merciful, or O my merciful God. The first person plural
suffix of in the same line is not necessarily a problem, since the psalmist
speaks both on his own behalf and as intercessor for his people. It would
be more difficult to take as a construct phrase, because God of
the Merciful One would make poor sense. Often in a construct phrase the
nomen rectum describes an attribute or quality (Dav. Syn. 24c; Dav. Gib.
35c), but in such a case one would expect not , and indeed, the
phrase ][ God of compassion is attested at 4QCatenaa 3:9, and
in the same sense at 1QH 18:14; 19:29. The adjective is not found in
the Bible or at Qumran but is fairly frequent in Mishnaic Hebrew, particularly
as a noun in reference to God, the Merciful One. In connection with
the present text, cf. in particular Tos. Baba Kama 9:30:
every time you are merciful, the Merciful One has mercy upon
you. The juxtaposition of alongside probably reflects a
liturgical formulation familiar to the psalmist. The occurrence of in our
Genizah Psalm may be an indication of a late date, though it is quite possible
that it is only the result of chance that is not attested earlier than in
rabbinic literature. It should be noted that the adjective is found once in
the Bible, at Lam. 4:10 in the phrase compassionate women, which
may suggest that was in use in biblical times. It should also be noted
that Biblical Hebrew does have a few nouns formed with a - afformative (see
GK 85u).

2:2 . In Classical Hebrew pi. is generally used with the direct


object, but is sometimes found with as here (e.g. Isa. 13:18; Ps. 103:13; Sir.
15:20; 36:17, 18; 1QH 17:36; 1QS 10:2021; CD 13:9). Of particular interest are the
occurrences at Sir. 36:17, 18, since these involve the use of the imperative in a
prayer of petition as here (note especially the first of these:
have mercy upon the people called by your name).

2:2 . This blessing is also to be found in the


benedictions which close the second and third of the Genizah Psalms at 3:8
(lacking )and 4:14 respectively; in the Mishnah it is associated with the
78 commentary

Day of Atonement at Yoma 3:8; 4:1, 2, and in rabbinic literature it is also to


be found at Tos. Pesaim 3:19; Siphra Aare 2:1, 2; Siphre Debarim 306:342;
Mekh. Pisa 16:61; and (lacking ) at Tos. Taanioth 1:12, 13. It is made
up of elements also found elsewhere: ( 4QShirShabbd 1.1:32; 1.2:10;
4QShirShabbf 23.1:3; 4QShira 1:4; cf. Ps. 145:11) and ( Exod.
15:18; Mic. 4:5; Ps. 9:6; 45:18; 119:44;145:1, 2, 21; Dan. 12:3).

2:3a . A variation on the previous benediction; also


to be found at 3:8; 4:14. The phrase is attested at Ps. 72:19 (the
benediction at the end of the second book of the Psalter), and similar phrases
include ( 4QShirShabbd 1.1:29), ( Neh. 9:5), ( 4QBera
7.1:7), ( MasShirShabb 2:24 = 4QShirShabbd 1.1:10 ][
), [( ]4QBerb 2:8).

2:3b4a . This is the benediction which closes


the fourth book of the Psalter at Ps. 106:48, and is also found in the parallel
passage at 1Chr 16:36. In our Genizah Psalms it performs the function of
closing each of the psalms (here and 3:9; 4:15). It should be noted that in the
Psalter similar benedictions are placed at the end of the first and third books
at Ps. 41:14 and 89:53 respectively.

2:4b5 The title sequence, introducing the second psalm. Those introducing
the third and fourth psalms follow a similar pattern:
2:4b5
:
3:1011
:
4:1617
:
The following variations may be noted:
1. The form of the date in 2:4b5 differs from that in 3:1011 and 4:1617.
2. The spelling of in 3:1011, as against in 2:4b5 and 4:1617.
3. The addition of the words and in 4:1617.
2:4b . For Fleischers explanation of the significance
of this form of the date as compared with the different form in 3:1011 and
4:1617, see Introduction, p. 16.
Iyyar is the second month in the post-exilic Jewish calendar, named
after the Babylonian month of Aiaru. The fact that this name is found neither
in the Bible nor in any other Classical Hebrew text outside our Genizah Psalms
commentary 79

cannot be held to be of any significance as far as the dating of these psalms is


concerned. Of the twelve months of the year, the post-exilic names of only
seven are attested in the Bible (Nisan, Sivan, Elul, Chislev, Tebet, Shebat,
Adar). It is doubtless the result of chance, and the fact that no festival (except
a late PassoverNum. 9:11) was associated with the second month, that the
name of Iyyar does not occur elsewhere in pre-Mishnaic Hebrew literature
(it is also found relatively infrequently in rabbinic literature). Flusser and
Safrai (p. 90 [Heb.]; p. 269 [Eng.]) assert that because Babylonian month
names (albeit not Iyyar) had already made their way into post-exilic biblical
literature, they would have been familiar to the author of the Genizah Psalms,
and he would not have regarded their use in his work as anachronistic, since
they appear in the Hebrew Bible. A different view is taken by Fleischer (p. 210,
n. 36), who argues that the very use of the name Iyyar testifies of the author
that he did not seek to hide the fact that he was not King David, and also
removes any possible attachment to the sect of Qumran, since the calendar of
the sect was different from that of mainstream Judaism, and the (Babylonian)
names of the months are not found in the Qumran scrolls.

2:4b . How is to be understood? It seems unlikely


that, used with , the meaning is see in a vision, since not only is such a
use unattested in the Bible, but one would surely expect what was seen to be
expressed by a direct object or a verbal sequence (or at least to be implied in
the context). It would be possible to create an object for by omitting the
conjunction from , but this does not seem to be a very satisfactory
solution to the problem, because the conjunction is present with this phrase in
all three title sequences, and is therefore well attested (and there is sufficient
variation in these sequences to suggest that no great effort has been made
to harmonize them). Azzan Yadin translates here: I beheld a vision and all
his prophecies. Several uses of the combination are noted in BDB 8a,
pp. 907b908a. The preposition can indeed be used simply to introduce the
object of ( e.g. Ps. 64:9; Job 3:9), but it seems unlikely that this is the case
here, if the verb is used in its simple sense of to see. Elsewhere is used as
the direct object of without being introduced by a preposition (e.g. Exod.
3:3; Ezek. 11:24). Moreover, here the force of the preposition (in whatever
sense it is being used) presumably extends over to , which would be
difficult as an object of a verb meaning simply to see. Could then be used
here to introduce the object of in a sense other than to see? BDB 7,
p. 907b, notes several uses of ( without any preposition) concerned with
mental observation. Of these, one might note in particular 7c pay attention
to (Jer. 2:31 with the object word of God), and 7d discern (Ec. 1:16 with
80 commentary

the objects wisdom and knowledge). Although similar senses are not
listed for , there is surely no reason why this should not be used for any
of the senses in which with a direct object is used. In the title sequences
of our Genizah Psalms some such meaning as consider, give attention to for
would suit the context very well. An approximate semantic parallel
may be found in consider the vision at Dan. 9:23 (cf. 10:1). It is
worth noting that in the present psalm the verbs and hi. occur in
parallelism at 2:11. Although this seems to be the best way to understand
, it is not without difficulty. For at 4:16 the wording is
, and here would have to be understood differently, i.e. as in or
by (means of ) the spirit. This use of together with the verb is not
attested elsewhere, but in this sense is found often enough with other
verbs. One might question whether in the present passage it is altogether
satisfactory to understand the preposition as having different senses in the
consecutive words and , particularly since taken in isolation
might most naturally be translated I saw in the spirit (and)
in holy vision. But it should be noted that in a similar usage at Ezek. 11:24
is translated by the RSV in the vision by the Spirit of God
(here with the verb hi.; cf. also Ezek. 8:3 where the same verb is used in
association with and ) . The use of the same preposition in different
senses within a given context is not a serious difficulty, and in view of the
considerations discussed above it is probably best to translate 4:16 as in the
spirit I considered the holy vision.
That is , not , is suggested not only by the greater frequency
of the former in Classical Hebrew, but also by the construct form in the phrase
in the title sequence at 4:16 (a phrase unattested elsewhere).
But how is to be explained? One possibility would be to regard it as a qal
passive participle (used as noun) of meaning his prophesied things, i.e. his
prophecies. The main difficulty with this is that outside our Genizah Psalms
the qal of is totally unattested. On the other hand, the two binyanim
of this verb found in Classical Hebrew, the niphal and the hithpael, always
have what is in effect an active meaning, to prophesy. The participles of these
binyanim are never used nominally, but if they were, presumably the meaning
would be one who prophesies, i.e. a prophet. Thus, if a passive meaning was
required, the qal passive participle would be the most obvious choice (rather
than the pual or the hophal, since neither the piel nor the hiphil of this
verb are ever found). It does not seem very likely that his prophesied things
means the things prophesied concerning him, since this would surely require
a preposition in Hebrew, as it does in English (cf. ni. at Ezek. 13:16,
and htp. at 1Kgs 22:18||2Chr. 18:17). An alternative, and perhaps more
commentary 81

satisfactory, explanation of is that it is an irregular plural with suffix


form of prophecy. This has the advantage of seeing as an otherwise
unattested form of a noun which is known in its absolute (Neh. 6:12; 2Chr.
15:8) and construct singular (2Chr. 9:29) forms. That a feminine noun ending
in can have such a plural form with suffix is evidenced by from year
(Lev. 25:52). Other feminine nouns with a plural in and plural with suffix
forms based upon this (though with only suffixes other than 3rd masculine
singular being attested) include word (e.g. Ps. 19:5; Job 34:2) and egg
(Isa. 59:5; Job 39:14). There may also be an instance in GnzPs of the feminine
noun being given the construct plural form ( see comment on
3:17). Fleischer (p. 211, n. 37) believes that is from or , a form
which is known from paytanic literature. But although the use of mater
lectionis is inconsistent in GnzPs (see Analysis of Language, 1C), one might
have expected it for the req here (cf. at 1:14). To whom does the
suffix of refer? If we are dealing with , the most obvious referent
would be the person who gave the prophecy (as suggested by the use of this
word at 2Chr. 9:29, and perhaps 2Chr. 15:8). This may also be the case, if we
are dealing with the passive participle of . It should be noted that the
only use of the verb outside the title sequences of our psalms is at 1:14,
where the niphal is used with God as subject. If the prophecies referred to
in the titles include what is described at 1:14, it would seem that the suffix in
refers to God, remarkable though this may seem (see comment on 1:14).
Apparently the of the psalm titles are a revelation, of which
the psalmist is the recipient. The only use of the word in GnzPs, other
than in the title sequences, is in the phrase vision of your glory,
i.e. your glorious vision at 2:22, and lit. glory of (the) vision at 3:26,
which describe respectively something in which the psalmist has joy, and
in which he has trusted. In the latter passage the phrase which follows,
his holy words, may be an approximate equivalent of . Moreover,
if consider the vision at Dan. 9:23 is of relevance in explaining
in our title sequences, as suggested above, this would support the view
that this refers to a revelation, the recipient of which, i.e. our psalmist, is
the subject of the verb. The title of each Genizah Psalm apparently indicates
that the psalm which follows is the response made by the psalmist to this
revelation on the date indicated, his meditation upon it. The use of the word
in the title at 4:16 is important in this respect. In the account of Davids
Compositions in 11QPsa 27:34, it is said of David: and
the Lord gave him a discerning and enlightened spirit. The number of psalms
and songs written by David is then given, and it is clear that these are regarded
as being due to the spirit that had been given to him. The tradition in Targum
82 commentary

of Psalms is also important here. In the title to Psalm 14, where the MT has
of David, the Targum reads: when the spirit of prophecy
was upon David (two manuscripts read by means of for upon). This is
a significant if somewhat loose parallel to what we have in the title sequences
of our Genizah Psalms. Not only does it make David as psalmist the recipient
of prophecy, but it actually uses the words and ( both of which are
found in the title sequence at 4:1617). Prophecy is also attributed to David
by the Targum in the title to Psalm 18; and according to the Targum, David
is said to have spoken through the spirit of prophecy (TgPss 49:16), and to
have prayed that God would uphold him with the spirit of prophecy (TgPss
51:14).

2:5 . While htp. is more frequent, htp. is to be


found at 1 Sam. 1:12; 1 Kgs 8:28; 2Kgs 19:15; Neh. 1:4, 6; 1Chr. 17:25; cf. 2 Chr. 6:24.
It should be noted that all these (except perhaps Neh. 1:4, 6) are explicitly
associated with prayer at a sanctuary, whereas includes more instances
of prayer apparently offered in other circumstances (e.g. Gen. 20:17; 2Kgs
4:33; 6:18; 20:2; Jer. 29:7). Thus may suggest that the prayer of our
psalmist is envisaged as offered at a sacred place; see also comment on 3:2.

2:6 Based on Zech. 11:47. The theme of Israel as the flock of God which
is mistreated by the shepherds entrusted with its care is also especially
developed in Ezek. 34 and Jer. 23:14. In the Bible there are also several other
references to Israel as the flock of God (e.g. Ps. 74:1; 79:13; 100:3), and political
rulers are often referred to as shepherds (e.g. Isa. 44:28; Jer. 2:8; 3:15; Mic.
5:4; Zech. 10:3). From post-biblical literature a passage particularly worth
mentioning here is 1Enoch 89:5990:25, where the rulers of the nations of
the world are likened to seventy shepherds, to whom the flock of Israel is
handed over so that some of the sheep may be destroyed, but in the scale
of destruction the shepherds exceed what has been commanded them,
and thereby incur condemnation and their own destruction. Our psalmist
is presumably alluding to some particular persecutions inflicted upon his
nation or religious community, but does not give enough details for us to
determine what historical events might lie behind his words. The only other
occurrence of in GnzPs is at 1:5, where it is parallel with , and where
God is said to have cleansed his flock of unclean animals.

2:6 . Despite the singular verb, is probably to be understood


as a plural form with pronominal suffix (cf. GK 145h). In GnzPs both the
forms ( 1:15; 2:6, 7, 23) and ( 4:9, 13) are to be found, and the former
commentary 83

is clearly plural at 2:23. No singular form of this noun is attested in Classical


Hebrew literature, though outside GnzPs the form occurs twice as a
defectively written plural: at 2Sam. 24:14 in the kethibh and at 4QBarka 1.1:7
(which in view of in the same phrase at 1.1:3 is surely a plural). For
followed by , see 1Kgs 3:26; Ps. 145:9. is also used with the verb
pi. at Ps. 103:13. Our psalmist employs to form a contrast
with at the end of the line.

2:6 }{. A phrase taken from Zech. 11:4, 7, where the prophet
is commanded to be, and subsequently becomes, a shepherd to the
flock of, i.e. destined for, slaughter. The copyist originally omitted the
of the definite article, and then added it above the line.

2:6 . Based on Zech. 11:5:


and their shepherds did not spare them. For the use of as opposed to
, see also Hab. 1:17; Lam. 2:21; 3:43; 2Chr. 36:17.

2:7 This continues the thought of the previous line, without explicitly referring
to sheep or shepherds. An appeal is made to God to do what the caring
shepherd should have done in tending the injured sheep. The underlying
theme here is suggested by Ezek. 34:4, 16; cf. Zech. 11:16, but it may also allude
to such passages as Isa. 30:26; Hos. 6:1; Ps. 147:3; Job 5:18, where God is said
to bind up the wounds of his people and heal them of injuries, particularly
those which he himself has inflicted upon them.

2:7 . Cf. 4:1: . The adjective is rare


in Classical Hebrew, being found elsewhere just 4 times in the Bible and once
in Ben Sira. is the only instance of its being used attributively, and
this reading may be suggestive of LXX the afflicted bones
for MT the bones which you have crushed at Ps. 51:10. For ,
see comment on the previous line.

2:7 . Cf. 4:1: . The verbs and


are used in parallel or association with each other at Isa. 30:26; Ezek.
34:4; Hos. 6:1; Ps. 147:3; Job 5:18. In the Bible is often used figuratively in a
very general sense to refer to the ruin, wound or crushing of Gods people
(e.g. Jer. 14:17; 30:12; Am. 6:6; Lam. 3:48). Obviously, here is such a
usage, and its parallelism with indicates that the figure is very
clearly that of fractured limbs (cf. the literal use of at Lev. 21:19; 24:20).
is found as object of the piel of at Jer. 6:14; 8:11, where prophet and
84 commentary

priest are accused of healing the wound of Gods people lightly; cf. also Lam.
2:13. Also at 11QPsa 24:16 (Syriac Psalm III) Sanders reconstructs: []
( DJD IV, p. 71). The present passage is the only occurrence in Classical
Hebrew of the verb with the preposition of accompaniment.

2:8 Having invoked the mercy of God for his down-trodden people in lines 67,
the psalmist begins what is the theme for much of the rest of the psalm,
namely a presentation of himself as one with a mission for the rest of the
world, in terms which recall the servant figure of Deutero-Isaiah. Not only
does he use the term of himself (2:21, as frequently elsewhere in GnzPs),
but he also makes use of the phrase found at Isa. 42:6; 49:6 (the latter
within a so-called Servant Song, and the former in a passage closely associated
with such a Song), and enters into a short polemic against idols and their
worshippers (2:1719; cf. Isa. 42:8; 44:9ff.; 45:16).

2:8 . The noun here is presumably rather than , since


it is the former rather than the latter that is used in the construct or with
suffixes. Here, since it refers to the source (rather than the abstract quality) of
goodness, its meaning must be something like well-being, benefit, prosperity.
The same is the case with the only other occurrence of this noun in GnzPs at
4:5.

2:8 . The is covered by a stain and is very faint, but can just
be read. These words perhaps refer to the intercessory role of the psalmist,
which was seen at the end of the first psalm (2:2). It should be noted that in
Mishnaic Hebrew the verb became specifically associated with standing
for prayer, though in the present context any connection with prayer is
suggested more by the preposition than the verb (see comments on 2:5 and
3:2). The combination hi. is to be found at 1QH 15:31 where, however,
prayer does not seem to be implied.

2:8 . This is an obvious allusion to Isa. 42:6; 49:6, where


is to be found as the object of . Probably the allusion is more to
the latter passage than the former, since not only is the perfect tense of the
verb used (rather than the imperfect, as at Isa. 42:6), but also the presence of
is evidently dependent on at Isa. 49:5. The addition of the definite
article in probably indicates that our psalmist reflects the viewpoint
of an age when the world was more distinctly divided between Israel and
the Gentiles than had been the case in biblical times. In the Bible was
frequently used of Israel, though it did come to be more associated with the
commentary 85

non-Hebrew peoples. The influence of the two passages from Deutero-Isaiah


is seen not only in the use of the phrase , but also in the whole tenor
of this line and those which follow, where our psalmist sees himself as having
a mission to the world rather like that of the servant figure of Isa. 42:67;
49:67.

2:9 Here and in the following lines our psalmist spells out what will be the
result of his mission to the nations referred to in the previous line.

2:9 . For , see comment on 1:18. The thought


behind the first half of the line may very loosely be suggested by Ps. 96:3||1Chr.
16:24: )(tell of his glory among the nations. If so, the
changes made by our psalmist are significant. No longer are the worshippers
commanded to tell of Gods glory among the nations; rather it is the nations
themselves which tell of Gods glory, as a result of the work of the servant
figure behind the psalm. is also to be found as object of pi. at Ps. 19:2;
Est. 5:11; 1QH 5:17; 19:6; 20:30; fr. 2.1:4; 4QShirShabba 2:5; GnzPs 4:25.

2:9 . For as object of , cf. Mic. 7:9 where


it is introduced by . Clearly refers to the servant figure behind this
psalm. The only place in the Bible where ni. is used of David is 1 Sam. 22:14,
in reference to the historical not the messianic David, though interestingly
enough if the words used there ( ) were lifted out of
their context, they might well be taken as a fitting description of our psalmist.
It is perhaps also worth noting that is used of God at Isa. 49:7, the verse
following the one to which the previous line of our psalm alludes. It has
already been observed that our psalmist is fond of using of himself terms
which are elsewhere applicable to God (see comments on 1:14, 16, 23), but it is
not clear that here is such a case.

2:10 . This form appears to be a qal passive participle. It could be an


error for the active participle, i.e. , but since neither this nor any other
verbal form from the root is attested, it is probably to be regarded as an
error for , i.e. the plural of or ruler (the form of the singular is not
certain).

2:10 . The phrase )(in the sense of kings of (the) earth is


found in the Bible at 1Kgs 5:14||2Chr. 9:22; Ezek. 27:33; Ps. 2:2; 76:13; 89:28;
102:16; 138:4; 148:11; Lam. 4:12: 2Chr. 9:23, though the occurrence in our Genizah
Psalm does not obviously relate to any of these passages.
86 commentary

2:10 . The participle of is found just 6 times in the Bible, always as


plural absolute, parallel with at Judg. 5:3; Hab. 1:10; Ps. 2:2; Prov. 8:15; 31:4,
and parallel with at Isa. 40:23. It is also found at Sir. 44:4 parallel with ,
and in a very fragmentary context at 1Q39 10:2.

2:10 . The verb is usually followed by the preposition ( cf.


at 2 Sam. 23:3), though there are also instances of the participle used as
a noun in the construct: at Isa. 16:1, at Ps. 105:20 and

at Isa. 28:14.

2:11 . For as object of in a context in which


foreigners see the might of God, cf. Sir. 33:3. In the present passage the rulers of
the world see the mighty deeds of his right hand. The closest biblical parallel
to is at Ps. 20:7; cf. also at 1QM 11:11
as an approximate semantic equivalent. The use of the plural of to
refer to the mighty deeds of God, particularly in the salvation history of his
people, is quite frequent in the Bible (e.g. Deut. 3:24; Ps. 20:7; 71:16; 106:2; 145:4,
12; 150:2). Here the reference is probably to the restoration of the fortunes
of Israel, for which petition was made by our psalmist in lines 67, and
which is evidently to form a basis for the mission of the psalmist to the
nations.

2:11 . The phrase occurs at Ec. 12:13, apparently


meaning end of (the) matter, which may refer to the end of the book or may
introduce the words which follow as the sum, i.e. conclusion, of the argument
of the book. Here probably refers to the fulfilment of the
word of God given in prophecy, perhaps specifically as interpreted by, or
given to, our psalmist (cf. the use of at 3:26). The phrase
at Jer. 23:9 apparently refers to Gods words given to Jeremiah, and
at Ps. 105:42 evidently refers to Gods promise to Abraham. The
combination also occurs at 4QDibHama 3.2:8, and at
4QShirShabbd 1.1:24; 4QWaysb 13:4; 4QBarkc 1.1:7. Flusser and Safrai correct
to counsel.

2:12 . The singular is now used, whereas in the


previous line it was the plural. For as the object of , see Isa. 33:13;
cf. also its use as object of the hiphil of at Jer. 16:21; Ps. 106:8; 145:12;
1QH 12:2829. The use of here may perhaps have been suggested by its
presence at Ps. 20:7, a verse which, as we have already seen, provides the
closest biblical parallel to in the previous line.
commentary 87

2:12 . The use of to introduce a clause following


may be further evidence of the influence of Ps. 20:7, though perhaps a
closer parallel is provided by Isa. 41:20, where ( together with other verbs)
is followed by which introduces a clause in which is subject of ,
and the object of this verb is a demonstrative ( ;) a similar usage is to be
found at Job 12:9. For the use of in parallelism with as referring to the
hand of God, see Jer. 16:21; Ps. 89:14. For as the object of ( in the
sense of both do and make), see Lev. 20:23; Isa. 45:7; 66:2 (where the subject
of is ;) Jer. 3:7; 5:19; 14:22; Ezek. 16:30; 17:18; 18:11. is probably to be
understood as the participle, despite the fact that in GnzPs the qal participle
is normally fully written with ww (the only other possible instance with
defective spelling is at 4:2). If here was perfect, with the subject of
one would expect the feminine form , as at Isa. 66:2.

2:13 . For as subject of , see Ps. 32:11; 58:11; 64:11;


68:4; 97:12; Job 22:19. Of these, the closest parallel is provided by Ps. 58:11:
the righteous one shall rejoice when he sees vengeance. To whom
does in our Genizah Psalm refer here? One possibility is that it is used of
the righteous person in general. It seems more likely, however, that it refers to
the servant figure with whom the psalmist identifies himself. It should be
noted that is used of the servant in the Servant Song of Deutero-Isaiah at
53:11 (note also the occurrence of the verb in this verse). Moreover, in
the second half of the line the righteous one is said to rejoice with songs and
praises, which recalls the connection made between our psalmist (described
as )and song at 1:8, 22 (cf. 2:1415).

2:13 . The copyist has divided the line between


and , but our translation (and also the layout in the editions of
both Harkavy and Flusser and Safrai) takes as belonging to the
second hemistich.
The noun , which is formed from the hiphil of , is found also in
line 15. The basic meaning is thanksgiving, praise (often in Mishnaic Hebrew
confession; Jastrow, p. 337), and in the context of our Genizah Psalm it evidently
refers to a song of thanksgiving or praise. Although relatively well attested in
Mishnaic Hebrew (sometimes in the form ) , it is otherwise found only at
Sir. 51:17 in Classical Hebrew. It may, however, be a variant form of the similar
noun of the same meaning , which occurs only as a plural form ( or
perhaps is more correctly to be regarded as a hiphil infinitive of ), and
which is found at Neh. 12:46; Sir. 47:8, and about 15 times in the literature of
Qumran.
88 commentary

2:14 . This relates to the thought in 1:8, where it is said that


worshippers of Gods name, who believe the word of the servant figure
shall learn a song. As was observed above, the righteous one ( ) in the
previous line, who rejoices with songs and praises, is probably the servant.
Apparently, what the inhabitants of the world learn from him is the way
( ) of God, and also song, since in the following line it is said that they
will come into his presence with thanksgiving, with psalms and praises. The
combination with reference to the one from whom one learns is not
found in the Bible, though it is quite well attested in Mishnaic Hebrew (a few
examples are given by Jastrow, p. 712); different uses of with the piel of
are to be found at Ps. 71:17; 94:12.

