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Theoretically, this experiment was about the flow ratio plant control by using
equipment model of WLF992. The objective of this experiment was to identify the important
components of the level and flow control system, to carry out the start-up procedures
systematically, to study level control system using PID controller and to study Level-Flow
cascade control. This model uses water to simulate liquid phase physical processes. Level and
flow can be controlled with PID controllers. When the system suffers from fluctuating inflow
and a more precise control of level is required, the single-loop PID controllers are not sufficient.
Cascade controller must be employed to smoothen the fluctuating inflow by using a secondary
or a slave loop. The level controller becomes the master or primary controller and its control
output remotely sets which is cascades, the set point of the slave or secondary controller. There
is only one control valve and it is installed at the inflow. Basically, this experiment involved
by gravity flow, in which case the level process in T31 is a self-regulating process and by pump
P31 in which case the level process in T31 is a non-self-regulating process. The level of tank
T31 is required to be controlled at its set point despite variations in inflow into T31. This is
done by using a PID Level control system (LIC31) cascading into PID Flow control system
(FIC31) at the inflow. LIC31 and FIC31 can also be studied independently one at a time. T31
was operated as OPEN TANK and CLOSED TANK when start up the procedure. Moreover,
after that, the experiment will involved level control system by using PID controller and the
level-flow cascade control.
Mostly, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are used for liquid level
control in most applications and can be applied to many industrial processes and mechanical
systems. PID controllers proven to be a perfect controller for simple and linear processes, but
when it comes to controlling of non-linear and multivariable processes, the controller
parameters have to be continuously adjusted. In process control systems, nonlinearity is the
rule rather than the exception. Most control loops such as pressure, temperature, composition,
etc., are significantly nonlinear. This may be because of nonlinearity due to control valves, or
on account of variations in process gain, time constant, and dead time, as discussed in.
Therefore, the study of control system has contributed to huge impact positively to our modern
day development.
Cascade control is one of the most successful methods for enhancing single-loop
control performance. It can dramatically improve the performance of control strategies,
reducing both the maximum deviation and the integral error for disturbance responses. Cascade
uses an additional measurement of a process variable to assist in the control system. The
selection of this extra measurement, which is based on information about the most common
disturbances and about the process dynamic responses, is critical to the success of the cascade
controller. Therefore, insight into the process operation and dynamics is essential for proper
cascade control design. Cascade control can improve control system performance over single-
loop control whenever either disturbance affect a measurable intermediate or secondary process
output that directly affects the primary process output that we wish to control; or the gain of
the secondary process, including the actuator, is nonlinear. (Stephanopoulos,1984).
In years back level control has been a major issue in the industrial processes. The
controlling of liquid level is essential in most industrial processes such as: food processing,
nuclear power plants, water purification systems, industrial chemical processing, boilers etc.
Although, most industrial problems such as: controlling the speed of motor, or fluid level in a
tank, or temperature of the furnace are due to the installation of control process when the
control concepts had not been properly understood. However, the ingenuity of control engineer
can often overcome these challenges by producing a well-behaved piece of equipment.
(Altmann, 2005).
Design of Cascade Control

Figure 3.0.1: Cascade control block diagram

Consider the block diagram of a cascade system shown in Figure 3.0.1. To simplify
the presentation we assume that the transfer functions of the measuring devices is one. The
dynamics of the secondary loop are:

Figure 3.0.2 shows a simplified form of the general block diagram where the secondary
loop has been considered as a dynamic element. The overall transfer function for the primary
loop is

The stability of the primary loop is determined by the characteristic equation,

Let see how the design can be carried out for the following example:

Note that from looking at the time constants that the secondary process is faster than
the primary.

Figure 3.0.2: Simplified cascade control block diagram

Cascade Control
Consider a cascade control system similar to that of Fig. 3.0.1. The open loop transfer
function for the secondary loop is given by Eq. 1. Assuming a simple proportional controller

There is no cross over frequency for the secondary control loop. Large values for the
gain KcII can be used that yield fast closed loop responses. Once KcII is selected for the
secondary loop, the cross over frequency for the overall process can be obtained as before.
Then KcI can be selected for the primary controller using Ziegler-Nichols
method.(Mellichamp, 1989.)

1. Marlin, T., Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems for
2. Performance, McGraw Hill, New York, 1995.
3. Seborg, D., Edgar, T., and Mellichamp, D., Process Dynamics and Control,
Wiley &sons, New York, 1989.
4. Stephanopoulos, G., Chemical Process Control: An Introduction to Theory and
5. Practice, Prentice Hall, 1984.
6. Smith, C. and Corripio, A., Principles and Practice of Automatic Process
7. Wiley & sons, New York, 1997.
8. Shinsky, F., Process Control Systems, McGraw Hill, New York, 1988.
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Delhi: PHI Learning.
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Amsterdam, The Nertherland: Elsevier.