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Tenses for Speaking

Improve your English Grammar in Spoken Communication

2016 by Nestor Kiourtzidis

All rights reserved. You are permitted to print and photocopy this book for your
own personal use. You may not reproduce, distribute, share or publish the
material on any website without the prior written permission of the author,
except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain
other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests,
write to the author.

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The aim of this book 4
Tips for learning tenses 5
COMMON TENSES
AND STRUCTURES
6
Present simple/continuous 7
Past simple/continuous 9
Present perfect simple 11
Present perfect simple/continuous 14
Going to/will + infinitive 17
Used to + infinitive 19
ADVANCED TENSES 21
Past perfect simple 22
Past perfect simple/continuous 25
Future continuous 28
Future perfect simple/continuous 30
ANSWERS 33

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The aim of this book
This book is designed to improve your understanding of English tenses. There
are 10 units in total. In each unit, I explain the use of a structure or pair of
structures. I give examples from spoken English and you can also find some
exercises for practice.

There are two main sections:

COMMON TENSES AND STRUCTURES


This section covers nine dierent structures. If youre taking a test such as
IELTS, the ability to understand and use these tenses will help you get a high
score for grammatical range and accuracy.

ADVANCED TENSES
This section is for learners who have a good understanding of the structures in
the first section of the book. You dont need to use these tenses to do well in
English speaking tests, but they can help you sound very proficient if you are
able to use them appropriately. If you have diculty understanding some of the
structures in the first section, then dont study this section.

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Tips for learning tenses
Develop intuition
In total, there are 15 structures presented in this book. That might sound like a
lot, especially if your native language only has three tenses. However, you should
not think that you need to learn 15 dierent individual structures and their uses.
Instead, you should try to notice patterns and develop a grammatical intuition.
For example, try to notice the similarities between the present perfect, past
perfect and future perfect. If you understand the concept of the present perfect,
its easy to grasp the idea of the past perfect and future perfect. Similarly,
understanding the dierence between the simple and continuous forms for one
tense can help you intuitively use the same forms for other tenses.

Observe, observe, observe


Studying grammar and doing exercises will help you understand concepts and
learn structures. But by itself, it wont help you to use the structures in your
speaking. To use the tenses correctly and without hesitating too much, you will
need confidence. To develop this confidence, you need to observe tenses in the
speech of other people, especially fluent or native speakers. This means exposing
yourself to as much English as possible (films, radio, news, YouTube videos,
music, etc.) When you hear other people using the same structures again and
again, the structures will feel more natural to you.

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COMMON TENSES
AND STRUCTURES

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1 Present simple/continuous
We use the present simple to talk about repeated actions or permanent
situations in the present:

I always travel to work by car.


I live in Madrid. I sometimes play football on Sundays.

We use the present continuous (be + -ing) to talk about actions happening now
or around the present time:

I'm learning English at the moment.


I live in Madrid, but I'm staying in Barcelona this week.

We also use the present continuous to talk about plans for the future:

Im moving to Canada next year.

Only verbs of action can be used in the continuous form, e.g. I'm working, she's
singing, etc. Some verbs such as believe, know and love are states, not actions.

State verbs can normally only be used in the simple form (I love, not I'm loving).
Examples of state verbs: want, like, love, hate, prefer, know, realise, understand,
believe, remember, seem, suppose, mean...

Some verbs can be action or state verbs, with a change in meaning:

STATES
I think you need to relax more. (= I believe, in my opinion)
I see that you are very tired. (= my observation)
She is stupid. (= her general character)
I have a lot of work to do. (= I possess)

ACTIONS
What are you thinking about? (think = use your brain)
Where is Anne? I'm seeing her right now. (= I'm meeting her)
She is being stupid. (= she is behaving in this way right now)
Im having lunch with Michael right now. (= eating)

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Exercises
1.1 Complete the sentences below with the verbs in the correct tense.

1. I (usually/wake up) at 7 oclock.


2. My husband (work) as an IT programmer. This month, his
company . (develop) a new application,
3. I (usually/travel) to work by car, but this week I (take)
the bus.
4. I . (take) the IELTS exam in order to improve my chances of
emigrating to Australia.
5. I (enjoy) learning languages. This month, I (learn) Spanish.
6. Tomorrow afternoon, I .. (meet) an old friend for lunch. We
(see) each other once a month.
7. Young people in my country . (not/have) a healthy diet. They
.. (eat) too much fast food.
8. I . (live) in the centre of my city. Its really convenient, but at the
moment the authorities (build) a new metro line, so theres a lot of
construction work.
9. My girlfriend . (study) for her exams this term, so she ..
(not/have) much free time.