2:14 . The phrase )( occurs several times in the Bible


(Isa. 18:3; 26:9, 18; Ps. 33:8; Lam. 4:12; cf. also )( at Nah. 1:5;
Ps. 24:1; 98:7).

2:14 . The sense of is apparently turn rather than return,


since the inhabitants of the world are to turn to God as a result of the mission
of the servant; there is no (explicit) suggestion that they are to go back to him,
having previously left him. It seems difficult to see how Yadins translation
of as repenting their ways can be justified linguistically. The
combination is not attested elsewhere in Classical Hebrew, but in
the present context it is an approximate equivalent to the relatively frequent
use in the Bible of with reference to (re)turning to God (e.g. 1 Kgs 8:33;
Hos. 6:1; BDB 6c, p. 997b; DCH VIII 11a, pp. 281282). Here refers to the
commandments of God, which the inhabitants of the world learn from the
servant.

2:14 . Cf. 1QH 4:14.

2:15 Based on Ps. 95:2:


GnzPs
Ps. 95:2
The 1st person plural of the canonical Psalm is changed to the 3rd person
plural, and is changed to , a phrase repeated from 2:13.
The repetition of this phrase supports the inference that the inhabitants
of the world have learned these songs and praises from the servant (see
comment on 2:14; cf. 1:8), since at 2:13 it is he who rejoices before God with
such songs and praises.
commentary 89

2:16 . This first of these words is very faint, the being


particularly difficult to make out. There are no close parallels to the first
half of this line, as object of pi. not being otherwise attested. It
should also be noted that is used with only at Num. 2:17; 1Sam.
11:11. The semantically equivalent is to be found at Josh. 1:11; 3:2,
and variants of it with pronominal suffixes at Deut. 23:15; 29:10; Ps. 78:28;
cf. also at Num. 14:44; Deut. 2:14, 15. The choice of by our
psalmist may have been due to the consideration that in the Bible when
is used with it is always with reference to the camp of Israel,
whereas at 1Sam. 11:11 refers to the camp of the Ammonites, and
at Num. 2:17 seems to refer to the encampments of the various
Israelite tribes (rather than the whole camp of Israel). He may, therefore,
have preferred to use when referring to the camps of the inhabitants
of the world, though the total number of occurrences of and with
is too small to be at all certain of this. It is of interest to note that
was sometimes used in Qumran literature to refer to communities and
settlements (e.g. CD 7:6; 9:11; 10:23; 12:23 [ ;]][4QDa 11:17; 1QSa 2:15; see
DCH V 2, p. 222).

2:16 . The two verbs used here may be yet more


evidence of this second psalm being influenced by the chapters belonging to
Deutero-Isaiah, since both verbs (particularly )are characteristic of that
section of the Bible. This hemistich may be very loosely dependent on Isa.
41:20. The object of is evidently the nations who, because of the mission
of the servant figure, realise that they have been created by God, and therefore
reject idolatry (lines 1719).

2:17 . is very faint and difficult to read; Flusser and


Safrai read , in accordance with Ps. 97:7. This first clause is based upon
this biblical passage, with the substitution of for . is quite an
infrequent word, being attested just 5 times in the Bible (Deut. 4:16; Ezek.
8:3, 5; 2Chr. 33:7, 15), not all in the Qumran literature, and rarely in Mishnaic
Hebrew. A cognate word is known from Phoenician. The use of in the
first clause and in the second clause of the present line suggests
that these are approximate equivalents. Likewise, in two biblical passages
and appear to be used to refer to the same idols: at Deut. 4:16 is
in apposition with , and at 2Chr. 33:7 the construct phrase
occurs. It seems from these contexts that is a more general
term, and refers to a particular kind of , perhaps that of a particular
deity.
90 commentary

2:17 . The use of here is difficult in two respects. Firstly,


in the use of the imperfect tense. This is found within a whole series of
imperfects which describe future events: in the preceding lines it is said
that the nations will learn from the servant and turn to God and come into
his presence with praises, in the following lines it is said that they will no
longer practise idolatry, and the verb at the beginning of the present
line likewise refers to the future. But is clearly not used of the future. It
may just be possible to translate with a present tense, if it is supposed that it
describes the idolaters at the point at which they turn to God and cease to
practise idolatry. In this context, however, one would more naturally expect
the verb to refer to how they had acted in the past. In the Bible the use of the
imperfect with reference to repeated action in the past is well-established
(Dr. Tenses 21, 30). But in later Hebrew, particularly as represented by
the Qumran literature, the imperfect becomes more definitely associated
with the future, and in Mishnaic Hebrew it becomes more genuinely a future
tense. In any case, the use of an imperfect to refer to the past among a whole
series of imperfects which refer to the future remains difficult. Probably the
most likely explanation is that the of the preformative is a dittography from
the preceding , and the original reading was . Whether or not this is
accepted, a translation with a past tense seems required.
The second difficulty concerns the meaning of here. In Classical
Hebrew the qal of the verb normally means be wise, act wisely, and in Mishnaic
Hebrew it has also acquired the extended meaning of know. The only use in
the Bible of any word from the root in connection with is that of
at Isa. 40:20, where it describes the smith who makes the as skilful.
This obviously does not help us to understand in the present context,
since it is the worshippers of the graven images who are the subject of the
verb. Harkavy suggests emending to or . If is retained, it
must be supposed that it refers to a false kind of being wise. Although this
verb is never used in this sense in the Bible, the adjective is sometimes
found together with to describe someone who is wise in his own sight
as opposed to being genuinely wise (Isa. 5:21; Prov. 3:7; 26:5, 12; 28:11). Similarly,
the verb here may mean that the idolaters acted wisely as far as they were
concerned, i.e. they acted as though they were wise. Yadin translates according
to its sense in Mishnaic Hebrew: for they will come to recognize their statues.
But this is not without difficulty. Firstly, with such a usage one would expect
the direct object, rather than the object introduced by . Secondly, one would
have to assume a pregnant use of the verb, i.e. recognize (the worthlessness
of ), rather than its usual simple sense of know, recognize. Thirdly, when one
observes that is really an equivalent of who
commentary 91

boast in worthless idols at Ps. 97:7, it seems more satisfactory to translate the
former as they acted as though they were wise with their graven images, with
the verb understood as suggested above.

2:18 . is not otherwise found as the object of ,


but cf. Ps. 97:7. The object-marker is quite common in GnzPs, occurring
some 21 times, which contrasts with its infrequency in the poetry of the Bible.
But the use of the object-marker to precede , as an indefinite noun, is
unexpected. There is also apparently an instance of this in at 4:1.
Nevertheless, one cannot help the suspicion that originally stood in
place of here.

2:18 . Cf. Mic. 5:12b. The combination


occurs a total of 53 times in the MT, mainly in reference to idols, as
here, but also in reference to other products of human labour or to human
deeds (e.g. Deut. 2:7; Hag. 2:14; Ps. 90:17; Lam. 3:64). For htpal.,
see Isa. 2:8; Jer. 1:16; Mic. 5:12.

2:19 . A quotation of Isa. 2:18, but with the plural for


the singular of the MT. Since the verb has a plural subject, it has long
been proposed to emend the MT to ( e.g. BHK), and this emendation
now has the support of an ancient textual witness with the reading of in
1QIsaa. The same reading in our psalm may provide further evidence for this
pre-Masoretic textual tradition of the biblical passage.

2:19 . To whom does the suffix of refer? It may


refer to the worshippers of the idols, in which case is a parallel to
in the first half of the line, and their desirable things are their idols.
But if the suffix refers to the worshippers, one would expect also to be
given the same suffix, notwithstanding the lack of a suffix at Isa 2:18. It seems
preferable, therefore, to take the suffix of as referring to , in
which case their desirable things in effect means what is desirable about the
idols. For + , see Job 4:20; 20:7; cf. also Ps. 9:19 () .

2:20 . A clear echo of the Qaddish prayer. The


only place in the Bible where htp. and htp. are found together is
Ezek. 38:23, and our psalm may be alluding to this passage. But if so, there is a
significant difference in the way in which it uses these verbs. In Ezek. 38:23 the
hithpael of each verb has a genuinely reflexive sense: magnify oneself or show
oneself great and show oneself holy respectively; and these verbs express what
92 commentary

God does in the sight of ( ) many nations. In GnzPs, however, although


God is still the subject of these verbs, the phrase which follows indicates that
the two hithpael verbs are used in what is more of a passive than a reflexive
sense. The preposition introduces the agent of the action described by
the verbs (DCH V 9, p. 343), and should be translated by rather than from.
A reflexive meaning for the verbs could still be expressed by some such
translation as, allow oneself to be magnified and sanctified, but, in view of the
words which follow, a straightforward passive translation would seem more
natural, i.e. be magnified and sanctified. The wider context would also support
such a translation. For what is stated here in line 20 is the consequence of
the servants telling of the wonderful deeds of God, about which we read in
line 21. That is to say, God is magnified and sanctified by his works because of
the missionary activity of the servant figure. It should further be noted that
htp. is again found in GnzPs in the sense of be sanctified at 4:11, where
the hithpael of another two verbs and a hithpolel are also used as passives. In
Biblical Hebrew the hithpael is only rarely used in a passive sense (GK 54g),
in the Hebrew of Qumran this use is more frequent, and in Mishnaic Hebrew
this use of the hithpael/nithpaal is well established (MH 140).
The use of mouth of in suggests that the works of God are
thought of as personified; see comment on 1:10. It is possible that a deliberate
contrast is intended with the of line 18: unlike the idols as the
work of human hands, Gods works in creation ascribe to him greatness and
sanctity. must surely be a plural word, with defective spelling. Harkavy
reads , but this is either a mistake or a deliberate correction, since the
reading in the manuscript is not in doubt. That the of a plural before a 2nd
masc. sing. suffix is sometimes written defectively in GnzPs is very clearly
indicated by at 2:23.

2:20 . This phrase is found several times in the Bible (Isa. 9:6;
59:21; Mic. 4:7; Ps. 113:2; 115:18; 121:8; 125:2; 131:3).

2:21 . On the use of in GnzPs, see comment on 1:6.


The reading of the letters is difficult, due to staining and damage.
Nevertheless all these letters except may be read with some confidence.
For all three previous editions of GnzPs read here . This
is a possible reading, but what is visible of the first letter looks much more
like the top part of a than a . If the reading of is correct, it is presumably
a partitive use of , i.e. meaning (some) of. This use of the preposition is
not otherwise attested with pi., but it would suit the context here. Gods
wonderful deeds are too numerous to recount, nevertheless the servant will
commentary 93

recount at least some of them, as the strength of his prophetic word allows.
If is read, the preposition could also be partitive (DCH II, 6,
p. 84b), or it could have the sense of concerning (DCH II, 12, p. 85b), but
here it most likely introduces the object of the verb (DCH II, 18, p. 86b),
even though such a usage with pi. is not attested elsewhere. The niphal
participle of is, however, to be found as the direct object of this verb at
Judg. 6:13; Ps. 9:2; 26:7; 75:2; 78:4; 96:3||1Chr. 16:24; 1QH 9:30, 33; 11:23; 18:21; cf.
also Ps. 40:6.

2:21 . Here must mean according to. The use of this


word to introduce a noun (or in this case two nouns) rather than a verbal
clause or a nominal clause consisting of a noun with preposition (e.g.
as [it was] in the beginning at Gen. 41:21) is somewhat unusual. In this
usage is really equivalent to simple , as it is in as the fruit
of the vine at Ezek. 15:6. his strength and the spirit of his words
probably refers to the prophetic word of the servant figure behind the psalm.
In this connection it should be noted that is found in parallelism with
at Prov. 1:23 and Isa. 59:21, the former with reference to the spirit and
word of wisdom, and the latter apparently to the spirit and word of God in
prophecy. It should also be noted that and occur in apposition at Mic.
3:8, where the reference is very clearly to the spirit of God in prophecy. In
the present context and are used as virtual synonyms, referring to the
strength and the prophetic word of the servant. For the semantic association
of and , cf. also Hab. 1:11 (where = wind) and Zech. 4:6.

2:22 . In the and the are


damaged, but the reading is not in doubt. The use of for at the beginning of
the line provides confirmation that in the previous line refers
to the prophetic word of the servant, since represent what
is revealed to him; see comment on 2:4. Note that elsewhere in our psalms
occurs only in the title sequences (2:4; 3:10; 4:16) and in the phrase
at 3:26. This latter occurrence is of relevance in understanding the use
of in the present line in two respects. Firstly, in both places is used
in connection with to refer to what is revealed to the servant. Secondly,
lit. glory of (the) vision, i.e. (the) glorious vision and lit.
words of his holiness, i.e. his holy words at 3:26 suggest that a translation of
your glorious vision rather than vision of your glory would be preferable in the
present line. These two considerations suggest that is here more in the
nature of a verbal than a visual phenomenon, though a visual aspect is not
necessarily precluded. It appears that throughout our psalms (not just in the
94 commentary

juxtaposition of with in the title sequences) refers to the


prophetic revelation given to the psalmist. This means that for our psalmist a
different concept lies behind the use of in association with than is
the case with such uses at Exod. 24:17; Ezek. 1:28; 8:4, where a visual aspect
is to the fore. While the phrase in the present passage may be
suggestive of at Exod. 24:17 (cf. also ][in 1QLitPr
3.2:6), it conveys something rather different than this biblical passage does in
the context of Sinai. Thus a translation of your glorious vision seems preferable
here to the appearance of your glory, as Yadin renders the phrase in the light
of Exod. 24:17.

2:23 This line seems out of place following the previous line, in which the
psalmist expressed his joy in the revelation given him by God. Why should he
now pray that God not hide himself from him? If it is intended as a prayer
that God continue his revelation, it seems expressed in unnecessarily strong
terms. Why should he pray do not slay me? Moreover, this line interrupts a
sequence of three lines each beginning with .

2:23 . The verb here must be niphal, i.e. . The only similar
use of the niphal with God as subject in the Bible is at Ps. 89:47. More frequent
is the hiphil of with God as subject and as object (e.g. Deut. 31:17; 32:20;
Isa. 8:17; 54:8; 64:6; Ezek. 39:23; Mic. 3:4; Ps. 13:2; 22:25; 27:9; 30:8; 44:25; 69:18;
88:15; 102:3; 143:7; Job 13:24; 34:29). One cannot help wondering if was
originally a hiphil, and has been lost from the text. The cry
is a conventional liturgical petition (Ps. 27:9; 102:3; 143:7).

2:23 . This is a very clear instance of the defective spelling of a


plural form with pronominal suffix. It is likely that occurrences of at 1:15;
2:6, 7 are also to be understood in the same way. The adjective is several
times used with this noun in the Bible, both attributively (Dan. 9:18; Neh. 9:19,
27, 31) and predicatively (2Sam. 24:14||1 Chr. 21:13; Ps. 119:156); cf. also the use
of at Ps. 69:17 in proximity to in the following
verse.

2:23 . is found in parallel with at 2:7. In the present


line these two words occur in positions in which one might have expected
them to be parallel, but proper parallelism is prevented by differences in
both prepositions and pronominal suffixes. The difference in preposition
is not really a problem. , like , can have the sense of on account of
(DCH II, 3, pp. 8384). It is true that in the two places where we find
commentary 95

in the Bible (Neh. 9:19, 31) is normally translated in, but the
use of this preposition in the same sense here would still give a reasonable
parallel to ( notwithstanding the repetition of in the parallelism at
2:7). The pronominal suffix in , however, presents more of a problem.
To what does it refer? As the text stands, Harkavy suggests that it refers back
to in the previous line, in which case denotes the psalmists
love for Gods words. This is possible, but the intervening seems a
more natural referent for the suffix, in which case would denote Gods
love for the psalmist. Yet if this is what the psalmist intended, it is somewhat
awkwardly expressed. Harkavy proposes that should be read instead
of , in which case would make a clear parallel to
.

2:24 This is the first of four lines in which the psalmist expresses the greater
value which he places upon the things pertaining to God than upon worldly
things. All four make use of the preposition of comparison than. Whereas
the present line has a verbal first clause, the lines which follow are all nominal
clauses following the pattern better than.

2:24 )( . From Ps. 26:8. The of has a dot above it to


indicate erasure, thus giving a reading of , as found in the MT. The and
are partly obscured by a crease in the manuscript.

2:24 . The combination is to be found at 2 Kgs 20:18||Isa.


39:7; Ps. 45:16; Dan. 1:4 ( ;)Sir. 50:2, 7 (), and at Prov. 30:28;
4QShirShabba 1.1:13. In the Bible is more often used of the temple of God
than of royal palaces.

2:25 . The of is partly obscured by


a crease in the manuscript. Based on Ps. 119:72:
. Our psalmist takes this verse of the canonical Psalm and intensifies the
comparison in three respects to emphasize the value which he places upon
the law of God: he increases the figure from the indefinite thousands to a
thousand thousands, he specifies the monetary unit as talents (i.e. the largest
unit of weight or money, a million of them being an unimaginable amount)
and he omits the reference to silver, since it is of lesser value than gold.

2:26 ][. The is damaged, but can be reconstructed with confidence.


The word must be the noun sanctification, formed from the piel
of the root. It would be difficult to understand it as the adjective used
96 commentary

attributively, since not only is the word order contrary to what would be
expected, but also the parallel phrases and would lead one
to expect a construct phrase. It would be even more difficult to understand
it as the adjective used nominally, so that ][is lit. holy one of
your word, i.e. your holy word. This would be awkward, and the use of
at 2:11 and at 3:26 (cf. also at Jer. 23:9 and
at Ps. 105:42) strongly suggest that if our psalmist had intended your
holy word here, he would have read . The noun is not found
in Biblical Hebrew but is well-attested in Mishnaic Hebrew (Jastrow, p. 1355).
The phrase sanctification of your word would refer to the proclamation of
the sanctity of Gods word by the servant figure behind our psalm, a further
aspect to his mission described in lines 2122. The interest of the psalmist
in sanctification is seen elsewhere in the use of the feminine noun at
1:16; 4:7, 25 and the verb pi. sanctify at 1:22 and htp. be sanctified at 2:20;
4:11.

2:26 . and vars., precious thing, lit. vessel of desire is to


be found at Jer. 25:34; Hos. 13:15; Nah. 2:10; Dan. 11:8; 2Chr. 32:27; 36:10. On the
use of in GnzPs, see comment on 3:15.

2:27 . your gracious commandments, lit. the commandments of your


will. The of is partly obscured by a crease in the manuscript.

2:27 ][ . The first two letters are lost because of damage


to the manuscript, and only a small part of lower tail of the remains, but
][is very likely to be a correct reconstruction. Both Harkavy and Flusser
and Safrai give the reading without indicating reconstruction. Neither
the combination nor the noun is found elsewhere in the
literature of Classical Hebrew, but both are well attested in that of Mishnaic
Hebrew. For the former, see e.g. Mish. Tamid 7:1; Siphre Zutta 27:18. The
combination is to be found in Mish. Kelim 11:8; Mekh.
Beshalla 1:88, 89; 6:111, 113; Mekh. b. Yoai 14:5, 6, 25; Aboth 6:9. In Classical
Hebrew the adjective , not , is used to refer to precious stones, e.g.
2Sam. 12:30||1Chr. 20:2; 1Kgs 10:2||2Chr. 9:1; Ezek. 27:22; Dan. 11:38; Sir. 45:11;
4QDibHama 12.4:10.
is a loan word from Greek , pearl, which is
probably Persian in origin. The use of this word could be evidence for a
relatively late date. It would seem that there are no Greek or Latin loan words
attested in the literature of Qumran, though there are a few Persian loan
words, apparently borrowed through Aramaic (HDSS, 600).
commentary 97

2:27 . Flusser and Safrai (p. 102, n. 13 [Heb.]; p. 269, n. 11


[Eng.]) suggest that these words might have been added by a medieval scribe
familiar with Aboth 6:9, since they expand the parallelism.

2:27 . The desires of kings refers to the things which kings desire.
This phrase, which is not otherwise attested, stands in apposition with the
preceding ][ , as is evident from the lack of a conjunction
before . For the use of and the general thought behind this line,
cf. the comparison between wisdom and jewels ( ) as desirable things
( plural) at Prov. 3:15(Qr); 8:11. The plural of meaning desirable things
may be compared with the use of the plural of in the same sense at
Dan. 11:38, 43.

3:1 . On , see comment on 1:27. The construction


- is to be found at Ps. 137:8, 9; 146:5; Sir. 25:8. For in connection with
, cf. Prov. 3:13. For as object of , see Prov. 21:21; Sir. 4:13.

3:1 . See comment on 1:6.

3:1 . The theme of the mission of the servant is again


hinted at by the use of , with the suffix referring to God. The suggestion
would appear to be that if the request of the servant specified in the following
lines is granted, God will be glorified in the sight of the nations. Nowhere in
Classical Hebrew literature is found with a suffix referring to God, nor is
it followed by a noun for God. Perhaps the nearest to this is for
the sake of his great name at 1Sam. 12:22, and for the sake of your word
at 2Sam. 7:21. It might, however, be compared with the semantically similar
for the sake of, which is followed by with reference to the name of God
(sometimes with the suggestion of the nations looking on) at 1Kgs 8:41||2Chr.
6:32; Isa. 48:9; 66:5; Jer. 14:7, 21; Ezek. 20:9, 14, 22, 44; Ps. 23:3; 79:9; 143:11, and
is followed by the Tetragrammaton at Isa. 49:7; 55:5, and at Dan. 9:17.
normally refers to what precedes. Here it really refers both to what
precedes and what follows. It refers to what precedes in that the psalmist is
asking that he might find honour in the desires of Gods will, and it refers to
what follows in that lines 2 and 3 contain an amplification of this request.
This is confirmed by the presence in line 4 of the nouns and which
refer back to in line 2 and in line 1, and likewise by the presence of
in line 4 which is repeated from line 1.
following is not attested in the MT, though this verb is sometimes
found with to refer to the person of whom the request is asked (e.g. Judg.
98 commentary

8:24; 1Sam. 1:20; Zech. 10:1; Ps. 2:8; 21:5; Ezr. 8:22), and with the compound
prepositions ( e.g. Exod. 22:13; Deut. 10:12; 18:16; Isa. 7:11), and ( e.g.
Judg. 1:14; 1Kgs 2:16, 20; Ps. 27:4; Prov. 30:7).

3:2 . The desire ( )of the psalmist is that he should live


according to the desires of Gods will ( , lines 1 and 4). is quite
rare in Classical Hebrew texts, occurring just 6 times in the Bible and twice in
Qumran texts (4QHalakhahA 13:2; 11QPsa 24:4); it is also found in line 4 of
the present psalm. The plural form with suffix here is the only instance of a
plural of this word.

3:2 . For with , see Gen. 17:18; Hos. 6:2. may refer
to Gods presence generally, as is suggested by the expansion of this petition
in the next line, though it should be borne in mind that in the Bible this
word is often used with overtones which may suggest Gods presence in the
sanctuary (e.g. Ps. 22:28; 88:3; 95:6; 141:2; cf. comment on 2:5). Moreover, is
often associated with in contexts involving the sanctuary, as seen by the
phrases ( Exod. 28:29, 30; Lev. 24:3, 4, 8), ( 1Chr.
23:31), ( Exod. 25:30); and are also found in association in
secular contexts involving a kingly court at 1Kgs 10:8||2Chr. 9:7; 2Kgs 25:29||Jer.
52:33; one might also compare the use of in association with at Isa.
49:16; Ps. 16:8; 38:18; 50:8; 51:5; 109:15.

3:3 The force of in the previous line is carried over to this line as the psalmist
expands upon his petition. This line may perhaps be very loosely influenced
by 1Kgs 3:6, where Solomon says in prayer concerning his father David (to
whom he refers as ) : he walked before
you in faithfulness and in righteousness and in uprightness of heart. For in
parallel or other association with , see also Isa. 48:1; 59:14; Jer. 4:2; Zech.
8:8; Ps. 40:11; 119:142; Prov. 11:18; 1QH 19:7; 1QS 1:5; 8:2; 11:14.

3:3 . The piel of in the Bible is used particularly


as a frequentative, though this use does not necessarily distinguish it from
the qal where the latter refers to the living of a moral or religious life.
is not otherwise attested in piel, though the qal is to be found at 1Kgs
3:6 (quoted above), and htp. is to be found at 4QInstrb 2.3:10; 4QInstrc
19:4. is here regarded as the opposite of . The phrase is not
attested elsewhere.
commentary 99

3:3 . The copyist has arranged as belonging to the first


hemistich, and this is followed by Flusser and Safrai, but Harkavy is surely
right to place it with the second hemistich, as is required in translation. The
form is problematical. Harkavy reproduces it in his text, but in the
apparatus he suggests two possible emendations: or . The latter
is given by Flusser and Safrai in their text as an editorial correction. The
combination occurs in MS B of Sir. 51:15 ( ; the
Ben Sira text in 11QPsa reads for ), and it occurs with the hiphil
of the verb at Ps. 25:5. Some support for may also be claimed in
the semantic parallel pi. at Ps. 86:11. The combination ,
however, would be a little more difficult in that the preposition would
be used to introduce the object, which would be a different kind of use for
this preposition than that which it has in the previous clause in ;
and it should be noted that does not have its object introduced by this
preposition anywhere in the Bible. Moreover, would be semantically
slightly less close as a parallel to than would . Indeed, it should
be noted that the hiphil of the verbs and occurs in parallelism at
Isa. 42:16. All things considered, seems a better emendation than
. The vowel letter used in the manuscript is very clearly not . It
is possible that this is due to the influence of , and that careless
copying has resulted in both being changed to , and being changed
to .

