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Burnt-on sand Broken Mould Erosion

Nature of Defect Nature of Defect Nature of Defect

Thin sand crusts rmly adhering Flash-like metal penetration in The sand is washed away, mostly
to the casting. Defect occurs the mould, sometimes parts of near to the sprue, often accom-
more frequently with thick- the mould are included in the panied by sand inclusions.
walled castings at high casting casting. Bulges arise on the casting near
temperature. to the gate.
Remedies Add more bentonite to increase Remedies
Increase amount of lustrous green tensile strength. Raise Avoid drying out of the
carbon producers and coke compactability of the moulding moulding sand. Increase amount
producers in the moulding sand. sand. of bentonite in the sand.
Increase amount of new sand if Increase milling time of the
sintering point of the sand is low moulding sand. Increase mould
and oolitization is high. compaction. Use carbonaceous
additive with a high lustrous
carbon producing ability.

Explosion Penetration Lustrous Carbon Inclusions Fissure Defects

Nature of Defect Nature of Defect Nature of Defect
Extensive penetration, when the Formation of surface irregulari- Narrow, crack-like cavities
mould is lled too quickly. ties, inclusions and laps due to vertical to the surface. Dendrite
non-wetting characteristic of formation in the cavities.
Remedies lustrous carbon, often associated
Reduce amount of free water. with the use of Cold-Box cores. Remedies
Increase milling time of the The defect is of a metallurgical
moulding sand. Increase ooliti- Remedies nature due to too much nitrogen
zation rate of the moulding Use dried Cold-Box cores. contained in the iron. Reduce
sand. Reduce amount of lustrous the amount of nitrogen in the
carbon producer in the moulding moulding sand. Use low nitrogen
sand. Use carbonaceous additive containing carbonaceous addi-
with a higher coking residue. tive. Reduce addition of carbon-
aceous additive in the moulding
Moulding Sand

Micro-cavities Scarred Surface Surface Blowholes

Nature of Defect Nature of Defect Nature of Defect
Porous structure found in the Scarred casting surface around Cavities with smooth walls,
area of the casting which is last hot spots, particularly with SG singularly or in groups.
to solidify. cast iron.
Remedies Remedies Low casting temperatures are
Defect occurs with alloys having Reduce amount of impurities often the cause. Benets may
a wide solidication range. present in the sand that are be obtained by increasing mould
Little inuencing by the moul- destroying the oxide skin. permeability. Reduce nes or
ding sand. Reduction of organic add coarser new sand. Reduce
material and an increase in the organic additions to the sand.
moisture level will improve
thermal conductivity of the
moulding sand.

Penetration Pinholes Surface Roughness

Nature of Defect Nature of Defect Nature of Defect
Roughness caused by the molten Accumulation of small sub- Rough casting surface nish due
metal penetrating the surface rounded holes. Defects to coarse sand.
immediate sand grains of the appear after annealing and light
mould surface, particularly in machining. Remedies
softly rammed areas. Use ner sand. Increase amount
Remedies of lustrous carbon producing
Remedies Normally the defect is of a material in the moulding sand.
Use ner sand. Improve ram- metallurgical nature. The mould Increase the amount of nes
ming of the moulds. Reduce material may have a certain e.g. coke in the sand.
compactability of the moulding effect. In case of pin holes the
sand. Increase amount of moisture, the organic additions
carbonaceous additive. Increase and the amount of nitrogen in
amount of coke in the moulding the moulding sand should be
sand. reduced.

Sand Inclusions Slag Inclusions Scabbing

Nature of Defect Nature of Defect Nature of Defect
Irregularly formed sand inclusions Non-metallic irregular shaped Mushroom type defect with
just underneath the casting inclusions, when occurring, tend sharp edges parallel to the
surface, associated with products to be on upper casting surfaces. casting surface.
from the metal slag reaction in
other areas. Remedies Remedies
The defects are caused by slag Increase bentonite level. Use
Remedies being present with the molten carbonaceous additive with a
Keep the moulding sand suf- metal in the pouring ladle. If wide softening range. Increase
ciently plastic by good sand the formation is due to eroded the amount of carbonaceous
preparation and sand cooling. sand, reduce the amount of inert additive in the moulding sand.
Adjust to optimum compac- nes and use a more active Reduce amount of new sand.
tability. Reduce the tendency of lustrous carbon producer.
the mould to stick to the pattern Increase milling time of the
by the use of parting agents. moulding sand.

Swelling Metal Penetration Blowholes at Angles

Nature of Defect Nature of Defect Nature of Defect
Irregular bulges, in most cases Firmly adhering agglomerates Smooth wall cavities at the
widely spread, sometimes with of sand/metal at hot spots and angles of the casting.
rough surface and/or pene- in softly rammed areas.
tration. Remedies
Remedies The cause is insufcient feeding
Remedies Reduce compactability of the and rate of solidication.
Reduce compactability of the sand. Improve ramming of the Inuencing by moulding sand is
moulding sand. Ram moulds moulds. Increase amount of possible. Reduce the moisture
better and more evenly. Make carbonaceous additive and coke content and the organic additions
sand less sensitive to over- and in the moulding sand. of the sand. Improve the venting
Copyright: underramming by increasing
of the mould.
S&B Industrial Minerals GmbH the amount of bentonite.
Schmielenfeldstr. 78
45772 Marl