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Franklin Loyd Navarro Grade 8 - Rizal

I. Newtons First Law of Motion Law of Inertia

The law of inertia is most commonly experienced when riding in cars and trucks. In fact,
the tendency of moving objects to continue in motion is a common cause of a variety of
transportation injuries - of both small and large magnitudes. Consider for instance the
unfortunate collision of a car with a wall. Upon contact with the wall, an unbalanced force acts
upon the car to abruptly decelerate it to rest. Any passengers in the car will also be decelerated to
rest if they are strapped to the car by seat belts. Being strapped tightly to the car, the passengers
share the same state of motion as the car. As the car accelerates, the passengers accelerate with
it; as the car decelerates, the passengers decelerate with it; and as the car maintains a constant
speed, the passengers maintain a constant speed as well.
But what would happen if the passengers were not wearing the seat belt? What motion would the
passengers undergo if they failed to use their seat belts and the car were brought to a sudden and
abrupt halt by a collision with a wall? Were this scenario to occur, the passengers would no
longer share the same state of motion as the car. The use of the seat belt assures that the forces
necessary for accelerated and decelerated motion exist. Yet, if the seat belt is not used, the
passengers are more likely to maintain its state of motion. The animation below depicts this
scenario.

If the car were to abruptly stop and the seat belts were not being worn, then the passengers in
motion would continue in motion. Assuming a negligible amount of friction between the
passengers and the seats, the passengers would likely be propelled from the car and be hurled
into the air. Once they leave the car, the passengers becomes projectiles and continue in
projectile-like motion.
Now perhaps you will be convince of the need to wear your seat belt. Remember it's the law - the
law of inertia.

II. Newtons Second Law of Motion

Think about the situation when you are pushing your bicycle versus when you
are pushing your car. You require more force to be given to the car in order to move
it at an equal acceleration as compared to force required to move your bicycle.
Bicycle having less mass than a motor cycle accelerates at a lesser force applied on it.
Alternatively, if three of your friends help you push the car, you can push the car easily
as compared to you doing it alone. Hence, the mass remained the same but the
increased force provided more acceleration

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III. Newtons Third Law of Motion

Consider the flying motion of birds. A bird flies by use of its wings. The wings of a
bird push air downwards. Since forces result from mutual interactions, the air must
also be pushing the bird upwards. The size of the force on the air equals the size of
the force on the bird; the direction of the force on the air (downwards) is opposite
the direction of the force on the bird (upwards). For every action, there is an equal
(in size) and opposite (in direction) reaction. Action-reaction force pairs make it
possible for birds to fly.
How submarines use sound and sonar to navigate and detect other
ships
To locate a target, a submarine uses active and passive SONAR (sound navigation and
ranging). Active sonar emits pulses of sound waves that travel through the water, reflect off the
target and return to the ship. By knowing the speed of sound in water and the time for the sound
wave to travel to the target and back, the computers can quickly calculate distance between the
submarine and the target. Whales, dolphins and bats use the same technique for locating prey
(echolocation). Passive sonar involves listening to sounds generated by the target. Sonar
systems can also be used to realign inertial navigation systems by identifying known ocean floor
features .

The History and Devlopment of the sound detection and suppresion

technologies

Although some animals (dolphins and bats) have used sound for communication and object
detection for millions of years, use by humans in the water is initially recorded by Leonardo da
Vinci in 1490: a tube inserted into the water was said to be used to detect vessels by placing an
ear to the tube.[1]

In the 19th century an underwater bell was used as an ancillary to lighthouses to provide warning
of hazards.

The use of sound to "echo-locate" underwater in the same way as bats use sound for aerial
navigation seems to have been prompted by the Titanic disaster of 1912. The world's first patent
for an underwater echo ranging device was filed at the British Patent Office by English
meteorologist Lewis Richardson a month after the sinking of the Titanic,[2] and a German
physicist Alexander Behm obtained a patent for an echo sounder in 1913.

The Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden, while working for the Submarine Signal Company
in Boston, built an experimental system beginning in 1912, a system later tested in Boston
Harbor, and finally in 1914 from the U.S. Revenue (now Coast Guard) Cutter Miami on the
Grand Banks off Newfoundland Canada.[2][3] In that test, Fessenden demonstrated depth sounding,
underwater communications (Morse code) and echo ranging (detecting an iceberg at 2 miles
(3 km) range).[4][5] The so-called Fessenden oscillator, at about 500 Hz frequency, was unable to
determine the bearing of the berg due to the 3-metre wavelength and the small dimension of the
transducer's radiating face (less than 1 metre in diameter). The ten Montreal-built British H-class
submarines launched in 1915 were equipped with a Fessenden oscillator.[6]

During World War I the need to detect submarines prompted more research into the use of
sound. The British made early use of underwater listening devices called hydrophones, while the
French physicist Paul Langevin, working with a Russian immigrant electrical engineer
Constantin Chilowsky, worked on the development of active sound devices for detecting
submarines in 1915. Although piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers later superseded
the electrostatic transducers they used, this work influenced future designs. Lightweight sound-
sensitive plastic film and fibre optics have been used for hydrophones (acousto-electric
transducers for in-water use), while Terfenol-D and PMN (lead magnesium niobate) have been
developed for projectors.