3:3 . See comment on 1:22.

3:3 . The second letter of is quite clearly . As the text


stands, this word would have to be understood as a pual perfect. It is unlikely
to be a qal participle, because it would be difficult for a participle to follow
directly without an intervening pronoun or noun to give the subject
of that participle. But a pual would be difficult here too. In the MT the
pual of this verb is found only at 1Kgs 6:35, where, in reference to gold
plating, the participle evidently means evenly applied, laid out smoothly.
In all probability should be corrected to , i.e. the qal imperfect.
It should be noted that this verb occurs in the qal with 11 times,
including Num. 23:27; Judg. 14:3, 7; 1 Kgs 9:12; Jer. 18:4 ( ;) 27:5,
and variants of the adjectival phrase are found some 39 times in
the Bible.

3:4 Having described his petition in lines 2b and 3, the psalmist resumes what
he was saying in lines 12a.
100 commentary

3:4 . For the parallelism of and ,


see Est. 5:6, 7, 8; 7:2, 3; 9:12, where except for 5:7 and 7:3 they are used in
association with . For the phrase in association with these
nouns in parallelism, see 11QPsa 24:4:
Incline your ear and grant me my request, and do not withhold my
petition from me.

3:4 . See comment on 1:6.

3:5 . In the MT the qal of is not found with ,


though it does occur with at Ps. 33:11; Ec. 1:4; and the hiphil of the verb
is found with at 1Chr. 17:14, and with at Ps. 148:6; 2Chr. 9:8. To
what does the suffix of refer? It could refer to and in line 3
(notwithstanding their feminine gender), though the occurrence of in
the second half of the line makes this doubtful. It is more likely that the suffix
refers to in the previous line (though of course in the thought of
our psalmist here and are equivalent to ) .

3:5 . This recalls in the petition of the psalmist


in line 3. appears to be the plural construct of . But this noun is never
used in the plural in the Bible or elsewhere in Classical Hebrew literature.
Where a plural is required, it is supplied by the related feminine noun in
the form . Thus the phrase is not found in the MT, and the
closest semantic parallel is at Prov. 8:20; 12:28 (the noun also
occurs in both verses). It should be noted, however, that is to be
found at CD 1:16, and at 1QH 15:14.

3:6 The first of the benedictions at the close of the second psalm. For general
remarks on these benedictions, see comment on 2:1b.

3:6 . For the use of as the subject of the participle of ,


see Ps. 77:15; 106:21; Job 37:5; cf. also Exod. 15:11. The only place in which is
the object of the particle of with God as subject is Am. 9:12. In view of
the Davidic associations of the Genizah Psalms, it would be tempting to look
in the present line of our psalm for an allusion to this biblical verse, since
the previous verse speaks of God raising up the fallen booth of David. But
there is not sufficient similarity between the two passages to suggest any
such allusion.
commentary 101

3:6 . This is the only occurrence of the verb in GnzPs


(though the noun is to be found at 1:9, 12; 4:23). The verb is also rather
uncommon in the literature of Qumran, being attested no more than about
half a dozen times. It is, however, of particular interest that at 1QH 19:3233 a
similar benediction is to be found: ][ blessed
are you, O Lord, for you have done these things. It is also of interest to note
that this occurs in a context in which the psalmist has described himself
as a servant ( ;19:27, 30, 33; cf. GnzPs 3:7), and in which the psalmist has
prayed for Gods truth and righteousness ( and ; 19:3031; cf. GnzPs
3:3). While the similarities between 1QH 19 and GnzPs 3 are not sufficient to
demonstrate the direct influence of one text upon the other, it is tempting to
think that more than coincidence is involved here. At the very least, they may
reflect a common liturgical tradition. For in parallelism with , see Isa.
41:4; 44:15; Job 35:6. The use of is not remarkable here, since counts
as making a noun definite, as far the object-marker is concerned (BDB 1,
p. 84b; notwithstanding GnzPs 2:12), and the phrase occurs 14 times
in the Bible (Gen. 15:10; Lev. 20:23; Judg. 13:23; 20:44, 46; 2Kgs 10:9; Isa. 66:2;
Jer. 3:7; 5:19; 14:22; Ezek. 16:30; 18:11; Zech. 8:12, 17). In their immediate context
and refer to the petition of the psalmist set out in lines 23. But they
also refer back to all that this second psalm says about what God has done
through the servant figure in his mission to the nations. This is confirmed by
the use of the phrase which is repeated from 2:12, where it is the object
of , and where it clearly refers to what God has accomplished through the
servant figure. Further confirmation is to be found in the use of in the
benediction in the following line.

3:7 . The parallelism of this line clearly shows that


refers to our psalmist. The combination is probably an oblique
indication that he identifies himself with David; cf. at Ps. 78:70,
at 1 Kgs 11:34 and used of Gods choosing of
David at 2Sam. 6:21; 1Kgs 8:16; 1Chr. 28:4. Already within scripture and
were so associated with David that they were applied to Zerubbabel as a
descendant of his (Hag. 2:23). In view of the influence that the chapters of
Deutero-Isaiah have had on this psalm, it is also worth noting that with
reference to Israel is found as direct object of at Isa. 41:8, 9; 43:10, and as
object introduced by at 44:1, 2, though none of these are within the so-called
Servant Songs.

3:7 . The verb could be either the ww consecutive


imperfect, continuing the past tense introduced by , or it could be simple
102 commentary

ww with the imperfect, expressing confidence that God will fulfil the requests
of the servant whom he has chosen. The noun occurs only twice in
the Bible (and not in any other Classical Hebrew literature), and our psalmist
has produced what is virtually a conflation of the two biblical passages: at
Ps. 20:6 occurs as the object of pi., and at Ps. 37:4 we find
the phrase . It should be noted that the latter phrase is the object
of , which is also the verb used in connection with the cognate noun
to refer to the granting of a petition at 1 Sam. 1:17; Est. 5:8. The reading
of is quite clear. Morphologically it appears to be the object-marker
rather than the preposition with pronominal suffix. But this seems out
of place here. pi. in the sense of fulfil normally has as its object the thing
fulfilled (e.g. Exod. 23:26; 1Kgs 2:27; Isa. 65:20; Ps. 20:6), not the person for
whom it is fulfilled. A preposition would more naturally be expected. The
preposition is not otherwise found in GnzPs, but nor is there any instance
of the object-marker with pronominal suffix, which would enable comparison
with the present form. The MT has many occurrences of the preposition
with suffixes following the form ( BDB, p. 85). In any case, it is quite
possible that was originally written and that this was changed to in
the course of transmission. Nevertheless the choice of preposition is unusual.
The piel of is never used with the preposition in the MT. One might
rather have expected , which is used with pi. (in various senses) at
1Sam. 18:27; Dan. 9:2; 2Chr. 29:31, and with in the passage cited above at
Ps. 37:4.

3:8 See comment on 2:2b, 3a. The first benediction in the present line differs
from that at 2:2b in the omission of . This is presumably an accidental
omission here, since this word is also attested in the benediction at 4:14.

3:9 See comment on 2:3b4a.

3:1011 The title sequence to the third psalm. For remarks on the title
sequences, see comments on 2:4b5. The present title differs from the other
two in the spelling of instead of . The form of the date is like
that of 4:1617 as against 2:4b5, but the wording of agrees with
2:4b5 as against the longer form of at 4:1617.

3:12 Based on 1Sam. 2:7:

: GnzPs
: 1Sam. 2:7
commentary 103

The third psalm, like the fourth, but unlike the second, opens with a
benediction following the title sequence. What was a statement in the MT is
converted into a benediction by the omission of the Tetragrammaton and
the insertion of and . GnzPs also differs from the MT in the use
of the hiphil participle in place of the polel participle . The last
three letters of are difficult to read in the manuscript, but can just be
made out. The reason for this latter change is not clear. The hiphil and the
polel of would have the same meaning in this context. Moreover, GnzPs
does use polel forms elsewhere: it has the polel of at 1:10, and it actually
has the polel of at 1:11 (cf. also the hithpolel of at 4:11). One possibility
is that it is due to the influence of the form of , which in the MT is the
first word in the following verse (1Sam. 2:8), but which in the next line of
GnzPs has apparently been changed into a perfect (see comment thereon).
But there is also the possibility that our psalmist has been influenced by the
juxtaposition of hiphil forms of and in other texts (or even in popular
speech). It should be noted that the participles of these verbs occur at Sir. 7:11
() , and imperfects at Ps. 75:8 ( ;) cf. also the
use of these verbs at 4QHoda 1.2:8 () .
The qal passive participle and the pual participle of are here used
synonymously. In the Bible the former is much more frequent than the latter,
and one difference in usage is that whereas the former frequently has God
as subject, the latter never does (though the name of God is its subject at
Ps. 113:2; Job 1:21; likewise Sir. 51:30). The qal passive and the pual never occur
elsewhere in such close proximity as here, but cf. their use in the same context
at Num. 22:6, 12.

3:13 Based on 1Sam. 2:8a:

:[ ] GnzPs
1Sam. 2:8a

For both Harkavy and Flusser and Safrai read , but AHL is correct
to read , notwithstanding the MT . It is true that the letters and
here run into each other, whereas elsewhere in this column (lines 19, 20,
22, 26) they do not. But there is clearly a space between the and the .
The sequence is often difficult to distinguish from in medieval Hebrew
manuscripts. In any case, would be a difficult form, and if our psalmist
has changed the MT imperfect to the perfect , there is no reason to
suppose that he should not also have changed the participle to a perfect.
Indeed, these changes in tense appear to have been very deliberate. For what
104 commentary

in the MT was a general statement about Gods practice of raising up the poor
and needy, has become a statement about what has happened in history.
And the adjectives and [ ]are no longer used collectively, as in the MT,
but now refer to the poor one and the needy one, i.e. the psalmist, as is seen
from the context in the following lines. Thus the changes in tense are a subtle
but very significant modification of the MT. It is possible that our psalmist
here and in the lines which follow has been influenced by Ps. 113:78, where
the canonical psalmist applies 1Sam. 2:8a to himself (albeit retaining the
participle and imperfect). If our psalmist was thinking of himself as a Davidic
figure, he may also have been influenced by traditions about the humble
origins of King David (e.g. 1Sam. 16:11; 18:23; Ps. 151).
The presence of the conjunction should be noted in . BHS at 1 Sam.
2:8 observes that de Rossi gives such a reading for several mss, and that there
is also some versional support for this.
The final word is extremely faint and quite illegible in the manuscript.
Both Harkavy and Flusser and Safrai read , though Harkavy notes that
this reading is not certain; AHL reads only the last letter as: ] [. Support
for a reconstruction of [ ]might be found in at 4:9 (though is
also present in the previous line), since this would mean that both passages
used both of these words, perhaps in each referring to the figure behind our
psalms. While the manuscript has a very faint trace of marks which bear a
slight resemblance to , these are too far from the previous word to be part
of . It is impossible to read the word written here. When I examined the
manuscript I thought that I may have seen a very slight trace of a . Whether
or not I was correct in reading a trace of this letter, in view of the MT parallel,
it seems most satisfactory to reconstruct [].

3:1415 The verbs , and seem to be ww consecutive imperfects


which continue the past tense of and in 3:13. On the other hand, it
could be that 3:1415 describes a further (future) stage in the exaltation of the
poor one spoken of in 3:13, i.e. having raised the poor one from the dust and
lifted the needy one from the ash heap, he will make his throne greater than
that of all kings and his strength greater than that of all rulers, and he will give
him all the things that kings desire. It should also be noted that the exaltation
of the poor one is continued in 3:17 with the imperfects and , and
this may suggest that , and at 3:1415 should be understood as
imperfects with simple ww.

3:14 . This half line seems to have been influenced by


Est. 3:1, where Haman is the object of pi., and it is also said of him:
commentary 105

and he (Ahasuerus) set his seat above all the princes.


For as object of pi., see also 1Kgs 1:37, 47.

3:14 . The verb could be either piel or hiphil, but is probably the
former, notwithstanding the piel form without mater lectionis in the
same line. Neither binyan is frequent in Classical Hebrew, but the piel of
more clearly has the meaning strengthen (Zech. 10:6, 12; Ec. 10:10) than
the hiphil, which more often has the sense of be strong, prevail (e.g. Ps. 12:5;
Sir. 39:34) than strengthen (Dan. 9:27; 4QDiscourse 2.2:8). is not found
elsewhere as the object of pi., but is associated with the root in
at 1Sam. 2:9, and in the phrases at Ps. 103:20; 1QH 16:11;
18:3435; 4QShira 1:3, and at 1Chr. 29:12; 2 Chr. 20:6.

3:15 . The noun desire in the Bible often refers to what


is desirable and hence precious. The three occurrences of the word in
GnzPs are well representative of its range of usage in Classical Hebrew:
] [land of desire, i.e. desirable land (1:21), vessel of desire,
i.e. precious thing (2:26) and desire of kings, i.e. their precious
things (3:15). The parallels wealth and treasure clearly indicate the
sense of in the line at present under discussion. For similar uses of this
word, cf. precious things of all the nations at Hag. 2:7, and
all the precious things of their land at 4QDibHama 12.4:11. In such
contexts in effect means treasures. The related word desirableness,
preciousness, which occurs only in the plural, is used in a similar way to refer
to precious things (see, in particular, Dan. 11:38, 43). It is not impossible that
represents this plural word written defectively, but the general
orthographic practice in GnzPs makes this unlikely.

3:15 . The phrase wealth of nations occurs at Isa.


60:5, 11; 61:6; 1QM 12:14; 19:6, and wealth of all the nations at Zech.
14:14; cf. also wealth of the peoples at Isa. 10:14. Although the exact
phrase is to be found only here, there are several variants of this
in the Bible: at 1Chr. 27:25; 2Chr. 36:18, at Jer.
20:5, and at 1Kgs 14:26||2Chr. 12:9 (and 8 times).

3:16 This line is unusual in that it is entirely without a verb. The two
occurrences of should probably be understood as further objects of
in the previous line. The only alternative would be to take the present
line as consisting of two nominal clauses, each of which has its predicate
introduced by : The daughters of kings are (as) his glory, and the daughters of
106 commentary

Jerusalem are (as) the beauty of his kingdom. It should be noted that is
often used with a direct object and another noun introduced by as, for
to indicate condition or character (e.g. Isa. 42:6; Jer. 15:4, 20), and there are
similar usages with several other verbs (BDB 4a, p. 512). But it is also the
case that often introduces the predicate of ( DCH II, pp. 528530), and
can be used in the same way in a nominal clause (e.g. Zech. 4:7; Job 13:12;
Lam. 4:3).
There are no close biblical parallels to this line, though the fact that
occurs at Ps. 45:10, and at Ca. 1:5; 2:7; 3:5, 10; 5:8, 16; 8:4, is
perhaps of some significance. Both Ps. 45 and the Book of Canticles are love
songs in which the bride or lover of a king is prominent. Our psalmist here
presents himself in royal terms. Daughters of kings, presumably as his wives,
represent great wealth (an echo of Solomon?). The daughters of Jerusalem
bring glory to his kingdom because of their beauty. is used in association
with at Lam. 2:1 and more loosely at Ezek. 24:25, and is used in
association with and also at Est. 1:4.

3:17 . Yadin translates: His blessed ones speak for all


eternity. But such a translation is problematical. The word is a noun
used as an interjection (see comment on 1:27), and the present occurrence its
only use with a pronominal suffix in GnzPs. Elsewhere in Classical Hebrew,
when this word is used with a pronominal suffix, the word with its suffix
forms an independent nominal clause, and the suffix is either resumptive of
a preceding subject introduced as casus pendens (Ps. 128:2; Prov. 14:21; 16:20;
29:18), or else it is in apposition with a following noun in the vocative (Deut.
33:29; Ec. 10:17). But together with its suffix is never used as the subject
of a verbal clause, nor does it ever have a concrete meaning of blessed ones, as
Yadin translates here. Moreover, how is to be understood? It could
mean all the ages or all the worlds. In the Bible always has the meaning
eternity, everlastingness, long duration, etc., except perhaps at Ec. 3:11 where it
may mean world, a sense which it frequently has in Mishnaic Hebrew. Both
meanings of the word are found in GnzPs, and in this respect GnzPs differs
from the literature of Qumran, since in the latter never has the meaning
of world. There is, however, an occurrence with this meaning in a text from
Naal ever in the phrase ][ king of the world (Xev/SeHymn 3:6);
and there is an example of with the meaning of world at Sir. 4:23(A).
If everlastingness was intended in the present passage, it would have to be
assumed that what is meant is (the people of ) all the ages. The following
considerations, however, make it more likely that the meaning of worlds is
intended:
commentary 107

1. occurs 24 times in GnzPs. Although both its meanings of eternity


and world are clearly attested, it should be noted that the former sense
is found mainly in standard phrases: , , ,
, . The only exception is at 1:17, where
the meaning is apparently everlasting pillar, and this phrase may be
influenced by the presence of at Isa. 58:12 (see comment on 1:17).
On the other hand, elsewhere in GnzPs, when is not used in one of
the standard phrases in the sense of eternity, it always has the meaning
of world (1:4, 7; 2:8; 3:20).
2. The use of the plural. The fact that the plural form is used does
not in itself tell us anything about the meaning. The plural does occur
in the Bible, albeit rarely (12 times out of 439, including one instance
of plur. cstr.), with the normal meaning of eternity. The plural is also
very frequent in this sense in Qumran literature (about 150 times, e.g.
1QS 2:3, 4, 15; 4:3, 7; 1QM 12:3, 7; 13:9; 17:6; CD 2:10). Such instances
of the plural might be understood as abstract or intensive plurals.
But in the present case the plural is not simply a matter of form but
also of meaning, as is seen from the verb and also the word
. If a sense akin to the biblical one of long duration is intended,
it would have to be assumed that our psalmist is speaking of all the
agespast and futurepersonified. However, it is not clear that the
word is ever used in this way in Classical Hebrew literature, where it can
adequately understood in the abstract sense of eternity, everlastingness.
The closest biblical parallel would be at Ps. 145:13, though no
personification is found there.
3. The use of the definite article. In the Bible this word does sometimes
have the article, but almost always in variations of the standard phrases:
and ( Jer. 28:8; Jl 2:2; Ps. 28:9; 41:14; 106:48||1 Chr. 16:36;
Ps. 133:3; Neh. 9:5; 1Chr. 17:14). The only exceptions are the one
that is alive of, i.e. for, eternity at Dan. 12:7, and the one instance in the
Bible of meaning the world at Ec. 3:11. In GnzPs where means
world it twice has the article (2:8; 3:20), and in one place the pointing
of the article may be assumed (1:7, i.e. ). The one occurrence of
this word lacking the article is at 1:4, where it should be noted that
the preceding word is , and so there must be a strong possibility
that the definite article has been lost by haplography. Any use of the
definite article with ( other than in one of the standard phrases
where it means eternity) is always a good indication that the sense
is the world, as is seen particularly frequently in its use in Mishnaic
Hebrew.
108 commentary

4. The phrase in the parallel clause. Whatever is the meaning


of , strongly suggests a meaning of the worlds, rather than the
ages for .
5. The following context. In line 20 is used in the sense of
throughout all the world.
All things considered, is probably best translated: All
the worlds shall say, Happy is he.
It is to be observed in GnzPs that where means world the singular is
used three times (1:4; 2:8; 3:20) and the plural twice (1:7; 3:17). While the use
of to mean world is not in itself an indication of lateness (as seen from
Ec. 3:11), the use of the plural presumably reflects a belief in the existence of
many worlds, as developed among the rabbis (e.g. B. Abodah Zarah 3b), and
may be more of a sign of lateness.

3:17 . The word is found only here. It seems


fairly clear that it must be from , since it is difficult to see what other
root could lie behind it. But what does this mean? The closest thing to it
morphologically is a hapax legomenon at Lev. 26:37 meaning power
to stand before an enemy. In the present context the verb htpal. and
also the parallel clause requires that has a personal reference. One
possibility, following the meaning of , is that means powers
of the earth. In this case, the choice of the preposition may be deliberate
as an ironic allusion to Lev. 26:37. It should be noted that the more usual
preposition with htpal. is , though is also used, whether of bowing
down in homage before a human superior (Gen. 23:12; 2Sam. 14:33), before
God in worship (Deut. 26:10; Isa. 66:23), or before other gods (2Chr. 25:14).
Our psalmist may have chosen the less common preposition because of
its use at Lev. 26:37. In this biblical text Israel is told that in the event of
its disobedience it will not have power to stand ( )before ( ) its
enemies. But according to our psalm, even those who have the power to stand
in the earth ( ) will bow down before ( ) the Davidic figure
at the centre of the psalm. Yadin translates: the mighty of the earth, and
Fleischer (p. 213, n. 48) suggests emending to to achieve the same
meaning.
Another possibility would be to link with the use of the root in
the sense of arise, i.e. come into being, exist, a sense which it developed in the
Mishnaic period, but which grew out of its use already in the Bible to mean
come on the scene, appear (BDB 4, p. 878; DCH VII 4a, p. 228). From the
same root there is also the noun existence. In this connection, the noun
commentary 109

in Mishnaic Hebrew acquired the sense of revival, resurrection, existence


(Klein, p. 714; Jastrow, p. 1690). Thus it is possible that refers either
to those who rise from the dead in the Messianic age, or more generally
(and perhaps more likely in view of in the parallel clause) to
those who come into being, exist in the earth, perhaps all creatures of the
earth.
Of these two explanations, the first, i.e. that it means (one who has) power,
seems slightly preferable, since it depends on the biblical use of . But it
has to be admitted that its exact meaning is very uncertain.
What then of the noun form ?It would be possible to take this as the
construct plural of a postulated form . But perhaps it is not necessary to
postulate an otherwise unknown form. It appears that GnzPs sometimes gives
masculine plural formations to feminine nouns. Besides there are two
other possible examples of this: ( 2:4; 3:10; 4:16), which may be the plural
with suffix of prophecy (see comment on 2:4); and ( 3:5), which
may be the construct plural of ( though it might be more satisfactory
to take it as the plural of the masculine noun , despite the fact that no
plural of this noun is otherwise attested). Thus could be explained
as the construct plural of , in which case it would be an instance of
abstractum pro concreto.

3:18 . On the use of in GnzPs, see comment


on 1:26. The combination is to be found at Jl 2:20, 21 (in both
preceded by ;)Ps. 126:2, 3 (in all four with God as subject).

3:18 . This probably refers to idolatry. The verb in


Hebrew is a byform of , and in the Bible occurs in the hiphil as a hapax
legomenon at Ezek. 13:10, and may also be attested at 6Q30:2, 5. In Aramaic,
however, is relatively frequent as the verb corresponding to Hebrew
. As well as the meaning go astray, the former can have the sense of
worship idols (Jastrow 2, p. 542). Similarly the Hebrew is associated
with idolatry in the qal at Ezek. 44:10, and hiphil at Jer. 23:13; Hos. 4:12; Am.
2:4. That idolatry is referred to here is also suggested by the presence of the
word , which is used in this connection at 2Kgs 17:15; Jer. 10:15 = 51:18; 16:19,
and the plural actually means idols or false gods at Deut. 32:21; 1 Kgs 16:13, 26;
Jer. 8:19; 10:8; 14:22; Jon. 2:9; Ps. 31:7. The last of these passages provides a very
loose parallel to the present line in that the canonical psalmist says that he
trusts ( )in God and hates those who pay regard to vain idols () .
It is difficult to make any sense of . Harkavy reads this word as , and
Fleischer (p. 213, n. 49) suggests that this is a noun forgetfulness (from
110 commentary

the root forget), and he cites Deut 32:18 as the basis for this suggestion:
you were unmindful of the rock that begot you. Harkavy, however,
regards as a scribal error for , which is what Flusser and Safrai read
(without marking it as a corrected reading). Nevertheless, although this word
is very faint in the manuscript, the final letter is very definitely . What then
of as an emendation? The word occurs in the Bible as a hapax
legomenon at Gen. 43:12 meaning mistake. This word might be considered
to be difficult in the present context, particularly if it is accepted that this
hemistich is referring to idolatry. The root and its parallel root are
overwhelmingly used of going astray or committing an error inadvertently,
which obviously does not suit idolatry. But perhaps one should not give
too much weight to this consideration. For there is also a noun meaning
error, presumably vocalized , attested three times in the literature
of Qumran (1QH 10:19; 4QFlor 1.1:9; CD 3:5), and used of error committed
by deliberate action. Our translation of error is based on the assumption
that some such meaning is required by the context, whether or not one
achieves this by means of emendation. An alternative solution would be
to emend to . This reading would have the support
of Ps. 31:7, and the phrase is also found at Jon. 2:9. Moreover, this phrase
would make the reference to idolatry more explicit, and going astray with
vain idols would make a better contrast to trusting in God than would going
astray with vanity, even if vanity refers to idolatry. The thought behind this
line should be compared with what is said about the ending of idolatry
at 2:1719. In the age to come all the world will cease to worship idols, as
a result of the witness or the exaltation of the servant figure behind the
psalm.