1.2 Choose the best answer to complete the sentences below.

1. I believe/m believing that the best way to learn a language is to live in the
country where it is spoken.
2. I love/Im loving my country but I think/Im thinking about moving
somewhere else for work.
3. Many scientists believe/are believing that global temperatures rise/are rising.
4. Do you think/Are you thinking that we have/are having a healthier lifestyle
than in the past?
5. I realise/Im realising that I need/Im needing a lot of time to learn a
language fluently.
6. My son understands/is understanding Arabic, but he doesnt speak/isnt
speaking it too well.
7. Joanne is/is being very selfish at the moment. She isn't usually/isnt usually
being like this.

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2 Past simple/continuous
The past simple and the past continuous tenses are used to talk about the past.
We use the past simple to talk about a completed event in the past:

Yesterday, I had breakfast. Last summer, I went to Italy.

We use the past continuous to talk about a past activity that was in progress at a
particular time in the past:

7.50am 8am 8.10am NOW

At 8 am, I was eating breakfast.


Where were you last night? I was sleeping.

We use the past simple and past continuous to talk about a completed past
event that happened when another activity was in progress.

NOW

It started to rain while we were running in the park.

I was watching TV when the phone rang.


What were you doing when he arrived?

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Exercises
2.1 Complete the sentences about Dan.

1. At 8am yesterday, . (have breakfast)


2. At 4.30pm yesterday, (work in the oce)
3. At midnight last night, (sleep)
4. At midday yesterday, (have lunch)
5. At 9pm last night, (watch a documentary)
6. At 7am this morning, (brush his teeth)
7. This time last year, (study in Japan)
8. This time last week, (drink coee in his favourite
cafe)

2.2 Complete the sentences with the verb in the past simple or past continuous.

1. I (make) breakfast when he (call) me.


2. I (meet) my husband while we . (work) together at the same
company.
3. They .. (decide) to go to the beach while the sun .
(still/shine)
4. At 8pm last night, I .. (not/watch) television. I (study) for
my IELTS exam.
5. My brother .. (nearly/have) a car accident while he (drive)
to work.
6. I . (start) to use computers while I .. (attend) high school.
7. When I . (finish) my meal, I . (forget) to pay the bill. The waiter
.(call) me as I . (leave) the restaurant.
8. I (go) to bed very late last night, so at 11am this morning, I
. (still/sleep).
9. My cousin (break) his leg while he (play) football.

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3 Present perfect simple
The present perfect simple is used to talk about past actions or situations that
have a connection with the present. It is formed from the verb have + past
participle, for example:

I've (= I have) never met him before.

New information
We often use the present perfect simple to give new information, for example
when we want to report an event that happened a short time ago:

Ouch! I've hurt my leg. Has Michael arrived yet? Spain have won!

NOTE: If we say when something happened in the past, we cannot use the
present perfect. We use the past simple:

Yesterday, I forgot my dictionary at home, so I borrowed one from a classmate.

Repeated past events that may happen again


We use the present perfect simple to talk about a repeated past event that may
happen again in the future:

???

NOW

Brazil have won the World Cup five times.


Ive taught many students.

BUT: when there is no possibility that the event will happen again in the future,
we use the past simple:

The English King Henry VIII got married six times.


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Situation from past to present
We often use the present perfect simple to talk about a situation that began in
the past and continues up to the present or future. It is often used with time
expressions such as since, for, never, etc.:

NOW (2016)
2006

I've been married for nearly ten years.


I've been married since 2006.

Changes/trends from past to present


We often use the present perfect simple to talk about a change or trend that
started in the past and is complete in the present. We often use this tense with
verbs like become, change, increase, decrease, rise, fall, go up, go down, etc.

10 YEARS AGO NOW

Joes life has changed. He has become very poor.


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Exercises
3.1 The sentences below describe changes from 20 years ago to today. Complete
them with the verbs in the present perfect.

1. The world (not/become) safer.


2. Global temperatures (rise).
3. Technology (become) more advanced.
4. Peoples eating habits .. (change).
5. Online shopping . (become) much more popular.
6. The air (not/become) cleaner.
7. The cost of living . (not/decrease).
8. Peoples taste in music .. (change).