In 1916, under the British Board of Invention and Research, Canadian physicist Robert William
Boyle took on the active sound detection project with A. B. Wood, producing a prototype for
testing in mid-1917. This work, for the Anti-Submarine Division of the British Naval Staff, was
undertaken in utmost secrecy, and used quartz piezoelectric crystals to produce the world's first
practical underwater active sound detection apparatus. To maintain secrecy, no mention of sound
experimentation or quartz was made the word used to describe the early work ("supersonics")
was changed to "ASD"ics, and the quartz material to "ASD"ivite: "ASD" for "Anti-Submarine
Division", hence the British acronym ASDIC. In 1939, in response to a question from the Oxford
English Dictionary, the Admiralty made up the story that it stood for "Allied Submarine
Detection Investigation Committee", and this is still widely believed,[7] though no committee
bearing this name has been found in the Admiralty archives.[8]

By 1918, both France and Britain had built prototype active systems. The British tested their
ASDIC on HMS Antrim in 1920 and started production in 1922. The 6th Destroyer Flotilla had
ASDIC-equipped vessels in 1923. An anti-submarine school HMS Osprey and a training flotilla
of four vessels were established on Portland in 1924. The U.S. Sonar QB set arrived in 1931.

By the outbreak of World War II, the Royal Navy had five sets for different surface ship classes,
and others for submarines, incorporated into a complete anti-submarine attack system. The
effectiveness of early ASDIC was hamstrung by the use of the depth charge as an anti-submarine
weapon. This required an attacking vessel to pass over a submerged contact before dropping
charges over the stern, resulting in a loss of ASDIC contact in the moments leading up to attack.
The hunter was effectively firing blind, during which time a submarine commander could take
evasive action. This situation was remedied by using several ships cooperating and by the
adoption of "ahead-throwing weapons", such as Hedgehog and later Squid, which projected
warheads at a target ahead of the attacker and thus still in ASDIC contact. Developments during
the war resulted in British ASDIC sets that used several different shapes of beam, continuously
covering blind spots. Later, acoustic torpedoes were used.

At the start of World War II, British ASDIC technology was transferred for free to the United
States. Research on ASDIC and underwater sound was expanded in the UK and in the US. Many
new types of military sound detection were developed. These included sonobuoys, first
developed by the British in 1944 under the codename High Tea, dipping/dunking sonar and mine
detection sonar. This work formed the basis for post-war developments related to countering the
nuclear submarine.

Work on sonar had also been carried out in the Axis countries, notably in Germany, which
included countermeasures. At the end of World War II, this German work was assimilated by
Britain and the U.S. Sonars have continued to be developed by many countries, including USSR,
for both military and civil uses. In recent years the major military development has been the
increasing interest in low-frequency active sonar.
The Diagnostic and Therapeutic uses of heat and cold in very low temperature
Two of the most exciting, yet overlooked diagnostic procedures of this century, are Digital Infrared
Thermal Imaging (DITI), and Contact Thermography (CRT), otherwise simply termed thermography.
Dr. Ali Meschi is a board certified naturopathic physician who has been at the forefront of this
technique. As he explains, Thermography is a non-invasive, objective, non-radiative tool that uses
the heat from the body to diagnose the causes of a host of health care conditions. Thermography is
completely safe and uses no radiation. Utilizing high speed computers and a very accurate thermal
imaging cameras, body heat is processed, recorded, and translated through a computer into an
image map which can be then analyzed on screen, printed, or sent via email.

Heat and cold are simple and very effective therapeutic tools. They can be used locally or over the whole
body, and the proper application of heat and cold can provide pain relief, decrease swelling, help
injuries heal faster than they normally would do, and help raise or lower body temperature. Improper
application of heat and cold like any improper application of a therapeutic technique can be harmful
and cause tissue damage and other injuries. Some of the uses of heat and cold are safe and simple,
but there are other ways to use heat and cold as therapies that are complex. These are best used by a
health care professional as they require special equipment and training in order to use them correctly
and safely.
PROJECT IN SCIENCE 8