3:19 Based on part of Jer. 31:34:


GnzPs
Jer. 31:34
Jer. 31:34 belongs to a biblical passage which readily lends itself to interpreta-
tion as concerning the messianic age, since it looks forward to the making of
a new covenant, in which the law of God is written on the hearts of everyone.
Such an interpretation is further reinforced, if the wider context is taken into
account. In the previous chapter it is said: And they shall serve the Lord their
God and David their king, whom I will raise up for them (30:9). Our psalmist
looks forward to this age in which his exaltation is associated not only with
the abandoning of idolatry (line 18) but also with the universal knowledge of
God.
commentary 111

3:20 Partly based on Ps. 75:8:


GnzPs
Ps. 75:8
This line also recalls 1Sam. 2:78; see above on 3:1213. The use of the
preposition following suggests that the participle is more verbal
than nominal. Elsewhere in GnzPs the participle of is used nominally as
judge at 4:12, 19, and verbally he who judges at 1:2, though in the latter case it
is parallel with the noun . How is the preposition to be understood? With
the noun the most natural sense is throughout, though upon, against
would not be impossible (2Chr. 20:12). There are no close parallels to
in the MT, but, allowing for the fact that in the sense of world
is virtually unknown in the Bible, there are some semantic parallels. Thus,
with reference to the judgment of God, we find the phrase judge of
the earth at Ps. 94:2, and also as object of at Ps. 82:8; 96:13||1Chr. 16:33;
Ps. 98:9, and as object of this verb at Ps. 9:9 96:13; 98:9. The use of the
verbs hi. and hi. obviously recalls line 12, where the lines following
indicate that the exaltation of the psalmist was in mind; but here these verbs
describe the effect of Gods judgment throughout the world, as described in
the lines which follow.

3:21 . This is the only occurrence of the verb in GnzPs. It is


difficult to decide whether it is used in its normal biblical sense of be pleased
with, favour, or more in the sense that it acquired in post-biblical Hebrew of
will (as Yadin translates here). On balance, the former seems a little better
in the context. It may be noted that the cognate noun is used in GnzPs
both in the sense of favour (4:26) and will (1:6; 2:27; 3:1, 4). The verbs and
occur in association at Isa. 42:1, of God as delighting in his servant and
giving his spirit to him. Our psalmist may have had this passage in mind, but
what follows clearly shows that he is no longer thinking (as in lines 12 ff.) of
himself as being favoured by God, but of humans in general.

3:21 . The phrase occurs at Isa. 29:19, a passage


which looks forward to a future age of salvation in which the poor and the
meek will find joy, the deaf hear and the blind see. In the present context
must mean causes to possess, and is presumably a hiphil with defective
spelling, since only the hiphil has this meaning (the piel of this verb occurs just
once in the MT at Deut. 28:42, but does not have a causative meaning). The
defective writing of a hiphil imperfect is somewhat unusual and unexpected
in GnzPs, in view of its normal practice with regard to the use of matres
112 commentary

lectionis (note, in particular, the spelling of at 3:12). For hi. with


the object of the person introduced by , see Ezr. 9:12 (it is, however, more
usual for this to be expressed by a verbal suffix or the object-marker ). For
as the object of hi., see 4QInstrd 81:3; and for it as the object of the
qal, see Num. 27:11; 36:8, 8; Sir. 46:9.

3:22 Based on Job 12:10:


GnzPs
Job 12:10
In the context immediately preceding Job 12:10, the beasts, the birds and the
fish are all mentioned, and so refers to living things in the widest
sense. The preceding context in GnzPs, however, indicates that our psalmist
was thinking more narrowly of human life as being at Gods disposing. This use
of Job 12:10 here may be compared with that of its partial quotation at 11QPsa
19:34: for in your hand is the soul
of every living thing; the breath of all flesh you have given. The word in our
psalm could here be translated either breath or spirit. A translation of breath
perhaps best suits the connection with Job 12:10, where most translations
have breath (notwithstanding NEB and REB spirit), though elsewhere in
GnzPs evidently has the meaning of spirit, and in line 25 of the present
psalm we have a parallelism of and translated soul and spirit.

3:22 . AHL reads ] [, but this reconstruction is unnecessary


since it is possible to read these letters, even though they are rather faint. The
choice of preposition with htpal. is a little unusual. is used with this
verb at Isa. 45:14, but the more usual prepositions are ( as at GnzPs 2:18) or
( as at GnzPs 3:17), particularly when used of bowing down to God; see
comment on 3:17. Since the verb is plural, its subject must be and
as collectives; and evidently makes up an independent clause,
unless one emends this to the singular , as Yadins translation seems to
assume (even though he is translating the text of Flusser and Safrai which
preserves the plural ), in which case the subject is . Thus
Yadin translates: For the soul of every man is in his power, and the spirit of
all flesh will bow down to him. This has the advantage of better suiting the
arrangement of the line into two equal halves, as set out in the manuscript,
but can only be achieved by emendation.

3:23 A quotation of Ps. 105:2||1 Chr. 16:9, the only difference from the MT being
the lack of the preposition before . It should be observed that whereas the
commentary 113

LXX and Peshitta imply a reading of , GnzPs follows the MT in lacking


the conjunction.

3:24 . The combination is not found in the Bible; cf.


however, at Ps. 68:5, at Ps. 69:31,
and at Ps. 96:2. The phrase occurs some 15 times in
the Bible.

3:24 . The form is found in Mishnaic Hebrew as the


equivalent of the adjective which occurs 11 times in Biblical Hebrew
(if one includes at Jer. 6:2 and at Ps. 68:13). Both forms occur in Ben
Sira: at 35:5(B); 41:16(B, C), and at 10:18; 14:3, 3; 41:16(M), but it would
seem that neither occurs in the literature of Qumran. and are found
in close association or parallelism at Isa. 52:1; Jer. 48:17 ( ;) Ps. 78:61;
96:6; Sir. 45:8, and in the construct phrase glory of his strength at
Ps. 89:18 (likewise at GnzPs 4:9).

3:25 For the general thought behind this line, cf. Ps. 97:10 and also Jer. 20:13:
)( )( GnzPs

Ps. 97:10
Jer. 20:13

here introduces a causal clause, as also at 4:5 (DCH I, 4c, pp. 432433).
For , see hi. at 1 Sam. 26:24; Ps. 34:18 ( ;)54:9, and
at Job 5:19. For and in parallelism or close association,
see 1Sam. 1:15; Isa. 26:9; 42:1; Job 7:11; 12:10 (cf. line 22 above).
Harkavy notes that the copyist has corrected and to and
respectively, and he gives these corrected readings in his text. Likewise
AHL notes the erasure of the in both words. Flusser and Safrai read and
without any indication of the original reading. It is not absolutely clear
that the of the plural in these words is erased: that of is smudged,
though the rest of the letters are faint, so it is not certain that erasure is
intended; but there is a thin line crossing through this letter in , which
may indicate erasure. In any case, the readings given by these corrections are
probably to be accepted as most suitable in the context, because and
as singular nouns with suffix would then provide a subject for in
3:26, i.e. the servant figure behind these psalms. Thus it would seem that
our psalmist has adapted Ps. 97:10 to suit the purpose for which he has used
it. It is likely that he originally wrote singulars in his composition, and that
114 commentary

these were made into plurals in the course of copying. This may well have
happened due, not only to the influence of the plurals at Ps. 97:10, but also
to the frequent occurrence of the forms and in reference to the
devotees of God, the former at Deut. 7:9; Ps. 145:20; Dan. 9:4; Neh. 1:5; and
the latter at 1Sam. 2:9; Ps. 30:5; 31:24; 37:28; 85:9; 116:15; 148:14; 149:9; Prov.
2:8. Indeed even within the MT the kethibh/qere variation of / at
1Sam. 2:9 and Prov. 2:8 indicates how easy it is for such changes to arise in the
course of textual transmission.

3:26 . Cf. ][
][ in the vision of glory and the words of your holy spirit at 1QLitPr
3.2:6. For , see comment on 1:26. The phrase vision of your
glory, i.e. your glorious vision, occurs at 2:22, where it is found in association
with ;see comment thereon, and also on 2:4b5. In GnzPs, as in Hebrew
more generally, is used as the nomen rectum of a construct chain to
produce a phrase equivalent to one in which English would use the adjective
glorious (GnzPs 2:2, 3, 22; 3:8, 8; 4:4, 14, 14). But, as with here, the
same effect can also be produced with as the nomen regens (Ps. 145:12
RSV). For , see comment on 2:11. For , see comment on 1:27.
For , see Hos. 10:13; Sir. 35:21; 4QInstrd 55:4. The phrase ways
of life is attested at 4QDe 2.2:20; the closest biblical parallels are at
Prov. 6:23, and contrasted with at Jer. 21:8; there are also
the semantic parallels of at Ps. 16:11; Prov. 5:6; 15:24; 4QBarkd 4:4,
at Prov. 10:17 and at Prov. 2:19 (also apparently in the LXX
of Ps. 15(16):11 = Ac. 2:28); 4QBat 15:8. In the present passage ( like
the parallel uses just cited) refers to the ways leading to life.

3:27 . All the letters of except the are very difficult to


make out, and the reading must be regarded as less than certain. Cf.
at 1:11, and see the comment on the use of as object of
at 1:8.

3:27 . Although the singular standing alone occurs


some 31 times in the Bible, once in Ben Sira and about 10 times in Qumran
texts, the combination is elsewhere attested only at Isa. 34:10; Sir.
51:20(B); 1QH 15:3132 ([) ][]. For and used in the same
context, see Am. 1:11 ( ;)Ps. 9:19; 1QS 4:1, 19. The final two letters of are
damaged; only a small part of the top of the and only the top of the remain.
is found as object of hi. at Ps. 71:18; 145:4, though neither provides a
very close parallel to the present occurrence.
commentary 115

4:1 . Cf. 2:7:


, and see comment thereon. Elsewhere in GnzPs
the object of is indicated by the object-marker ( 2:7), or else the
object-marker is lacking (4:5). The use here of the preposition to introduce
the object is probably due to the influence of Ps. 147:3: , on
which our passage is partly based. In the Bible there are well-attested uses
of both with the person healed as a direct object (Gen. 20:17; Isa. 19:22;
57:18, 19; Jer. 30:17; 33:6; Hos. 6:1; 11:3; Ps. 6:3; 30:3; 41:5; 107:20; 2 Chr. 7:14), and
as introduced by the preposition ( Num. 12:13; 2Kgs 20:5, 8; Isa. 6:10; Hos.
5:13; 7:1; Ps. 147:3; Lam. 2:13). The phrase is found twice in the Bible,
and both occurrences may also have influenced the present line of our work.
Ps. 34:19 reads: the Lord is near to the
broken hearted, and saves the crushed in spirit, which recalls the use in our
psalm of bones of the crushed (even though is from , and
from ) . Also to bind up the broken hearted at Isa. 61:1
may be of relevance to the use of the verb in the present line. On the use
of the object-marker with an indefinite noun, see comment on 2:18 (the only
other instance of this in GnzPs).

4:2 . Despite the reading of AHL, the in does


not seem to be a scribal correction. This word is attested nowhere else in
Hebrew, and is apparently a noun meaning grief. It is from the root be
faint, menstruate. The verb occurs only at Lev. 12:2 (menstruate) and (unless
an adjective) Lachish ost. 3:7 (be faint). Classical Hebrew words derived from
this root are: adj. faint (Lam. 1:13; 5:17; Sir. 4:2 [)] , menstruous (Lev.
15:33; 20:18; Isa. 30:22); adj. faint (Isa. 1:5; Jer. 8:18; Lam. 1:22); n.[m.]
illness (Ps. 41:4; Job 6:7); n.m. illness (Deut. 7:15; 28:60); n.[m.] grief
(4QpsEzeka 4:1; and [ apparently judgment] may have been written in
error for this word at Sir. 14:1; 30:23; 37:2; 38:18); there is also the Mishnaic
Hebrew word n.m. grief (Jastrow, p. 284). is to be regarded as a
feminine form of , but used here in the sense of grief, and the pointing
may be conjectured as . An interesting parallel to the present passage is
provided by 4QpsEzeka 4:1: instead of my grief make my
soul rejoice (Dimant, DJD XXX, pp. 3738), though of course, because joy is
the opposite of grief, it may be coincidence that words from the same roots
are found in both passages (they are also found in proximity to each other at
Sir. 30:2122).

4:2 . The word trembling, perhaps to be pointed ,


is found only here in Classical Hebrew, though Jastrow (p. 395) does note the
116 commentary

word in Mishnaic Hebrew, and points it . The verb tremble, however, is


found 3 times in the Bible, and DCH III (pp. 9798) also records 3 occurrences
in Ben Sira and 7 in Qumran texts; and the Bible also has two nouns from this
root meaning trembling: ( once + 5 times as a kethibh) and ( twice +
5 times as a qere). The noun shaking is found in the Bible as a hapax
legomenon spelt at Hos. 13:1, though the root is well-attested in
Mishnaic Hebrew and Aramaic. The form occurs only here and, since
it is clearly feminine in gender, the singular absolute may be conjectured as
, though is also possible. The noun , which occurs 15 times
in the Bible, is probably masculine, though the gender is never indicated, and
it takes a plural form of ( Isa. 32:18) and a plural with suffix form of
( Jer. 2:37).

4:3 An adaptation of Ps. 24:1:


GnzPs
Ps. 24:1
There are two notable deviations from the text of the MT of Ps. 24:1: for
MT , and (in agreement with LXX) for MT . That the latter
variant should arise is perhaps not surprising in view of the fact that in 42
out of the 281 occurrences of the masc. plur. cstr. of the participle of it is
preceded by .

4:4 . The use of here and likewise


at 4:20, 26 recalls the frequent targumic use of as a means of distancing
humans from direct contact with the activity of God (e.g. TgJob 1:1; TgPss 3:9;
14:2). Cf. also the comment on at 1:1. For the use of with the object
of the thing commanded, see BDB 4d, p. 846; DCH VII 23, pp. 101102.
In such uses the person for whom the thing is commanded is introduced
by the prepositions ( Lev. 25:21) or ( Deut. 28:8), but not as here. The
collocation is well-attested in the Bible (Ps. 21:6; 96:6||1Chr. 16:27;
Ps. 104:1; 111:3; Job 40:10) and also found at Qumran (4QShirShabbd 1.1:45;
4QShirShabbf 24:2, and in several other places with partial reconstruction).
The phrase is used in the benedictions at GnzPs 2:2; 3:8; 4:14, and
is also attested elsewhere at Ps. 145:12[Genizah]; Est. 1:4; 4QShirShabbd 1.1:32;
1.2:10; 4QShirShabbf 23.1:3; 4QShira 1:4, and in vars. with 2nd masc. sing. suffix
at Ps. 145:11; 1QM 12:7.

4:5 . here introduces a causal clause, as also at 3:25


(DCH I, 4c, pp. 432433). The phrase occurs only here, but cf.
commentary 117

at 2:8, and see the comment there on ;nor are there any uses
elsewhere of .

4:5 . Presumably the healer refers to the servant,


i.e. the psalmist. The subject of could be , but is probably God,
who heals the flesh of his people through his servant. If so, the servant is
being given a very elevated position, since in scripture the role of healer
of Gods people belongs to God himself (Exod. 15:26; cf. Ps. 103:3; 147:3). An
alternative would be to understand the healer of our psalm to be God and to
translate and the healer sent and healed, but this would be a rather forced
translation. In any case, the meaning would not be essentially very different.
For where is used without an object and is followed by a consecutive
verb, the meaning is that the subject of sends someone and, through
the agency of that person, performs the action expressed by the consecutive
verb (e.g. Gen. 20:2; 27:42; 31:4; Jos. 24:9; 1 Sam. 5:8; 2Sam. 10:6). The present
passage provides the only use in Classical Hebrew of as the object of
. This verb often has the object of the person either as a direct object or
introduced by ( see comment on 4:1) or else it has the object of the wound,
disease, etc., again either as a direct object (Isa. 30:26; Jer. 3:22; Hos. 14:5) or
introduced by ( Ps. 103:3). Nevertheless, at Prov. 4:22 the words of the teacher
of wisdom are described as healing to all his flesh, the suffix
referring to the one who finds them. Thus the figure behind the passage in
Proverbs is a source of healing for the flesh, just as the figure at the centre of
our psalm heals the flesh of Gods people. The thought behind this line may
be compared with that of GnzPs 2:8, where for the good of the world God
places the psalmist before himself and makes him the light of the nations.

4:6 The elevated position accorded the servant in lines 4 and 5 is continued
here. The action of God through the agency of his servant implied in line 5 is
made explicit here by the use of and .

4:6 . The use of the verb here is a little different from what is
usual in the Bible. In Biblical Hebrew the causative of in the sense of
honour, glorify is for the most part supplied by the piel. The predominant
senses of the hiphil are make heavy, dull, unresponsive, though it can have the
sense of make glorious, cause to be honoured, with the objects way (Isa.
8:23) or persons (Jer. 30:19).

4:6 . The phrase is not attested elsewhere, but


is to be regarded as broadly equivalent to at Job 23:12. As at 2:9,
118 commentary

the figure behind our psalm refers to himself with the niphal participle of
which has a pronominal suffix referring to God. The use here of in
parallelism with recalls what is said of Moses at Num. 12:7 and David at
1Sam. 22:14, and thus underlines the elevated position of the figure behind
the psalm.

4:7 . The plene spelling of is in line with at


4:24, though at 1:7, 20 is found. In Qumran orthography no such
plene spelling in the first syllable of the hiphil perfect of this verb is attested.
For Flusser and Safrai read , but the reading of is correct.
In the other two occurrences of this word in GnzPs, it is spelt at 1:6
and at 4:19. The normal Qumran orthography is , etc., but the
plene spelling of , etc., is sometimes found (1QH 5:9; 9:14; 4QBera 1.2:6;
4QMystb 1.2:3, 4; 3:3; 4QDivProv 1:1; 4QInstrd 139:2; 4QHodf 5:2; 4QBat 1:1, 2;
2.2:3; 23:6; 11QPsa 26:14). Thus both the scrolls of Qumran and GnzPs manifest
the same inconsistency in the orthography of this word. Of course, one has
to remember that our psalm is found in a medieval manuscript, and so the
orthography of may reflect the normal practice of the scribe who copied
it rather than the original spelling of the word at the time of composition. The
presence of here as a word for understanding would make GnzPs agree
with the literature of Qumran, in which occurs very frequently, while
is virtually absent; but since the present location is the only instance of
a noun for understanding in GnzPs, not much can be deduced from the use of
here about the relationship between GnzPs and what is found at Qumran.

4:7 . This probably constitutes an independent nominal


clause, i.e. the greatness of his sanctification is beyond measure, but it would
also be possible to take as an additional object of , as does
Yadin. In GnzPs seems to mean sanctification rather than holiness,
for which is used; see comment on 1:16. The suffix of could be
either subjective, referring to God (i.e. the sanctification which he confers),
or objective, referring to the figure behind the psalm (i.e. the sanctification
conferred upon him by God). The former seems most likely, notwithstanding
the fact that the suffix of in the first half of the line refers to the servant;
the other two occurrences of in GnzPs (1:16; 4:25) clearly refer to the
sanctification conferred by God. The present line continues to express the
exalted position of the figure behind the psalm because of what God had
done for him. God has both increased wisdom and understanding in his
heart, and bestowed upon him a sanctification beyond measure. For
, see comment on 1:20.
commentary 119

4:8 . See comment on 1:12.

4:8 . This is the only occurrence in Classical Hebrew of the preposition


like, as distinct from and . It is, however, frequent in Mishnaic
Hebrew (Jastrow, p. 646). But followed by a suffix referring to God is
well attested (e.g. Exod. 15:11; Isa. 44:7; Ps. 35:10; 71:19; 89:9), and also with
suffixes having other referents (e.g. Deut. 33:29 1Sam. 26:15; Neh. 6:11).

4:8 . is probably here best translated he who,


though it could also be understood as introducing a causal clause, and have a
meaning of because, on account of the fact that (DCH I, 4c, pp. 432433). In
the MT the closest parallel to is provided by Ps. 9:13(Kt):
; cf. also and at Job 34:28.

4:9 This is a rather long line. The layout of the copyist divides the line between
and , but for the purpose of translation it seems better to place
the division after , as do Flusser and Safrai in their arrangement of the
text, even though this makes the first hemistich rather short and the second
disproportionately long. Harkavy runs the whole line together in his edition
of the text, without any space to indicate division.

4:9 . The combination is otherwise attested only


in line 13 of the present psalm. The phrase is to be found at Zeph.
3:12, and is found in parallelism with, or close proximity to, at Isa. 10:2;
26:6; Ps. 82:3; Job 34:28; Prov. 22:22, though the present passage does not
closely relate to any of these. It is possible that refers to our psalmist
himself, as does ( and, if reconstructed, )at 3:13; see comment thereon.

4:9 . In this word the letters are very faint due to a stain in the
manuscript, but it is just possible to make them out.

4:9 . See comment on 3:24.

4:10 . The adverbial use of night and day is to be


found at 1 Kgs 8:29; Isa. 27:3; Est. 4:16 (cf. also at Gen. 8:22), but there
are no uses with .

4:10 . The noun remembrance, memory sometimes


(as here) has the sense of memorial, i.e. the thing by which one is remembered
(BDB 2, p. 271), in which case it is virtually equivalent to name. Thus as
120 commentary

far as the name of God is concerned, occurs in parallel with at Exod.


3:15; Isa. 26:8; Ps. 135:13, and is used as a virtual synonym for at Ps. 102:13
(RSV name, NEB fame, NIV renown) and Hos. 12:6 (RSV, NEB name, NIV name
of renown). In the present passage is best translated his name, rather than
literally as his memorial. The use here of as an object of pi. may be
compared with the frequent use of as an object of this same verb (DCH II,
p. 270, notes 21 fully attested instances: 6 MT, 2 Ben Sira, 13 Qumran). The
combination bless for is not very frequent, but is attested at Deut. 8:10;
Sir. 35:13 (partly reconstructed); 4QBarka 1.1:1(corrected). The original of Sir.
39:14 (not extant in Hebrew mss), as reconstructed by Segal (p. 260), provides
a close parallel to the present passage: .

4:11 . There are good reasons for treating


these verbs as passives. A reflexive meaning for the hithpael of with God
as subject would not be suitable. It should be noted that in the preceding line
the psalmist says that he will bless (piel) the memorial, i.e. name, of God,
thus providing the agent (or one of the agents) by which God is blessed in the
present line. If the hithpael of in this line is regarded as a passive, it would
be difficult not to regard the other hithpaels and the hithpolel in the line as
passives too. Moreover, in the immediately following context of line 12 there
is in a further hithpael which has to be treated as a passive, because
the agent is expressed by . In the comment on 2:20 attention was drawn to
the use of hithpael verbs in a passive rather than reflexive sense in GnzPs,
and it was pointed out that in Biblical Hebrew the hithpael is only rarely used
in a passive sense, whereas in the Hebrew of Qumran this use becomes more
frequent.

4:11 . The first of these titles is not attested


elsewhere, perhaps the closest to it in the Bible being ( Jos. 3:11,
13; Mic. 4:13; Zech. 4:14; 6:5; Ps. 97:5). But there is an interesting partial parallel
to the titles used in the present passage at 1QH 18:8:
Lord of every spirit and ruler over every creature. For parallels to
in rabbinic literature, see comment on in the
next line.

4:12 . The verb occurs 3 times in the Bible, twice


as a qal meaning be united, join (with), come together (Gen. 49:6; Isa. 14:20),
and once as a piel meaning unite (Ps. 86:11). In Qumran Hebrew there are
also nine occurrences of various forms of what may be taken to be hithpael
with assimilation of the of the preformative with the following consonant
commentary 121

(1QH 19:11; fr. 2.1:10; 1QS 1:8; 3:7; 5:14, 20; 9:6; 1QSa 1:9; 4QInstrb 2.4:5; see Qimron
HDSS 310.145, 311.5), with a meaning essentially the same as that of the qal
in Biblical Hebrew, i.e. be united with, but in the more specialised sense of
join (the Qumran) community (DCH IV, p. 195). Clearly, however, the hithpael
must mean something different in the present passage. One of the meanings
given by Jastrow (pp. 572573) for the piel of the verb in Mishnaic Hebrew is
declare the unity of God, recite the Shema, and passages cited for this are Gen.
Rabbah s. 20 and Cant. Rabbah to 2:16. It would appear that the hithpael of
our psalm here provides the passive of this sense, i.e. (of God) be declared as
one, have ones unity declared. The words support this meaning
by pointing to a liturgical context for this activity.

4:12 . The phrase judge of righteousness is used of


God at Jer. 11:20; Ps. 9:5 (unless in both the participle is verbal and the noun
adverbial); 4QInstrg 6:4, and the variant is to be found below in
line 19 of the present psalm; cf. also at Ps. 7:12; and for the verbal
use , see comment on 1:2. The noun ( also used at 1:2) is found
just twice in the Bible (1Sam. 24:16; Ps. 68:6), and only once in a Qumran text,
in the almost identical phrase judge of truth as a title for God (11QPsa
24:6). Flusser and Safrai note the occurrence of )(in rabbinic sources,
including Siphre Debarim 304 and blessings in the mourning liturgy of the
sages quoted in Mish. Semakhoth 14:15 and B. Berakhoth 46b. They also note
that the use within the same context in the last two of these passages of
who rules over all his creatures (Semakhoth 14:15) and who
rules over his world (Berakhoth 46b) provides a partial parallel to
in the previous line of our psalm, and they remark that the similarity of
phrases here between GnzPs and the mourning liturgy suggests a literary
connection (pp. 91, 103, n. 15 [Heb.]; 270271, n. 13 [Eng.]).