3.2 Put the verbs in the correct form, past simple or present perfect simple.

1. She (meet) her boyfriend in 2005.


2. I love that restaurant. I .. (be) there five times this year.
3. It . (not/rain) so far this month.
4. The weather . (improve) a lot since the beginning of the month.
5. I (not/have) a day o work last week.
6. I (try) sushi about a year ago, but I . (forget) what it tastes
like.
7. I (never/visit) Greece, but I (go) to Italy last year.
8. I (make) a sandwich for you earlier. . (you/eat) it yet?
9. Bad news! You favourite politician (lost) the election.

3.3 Make true statements by putting the verbs in the correct tense (past simple or
present perfect simple) and in the correct form, positive or negative.

1. Spain . (win) the World Cup in 2014.


2. Brad Pitt (act) in many films.
3. Obama .. (become) president of the United States in 2008.
4. Astronauts . (never/walk) on Mars.
5. There . (be) more than two world wars.

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4 Present perfect simple/continuous
We use the present perfect simple (have/has + past participle) to talk about
completed actions (but we do not say when they happened):

I've never been to China.


He has made several films since last year.
I've found your phone!

We use the present perfect continuous (have/has been + -ing) to talk about
unfinished activities that started in the past and are still in progress in the
present:

5 YEARS AGO TODAY

I've been working for the same company for over 5 years.

When we use the present perfect simple, we focus on a completed activity or the
result of the activity:

There are no cigarettes left. Hes smoked the whole pack!

We can use the present perfect continuous to focus on a recent activity. It is not
important if the activity is finished or unfinished:

His clothes smell. Hes been smoking again!

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We use the present perfect simple to say how much or how many:

I've met him 5 times.


How many books has he written?
Hes made a lot of money since last year.

We often use the present perfect continuous to say how long:

I've been writing for two hours.


How long have you been standing there?
I haven't been living abroad for very long.

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Exercises
4.2 Cross out the wrong answers to complete the following sentences.

1. Right now, Im a student. Ive been studying/Ive studied accounting for


nearly two years.
2. This is the first time Ive ever taken/Ive ever been taking the IELTS test.
3. Tariq has visited/has been visiting India five times.
4. Joanne looks very tired. Has she worked/Has she been working late again?
5. The dog hasn't eaten/hasn't been eating anything all day. He must be
hungry.
6. They speak Arabic very well. They've lived/They've been living in Dubai for
almost ten years.
7. Mr Carlson is a journalist. He has interviewed/has been interviewing a lot of
interesting people.
8. You are completely wet. Have you swum/Have you been swimming ?
9. I haven't seen/haven't been seeing any interesting films this year.
10. Have you seen/Have you been seeing Je recently? He has changed/has
been changing a lot!
11. I love New York. I've visited/I've been visiting the city three times this year.

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5 Going to/will + infinitive
We use going to + infinitive to talk about intentions or decisions for the future.
We make the decisions before the moment of speaking.

DECISION MADE MOMENT OF SPEAKING ACTION

I'm going to quit smoking.


Are you going to come to the party tonight?

We use will/wont + infinitive when we make a spontaneous decision at the time


of speaking (not before):

DECISION MADE

MOMENT OF SPEAKING ACTION

It's cold in here. I'll go and shut the window.


Can you send me the information I need? Sure, I'll do it right away.

We use going to + infinitive to predict future events that are very near or certain
to happen, often because of something we can observe in the present moment.

Look at the dark clouds. It looks like its going to rain.


Im going to be 21 years old next Monday.

We use will/wont + infinitive to make general predictions or statements about


the future.

The sun will shine tomorrow.


Maybe I will see you at the party next week.
Where are you going on holiday this summer? I have no idea. But I dont
think I'll go to Spain this time.

Will/wont + infinitive is often used with I think, I don't think, I'm sure, probably,
perhaps, maybe, etc.