4:13 The beginning of the third set of closing benedictions. For the formula of
benediction, see comment on 2:1. There is an apparent difficulty in this line
presented by the word . In the first line of benedictions to the preceding two
psalms the word is followed by a participle or participles describing the
activity of God (2:1; 3:6). The same would be the case in the present line but
for the presence of , presumably the particle of entreaty pray, which would
seem to indicate that what follows is a request. The word is clearly written, and
its reading cannot be in any doubt, though this is its only occurrence in GnzPs.
But its use here is highly unusual. Normally is associated with the preceding
verb, most frequently an imperative, or otherwise an imperfect, jussive or
cohortative; just once is it preceded by a perfect with ww consecutive
122 commentary

(Gen. 40:14). It is associated with the following verb only when used in
combination with another particle, especially as and . The present
passage represents the only use of with a participle, and is one of only
two instances of ( without other particle) being preceded by a noun and
associated with a following verb, the other being Num. 12:13. That passage,
however, is of particular interest to us, because in it the noun preceding is
also God: O God, pray heal her. Because this is such a highly
unusual use, many scholars (see, e.g., BHS) would emend to pray
do not, as is found at the beginning of verse 12. Nevertheless, a reference to
God in the vocative would not be out of place in the intercessory prayer in
Num. 12:13 any more any more than such a reference would be out of place in
the benediction in GnzPs 4:13, and the reading in our psalm may be regarded
as providing support for the MT pointing of Num. 12:13.

4:13 . The combination is found only


here and in line 9 of the present psalm. is a relatively frequent object
of the verb ;DCH II (p. 265) notes 13 such uses in the MT, and 4 in texts
from Qumran, including CD 6:2, where the subject of the verb is :
and God remembered the covenant of, i.e. with, the former ones.
Doubtless the covenant of his servant refers to the covenant with
David (cf. Jer. 33:21; Ps. 89:4).

4:14 . See comment on 2:2.

4:14 . See comment on 2:3a.

4:15 See comment on 2:3b4a.

4:1617 See comment on 2:4b5.

4:18 . Note the use here of a passive participle without a grammatical


subject; see also at 1:6 for an instance of an active participle without a
grammatical subject, and see comment thereon.

4:18 . In an unpointed text it is impossible to decide whether is


qal or piel. For with a human object, see GnzPs 1:24, and comment
thereon. In the Bible there are no instances of as object of , but
there are uses of this verb with such objects as ( Isa. 14:5),
( Ps. 3:8) and ( Ps. 10:15; cf. also Ps. 37:17, where is
the subject of ni.).
commentary 123

4:18 . This is the only occurrence of as object of hi.,


though its use here is in line with its frequent figurative use, particularly in the
Book of Psalms, to represent the strength of a person ( BDB 2, pp. 901902;
DCH VII 2a, pp. 326327). Perhaps the biblical passage providing closest
parallel to the thought of the present line is Ps. 75:11:
and all the horns of the wicked I will cut off, (but) the horns
of the righteous shall be exalted. Elsewhere is found in figurative uses as the
subject of qal (1Sam. 2:1; Ps. 89:18(Qr), 25; 112:9), and as the object of hi.
(1Sam. 2:10; Ps. 75:5, 6; 89:18(Kt); 92:11; 148:14 = Sir. 51:12; Lam. 2:17; 1Chr. 25:5; Sir.
47:5, 11; 1QH 15:22, 23). It is of interest to note that the Targum of Psalms often
translates with strength (18:3; 75:11; 92:11; 112:9), though glory is
another well-attested equivalent (75:5, 6; 89:18, 25; 148:14; cf. 132:17).

4:19 This line is a little difficult for two reasons. Firstly, it consists of two
nominal clauses which do not easily relate to one another, and which make for
an abrupt change from third to second person: his knowledge and wisdom are in
all my heart, and you are the judge of righteousness. A transition between these
two clauses might be provided by the particle . This frequently introduces
a causal or explanatory clause and can most conveniently be translated
for, as it has been some 20 times in our rendering of GnzPs. But in the
present context the second nominal clause does not explain the first, and is
here best translated surely, and understood as emphasizing what follows, as
occasionally elsewhere in GnzPs (1:6; 2:8; 4:9). A second difficulty is that the
predicate of the first clause looks suspicious: And his knowledge and wisdom
are in all my heart. Here the preposition must have a locative sense. But
is a frequent collocation, occurring 17 times in the Bible, always in the
sense of with all the heart, i.e. the indicating instrument or accompaniment.
Similarly occurs 28 times, and can always be translated with all the
heart (including Josh. 23:14, notwithstanding RV, etc.). A possible solution
to the difficulties of this line is offered by Harkavy, who suggests emending
and to and respectively, i.e. making them into verbs.
The line might then be translated: I know and acknowledge with all my heart
that you are the judge of righteousness, thus treating as a conjunction. It
is, however, questionable whether the verb can be used in this way in
our Genizah Psalm. It is true that Jastrow (pp. 462463) does give know as a
possible gloss for this verb in Hebrew, and recognise, know, remember for its
Aramaic cognate. But this is really a semantic development of , which
took place in Aramaic and then entered into Mishnaic Hebrew (cf. comment
on 2:17). I have been unable to find any example of know that,
or indeed of any use of in the sense of know in a Classical Hebrew text.
124 commentary

For this reason, Harkavys emendation is to be rejected. The line as it stands


is not out of place within the context, in that it does provide the transition
between line 18, where our psalmist speaks in the third person of what God
has done, and lines 2021 where he addresses God in the second person. The
first half of line 19 belongs (though somewhat uneasily) with what precedes,
and the second half goes (comfortably enough) with what follows in the next
line about the nature of Gods judgment. Nevertheless, the difficulties that
have been pointed out remain, and the first clause in particular has a rather
dubious feel about it. For the judge of righteousness, cf.
at 4:12, and see comment thereon.

4:20 . The word is very faint


but just visible. This hemistich is partly based on Ps. 17:2: .
Elsewhere, is found as the subject of the qal of at Hos. 6:5; Hab.
1:4, 7; cf. also its use as the object of the hiphil at Isa. 42:1, 3; 1QH 12:25. The
phrase judgment of falsehood, i.e. false judgment, is found only
here. Elsewhere in GnzPs means justice rather than judgment (1:7, 20;
4:24), but here the meaning must be judgment, the reference being to the
sentence or decision given in judgment. This is suggested, not only by the
consideration that justice of falsehood would be a contradiction in terms,
but also by the use at Ps. 17:2, where means my vindication (e.g. RSV,
JPS, NIV), i.e. the decision which vindicates me. False judgment would be
a decision which fails to promote justice, by failing to vindicate the party
to whom vindication is due. In effect is an ellipsis of
;cf. in connection with human justice at Ezek. 18:8; Zech 7:9.
In any case, the qualities of that go forth from the presence of
God, as judge of righteousness, are manifested in the judgments which he
gives.

4:21 An adaptation of Jer. 17:10 and 32:19:


GnzPs
( Qr ) Jer. 17:10
Jer. 32:19

Our psalm follows the latter more closely than the former (assuming MT
as in BHS), with its readings in the plural (Jer. 17:10 has in the
singular as the kethibh) and with the conjunction, though at Jer. 17:10
there are Hebrew manuscripts with the same readings of these words as
here. Two changes have been made to Jer. 17:10 and 32:19: is read here
commentary 125

instead of in the biblical text, and the words have been added
at the end. For hi. in connection with God making recompense to
humans according to ( )their deeds, see 2Sam. 22:21, 25||Ps. 18:21, 25; and for
similarly used, see 1Kgs 8:39||2Chr. 6:30; Ezek. 7:9.

4:22 . AHL reconstructs ] [, but


it is possible to read all the letters in these words, even though is very faint.
and are approximate but not exact synonyms. According to TDOT,
the former denotes the disguising, concealment or denial of a given situation
contrary to better knowledge; it thus also represents a deliberate accountable
act (K.D. Schunck, TDOT VII, p. 133), whereas the latter does not belong in the
first instance to the domain of responsible action, i.e. ethics, and even when
used of spoken words the primary focus is not on the (ethically dubious)
untruthfulness of the speaker, but on the objective untrustworthiness of the
speaker or the message (R. Mosis, TDOT VII, p. 110). is rather less frequent
than ( DCH IV notes a total of 12 and 54 occurrences respectively); the two
words are found in proximity at 1QS 10:22, though this does not provide a
close parallel with the present passage.

4:23 . This line is based loosely on Deut.


32:4 (note the phrases and ) . On , see comment on 1:12;
note that in GnzPs this noun is always written with a mater lectionis. is
here used as an adverb of degree, altogether, utterly (DCH IV 3d, p. 197; other
possible examples include Isa. 27:4; 44:11; Hos. 11:8; 1QH 18:34; 1QS 10:17). The
noun has a range of meaning including injustice, wrong, evil, dishonesty,
deceit. The present context would support either injustice (cf. lines 2021)
or deceit (cf. line 22) as suitable renderings. Since is clearly singular
(as indicated by ), is probably also to be understood as singular,
though at 2:20 is apparently a defectively written plural.

4:24 . For the comparison


of justice with flowing water, cf. Am. 5:24: But
let justice roll along like waters, and righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.
is found as the subject of at Isa. 43:2; Ca. 8:7; 1QH 16:1415; cf. also
the use of as the subject of this verb at Isa. 30:28; 66:12; Jer. 47:2; Ps. 78:20;
2Chr. 32:4; 1QH 16:17. Our psalmist also uses as the object of hi.
at 1:7, 20. In the first of these passages God is spoken of as having planted
righteousness in the earth () , which may be compared with his
causing his righteousness to sprout ( ) in the present passage.
and are frequently found in parallel or association with each
126 commentary

other: DCH V (pp. 558, 561) records a total of 11 cases of parallelism and 33 of
association (and similarly 5 cases of and in parallel and 15 cases in
association with each other). is used as the object of hi. (with God
as subject) at Isa. 61:11, and branch of righteousnes is the object of
the same verb at Jer. 33:15. The latter passage is a reinterpretation of Jer. 23:5
which says that God will raise up for David a righteous branch, who
will reign as king and execute justice and righteousness in the
land. Our psalmist as a Davidic figure may well have these passages in mind,
and consider himself to be a means by which Gods justice and righteousness
are increased and made to sprout. Other passages in which the roots and
are found in the same context are Isa. 45:8; 58:8; Ps. 85:12. seed
that is blessed is an interesting usage, because elsewhere the verb is not
used in connection with in its literal meaning of seed, but only in its
derived meaning of offspring (Isa. 61:9; cf. Isa. 65:23; Ps. 112:2).

4:25 . For an example of a similar type of relative clause with


and without a relative pronoun, see Ps. 65:5: . Elsewhere,
GnzPs makes use of the particle : ( 3:1), or pronoun :
( 1:27). The verb occurs in Biblical Hebrew 4 times in
the qal, meaning be pure, be clean (Job 15:14; 25:4), and be justified (Mic. 6:11;
Ps. 51:4); it also occurs in the piel meaning make/keep pure (Ps. 73:13; 119:9; Prov.
20:9), and in the hithpael, meaning purify oneself (Isa. 1:16). Qumran usage is
essentially the same in the qal or hithpael, which cannot be distinguished
with certainty in an unpointed text (1QH fr. 4:10; 1QS 3:4; 8:18), and it may also
have the hiphil in the sense of make clean (1QS 9:9; unless this is from ). In
Mishnaic Hebrew, however, this verb acquired the sense of be worthy, deserve
(Jastrow, p. 398), and in the present context probably means be worthy
of, though it could mean be pure on account of (or by means of ). Elsewhere in
GnzPs sanctification is something bestowed by God upon the figure
behind these psalms (see comments on 1:16 and 4:7), and it may be assumed
that the same is the case here.

4:25 . Cf. at 1:22, and see comment thereon. For a


list of occurrences of as object of pi., see comment on 2:9.

4:26 . with a 1st pers. sing. suffix is found several times


in the Book of Psalms (22:20; 27:9; 35:2; 38:23; 40:14, 18, 70:2; 71:12), and in most
of these instances God is directly invoked to hasten to the aid of the psalmist.
What is particularly interesting about the present passage of our psalm is
that it makes use of as a theologoumenon. If is translated
commentary 127

literally as from the presence of your glory, rather than more idiomatically
as from your glorious presence, this recalls the equivalent use of glory
together with Shekinah, Presence in the Targum tradition. The phrase
Shekinah of your glory is found at TgPss 44:25, and Shekinah of the glory of
the Lord at TgPss 68:19; 115:16; cf. also TgPss 91:4, where glory is parallel with
Shekinah. Our psalmist has also made a use of in a way comparable to
that of in the Targum tradition at GnzPs 1:3; see comment thereon.

4:26 . is apparently + impf. 1st pers. sing. of ,


and is explained by Harkavy, doubtless correctly, as equivalent to .
This form, and the use of directly joined to the imperfect to express purpose
is, as far as I am aware, unique to the present passage. The combination
is not attested in the Bible, though is found at 1QS 11:12, and
the semantic equivalent of is found at Ps. 33:11; Ec. 1:4, and the hiphil
at 2 Chr. 9:8. is here used of Gods favour, goodwill, a sense well-attested
in the Bible (BDB 1a, p. 953; DCH VII 2, pp. 544545), and found also at
Qumran (e.g. 1QH 6:13; 1QLitPr 3.2:5; 4QDc 1:6), though at Qumran other uses
of predominate. There is no biblical parallel for in the qal, but
the hiphil occurs at Ps. 30:8.

4:27 The reading of the first half of this line poses one of the greatest textual
problems in GnzPs. Only the reading of and the at the end of this half of
the line are certain. Most of the second word has been lost due to a hole in
the manuscript, and the reading of the remaining letters is far from certain.
AHL does not attempt a reading beyond ] [. Harkavy reads ]
[yesterday and today, which he says he has restored on the basis of
guesswork, and the same reading is given by Flusser and Safrai. There are,
however, serious difficulties with this reconstruction. Firstly, it stands or falls
with the reading of ;][the words and are found in association
at Exod. 5:14; 1Sam. 20:27; 21:6; 2Sam. 15:20. Yet, while all the letters of are
visible, it would be quite possible to read these as . In my opinion, the
reading is very slightly more likely to be correct than that of , but the
latter possibility should not be discounted. Secondly, in [ ] only the first
letter is present, and it is by no means clearly a . Indeed, I would read it as .
There is a mark which could be the tail of a , but it is slightly higher than
the bottom of the letter, and is probably not an ink mark. Thirdly, I am not
convinced that there is sufficient space for [ ;] if there was, it would
be a tight squeeze. The space available seems more likely to be enough for
only one broad and one narrow letter. The final (and most serious) difficulty
with this reconstruction is that the hole in the manuscript is so positioned
128 commentary

that if the word had ever been present, the top of the would without
doubt still be visible above the hole, but there is no trace of it whatsoever.
There is just a very slight possibility that there could be a tiny trace of the
three strokes of the top of the letter just above the hole, but this is very
uncertain. The damage to the manuscript together with the uncertainty of
the reading of so many of the visible letters make any reconstruction of the
first half of the line much too speculative a venture to be undertaken here.

4:27 . Of the 24 occurrences of in the MT, 21 are to be


found in Ps. 119. For as object of , see Ps. 119:4, 63 () , 134,
168; cf. also the semantic equivalent with as object of at Ps. 119:56,
69, 100. The only certain occurrence of in a Qumran-related text is at
CD 20:2, though it sometimes appears elsewhere in scholarly reconstructions.
ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE

1. Morphology

A. Morphology of the Verb


In the following list, where any verbal form is preceded by ww, the ww
has been omitted. Such forms are listed in full below in 2A, on the Ww
Consecutive. The following are listed in order of first occurrence in each
category.

a. Qal
(1) perfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 1:26; 3:26), ( 2:4; 3:9; 4:15), ( 3:7), ( 4:5), ( 4:5),
( 4:5), ( 4:8), ( 4:9), ( 4:18)
3rd fem. sing., ( 2:1)
2nd masc. sing., ( 1:3), ( 1:3), ( 1:6), ( 1:7), ( 1:13),
( 1:13), ( 1:15), ( 1:16), ( 1:17), ( 1:19),
( 1:23), ( 1:24), ( 1:25); with pronominal suffix,
( 1:23), ( 1:26), ( 2:8), ( 2:16)
1st pers. sing., ( 2:4; 3:10; 4:16), ( 2:5; 3:11; 4:17), ( 2:24),
( 4:9)
3rd pers. plur., ( 1:18), ( 1:21), ( 2:6); with pronominal suffix,
( 2:6)

(2) imperfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 1:12), ( 1:26), ( 1:26), ( 1:27), ( 2:13),
( 2:13), ( 2:13), ( 3:1), ( 3:15, 21), ( 3:21),
( 4:20), ( 4:25)
2nd masc. sing., ( 3:4), ( 4:21)
1st pers. sing., ( 3:1), ( 3:2), ( 3:5; 4:10), ( 4:26)
3rd masc. plur., ( 1:8; 2:14), ( 1:11; 2:18), ( 1:21), ( 2:9), ( 2:12,
16; 3:19), ( 2:14), ( 2:17), ( 2:17), ( 2:19),
( 2:19), ( 3:17), ( 3:18), ( 3:18); with pronomi-
nal suffix, ( 2:14)
1st pers. plur., ( 3:27)

(3) jussive
3rd masc. sing., ( 2:6)
130 analysis of language

(4) imperative
masc. sing., ( 2:7), ( 2:7), ( 3:4); with pronominal suffix, ( 2:1),
( 2:1)
masc. plur., ( 3:23, 24), ( 3:23)

(5) participle
masc. sing., ( 1:2), ( 1:2; 3:20; 4:12, 19), ( 1:17), ( 1:17), ( 2:1),
( 2:12), ( 3:6), ( 3:6), ( 4:1, 5), ( 4:1), ( 4:2;
unless perfect), ( 4:8), ( 4:11), ( 4:13), ( 4:24);
with pronominal suffix ( 3:25)
masc. plur., ( 1:3), ( 1:5), ( 1:18), ( 2:6), ( 3:14); cstr.
( 1:8; 2:17), ( 1:24), ( 2:10), ( 2:10), ( 2:14;
4:3), ( 4:27)

(6) passive participle


masc. sing., ( 1:1), ( 2:1, 2, 3, 3; 3:6, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 12; 4:13, 14, 14, 15, 18)
masc. plur., perhaps ( 2:10; but probably noun)

(7) infinitive
( 2:11), ( 3:5), ( 3:18), ( 4:26); with pronominal suffix ( 2:1)

b. Niphal
(1) perfect
2nd masc. sing., ( 1:14), ( 1:15)
3rd pers. plur., ( 1:27)

(2) imperfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 4:23)
2nd masc. sing., ( 2:23)
3rd masc. plur., ( 2:10)

(3) participle
masc. sing. with pronominal suffix, ( 2:9), ( 4:6)
masc. plur. cstr., ( 4:1)
fem. plur. with pronominal suffix, ( 2:21), ( 3:23)

c. Piel
(1) perfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 4:4)
2nd masc. sing., ( 1:5), ( 1:5), ( 1:10), ( 1:13), ( 1:18),
( 1:22), ( 1:24), ( 1:25)
1st pers. sing., ( 1:14)
analysis of language 131

(2) imperfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 1:22; 2:21; 4:25), ( 3:7), ( 3:14), ( 3:14; unless
hiphil)
2nd masc. sing., ( 1:1), ( 1:14)
1st pers. sing., ( 3:3), ( 4:10)
3rd masc. plur., ( 2:9), ( 2:15), ( 2:16)

(3) imperative
masc. sing., ( 2:2)
masc. plur., ( 3:23)

(4) participle
masc. sing. with pronominal suffix, ( 4:12)

d. Pual
(1) perfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 3:3)

(2) participle
masc. sing., ( 3:12; 4:24)
fem. sing., ( 1:18)

e. Hiphil
(1) perfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 1:16), ( 3:13), ( 3:13), ( 3:18), ( 3:25),
( 4:6), ( 4:7), ( 4:18)
2nd masc. sing., ( 1:4), ( 1:7, 20), ( 4:24), ( 4:24); with
pronominal suffix, ( 1:19), ( 2:8)

(2) imperfect
3rd masc. sing., ( 3:21)
2nd masc. sing., ( 4:21); with pronominal suffix, ( 2:23)
3rd masc. plur., ( 1:8), ( 1:9)
1st pers. plur., ( 3:27)

(3) participle
masc. sing., ( 1:6), ( 3:12), ( 3:12), ( 3:12, 20), ( 3:12),
( 3:20), ( 3:25)

(4) infinitive
( 2:11)
132 analysis of language

f. Hithpael
(1) perfect.
1st pers. sing., ( 2:5; 3:11; 4:17)

(2) imperfect.
2nd masc. sing., ( 2:20), ( 2:20; 4:11), ( 4:11), ( 4:11),
( 4:12)
3rd masc. plur., ( 1:3)

g. Polel
perfect.
2nd masc. sing., ( 1:10)
3rd masc. plur., ( 1:11)

h. Hithpolel
imperfect
2nd masc, sing., ( 4:11)

i. Hithpalel
imperfect
3rd masc. plur., ( 2:18; 3:17, 22)

j. Anomalous form
imperfect
1st pers. sing., ( 3:3)

From among the forms listed above, the following may be singled out as
being particularly anomalous: ( 1:7, for ), ( 4:26, apparently
imperfect 1st pers. sing. + , as equivalent to ) , ( 3:3, for
or ).

B. Morphology of the Noun


All prefixes (i.e. the definite article, the conjunction and prepositions) have
been omitted from the forms given below.

a. Masculine Nouns
Lord
sing. cstr. ( 4:11)
analysis of language 133

human being(s)
sing. abs. ( 1:1; 2:10; 3:19, 21; 4:21)
treasure
plur. cstr. ( 3:15)
light
sing. abs. ( 1:4); sing. cstr. ( 2:8)
God
sing. abs. ( 2:1; 3:6; 4:13)
God
plur. cstr. ( 2:3; 3:9; 4:15); plur. + sf. ( 2:2), ( 2:6)
idol
plur. abs. ( 2:18, 19)
thousand
sing. abs. ( 2:25); plur. abs. ( 2:25)
mankind
sing. abs. ( 3:19)
end
plur. cstr. ( 1:16)
ash heap
sing. abs. ( 3:13)
happiness of
plur. cstr. ( 1:27; 3:1; 4:25, 27); plur. + sf. ( 3:17)
chosen one
plur. cstr. ( 1:21)
house
sing. + sf. ( 2:24)
son
plur. cstr. ( 1:5)
flesh
sing. abs. ( 3:22); sing. + sf. ( 4:5)
man
sing. abs. ( 1:27)
nation
plur. abs. ( 1:19; 2:8; 3:15)
word, thing
sing. abs. ( 2:22); sing. + sf. ( 1:27; 2:26 [ ;]][4:22), ( 4:6); plur. cstr.
( 1:8; 2:11; 3:26); plur. + sf. ( 2:22), ( 2:21)
generation
plur. abs. ( 1:2; 4:11)
judge
sing. cstr. ( 1:2; 4:12)
way
sing. + sf. ( 2:14), ( 1:10); plur. cstr. ( 1:2; 3:26); plur. + sf. ( 4:21)
vanity
sing. abs. ( 3:18)
honour
sing. abs. ( 4:4)
134 analysis of language

splendour
sing. abs. ( 4:4); sing. cstr. ( 1:19)
palace
plur. cstr. ( 2:24)
gold
sing. abs. ( 2:25)
trembling
sing. abs. ( 4:2)
memorial, i.e. name
sing. + sf. ( 4:10)
song
plur. abs. ( 2:15)
seed
sing. abs. ( 4:24)
month
sing. abs. ( 2:4); sing. cstr. ( 2:4; 4:16), ( 3:10)
life
plur. abs. ( 3:26)
wealth
sing. cstr. ( 3:15)
loyal one
plur. + sf. corrected to sing. + sf. ( 3:25)
pleasure, desire
sing. + sf. ( 3:2); plur. cstr. ( 1:6; 2:27; 3:1, 4)
darkness
sing. abs. ( 1:4)
goodness, i.e. welfare
sing. cstr. ( 2:8; 4:5)
day
sing. abs. ( 1:22; 3:3; 4:10, 25, 27)
glory
sing. abs. ( 3:1); sing. cstr. ( 2:2; 3:8, 26; 4:4, 14); sing. + sf. ( 1:3; 2:9, 16,
22; 4:25, 26), ( 2:3; 3:8, 16; 4:14)
falsehood
sing. abs. ( 4:22)
strength
sing. + sf. ( 1:26; 2:21; 3:14), ( 1:10)
deceit
sing. abs. ( 4:22)
all
sing. cstr. ( 1:2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 13, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 23, 24, 24, 25; 2:1, 4, 4, 9, 10, 12,
14, 17, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27; 3:2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 14, 15, 17, 17, 20, 22, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26;
4:3, 10, 11, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 22, 22, 23, 25); sing. + sf. ( 1:6; 2:12; 3:19)
vessel
sing. cstr. ( 2:26)
throne
sing. + sf. ( 3:14)
analysis of language 135

heart
sing. abs. ( 4:1); sing. + sf. ( 3:7; 4:19), ( 4:7)
heart
sing. + sf. ( 1:9)
night
sing. abs. ( 4:10)
desirable thing
plur. + sf. ( 2:19)
camp
plur. + sf. ( 2:16)
fullness
sing. + sf. ( 4:3)
angel
plur. abs. ( 1:23)
king
sing. cstr. ( 1:23); sing. + sf. ( 4:12); plur. abs. ( 2:24, 27; 3:15, 15, 16); plur.
cstr. ( 1:24; 2:10)
number
sing. abs. ( 1:20; 4:7)
habitation
sing. cstr. corrected to ( 2:24)
deed
plur. + sf. ( 4:21)
deed, work, creature
sing. cstr. ( 2:18); sing. + sf. ( 4:23); plur. cstr. ( 1:10); plur. + sf.
( 1:12, 12; 4:22), ( 2:20), ( 4:10, 11)
vision
sing. abs. ( 2:4; 3:10, 26); sing. cstr. ( 2:22; 4:16)
justice, judgment
sing. abs. ( 1:7, 20); sing. cstr. ( 4:20); sing. + sf. ( 4:24)
river
sing. abs. ( 4:24)
everlastingness
sing. abs. ( 1:23; 2:19; 4:13, 26); sing. cstr. ( 1:11; 3:27); plur. abs. ( 1:11;
3:27)
path
plur. cstr. ( 3:5)
ruler
plur. abs. ( 2:10)
end
sing. cstr. ( 2:11)
idol
sing. abs. (2:17)
servant
sing. + sf. ( 1:6, 8, 14, 15; 2:21), ( 2:1; 3:7; 4:4, 6, 13)
perpetuity
sing. abs. ( 2:2, 3, 18; 3:8, 27; 4:14, 14)
136 analysis of language

witness
plur. cstr. ( 1:1)
injustice
sing. abs. ( 1:3), ( 4:23)
world, everlastingness
sing. abs. ( 1:4, 11, 11, 17, 27, 27; 2:2, 3, 3, 3, 8, 20; 3:5, 8, 8, 9, 9, 20; 4:14, 14, 15, 15);
plur. abs. ( 1:7; 3:17)
iniquity
sing. abs. ( 3:3)
strength
sing. abs. ( 3:24; 4:9); sing. cstr. ( 4:9); sing. + sf. ( 1:6, 22; 2:8)
people
sing. abs. ( 2:4; 3:9; 4:15); sing. + sf. ( 1:5), ( 4:5)
pillar
sing. cstr. ( 1:17)
dust
sing. abs. ( 3:13)
turban
sing. abs. ( 1:19)
mouth, speech
sing. cstr. ( 1:14; 2:20; 4:6, 12); sing. + sf. ( 2:25), ( 1:22)
wonder
sing. + sf. ( 1:10)
face, presence (excluding uses within the compound prepositions , , )
plur. + sf. ( 2:15), ( 1:27)
graven image
plur. + sf. ( 2:17)
deed
sing. + sf. ( 4:23); plur. cstr. ( 1:9); plur. + sf. ( 1:12)
precept
plur. + sf. ( 4:27)
fruit
sing. cstr. ( 4:21)
breach
sing. abs. ( 1:17)
transgression
plur. + sf. ( 1:13)
righteousness
sing. abs. ( 1:2, 3, 4, 20, 21; 4:12, 19); sing. + sf. ( 3:5)
sanctification
sing. cstr. ( 2:26)
holiness
sing. abs. ( 4:16); sing. + sf. ( 2:11), ( 3:26)
end
sing. abs. ( 1:14)
head, beginning
sing. abs. ( 1:15, 18)
analysis of language 137

greatness
sing. cstr. ( 1:12; 4:7), ( 1:23)
mercy
plur. + sf. ( 1:15; 2:6, 7, 23), ( 4:9, 13)
favour, will
sing. + sf. ( 1:6; 2:27; 3:1, 4; 4:26)
shaking
sing. abs. ( 4:2)
prince
plur. abs. ( 3:14)
praise
sing. + sf. ( 1:16)
breach
plur. cstr. ( 2:7)
song
sing. abs. ( 1:8)
peace
sing. abs. ( 1:20)
name
sing. abs. ( 1:22); sing. cstr. ( 2:2, 3; 3:8, 8; 4:14, 14); sing. + sf. ( 1:8, 11, 11, 26
[corrected reading]), ( 1:17, 19; 3:24, 26, 27)
two
du. abs. ( 2:4)
falsehood
sing. abs. ( 1:4; 4:20)
root
sing. cstr. ( 1:15)
midst
sing. cstr. ( 2:16)

b. Feminine Nouns
stone
plur. abs. ( ][2:27)
love
sing. abs. ( 1:13, 26; 2:7); sing. + sf. ( 2:23)
people
plur. abs. ( 1:18, 23; 2:9)
faithfulness
sing. abs. ( 2:14), ( 4:20)
truth
sing. abs. ( 1:7; 4:12, 20); sing. + sf. ( 3:3)
four
sing. abs. ( 4:16)
earth, land
sing. abs. ( 1:7, 9, 16; 2:10; 3:17; 4:3); sing. cstr. [( ]1:21)
understanding
sing. abs. ( 4:7)
138 analysis of language

request
sing. + sf. ( 3:4); plur. + sf. ( 3:2)
covenant
sing. cstr. ( 4:13)
blessing
plur. abs. ( 1:20)
daughter
plur. cstr. ( 3:16, 16)
might
sing. + sf. ( 2:12), ( 3:27); plur. cstr. ( 2:11; 4:9)
greatness
sing. + sf. ( 1:23)
grief
sing. abs. ( 4:2)
knowledge
sing. + sf. ( 4:19)
thanksgiving hymn
plur. abs. ( 2:13, 15)
slaughter
sing. abs. ( 2:6)
arm
sing. + sf. ( 1:16, 25)
sin
plur. + sf. ( 1:13)
animal
sing. abs. ( 1:5)
wisdom
sing. abs. ( 4:7); sing. cstr. ( 1:6); sing. + sf. ( 4:19)
desire, desirable thing
sing. abs. ( 1:21 [ ;]][2:26); sing. cstr. ( 3:15)
sword
sing. + sf. ( 1:25)
ruin
plur. abs. ( 1:17)
hand
sing. cstr. ( 2:9; 3:25); sing. + sf. ( 2:12), ( 3:22); du. cstr. ( 4:6); du. + sf.
( 2:18)
right hand
sing. + sf. ( 2:11), ( 1:25)
talent
plur. cstr. ( 2:25)
or confidence
plur. abs. ( 4:2)
royalty
sing. + sf. ( 2:2; 3:8, 16; 4:4, 14)
rule
sing. + sf. ( 4:9)
analysis of language 139

commandment
sing. cstr. (4:6); sing. + sf. ( 1:10); plur. cstr. ( 2:27)
depth
plur. abs. ( 1:24)
pearl
plur. abs. ( 2:27)
request
plur. cstr. ( 3:7)
prophecy
plur. + sf. ( 2:4; 3:10; 4:16)
heritage
sing. abs. ( 3:21); sing. + sf. ( 2:7)
soul
sing. cstr. ( 3:22, 25); sing. + sf. ( 2:1), ( 1:24)
help
sing. + sf. ( 4:26)
crown
sing. abs. ( 1:19)
eye
du. + sf. ( 3:3)
bone
sing. cstr. ( 4:1); plur. abs. ( 2:7)
time
sing. abs. ( 3:24); sing. cstr. ( 2:1)
corner-stone
sing. abs. ( 1:18)
flock
sing. cstr. ( 2:6); sing. + sf. ( 1:5)
righteousness
sing. + sf. ( 2:9; 3:3; 4:24), ( 1:9); plur. abs. ( 1:7)
cry
sing. cstr. ( 4:8)
distress
sing. abs. ( 3:25)
sanctification
sing. + sf. ( 1:16; 4:25), ( 4:7)
horn
sing. cstr. ( 4:18)
foot
sing. + sf. ( 1:26)
spirit, breath
sing. abs. ( 4:16); sing. cstr. ( 2:21; 3:22, 25); sing. + sf. ( 1:14)
joyful shout
sing. abs. ( 1:19)
joy
sing. abs. ( 4:2); sing. cstr. ( 2:22)
request
sing. + sf. ( 3:4)
140 analysis of language

song
plur. abs. ( 2:13, 15); plur. cstr. ( 1:22)
three
abs. ( 3:10)
world
sing. abs. ( 2:10, 14; 4:3)
thanksgiving
sing. abs. ( 2:15)
law
sing cstr. ( 2:25); sing. + sf. ( 4:6)
beauty
sing. abs. ( 3:24); sing. cstr. ( 3:16; 4:9)
power to stand, as concr. (ones who have) power
plur. cstr. ( 3:17)

c. Proper Nouns (All Masculine)


Iyyar
( 2:4; 3:10; 4:16)
David
( 1:15)
YHWH
( 2:1, 3, 5, 6, 12, 16; 3:9, 11, 18, 19, 20; 4:13, 15, 17)
Israel
( 2:3; 3:9; 4:15)
Midian
( 1:24)
Kedar
( }{1:25)

From the forms listed above, the following plural constructs and plural with
suffix forms may be noted as unusual or unexpected:
a. as plur. + sf. of camp (2:16), whereas the well-attested form
in MT is ( Josh. 11:4; Judg. 8:10; 1Sam. 17:1, 53; 28:1; 29:1).
b. as plur. + sf. form of ( 2:4; 3:10; 4:16), unless this should be
understood as the qal pass. ptc. of plur. + sf.
c. as plur. cstr. of ( 3:5). In MT does not have a plural form,
but the related fem. noun supplies the plural form as .
d. perhaps as plur. cstr. of power to stand (3:17).

C. Use of Mater Lectionis


Mater lectionis is found quite frequently in GnzPs, though not as frequently
as in post-biblical Hebrew texts, nor is its use in GnzPs by any means
consistent. The qal participle is almost is almost always spelt with a ww to
analysis of language 141

represent lem in the first syllable, apparent exceptions being ( 2:12) and
( 4:2). The former cannot be a perfect unless it is an error for ,
since the subject is feminine ( ;)the latter could be a perfect, but is
probably a participle in view of the participles found in the previous line.
Sometimes in nominal forms lem is indicated by ww where the MT
would always (or almost always) have given a defective spelling, though
GnzPs is not always consistent: ( 1:4), ( 1:10), ( 1:26; 2:21; 3:14),
( 1:23; but at 1:12; 4:7), ( 1:15), ( 4:16), ( 3:24; 4:9), ( 2:4,
4; 4:16; but at 3:10). Of more interest is the use of ww for the short
vowel qme ph: ( 1:6; but at 4:19), ( 4:7), ( 2:1)
( 1:9), ( 1:12), ( 4:23), ( 2:11), ( 3:26). It is even used
for ph-qme: ( 1:17). The short vowel qibb is also indicated by
ww: ( 1:6, 22; 2:8; but cf. at 4:9), ( 1:18, 23; 2:9), ( 1:16; 4:25),
( 4:7).
Ydh is sometimes used to indicate r in forms where the MT would not
have had a mater lectionis: in the qal participles ( 1:2) and ( 4:11),
though elsewhere in GnzPs the qal participle lacks this ydh; in the piel
imperfects ( 1:1), ( 3:3) and ( 3:14; unless hiphil), though
elsewhere GnzPs spells piel imperfects without this ydh; in the first syllable
of the hiphil perfect of verbs ( 1:16) and ( 3:13); where r forms
the connecting vowel in the imperative or imperfect with pronominal suffix,
in ( 2:1), ( 2:1) and ( 2:23); and in some nominal forms: ( 1:1),
( }{1:25).
Ydh is also sometimes used for a short req vowel in the first syllable
of the hiphil: ( 3:25), ( 4:24), ( 1:19); likewise the niphal:
( 1:14); though spellings without ydh are just as frequent. It is also
found in some nominal forms: ( 1:25), ( 1:18), ( 1:19), ( 3:3).
Elsewhere, short req is normally written defectively. Occasionally ydh is
found as mater lectionis for seghl: ( 4:8); and ph-seghl: ( 2:14;
but at 4:20), ( 3:19).
The inconsistency in the use of mater lectionis within GnzPs can be
illustrated by the use of the noun with pronominal suffix. This is
without ydh before the 2nd masc. sing. suffix, as ( 1:15; 2:6, 7, 23),
which is probably to be understood as a plural with pronominal suffix
(notwithstanding the singular verb at 2:6), though only once is it clearly plural
(2:23). This noun, however, is written with ydh before the 3rd masc. sing.
suffix as ( 4:9, 13). In the case of the with pronominal suffix, the
plural with 2nd masc. sing. suffix is written with mater lectionis as ( 1:12,
12; 4:22), but it is also written defectively as ( 2:20, though the same form
at 4:23 is probably a singular with suffix), and the plural with 3rd masc. sing.
142 analysis of language

suffix is spelt ( 4:10, 11). Evidently ( 4:22) is a defectively written


plural with suffix, though the plene form is also found (2:22).
The plural ending - is normally written plene: ( 1:7), ( 1:17),
( 1:20), ( 1:22), ( 1:24), ( 2:7), ( 2:11; 4:9),
( 2:13, 15), ( 2:15), ( 2:21), ( 2:27), ( 2:27),
( 2:27), ( 3:7), ( 3:13), ( 3:15), ( 3:16, 16),
(3:23), ( 4:2), ( 4:11); the only example of a defective spelling
of such a plural form with suffix is ( 1:13). Likewise the infinitive of
verbs is written plene: ( 2:11), ( 3:18).
Some words are written consistently written (as in the MT) without mater
lectionis, whereas at Qumran or in post-biblical Hebrew texts they might be
written plene, e.g. ( though with a suffix it is spelt at 1:6; 2:12; 3:19),
( not ), ( not ), ( not ).

D. Double Writing of Consonantal Ydh


The double writing of consonantal ydh is found only in the noun ( 1:2;
4:12) and the proper noun ( 2:4; 3:10; 4:16).

2. Features of Verbal Usage

A. Ww Consecutive
The only very clear use of the Ww Consecutive in GnzPs is in the
quotation of Ps. 106:48 within the closing benedictions at 2:4; 3:9; 4:15. There
are also a few possible uses of the imperfect with Ww Consecutive in
column 3: ( 3:7), ( 3:14), ( 3:14), ( 3:15). But these are by
no means certain. At 3:7 seems to continue the past tense of earlier
in the line, but it could easily express the consequence of the previous verb
and have a future meaning, i.e. blessed is he who has chosen his servant, and
will fulfil all the requests of my heart. The verbs , and at 3:1415
seem to continue the past tense of and in 3:13. But it could be that
3:1415 describes a further (future) stage in the exaltation of the poor one
which has been spoken of in 3:13, i.e. having raised the poor one from the dust
and lifted the needy one from the ash heap, he will make his throne greater
than that of all kings and his strength greater than that of all rulers, and he will
give him all the things that kings desire. It should be noted that the exaltation
of the poor one is continued in 3:17 with the imperfects and ,
and this may suggest that , and at 3:1415 should be understood
as imperfects with simple ww. Elsewhere in GnzPs the Ww Consecutive
analysis of language 143

is conspicuous by its absence. There are numerous instances of the use


of a perfect with simple ww to continue reference to past activity which
was introduced by a previous perfect: ( 1:3), ( 1:4), ( 1:5),
( 1:10), ( 1:13), ( 1:13), ( 1:15), ( 1:18), ( 1:24),
( 1:25), ( 2:5; 3:11; 4:17), ( 2:5; 3:11; 4:17), ( 4:5), ( 4:5),
( 4:6), ( 4:9), ( 4:18). Likewise, there are many examples of an
imperfect with simple ww to continue a reference to future activity which
was introduced by a previous imperfect: ( 2:12), ( 2:13), ( 2:14),
( 2:14), ( 2:15), ( 2:16), ( 2:17), ( 2:20), ( 2:20),
( 3:3), ( 3:3), ( 3:18), ( 4:10), ( 4:11), ( 4:11).
Although the Ww Consecutive is much less frequent in the poetic
literature of the Hebrew Bible than in its prose, it is by no means absent
from the former. The almost complete lack of the Ww Consecutive in GnzPs
recalls the situation in Mishnaic Hebrew, from which the consecutive tenses
have practically disappeared, and where, in the few cases in which these
tenses do occur, they are conscious imitations of Biblical Hebrew (Segal, MH
156).

B. Hithpael Used in Passive Sense


In Biblical Hebrew usage the hithpael is seldom used in a passive sense, and
the only examples cited by GK 54g are at Prov. 31:30 and at Ec.
8:10. The situation is, however, rather different in Mishnaic Hebrew, where
the nithpaal (which has taken over from the hithpael as the reflexive of the
intensive stem) is used extensively in a passive sense, and Segal observes that
this passive use of a reflexive stem is common to all Semitic languages in
their later stages (MH 140). In GnzPs the hithpael is predominantly used as
a passive, as is most clearly seen in that the activity behind ( 2:20),
( 2:20) and ( 4:12) is performed not by the subject of the verb,
but by an agent, and the same is also probably the case with ( 4:11),
( 4:11) and ( 4:11), and the hithpolel ( 4:11). The only
non-passive use of a hithpael in GnzPs that of ( 2:5; 3:11; 4:17), which
represents a well-established use of a very frequent verb, and one which
continues in Mishnaic Hebrew, both in the hithpael and nithpaal (Jastrow,
p. 1183a).

3. Vocabulary

The vocabulary of GnzPs is essentially that of Biblical Hebrew, but there are a
few exceptions:
144 analysis of language

A. Post-Biblical Vocabulary
Iyyar, thanksgiving, trembling, like, remit, pearl,
fitting, sanctification, sanctification, compassionate (in
the Merciful One, as a title for God), praise.

B. Words Used in Post-Biblical Senses


Some words well-attested in Biblical Hebrew are apparently used by GnzPs
in a post-biblical sense:
almsgiving (1:9). So used in Ben Sira and Mishnaic Hebrew.
be worthy of (4:25). So used in Mishnaic Hebrew.
in the sense of world (perhaps attested at Ec. 3:11) (1:4, 7; 2:8; 3:17, 20;
see comment on 3:17). Note that in Qumranic literature never means
world, though this sense is attested once at Naal ever (Xev/SeHymn 3:6)
and perhaps twice in Ben Sira (Si 3:18[A]; 4:23[A], though the sense of in
the latter verse [where ms C reads in its time] is less clear than in the
former).
htp. be declared as one, have Gods unity declared, which provides the
passive for one of the senses given by Jastrow for the piel in Mishnaic Hebrew
(pp. 572573).

C. Words Unique to the Genizah Psalms


confidence, from or ( 4:2)
grief (4:2).

4. Post-Biblical Phraseology

A. Phrases Attested at Qumran


(1:21) 1QH 10:13; 4QTime 1.2:3; 4QWiles 1:14 ()
(4:12) 11QPsa 24:6
( as plur.) (3:26) 4QDe 2.2:20
(1:2) 1QH 7:25 ()
(1:6; 3:1, 4) CD 3:15 ()
(1:10) 1QS 11:20; 1QH 15:32; 18:11; 19:4; 4QBera 1.2:6 (
)
(3:5) CD 1:16 ( ;) 1QH 15:14 ()
analysis of language 145

(1:20) 1QM 1:9; 17:7; 4QDibHama 12.4:13 (all three


)

B. Phrases Attested in Rabbinic Literature


(1:1) Mish. Tamid 4:2; Tos. Baba Kama 7:9; Mekh. Pischa 7:24;
11:38; 16:60; Mekh. b. Yochai 12:13
( 2:27) Mish. Kelim 11:8; Mekh. Beshalla 1:88, 89; 6:111, 113; Mekh.
de R. Simeon b. Yohai 14:5, 6, 25

5. Conclusions

The language of GnzPs is essentially that of Classical Hebrew towards the end
of that period of the Hebrew language. The vocabulary is overwhelmingly
biblical, but does include some words found only in post-biblical sources.
Of the words listed in 3A, almost all are otherwise attested exclusively in
Mishnaic Hebrew. The only exceptions are , found twice in Ben Sira as
well as in Mishnaic Hebrew, and , found twice in Ben Sira and twice in
Qumran Hebrew as well as in Mishnaic Hebrew. The influence of Mishnaic
Hebrew on the language of GnzPs is also suggested by the use of Biblical
Hebrew words in a post-biblical sense, as noted in 3B. Of the two words
cited in 3C as unique to GnzPs, merely provides a feminine form
for the frequent biblical word , and similarly is a feminine form
of the Classical Hebrew in its Mishnaic sense of grief, and there are also
the related words in Mishnaic Hebrew and in Qumran Hebrew, both
meaning grief. It is perhaps not surprising that, of the vocabulary of GnzPs
not found also in Biblical Hebrew, there are no words shared exclusively
by GnzPs with Qumran texts. Qumran Hebrew has essentially the same
vocabulary as Biblical Hebrew, and words unique to the former tend to be
of a more specialised nature. Nevertheless, it is striking that GnzPs has so
many phrases attested in Qumran literature, and even characteristic of that
literature, but not found in the Bible. This strongly suggests that GnzPs and
the Qumran texts arose in the same literary environment. Features which
GnzPs has in common with Mishnaic Hebrew might hint at a slightly later
date of composition than that of the Qumran literature. All things considered,
the language of GnzPs probably points toward a date of composition of about
the 1st century ce, and probably not later than the 2nd century.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

AHL, see Materials for the Dictionary.


Alexander, Philip S., The Targum of Canticles: Translated, with a Critical Introduction,
Apparatus, and Notes (The Aramaic Bible, 17A; Collegeville, MN, 2003).
Chyutin, Michael, The Redaction of the Qumranic and the Traditional Book of Psalms
as a Calendar, Revue de Qumran 63 (1994), pp. 367395.
Fitzmyer, Joseph A., David, Being therefore a Prophet (Acts 2:30), Catholic Biblical
Quarterly 34 (1972), pp. 332339.
Fleischer, Ezra, ( Medieval Hebrew Poems in
Biblical Hebrew Style; Hebrew with English summary), Studies in Judaica, Teuda
7 (Tel Aviv, 1991), pp. 199248.
Flint, P.W., The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Book of Psalms (Studies on the Texts of the
Desert of Judah, 17; Leiden, 1997), pp. 172201.
, The Prophet David at Qumran, in Matthias Henze (ed.), Biblical Interpretation
at Qumran (Studies in The Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature; Grand Rapids,
MI / Cambridge, UK, 2005), pp. 158167.
Flusser, David, and Shmuel Safrai, ( Hebrew), in B. Uffenheimer
(ed.), , Studies in Memoriam of Joshua Grintz, Teuda 2 (Tel Aviv,
1982), pp. 83105; English translation: The Apocryphal Psalms of David, in
David Flusser, Judaism of the Second Temple Period; Vol. 1: Qumran and Apoc-
alyptism, translated by Azzan Yadin (Grand Rapids, MI / Cambridge, UK, 2007),
pp. 258282.
Harkavy, A.A., ( Hebrew), ha-Goren 3
(1902), pp. 8285.
Jastrow, Marcus, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and
the Midrashic Literature (Philadelphia, 1903; repr. New York, 1975).
Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language (New
York, 1987).
Lorein, G.W. and E. van Staalduine-Sulman, A Song of David for Each Day: The
Provenance of the Songs of David, Revue de Qumran 85 (2005), pp. 3359.
Materials for the Dictionary. Series I. 200B.C.E. 300 C.E. (The Academy of the Hebrew
LanguageThe Historical Dictionary of the Hebrew Language; Jerusalem, 1988),
pp. 5457.
Safrai, see Flusser, David, and Shmuel Safrai.
Sanders, J.A., The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa) (Discoveries in the Judaean
Desert, IV; Oxford, 1965).
Schfer, J.P., Die Termini Heiliger Geist und Geist der Prophetie in den Targumim
und das Verhltnis der Targumim zueinander, Vetus Testamentum 20 (1970),
pp. 304314.
Segal, M.H., Sefer Ben Sira ha-shalem (Hebrew; Jerusalem, 2nd edn, 1958; repr. 1997).
Sparks, H.D.F., The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford, 1984).
Sperber, Alexander, The Bible in Aramaic (vols. IIVb; Leiden, 19591973; repr. 1992).
148 bibliography

van Staalduine-Sulman, Eveline, The Targum of Samuel (Studies in the Aramaic


Interpretation of Scripture, 1; Leiden, 2002).
, see Lorein, G.W., and E. van Staalduine-Sulman.
Yadin, Azzan, see Flusser, David, and Shmuel Safrai.
LIST OF WORDS

Verbs and participles are qal unless otherwise indicated. Translations and grammatical
descriptions are intended only as a guide to the reader, and are not necessarily exhaustive
definitions.