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Exercises
5.2 Complete the dialogues using will or going to + infinitive:

1. A: I've decided. I .. (improve) my English.


B: Good idea! I (help) you with your grammar.
2. A: When (you/tidy) your room?
B: Oh, I completely forgot about that. I . (do) it later.
3. A: I . (buy) a new laptop. But I dont know which one.
B: Mark knows a lot about laptops. I .. (ask) him for his opinion.
4. A: What .. (you/do) at the weekend?
B: I dont know yet. Perhaps I .. (visit) my uncle.
5. A: What time (you/come) to my place?
B: I think around 7pm, but I . (call) you later to confirm.
6. A: What . (you/do) on your birthday?
B: I . (organise) a big party.
7. A: Im feeling a bit tired. I (sleep).
B: OK, I . (not/disturb) you then.
8. A: Have you decided where you . (you/have) lunch?
B: Well, I . (not/eat) at the new Italian restaurant, that's for sure.
It's too expensive.

5.3 Cross out the wrong answers to complete the following sentences.

1. Karl is going to be/will be 18 next Thursday.


2. In 20 years time, I will be/Im going to be 50.
3. I dont feel very well. Im going to be/I will be sick.
4. I think it will snow/its going to snow next winter, but I cant be sure.
5. Have you heard the news? Mikes sister is going to have/will have a baby.
6. In 20 years, many people will dive/are going to drive driverless cars.
7. We are going to fly/will fly to Athens in July. We have the tickets already.
8. Im going to have/I will have a party next week. Would you like to come?
9. Dinner is almost ready! I know youre going to love/you will love it.
10. Do you have some free time on Sunday? I dont know yet. Ill let you
know/Im going to let you know tomorrow.

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6 Used to + infinitive
We say I used to do something when we talk about a past situation or habit that
is dierent now. In the negative, we say I didn't use to do something:

I used to live in a large city, but now I live by the seaside.


I didn't use to go swimming everyday.

Think of used to + infinitive as the past of the present simple for talking about
habits or long-term situations:

I used to go to school every day. (A PAST HABIT)


I go to work every day. (A PRESENT HABIT)

She used to live in Russia. (A LONG-TERM SITUATION IN THE PAST)


She lives in England now. (A PRESENT LONG-TERM SITUATION)

DO NOT CONFUSE used to do something with be used to something/doing


something. We use the structure be used to when we say that something is not
strange or new for us:

I get up early every morning to go to work. It isn't something new or strange for
me. I am used to getting up early.
John is from England. He is used to driving on the left.
I live near a busy street, so Im not used to quiet places.

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Exercises
6.1 Ben is a top manager. Ten years ago, he was just a junior accountant. Write
about how his lifestyle has changed using used to/didn't use to + infinitive or
the present simple.

10 YEARS AGO TODAY

1. He (not/be) so busy.
2. He (have) a lot of paperwork these days.
3. He (have) more free time, but now he (work) nearly ten
hours a day.
4. He (wear) black ties every day. Nowadays, he .. (prefer) brown
ties.
5. He .. (earn) less money than today.
6. His desk (be) full of papers and folders. It .. (be) almost
empty.
7. He . (have) a manager, but now he .. (manage) a team of
workers.
8. He .. (go out) a lot, but now he (not/have) any time.

6.2 Complete the sentences below with be used to in a suitable form.

1. Arnold has lived in Dubai all his life. he hot weather.


2. They live in a small village. They . noise and pollution.
3. I come from a big city. I having a busy lifestyle.
4. Alex is a spy. He .. dangerous work.
5. Be careful. They animals .. people.
6. Living with a flatmate was a bit strange at first. But I it now.

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ADVANCED TENSES

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7 Past perfect simple
The past perfect simple (had/hadnt + past participle) is used to talk about past
actions or situations that happened before a specific time in the past.

11AM NOW

The bus left at 10.55. I arrived at the bus stop at 11am. When I arrived, the bus
had already left.

We often use the past perfect simple with time expressions such as already, just
(= a moment ago), since, for, never, etc.:

We got divorced last year. We'd been married for nearly ten years.
When I called Josie, she'd just finished her homework.
I sold my car yesterday. I'd had it since 2005.

NOTE: We normally say 'd had instead of had had.

We often use the past perfect simple with the past simple to talk about
something that happened before an event in the past:

I tried to call Anne but she had lost her phone.


Tom was late because he had been stuck in trac.
When I turned on the TV, the match had already started.

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NOTE: The past perfect simple is the past of the present perfect simple (have/
has + past participle). We use the present perfect simple to talk about actions or
situations that happened before or up to now:

NOW (11am)

Im too late. The bus has already left.