vb. perish 2:19 object-marker 1:11, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 22; 2:7,
adj. poor (one), needy (one) 3:13 11, 11, 12, 18; 3:4, 6, 19, 25, 27; 4:1, 10, 13
([ ;)]3:21; 4:8 prep. with 3:7 ()
n.f. stone 2:27 ()][ pers. pron. 2nd masc. sing. 2:1, 16; 4:13,
n.m. Lord 4:11 19
n.m. human being(s) 1:1; 2:10; 3:19, 21; 4:21 prep. in, with 1:2, 2, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14,
vb. love 1:9; 2:24; 3:25 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 24, 26, 26, 27; 2:1, 1, 4, 4,
n.f. love 1:13, 26; 2:7, 23 4, 7, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 17, 23; 3:1, 3, 3,
n.m. treasure 3:15 3, 3, 5, 7, 10, 10, 10, 18, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 26,
n.m. light 1:4; 2:10 26, 26; 4:3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 16, 16, 16, 16, 19, 22,
adj. one 3:20, 20 22, 23, 25, 25, 26
vb. pi. delay (intrans.) 1:14 vb. hi. divide 1:4
part. there is not 2:22; 4:22, 22 vb. be ashamed 2:17
pr.n.m. Iyyar (name of month) 2:4; 3:10; n.m. chosen one 1:21
4:16 vb. choose 3:7
adv. not 2:23, 23; 3:4 vb. trust 1:26, 27; 2:1; 3:18, 26
n.m. God 2:1; 3:6; 4:13 vb. hi. understand 1:6; 2:11
prep. to 1:10; 2:14; 3:22 prep. between 1:4, 4, 4
demonstr. pron. these 2:12; 3:6 n.f. understanding 4:7
n.m.plur. God 2:2, 3, 6; 3:9; 4:15 n.m. house 2:24
n.m. idol 2:18, 19 adv. not 4:23
n.m. thousand 2:25, 25 adv. without 1:20; 4:7
, see n.m. son 1:5
n.f. people 1:18, 23; 2:9 vb. build 1:17, 18
n.f. faithfulness 2:14 ( ;)4:20 prep. for the sake of 2:23; 3:1
ni. ptc. faithful one 2:9; 4:6 vb. pi. seek 1:1
, hi. believe 1:8 n.f. request 3:2, 4
adv. amen 2:4; 3:9; 4:15 vb. create 2:16
vb. say 2:4, 5; 3:9, 11, 17; 4:15, 17 n.f. covenant 4:13
n.f. truth 1:7; 3:3; 4:12, 20 vb. pass. be blessed 2:1, 2, 3, 3; 3:6, 6, 7, 8,
n.m. mankind 3:19 8, 9, 12; 4:13, 14, 14, 15, 18
pers. pron. 1st com. sing. 3:1 , pi. bless 4:10
pers. pron. 1st com. sing. 4:9 , pu. be blessed 3:12; 4:24
n.m. end 1:16 , htp. be blessed 4:11
n.f. four 4:16 n.f. blessing 1:20
n.f. earth, land 1:7, 9, 16, 21 ([ ;)]2:10; n.m. flesh 3:22; 4:5
3:17; 4:3 n.f. daughter 3:16, 16
n.m. ash heap 3:13 , see and
rel. pron. 1:8, 9, 18, 27; 2:6; 3:7, 21, 25; 4:5, adj. mighty (one) 1:25
8 n.f. might 2:11, 12; 3:27; 4:9
n.m.plur.cstr. happiness of 1:27; 3:1, 17; vb. pi. make strong 3:14
4:25, 27 n.m. man 1:27
150 list of words

adj. great (one) 1:22; 3:19; 4:2 vb. remember 4:9, 9, 13


n.f. greatness 1:23 n.m. memorial, i.e. name 4:10
vb. pi. magnify 2:16; 3:14 n.m. song 2:15
, hi. do greatly 3:18 vb. pi. sing praises 3:23
, htp. be magnified 2:20 vb. pi. scatter 1:5
vb. wall up 1:17 n.f. arm 1:16, 25
n.m. nation 1:19; 2:8; 3:15 n.m. seed 4:24
vb. rejoice 2:13 vb. bind up 2:7; 4:1
vb. pass. be revealed 1:1 n.m. month 2:4, 4; 3:10; 4:16
adv. also 4:9 vb. pi. strengthen 1:25
n.m. word 1:8, 27; 2:11, 21, 22, 26 (;)][ n.f. sin 1:13
3:26; 4:6, 22; thing 2:22 adj. living (thing) 1:2; 3:22
pr.n.m. David 1:15 vb. live 3:2
n.f. grief 4:2 n.f. animal 1:5
n.m. generation 1:2; 4:11 n.m.plur. life 3:26
n.m. judge, arbiter 1:2; 4:12 n.m. wealth 3:15
adj. crushed (one) 2:7; 4:1 vb. be wise 2:17
adj. poor (one) 3:13; 4:9 n.f. wisdom 1:6; 4:7, 19
vb. resemble 1:12; 4:8 vb. pass away 2:19
n.f. knowledge 4:19 n.f. desire, desirable thing 1:21 (;)][
n.m. way 1:2, 10; 2:14; 3:26; 4:21 2:26; 3:15
, see vb. spare 2:6
definite article 1:9, 18, 19, 22, 27; 2:3, 3, 4, vb. be gracious 2:1
6(correction), 8, 8, 9, 19, 23; 3:9, 9, 9, 14, n.m. loyal one 3:25
17, 17, 20; 4:5, 11, 15, 15, 15, 16, 19 vb. delight 1:3; 4:5
n.m. vanity 3:18 n.m. pleasure, desire 1:6; 2:27; 3:1, 2, 4
n.m. honour 4:4 n.f. sword 1:25
pers. pron. 3rd masc. sing. 4:1, 2, 19 n.f. ruin 1:17
n.m. splendour 1:19; 4:4 n.m. darkness 1:4
n.f. thanksgiving hymn 2:13, 15 vb. pi. sink (trans.) 1:24
vb. be 2:6 adj. clean 1:4
n.m. palace 2:24 vb. pi. cleanse 1:5
vb. pi. walk 3:3 adj. good 2:25, 26, 27, 27
vb. be boastful 1:3 n.m. goodness, i.e. welfare 2:8; 4:5
vb. turn 4:2 n.f. good 1:9
vb. kill 2:6 adj. unclean 1:4, 5
n.f. slaughter 2:6 vb. go astray 3:18
conj. and 1:1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 12, 13, n.f. hand 2:9 (in phrase by means of )
14, 15, 17, 17, 18, 19, 19, 20, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 2:12, 18; 3:22, 25; 4:6 ()
26; 2:1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 10, 11, 12, vb. know 1:2; 2:12, 16; 3:5, 19
13, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 20, 21, pr.n.m. YHWH (the Lord) 2:1, 3, 5, 6, 12,
22, 23, 27; 3:1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 9, 10, 11, 11, 16; 3:9, 11, 18, 19, 20; 4:13, 15, 17
12, 12, 13, 14, 14, 15, 15, 16, 17, 18, 18, 18, 19, n.m. day 1:22; 3:3; 4:10, 25, 27
20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 26, 26, 27; 4:1, 2, 2, 2, vb. htp. be declared as one 4:12
3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, adv. altogether 4:23
11, 11, 12, 14, 14, 15, 15, 16, 17, 17, 18, 19, 19, 20, vb. be able 4:26 ()
20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27(Harkavy) n.f. right hand 1:25; 2:11
/ demonstr. pron. this 2:13; 3:2, 6 vb. go forth 4:20
n.m. gold 2:25 vb. htp. take ones stand 1:3
ptc. stranger 1:5 pl.n. Jerusalem 3:16
n.m. trembling 4:2 vb. hi. make poor 3:12; cause to possess
vb. be worthy 4:25 3:21 ( apparently hi.)
list of words 151

pr.n.m. Israel 2:3; 3:9; 4:15 n.f. confidence 4:2


ptc. inhabitant 2:14; 4:3 pr.n.m. Midian 1:24
pr.n.m. Jesse 1:15 vb. slip 1:26
vb. pi. make straight 1:10 vb. hi. put to death 2:23
, pu. be pleasing 3:3 vb. remit 1:13
prep. 1:6, 12, 12; 3:4; 4:21, 21, 24, 24 (see also n.m. desirable thing 2:19
) n.m. camp 2:16
conj. according to, as 2:21; 3:3 interrog. pron. who? 1:12, 12, 12; 4:8, 8
vb. hi. glorify 4:6 vb. pi. fulfil 3:7
n.m. glory 1:3; 2:2, 3, 9, 16, 22; 3:1, 8, 8, n.m. fullness 4:3
16, 26; 4:4, 14, 14, 25, 26 n.m. angel 1:23
vb. pol. direct 1:10 n.m. king 1:23, 24; 2:10, 24, 27; 3:15, 15, 16;
, hi. establish 1:16 4:12
n.m. falsehood 4:22 n.f. royalty 2:2; 3:8, 16; 4:4, 14
n.m. strength 1:10, 26; 2:21; 3:14 prep. from before 4:4, 20, 26
n.m. deceit 4:22 n.f. rule 4:9
conj. for, when, that, surely 1:6, 16, 21, 26, prep. from, (more) than 1:5, 5, 15; 2:3, 14,
26, 27; 2:8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 21, 22, 24; 3:2, 20, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27; 3:4, 9, 13, 13, 19,
13, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26; 4:1, 3, 4, 9, 18, 19, 25, 25; 4:12, 15 (see also , , )
27; introducing direct speech 1:14; vb. withhold 3:4
except, but 2:22; 4:20 n.m. number 1:20; 4:7
n.f. talent 2:25 n.m. habitation 2:24 (original reading
n.m. all 1:2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 13, 18, 19, )
21, 22, 23, 23, 24, 24, 25; 2:1, 4, 4, 9, 10, 12, prep. over 1:18; 3:14
12, 14, 17, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27; 3:2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, n.m. deed 4:21
10, 14, 14, 15, 17, 17, 19, 20, 22, 22, 23, 24, 25, n.m. deed, work, creature 1:10, 12, 12;
26; 4:3, 10, 11, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 22, 22, 23, 25 2:18, 20; 4:10, 11, 22, 23
n.m. vessel 2:26 prep. from before, from the presence of
adv. completely 2:19 3:1
vb. ni. be put to shame 1:27 vb. find 3:1
prep. like 4:8 , ni. be found 4:23
adv. thus 3:1 n.f. commandment 1:10; 2:27; 4:6
prep. before 1:9 n.f. depth 1:24
n.m. throne 3:14 n.m. vision 2:4, 22; 3:10, 26; 4:16
vb. pi. make atonement 1:13 n.f. pearl 2:27
vb. stumble, i.e. become weak 1:26 n.f. request 3:7
prep. to 1:4, 4, 4, 6, 11, 11, 11, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, , see
27; 2:1, 2, 3, 8, 8, 11, 11, 18, 18, 19, 22, 25, 26, vb. anoint 1:15
27; 3:5, 8, 8, 15, 16, 16, 18, 21, 21, 23, 23, 24, vb. have dominion 2:10; 3:14; 4:11
24, 27, 27; 4:1, 2, 2, 3, 8, 13, 14, 14, 21, 21, 26, ( AHL) or ( Harkavy) apparently
26, 26, 27 ([)] error for or error 3:18
adv. not 1:1, 3, 14, 26, 26, 27; 2:6, 18, 18; 3:3, n.m. justice, judgment 1:7, 20; 4:20, 24
18; 4:8, 20 part. pray 4:13
n.m. heart 3:7; 4:1, 7, 19 adj. fitting 3:24
n.m. heart 1:9 vb. ni, prophesy 1:14
n.m. night 4:10 n.f. prophecy (plur. sf. )2:4; 3:10;
vb. learn 1:8; 2:14 4:16
prep. before 1:3 vb. hi. tell of 3:27
prep. before 1:1, 21, 24; 2:5, 8, 13; 3:2, 11, see ,
17; 4:10, 17 (see also ) n.m. river 4:24
vb. despise, reject 1:3, 18 vb. hi. cause to possess 1:19
, pu. be rejected 1:18 n.f. heritage 2:7; 3:21
152 list of words

vb. plant 1:7 ( for pf. ) ni. ptc. fem. plur. wonderful deeds 2:21;
n.f. soul 1:24; 2:1; 3:22, 25 3:23
n.m. everlastingness 1:11, 11, 23; 2:19; 3:27, n.m. wonder 1:10
27; 4:13, 26 vb. htp. pray 2:5; 3:11; 4:17
vb. hi. deliver 3:25 n.f. corner-stone 1:18
n.m. path 3:5 n.m.plur. face, presence 1:27; 2:15 (see
vb. give, place 1:6, 23; 2:8; 3:15, 21; 4:21 also )
n.m. ruler 2:10 , see
n.m. end 2:11 n.m. graven image 2:17
vb. pardon 1:13 vb. do 3:6
vb. support 1:16 n.m. deed, work 1:9, 12; 4:23
n.m. idol 2:17 n.m. precept 4:27
vb. pi. recount 1:22; 2:9, 21; 4:25 n.m. fruit 4:21
vb. ni. hide oneself 2:23 n.m. breach 1:17
vb. serve, worship 1:8, 11; 2:14, 17, 18; 3:27 n.m. transgression 1:13
n.m. servant 1:6, 8, 14, 15; 2:1, 21; 3:7; 4:4, n.f. flock 1:5; 2:6
6, 13 adj. righteous (one) 1:1; 2:13; 4:18
prep. unto 1:16, 20; 2:3, 20; 3:5, 9, 19; 4:7, 15 n.m. righteousness 1:2, 3, 4, 20, 21; 3:5;
n.m. perpetuity 2:2, 3, 18; 3:8, 27; 4:14, 14 4:12, 19
n.m. witness 1:1 n.f. righteousness 1:7; 2:9; 3:3; 4:24;
adv. again 1:14; 2:18; 3:18 almsgiving 1:9
n.m. injustice 1:3; 4:23 vb. shout for joy 1:21
n.m. world 1:4, 7; 2:8; 3:17, 20; everlast- vb. pi. command 4:4
ingness 1:11, 11, 17, 27, 27; 2:2, 3, 3, 3, 20; 3:5, vb. hi. cause to sprout 4:24
8, 8, 9, 9; 4:14, 14, 15, 15 n.f. cry 4:8
n.m. iniquity 3:3 n.f. distress 3:25
n.m. strength, might 1:6, 22; 2:8; 3:24; 4:9, vb. ni. be gathered 2:10
9 n.m. sanctification 2:26
vb. help 1:26 vb. pi. come before 2:15
n.f. help 4:26 pr.n.m. Kedar 1:25 ()}{
n.f. crown 1:19 vb. pi. sanctify 1:22
n.f. eye 3:3 , htp. be sanctified 2:20; 4:11
prep. over, upon, according to 1:1, 12, 13, n.m. holiness 2:11; 3:26; 4:16
14, 22, 25, 25; 2:2, 6, 6, 9; 3:2, 14; 4:4, 6, 6, n.f. sanctification 1:16; 4:7, 25
10 (see also ) vb. hi. raise 3:13
vb. pi. exalt 1:18 adj. small (one) 3:19
n.m. people 1:5; 2:4; 3:9; 4:5, 15 n.m. end 1:14
vb. stand, remain 3:5; 4:10, 26 vb. call 1:19; 2:1
, hi. set, establish 2:8; 4:18 vb. pi. bring near 1:14
n.m. pillar 1:17 n.f. horn 4:18
vb. answer 2:1, 1 vb. see 2:4, 9, 11, 13; 3:10; 4:16
adj. poor (one) 3:13(Harkavy) ([ ;)]4:9 n.m. beginning 1:15, 18
n.m. dust 3:13 adj. much, plur. many 2:23
n.f. bone 2:7; 4:1 n.m. greatness 1:12, 23; 4:7
vb. make, do 1:23; 2:12; 3:4, 6, 18 vb. hi. multiply 1:7, 9, 20; 4:7, 24
vb. hi. make rich 3:12 n.f. foot 1:26
n.f. time 2:1; 3:24 vb. pursue 3:3 ()
adv. now 2:20 n.f. spirit, breath 1:14; 2:21; 3:22, 25; 4:16
vb. htp. be glorified 4:11 vb. pol. extol 1:11
n.m. turban 1:19 , hi. exalt 3:12, 13, 20
n.m. mouth, speech 1:14, 22; 2:20, 25; 4:6, , htpol. be exalted 4:11
12 ptc. ruler 2:10
list of words 153

vb. pi. have mercy 2:2 vb. flow 4:24


n.m.plur. mercy 1:15; 2:6, 7, 23 (all vb. sing 3:23, 24
four ;)4:9, 13 n.m. song 1:8
adj. merciful (one) 2:2 n.f. song 1:22; 2:13, 15
n.f. joyful shout 1:19 vb. forget 4:8
ptc. shepherd 2:6 n.m. peace 1:20
vb. hi. do evil 3:25 vb. send 4:5
vb. favour 3:21 n.f. three 3:10
n.m. favour, will 1:6; 2:27; 3:1, 4; 4:26 n.m. name 1:8, 11, 11, 17, 19, 22, 26; 2:2, 3;
vb. heal 2:7; 4:1, 5, 5 3:8, 8, 24, 26, 27; 4:14, 14
adj. wicked (one) 1:1; 4:18 vb. keep 4:27
n.m. shaking 4:2 n.m.du. two 2:4
vb. talk of 3:23 vb. judge 1:2; 3:20; 4:12, 19
vb. place 1:17 vb. hi. bring low 3:12, 20
vb. rejoice 1:21; 2:13 n.m. falsehood 1:4; 4:20
n.f. joy 2:22; 4:2 n.m. root 1:15
ptc. one who hates 1:24 vb. pi. serve 4:12
n.m. prince 3:14 n.f. world 2:10, 14; 4:3
rel. part. 3:1 n.f. thanksgiving 2:15
vb. ask 3:1 n.m. midst 2:16
n.f. request 3:4 n.f. law 2:25; 4:6
n.m. praise 1:16 adv. yesterday 4:27 (Harkavy [;]
vb. ni. swear 1:15 AHL [ ])
vb. break 1:24; 4:18 adv. continually 3:2
, ni. be broken 4:1 adj. perfect 4:23
n.m. breach 2:7 vb. support 1:25
vb. turn 2:14 n.f. glory 3:16, 24; 4:9
, hi. repay 4:21 n.f. power to stand, plur. cstr. ()
vb. htpal. bow down 2:18; 3:17, 22 as concr. (ones who have) power 3:17
INDEX OF AUTHORS

Alexander, P.S., 10n26 Lorein, G.W., 1, 64, 66

Baum, O., 3n Safrai, S., 12, 3, 5, 14, 16, 19, 21, 51, 52, 57, 58,
Burrows, M., 3n 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 79, 86, 87, 89, 96,
97, 99, 103, 104, 110, 112, 113, 118, 119, 121,
Chyutin, M., 45 127
Sanders, J.A., 2, 4n13, 6n17, 12n, 6, 12n, 84
Eissfeldt, O., 3n Schfer, J.P., 10n26
Segal, M.H., 120, 143
Fitzmyer, J.A., 6n16 Sparks, H.D.F., 53
Fleischer, E., 1621, 52, 57, 60, 73, 78, 79, 81, Sperber, A., 10n24
108, 109110
Flint, P.W., 5, 7 van Staalduine-Sulman, E., 1, 10n24, 64, 66
Flusser, D., 12, 3, 5, 14, 16, 19, 21, 51, 52, 57,
58, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 79, 86, 87, 89, Whiston, W., 10n25
96, 97, 99, 103, 104, 110, 112, 113, 118, 119, 121,
127 Yadin, A., 1, 58, 60, 63, 64, 66, 71, 79, 88, 90,
94, 106, 108, 111, 112, 118
Harkavy, A.A., 1, 16n33, 18, 19, 52, 57, 58, 68,
74, 76, 87, 90, 92, 95, 96, 99, 103, 104, 109,
110, 113, 119, 123124, 127
INDEX OF REFERENCES

1. Genizah Psalms

1:1 18, 116 2:3 59, 61, 114, 122


1:2 111, 121 2:3b4a 102, 122
1:3 51, 54, 59, 127 2:4 21, 57, 59, 93, 109
1:4 19, 107, 108 2:4b5 102, 114, 122
1:5 82 2:5 18, 84, 98
1:6 11, 13, 18, 51, 59, 92, 97, 2:6 65, 82, 94
100, 111, 118, 122, 123 2:67 77, 84, 86
1:7 20, 21, 59, 60, 107, 108, 2:7 15, 63, 65, 82, 94, 95,
118, 124, 125 115
1:8 13, 56, 57, 61, 62, 87, 2:8 11, 13, 54, 56, 68, 72,
88, 114 107, 108, 117, 123
1:9 18, 62, 101 2:89 12
1:10 18, 62, 103 2:819 14
1:11 59, 75, 103, 114 2:9 13, 60, 68, 72, 117, 126
1:12 18, 61, 101, 119, 125 2:1011 12, 13
1:13 18, 62 2:11 80, 96, 114
1:14 10, 13, 56, 65, 72, 81, 85 2:12 101
1:1415 20 2:13 13, 18, 56, 58, 88
1:1416 8, 9, 10 2:1315 58
1:15 2, 13, 14, 56, 82, 94 2:14 88
1:1525 14 2:1415 13, 87
1:16 64, 72, 85, 96, 118, 127 2:15 18, 87
1:17 11, 69, 107 2:16 56
1:18 11, 70, 72, 85 2:17 123
1:19 11, 70, 72 2:1719 13, 84, 89, 110
1:20 58, 118, 124, 125 2:18 92, 112, 115
1:21 18, 105 2:19 15
1:22 12, 59, 87, 96, 99, 126 2:20 18, 61, 96
1:23 11, 12, 18, 62, 68, 70, 2:21 13, 18, 56, 57, 84
72, 85 2:2122 59, 96
1:24 11, 122 2:22 18, 57, 114
1:2425 17 2:23 65, 82, 83, 82
1:25 58, 73 2:24 2
1:26 59, 63, 109, 114 2:26 105
1:27 61, 74, 75, 97, 106, 114, 2:27 18, 111
126 3:1 57, 75, 98, 111, 126
2:1 13, 56, 64, 74, 75, 100, 3:12 99
121 3:2 82, 84, 97, 102
2:13 76 3:23 101
2:2 18, 59, 61, 76, 84, 114, 3:3 58, 60, 71, 97, 100, 101,
116, 122 102
2:2b4a 75 3:4 57, 97, 98, 111
158 index of references

3:5 61, 109 4:2 87


3:6 75, 121 4:3 15
3:69 76 4:4 13, 51, 56, 114
3:7 13, 56, 75, 101 4:5 84, 113, 115
3:8 59, 61, 77, 78, 114, 116 4:6 13, 56, 57, 59
3:89 75 4:7 11, 57, 66, 69, 96, 126
3:9 61, 78 4:8 62
3:10 57, 59, 93, 109 4:9 12, 58, 65, 82, 104, 113,
3:1011 78 122
3:12 112 4:11 18, 51, 61, 92, 96, 103
3:12-13 12, 111 4:12 18, 51, 111, 124
3:1216 14 4:13 13, 65, 75, 82
3:13 12, 15, 119 4:1315 76
3:14 15 4:14 59, 61, 77, 78, 102, 114,
3:1416 12 116
3:15 72, 96, 105 4:1415 75
3:17 58, 67, 75, 81, 104, 108, 4:15 61, 78
112 4:16 10, 57, 59, 80, 93, 109
3:1719 14 4:1617 78, 82, 102
3:18 74 4:18 56, 72, 124
3:19 103 4:19 11, 51, 57, 111, 118, 123
3:20 51, 103, 107, 108 4:20 18, 55, 116
3:22 103, 113 4:2021 125
3:24 59, 76, 119 4:23 52, 54, 62, 101
3:25 112, 116 4:24 58, 60, 118, 124
3:26 18, 59, 74, 75, 81, 86, 4:25 12, 66, 71, 75, 85, 96,
93, 96, 106 118
3:27 59, 61, 76 4:26 51, 111, 116
4:1 83, 91, 117 4:27 75

2. Biblical

Genesis 45:21 63
1:4 53 49:6 120
3:20 51
8:22 119 Exodus
11:1 60 3:3 79
15:10 101 3:15 120
17:18 98 5:14 127
20:2 117 6:19 63
20:17 82, 115 15:4 73
23:12 108 15:5 73
25:2 72 15:11 60, 100, 119
25:13 74 15:17 58
25:16 68 15:18 78
27:42 117 15:26 117
31:4 117 17:12 73
35:3 76 22:13 98
40:14 121122 23:26 102
41:21 93 24:17 94
43:12 110 25:30 98
index of references 159

Exodus (cont.) 24:1516 7


28:29 98 25:15 68
28:30 98 27:11 112
34:9 63 31:8 72, 73
38:21 63 36:8 112
39:28 68
Deuteronomy
Leviticus 2:7 91
5:2 55 2:14 89
5:10 63 2:15 89
5:13 63 3:24 86
10:10 54 4:16 89
11:47 54, 55 6:5 60
12:2 115 7:9 114
15:33 115 7:15 115
16:16 63 8:10 120
16:30 55 10:12 98
19:15 52 13:4 60
20:18 115 18:16 98
20:23 87, 101 19:3 60
20:25 54 23:15 89
21:19 83 26:10 108
24:3 98 28:8 116
24:4 98 28:42 111
24:8 98 28:47 62
24:20 83 28:60 115
25:21 116 29:10 89
25:52 81 29:19 63
26:33 55 30:6 60
26:37 108 31:17 94
32:4 125
Numbers 32:18 110
2:17 89 32:20 94
4:27 63 32:21 109
4:37 63 32:35 74
4:45 63 33:29 106, 119
9:11 79
9:23 63 Joshua
10:13 63 1:11 89
12:7 118 3:2 89
12:13 115, 122 3:11 120
14:19 63 3:13 120
14:20 63 7:9 70
14:44 89 22:9 63
17:11 63 23:14 123
17:12 63 24:9 117
22:6 103
22:12 103 Judges
23:27 99 1:14 98
24:3 7 3:12 74
24:34 6 5:3 86
24:15 7 6:13 93
160 index of references

78 73 12:30 96
8:5 72 13:32 63
8:12 72 14:33 108
8:24 9798 15:20 127
8:26 72 22:21 125
8:31 66 22:25 125
13:23 101 22:41 21, 58
14:3 99 22:51 10
14:7 99 23:1 7
19:11 58 23:17 5, 6
20:44 101 23:2 6, 7
20:46 101 23:3 86
23:37 7
1 Samuel 23:4 6
1:12 82 23:20 62
1:15 113 24:10 56
1:17 102 24:14 83, 94
1:20 98
2:1 123 1 Kings
2:7 102 1:37 105
2:78 111 1:47 105
2:8 12, 15, 103, 104 2:2 60
2:9 105, 114 2:16 98
2:10 123 2:20 98
5:8 117 2:27 102
11:11 89 3:6 98
12:22 70, 97 3:26 83
16:11 12, 104 5:14 85
17:32 56 6:35 99
17:34 56 7:21 67
18:23 12, 104 8:16 101
18:27 102 8:28 82
20:27 127 8:29 119
21:6 127 8:33 88
22:14 85, 118 8:34 63
23:10 56 8:36 63
24:16 121 8:39 125
26:15 119 8:41 97
26:24 113 8:42 70
27:5 56 8:50 63
28:2 56 9:12 99
29:8 56 10:2 96
10:8 98
2 Samuel 10:24 60
5:8 73 11:34 101
6:21 101 13:26 72
7:10 58 14:15 55
7:20 56 14:26 105
7:21 71, 97 16:13 109
7:23 71 16:26 109
10:6 117 22:18 80
11:25 74
index of references 161

2Kings 26:18 88
4:33 82 27:3 119
6:18 82 27:4 125
9:25 8 28:5 68
10:9 101 28:14 86
17:15 109 29:19 111
17:34 66 30:19 75
19:15 82 30:22 115
20:2 82 30:26 83, 117
20:5 115 30:28 125
20:8 115 32:18 116
20:18 95 33:13 86
23:35 63 34:10 61, 114
24:4 63 39:7 95
25:29 98 40:14 57
40:18 62
Isaiah 40:20 90
1:5 115 40:21 64
1:14 73 40:23 86
1:16 126 40:25 62
1:31 62 41:4 64, 101
2:8 91 41:8 13, 101
2:18 15, 91 41:9 101
3:20 68 41:20 87, 89
5:12 62 41:26 64
5:21 90 42:1 111, 113, 124
6:10 115 42:3 124
7:11 98 42:6 13, 84, 106
8:17 94 42:67 85
8:23 117 42:8 13, 84
9:3 11, 73 42:16 99
9:6 11, 92 42:19 13
10:2 119 43:2 125
10:14 105 43:10 101
11:1 14, 65 44:1 13, 101
11:2 7, 56 44:2 13, 101
11:4 51 44:7 119
11:10 14, 65 44:9 ff. 13, 84
13:18 77 44:11 125
14:5 122 44:15 101
14:9 72 44:21 13
14:18 72 44:28 82
14:20 120 45:4 13
14:25 72 45:7 87
16:1 86 45:8 126
18:3 88 45:9 62
19:22 115 45:11 62
21:17 74 45:14 112
25:1 60 45:16 13, 84
26:6 119 46:5 62
26:8 120 46:13 64
26:9 88, 113 48:1 98
162 index of references

48:9 97 3:19 70
48:16 64 3:22 117
48:20 13 4:2 98
49:3 13 5:1 63
49:5 13, 84 5:19 87, 101
49:6 13, 84 6:2 113
49:67 85 6:14 83
49:7 13, 85, 97 8:11 83
49:16 98 8:18 115
50:10 74 8:19 109
52:1 113 9:2 55
52:10 65 9:4 55
53:11 87 9:22 56
54:8 94 10:7 72
55:5 97 10:8 109
57:18 115 10:15 109
57:19 115 11:17 58
58:8 126 11:20 121
58:12 66, 67, 107 13:18 68
59:5 81 14:7 97
59:6 62 14:17 83
59:14 98 14:21 97
59:16 65 14:22 87, 101, 109
59:21 92, 93 15:4 106
60:5 105 15:20 106
60:11 105 16:19 109
61:1 7, 115 16:21 86
61:3 68 17:10 124
61:4 67 17:18 72
61:6 105 18:4 99
61:9 126 18:23 63
61:10 68 20:5 105
61:11 59, 60, 126 20:13 113
62:3 68 21:8 114
63:5 65 23:14 82
64:6 94 23:5 126
65:20 102 23:9 86, 96
65:23 126 23:13 109
66:2 87, 101 23:21 8
66:5 97 25:13 8
66:12 125 25:14 62
66:23 108 25:34 96
27:5 99
Jeremiah 28:2 72
1:16 91 28:4 72
1:18 66 28:8 107
2:8 82 28:11 72
2:21 58 29:7 82
2:31 79 30:89 14
2:37 116 30:9 110
3:7 87, 101 30:12 83
3:15 82 30:17 115
index of references 163

Jeremiah (cont.) 24:21 21


30:19 117 24:23 68
31:34 63, 110 24:25 106
32:19 124 27:12 62
33:6 115 27:18 62
33:8 55 27:22 96
33:15 126 27:33 85
33:19 68 29:12 55
33:21 13, 122 30:21 72
42:10 58 30:22 72
44:26 70 30:23 55
47:2 125 30:24 72, 74
48:17 68, 113 30:25 74
49:36 55 30:26 55
51:18 109 31:2 62
52:33 98 31:18 62
34 82
Ezekiel 34:4 83
1:28 94 34:2324 14
3:20 52 36:19 55
6:8 55 36:23 70
7:2 64 36:25 55
7:6 64 36:33 55
7:9 125 37:24 14
8:3 80, 89 38:23 91
8:4 94 39:23 94
8:5 89 44:10 109
11:5 7 44:18 68
11:24 79, 80 44:23 53, 54
12:15 55
13:5 67 Hosea
13:10 109 3:5 14
13:16 80 4:12 109
14:4 76 5:7 55
14:7 76 5:13 115
15:6 93 6:1 83, 88, 115
16:12 68 6:2 98
16:30 87, 101 6:5 124
17:5 58 7:1 115
17:18 87 7:15 74
18:8 124 10:13 114
18:11 87, 101 11:3 58, 115
20:9 97 11:8 125
20:14 97 12:6 120
20:22 97 13:1 116
20:44 97 13:15 96
21:31 68 14:5 117
22:15 55
22:26 53, 54 Joel
22:30 67 2:2 107
23:42 68 2:20 109
24:17 68 2:21 109
164 index of references

2:26 59 7:9 124


7:14 70
Amos 8:8 98
1:11 114 8:12 101
2:4 109 8:16 58
3:8 8 8:17 101
5:24 125 10:1 98
6:5 59 10:3 82
6:6 83 10:6 105
7:2 63 10:12 105
9:11 67 11:4 83
9:12 100 11:47 82
11:5 83
Jonah 11:7 83
2:9 109 11:16 83
14:14 105
Micah
3:4 94 Malachi
3:8 7, 93 3:10 69
4:5 78
4:7 92 Psalms
4:13 120 2:2 85, 86
5:4 82 2:8 98
5:12 91 3:8 122
6:11 126 4:2 75, 76
7:9 85 5:6 52
6:3 115
Nahum 7:12 71, 121
1:5 88 8:5 60
2:10 96 9:2 93
9:5 121
Habakkuk 9:6 78
1:4 124 9:9 51, 111
1:7 124 9:11 74
1:10 86 9:13 119
1:11 93 9:19 91, 114
1:17 83 11:5 73
2:3 8, 64 10:15 122
12:5 105
Zephaniah 13:2 94
3:12 119 16:8 98
16:11 114
Haggai 17:2 124
2:7 105 17:6 76
2:14 91 18:21 125
2:23 101 18:25 125
18:41 21, 58
Zechariah 18:51 10
4:6 93 19:2 85
4:7 106 19:5 81
4:14 120 19:12 56
6:5 120 20:6 102
index of references 165

Psalms (cont.) 40:5 75


20:7 86, 87 40:6 93
21:5 98 40:11 98
21:6 116 40:13 69
21:7 69 40:14 126
21:14 70 40:18 126
22:5 74 41:4 115
22:6 74 41:5 115
22:20 126 41:14 78, 107
22:25 94 44:3 58
22:28 98 44:12 55
23:3 97 44:25 94
24:1 15, 88, 116 45:8 54
25:2 74 45:10 106
25:5 99 45:16 95
25:11 63 45:18 78
25:19 21 50:8 98
26:7 93 51:4 55, 126
26:8 95 51:5 98
27:4 98 51:10 15, 83
27:7 75, 76 52:5 54
27:9 56, 94, 126 54:9 113
28:4 62 55:20 76
28:9 107 55:24 74
30:1 59 58:11 87
30:3 115 59:17 70
30:5 114 64:9 79
30:8 94, 127 64:10 62
31:7 109, 110 64:11 87
31:8 51 65:1 59
31:11 74 65:4 63
31:23 52 65:5 126
31:24 114 66:4 60
32:11 87 68:1 59
33:8 60, 88 68:4 87
33:11 100, 127 68:5 113
33:21 74 68:6 121
34:4 59 68:13 113
34:9 75 69:17 94
34:18 113 69:18 94
34:19 115 69:31 59, 113
35:2 126 70:2 126
35:10 119 71:12 126
35:28 71 71:15 71
36:2 7 71:16 86
37:4 102 71:17 88
37:17 65, 122 71:18 114
37:28 114 71:19 119
38:17 74 71:24 71
38:18 98 72:7 69
38:23 126 72:19 78
39:5 9, 64 73:13 126
166 index of references

74:1 82 96:13 51, 111


74:21 59 97:5 120
75:2 93 97:7 89, 91
75:4 66 97:10 113, 114
75:5 123 97:12 87
75:6 123 98:1 65
75:8 103, 111 98:7 88
75:11 123 98:9 51, 111
76:13 85 99:3 70
77:15 60, 100 99:8 76
78:4 71, 93 100:3 82
78:12 60 100:4 59
78:20 125 102:3 94
78:28 89 102:13 120
78:61 113 102:16 85
78:70 101 103:1 59
79:9 63, 97 103:3 117
79:13 82 103:13 77, 83
82:3 119 103:20 105
82:8 111 103:22 61
84:13 74 104:1 116
85:9 114 105:2 112
85:12 126 105:20 86
86:2 56 105:42 86, 96
86:11 99 106:2 86
88:3 98 106:8 86
88:10 71 106:21 100
88:11 60 106:24 70
88:15 94 106:27 55
89:4 13, 64, 122 106:47 59, 66
89:7 62 106:48 78, 107
89:9 119 107:20 115
89:14 87 108:1 59
89:15 69 109:15 98
89:18 113, 123 111:3 116
89:21 65 111:7 58
89:25 123 112:2 126
89:28 11, 12, 85 112:9 123
89:47 94 113:1 59
89:50 64 113:2 92, 103
89:53 78 113:78 12, 104
90:17 91 115:18 92
92:5 62 116:15 114
92:11 123 117:1 68
94:2 111 118:22 11, 67
94:12 75, 88 119:4 128
94:18 74 119:5 60
95:2 88 119:9 126
95:6 98 119:12 75
96:2 59, 113 119:17 56
96:3 85, 93 119:27 57
96:6 113, 116 119:42 75
index of references 167

Psalms (cont.) 146:5 97


119:44 78 147:3 83, 115, 117
119:56 128 148:5 59
119:63 128 148:6 100
119:69 128 148:11 85
119:72 95 148:14 114, 123
119:86 55 149:3 59
119:100 128 149:9 114
119:121 69 150:2 71, 86
119:134 128 151 5, 12, 104
119:142 98
119:156 94 Job
119:168 128 1:21 103
121:8 92 3:9 79
122:1 59 4:20 91
122:4 59 5:9 69
124:1 59 5:18 83
125:2 92 5:19 113
126:2 109 6:7 115
126:3 109 6:11 9, 64
127:5 75 6:24 57
128:2 106 7:11 113
131:1 59 9:6 66
131:3 92 9:10 69
132:11 64 12:9 87
133:1 59 12:10 51, 112, 113
133:3 107 12:13 56
134 5 13:12 106
135:1 59 13:24 94
135:13 120 15:14 126
137:8 97 20:7 91
137:9 97 22:19 87
138:4 85 23:12 117
140 5 25:4 126
140:3 71 27:10 76
140:14 59 28:21 51
141:2 98 30:23 51
143:5 62 34:2 81
143:7 94 34:28 119
143:11 97 34:29 94
145:1 59, 78 35:6 101
145:2 59, 71, 78 37:5 100
145:4 86, 114 39:14 81
145:9 83 40:10 116
145:10 61
145:11 78, 116 Proverbs
145:12 86, 114, 116 1:3 69
145:13 107 1:23 93
145:16 51 2:8 114
145:18 76 2:9 69
145:20 114 2:19 114
145:21 78 3:6 60
168 index of references

3:7 90 Ecclesiastes
3:13 97 1:4 100, 127
3:15 97 1:16 79
4:9 68 3:11 64, 106, 107, 108
4:22 117 3:16 54
4:26 60 5:7 69
5:6 114 9:16 56
6:23 114 10:10 105
8:11 64, 97 10:17 106
8:15 86 12:13 86
8:20 100
8:23 64 Lamentations
9:15 60 1:13 115
10:17 114 1:14 74
10:25 67 1:15 72
11:18 55, 98 1:22 115
12:17 54 2:1 106
12:19 55 2:13 84, 115
12:22 55 2:17 123
12:28 100 2:21 83
14:21 106 3:43 83
15:24 114 3:48 83
16:20 75, 106 3:64 91
16:31 68 4:3 106
17:6 68 4:10 77
20:9 126 4:12 85, 88
21:21 97 4:18 64
21:29 60 5:17 115
22:22 119
26:5 90 Esther
26:12 90 1:4 106, 116
28:11 90 3:1 15, 104
29:18 106 4:16 119
29:24 73 5:6 100
30:1 7 5:7 100
30:7 98 5:8 102
30:28 95 5:11 85
31:4 86 7:2 100
7:3 100
Canticles 8:15 69
1:5 106 9:12 100
2:7 106
3:5 106 Daniel
3:10 106 1:4 95
3:11 68 1:7 66
5:3 74 1:17 57
5:8 106 8:16 57
5:16 106 8:17 8, 64
8:4 106 9:2 102
8:7 125 9:4 114
9:17 97
9:18 94
index of references 169

Daniel (cont.) 16:36 78, 107


9:23 80 17:9 58
9:27 105 17:14 100, 107
10:1 80 17:19 71
10:14 57 17:25 82
11:8 96 20:2 96
11:26 72 21:13 94
11:33 57 23:31 98
11:35 8, 64 25:5 123
11:38 96, 97, 105 27:25 105
11:40 8, 64 28:4 101
11:43 97, 105 29:10 76
11:45 9, 64 29:12 105
12:3 78
12:4 8, 64 2 Chronicles
12:7 107 6:24 82
12:9 8, 64 6:25 63
6:27 63
Ezra 6:30 125
6:14 9 6:32 70, 97
8:22 98 6:39 63
9:12 112 7:6 59
7:14 115
Nehemiah 9:1 96
1:4 82 9:7 98
1:5 114 9:8 100, 127
1:6 82 9:22 85
4:4 74 9:23 85
6:11 119 9:29 9, 81
6:12 9, 81 12:9 105
8:7 57 15:8 9, 81
9:5 59, 78, 107 18:17 80
9:7 66 20:6 105
9:19 94, 95 20:12 111
9:27 94 23:18 59
9:31 94, 95 25:14 108
12:36 59 27:6 60
12:46 59, 87 29:27 59
13:30 55 29:31 102
32:4 125
1Chronicles 32:27 96
1:29 74 33:7 89
6:16 59 33:15 89
11:22 62 34:3 55
13:8 59 35:15 59
15:16 59 36:10 96
16:7 ff. 66 36:17 83
16:9 112 36:18 105
16:24 85, 93
16:27 116 Ben Sira
16:33 111 3:3031 60
16:35 59, 66 4:2 115
170 index of references

4:11 57 44:23 51
4:13 97 45:8 113
4:23 106 45:11 96
6:31 68 45:12 68, 71
7:10 60 45:23 63
7:11 103 45:25 65
7:33 51 46:1 9
10:18 113 46:9 112
11:4 62 46:13 9
12:3 60 46:20 9, 51
14:1 115 47:5 123
14:3 113 47:8 87
14:19 62 47:11 123
15:20 77 50:2 95
16:14 60 50:7 95
16:16 66 51:11 59
25:8 97 51:12 59, 123
30:2122 115 51:15 99
30:23 115 51:17 87
33:3 86 51:20 61, 114
33:10 8, 64 51:30 103
35:5 113
35:13 120 Matthew
35:21 114 Mt. 21:42 67
36:17 77
36:18 77 Mark
36:22 66 Mk. 12:10 67
37:2 115
37:16 62 Luke
37:25 69 Lk. 20:17 67
38:18 115
39:14 120 Acts
39:34 105 2:28 114
39:35 59 2:30 6
40:1 51 4:11 67
40:17 60
40:24 60 Galatians
41:16 113 2:9 67
42:1 51
42:15 62 Ephesians
43:6 9, 64 1:5 57
43:25 51 2:20 67
44:1 66
44:3 9 1 Peter
44:4 86 2:7 67
44:21 66

3. Pseudepigraphal

1 Enoch
41:8 53
89:5990:25 82
index of references 171

4. Inscriptional

Lachish ost.
3:7 115

5. Dead Sea Scrolls and Related

1QH 16:10 58
4:11 56 16:11 105
4:14 88 16:1415 125
4:23 56 16:17 125
4:25 56 17:910 51
4:26 56 17:11 56
5:9 118 17:36 77
5:17 85 18:8 120
5:24 56 18:11 60, 61
6:8 56 18:14 76, 77
6:11 56 18:21 93
6:13 127 18:29 56
6:15 69 18:34 125
6:25 56 18:3435 105
7:25 51 19:4 60
8:12 58 19:6 59, 85
8:16 76 19:7 98
8:18 56 19:11 121
8:20 56 19:24 61
8:22 56 19:27 101
8:26 56 19:29 77
9:14 118 19:30 56, 101
9:24 9, 64 19:3031 101
9:30 93 19:3233 101
9:33 93 19:33 56, 101
10:13 69 20:3 59
10:19 110 20:30 85
10:30 59 22:15 76
11:23 93 22:16 56
12:18 76 fr. 2.1:4 85
12:25 124 fr. 2.1:10 121
12:2829 86 fr. 4:10 126
12:32 51 fr. 4:17 59
13:15 56
13:28 56 1QLitPr
14:29 9, 64 3.1:6 59
15:12 54 3.2:45 52
15:14 100 3.2:5 127
15:16 56 3.2:6 94, 114
15:22 123
15:23 123 1QM
15:31 84 1:9 69
15:3132 61, 114 7:11 68
15:32 60 10:15 9, 64
172 index of references

11:2 74 11:16 69
11:11 86 11:20 60
12:3 107
12:7 107, 116 1QSa
12:14 105 1:9 121
13:7 59 2:15 89
13:9 107
14:4 59 1Q39
14:12 59 10:2 86
17:6 107
17:7 69 4QAdmon
19:6 105 1:2 59

1QpHab 4QapJosephb
10:13 69 3:11 72
3:12 72
1QS
1:5 98 4QBarka
1:8 121 1.1:1 120
1:14 9, 64 1.1:3 83
2:3 107 1.1:7 83
2:4 107
2:15 107 4QBarkc
3:4 126 1.1:7 86
3:7 65, 121
3:17 52 4QBarkd
3:1721 53, 54 4:4 114
4:1 114
4:3 56, 107 4QBat
4:7 107 1:1 118
4:16 9, 64 1:2 118
4:19 114 2.2:3 118
4:22 57 15:8 114
4:26 51 23:6 118
5:14 121
5:20 121 4QBera
6:11 52 1.2:6 118
8:2 98 7.1:7 78
8:6 69
8:18 51, 126 4QBerb
9:6 121 2:8 78
9:9 126 3:1 59
9:12 51
9:14 69 4QCatenaa
9:24 52 3:9 77
10:13 59
10:17 51, 125 4QCommMal
10:18 51 1.1:4 54
10:2021 77
10:22 125 4QDa
11:12 127 11:10 68
11:14 98 11:17 89
index of references 173

4QDc 4QJubd
1:6 127 2:30 58

4QDe 4QMa
2.2:20 114 11.1:15 62

4QDibHama 4QMMT
12.2:13 58 B5657 54
12.4:10 96
12.4:11 70, 105 4QMystb
12.4:13 69 1.2:3 118
3.2:8 86 1.2:4 118
6:22 51 3:3 118

4QDiscourse 4QNarrA
2.2:5 70 15:8 9
2.2:8 105
4QpIsaa
4QDivProv 819:11 65
1:1 118
4QPrFtesb
4QFlor 1:1 54
1.1:9 110
4QpsEzeka
4QHalakhahA 4:1 115
13:2 98
4QRitMar
4QHoda 9:3 59
1.2:8 103
4QSefM
4QHodf 7:2 65
5:2 118
4QSela
4QInstrb 9.2:3 65
2.3:10 98
2.4:5 121 4QShira
1:3 105
4QInstrc 1:4 78, 116
1.1:13 51
19:4 98 4QShirb
10:10 51
4QInstrd 35:6 59
55:4 114 63.2:2 59
81:3 112
126.2:10 59 4QShirShabba
139:2 118 1.1:5 61
1.1:13 95
4QInstrg 2:5 85
4:2 75
6:4 121 4QShirShabbd
1.1:2 66
1.1:6 70
174 index of references

1.1:10 78 26:14 118


1.1:24 86 27:2 65
1.1:29 78 27:23 11
1.1:32 78, 116 27:24 6
1.1:35 61 27:211 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 16, 19
1.1:45 116 27:34 81
1.2:10 78, 116 27:4 6, 10
27:56 4
4QShirShabbf 27:10 59
19:3 61 27:11 9, 10
23.1:3 78, 116 28:3 65
24:2 116 28:6 67

4QTime 11QT
1.2:3 69 26:7 63
26:9 63
4QWaysb
13:4 86 CD
1:5 9, 64
4QWiles 1:16 100
1:14 69 2:9 9, 64
2:10 9, 64, 107
4QWorks 2:14 57
1:56 53 3:5 110
3:10 52
4Q408 3:15 57
3:5 68 4:10 9, 64
6:2 122
6Q30 6:17 54
2 109 7:6 89
5 109 9:11 89
10:23 89
11QMelch 12:19 54
2:8 63 12:21 51
2:10 2 12:23 89
13:9 77
11QPsa 20:2 128
19:34 112
19:8 59 MasShirShabb
19:16 66 2:24 78
24:4 98, 100
24:6 121 Xev/SeHymn
24:16 84 3:6 106

6. Rabbinical

Aboth B. Berakhoth
6:9 96 28b 67
46b 51, 121
B. Abodah Zarah
3b 108
index of references 175

B. Sotah 4:2 78
48b 6
Siphra Aare
Cant. Rabbah 2:1 78
2:16 121 2:2 78

Exod. Rabbah Siphre Debarim


2:13 67 306:342 78
304 121
Gen. Rabbah
s. 20 121 Siphre Zutta
27:18 96
Mekh. Beshalla
1:88 96 Tanuma [Buber]
1:89 96 Toledot 134138 71
6:111 96
6:113 96 Tg. Onk.
Gen. 3:5 51
Mekh. b. Yoai Deut. 31:21 51
12:13 51
14:5 96 Tg. PsJon.
14:6 96 Gen. 3:5 51
14:25 96 Gen. 41:38 11n27
Exod. 33:16 11n29
Mekh. Pisa Exod. 35:21 11n27
7:24 51 Exod. 35:31 11n27
11:38 51 Exod. 37:8 11n27
16:60 51 Num. 11:17 11n27
16:61 78 Num. 11:25 11n27
Num. 11:26 11n27
Mish. Berakhoth Num. 11:28 11n29
4:4 76 Num. 11:29 11n27
Num. 24:2 11n27
Mish. Gittin Num. 27:18 11n27
4:7 51 Deut. 31:21 51

Mish. Kelim Tg. Jon.


11:8 96 Judg. 3:10 11n27
1 Sam. 2:1 11n29
Mish. Semakhoth 1 Sam. 10:6 11n27
14:15 51, 121 1 Sam. 10:10 11n27
1 Sam. 16:13 10
Mish. Taanith 1 Sam. 19:20 11n27
2:4 76 1 Sam. 19:23 11n27
2 Sam. 22:1 10
Mish. Tamid 2 Sam. 22:25 52
4:2 51 2 Sam. 23:2 10
7:1 96 1 Kgs 22:24 11n27
2 Kgs 2:9 11n27
Mish. Yoma 2 Kgs 3:15 11n28
3:8 78 2 Kgs 5:26 11n29
4:1 78 Isa. 12:3 70
176 index of references

Isa. 61:1 11n27 79:1 11n29


Ezek. 1:3 11n28 89:18 123
Ezek. 8:1 11n28 89:25 123
Ezek. 11:5 11n27 91:4 127
Ezek. 11:24 11n27 92:11 123
Ezek. 37:1 11n27, 11n28 103:1 6
Ezek. 40:1 11n28 112:9 123
Mic. 3:8 11n27 115:16 127
Zech. 12:10 11n27 132:17 123
139:16 52
TgPss 148:14 123
3:9 116
5:6 52 TgJob
11:4 52 1:1 116
14:1 10, 82 23:10 51
14:2 116
17:2 52 TgLam.
18:1 6, 82 2:9 11n29
18:3 123
18:25 52 TgCant.
22:27 11n29 7:2 11n29
31:23 52
33:18 52 Tos. Baba Kama
34:16 52 7:9 51
44:25 127 9:30 77
45:3 11n29
46:1 11n29 Tos. Pesaim
49:16 10, 82 3:19 78
49:17 6
51:13 11n27 Tos. Taanioth
51:14 11n27, 82 1:12 78
66:7 52 1:13 78
68:19 127
68:34 11n29 Yalkut ha-Makhiri
75:5 123 Psalms (Buber), section 2, p. 233
75:6 123 71
75:11 123 Zechariah, p. 42 71
77:3 11n29

7. Josephus

Antiquities VI
8:2 10