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Exercises
7.1 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, past perfect simple, present perfect
simple or past simple:

1. When we arrived at the station, the train .. (already/leave).


2. Until now, it (hardly ever/rain).
3. I (start) my studies in 2005.
4. While I was travelling in Switzerland, I . (visit) a wonderful
chocolate shop.
5. I .. (be) late for work this morning.
6. It was my first time in Turkey. I .. (never/be) there before.
7. I (never/eat) sushi. What's it like?
8. When you called me, I . (just/finish) making breakfast.
9. The cat is really hungry. It .. (not/eat) all day.
10. The cat was really hungry. It .. (not/eat) all day.
11. I . (not/see) the match yesterday.
12. I didn't want to visit Mexico again because I .. (be) there many times.
13. I dont want another sandwich. I .. (eat) too much.
14. I (not/want) another sandwich because I'd eaten too much.

7.2 Last summer, Jake visited Japan for the first time. A lot of things were new for
him. Write sentences like in the example.

1. eat sushi
.
2. use chopsticks
.
3. drink Japanese wine
.
4. travel on the metro
.
5. visit a Buddhist temple
.
6. see tall skyscrapers
.

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8 Past perfect simple/continuous
We use the past perfect simple (had/hadnt + past participle) to talk about
completed actions (but we do not say when they happened):

The match had already started when we turned on the television.


I went to Brazil last year. I'd never been there before.
The meeting had finished when I arrived.

We use the past perfect continuous (had/hadnt been + -ing) to talk about
unfinished activities that started before a specific time in the past:

2006 (new job) 2011 (promotion) TODAY

In 2011, I received my first promotion. I'd been working at the company for
over 5 years.

When we use the past perfect simple, we focus on a completed activity or the
result of the activity:

There were no cigarettes left. Hed smoked the whole pack!

We can use the past perfect continuous to focus on an activity. It is not


important if the activity was finished or unfinished:

His clothes smelt. Hed been smoking again!

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We use the past perfect simple to say how much or how many:

I'd met him 5 times before that day.


How many books had he written?
Hed made a lot of money since that year.

We often use the past perfect continuous to say how long:

I'd been writing for two hours.


How long had you been standing there?
I hadn't been living abroad for very long.

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Exercises
8.1 Cross out the incorrect structure to complete the following sentences:

1. It wasnt my first time in Berlin. I'd visited/I'd been visiting the city three
times before then.
2. When I met Abdul, I was a student. I'd studied/Id been studying in Cairo
for nearly two years.
3. I felt very sick. It was the first time I'd ever eaten/I'd ever been eating food
like that.
4. I was nearly ready for my test. Id studied/Id been studying since early
morning.
5. I checked my phone an hour ago. I hadnt received/I hadnt been receiving
any text messages.
6. Until 2010, Spain had never won/had never been winning the world cup.
7. Karen looked tired yesterday. I think shed worked/shed been working too
hard.
8. I was getting tired of Moscow. Id lived/Id been living there for almost 30
years.

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9 Future continuous
The future continuous has two forms: will be + -ing and be going to + -ing. We
use the future continuous to talk about an activity that will be in progress at a
particular time in the future:

7.50am 8am 8.10am

TODAY TOMORROW MORNING

At 8am tomorrow, Ill be eating breakfast.


At 8am tomorrow, Im going to be eating breakfast.

We use a time clause (with the present simple) and the future continuous to
talk about a future event that will happen when another activity is in progress.

NOW

Well be watching television when you arrive.


Ill be waiting for you when your train arrives.
Im going to be staying at the Hilton Hotel, if anything happens and you need
to contact me.

This is the same structure as the first conditional (if/when + present, will +
infinitive), but with the future continuous instead of will + infinitive.

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Exercises
9.1 Complete the sentences below. Put the verbs in brackets in the future simple
(will + infinitive) or future continuous (will be + -ing).

1. Right now, Im having lunch. Tomorrow at this time, I .. (have) lunch


as well.
2. Tomorrow after school, I think I .. (go) to the beach.
3. This time next year, I think I . (work) for the same company. Nothing
.. (change).
4. If it rains this weekend, I . (not/go out).
5. When your train arrives, I . (wait) for you on the platform.
6. When I emigrate to Canada, I . (start) to look for a decent job.
7. Im sick of rain and bad weather! Hopefully, when I wake up tomorrow
morning, the sun (shine).
8. If you need to contact me sometime next week, I (stay) at the Ibis
Hotel.
9. I you take this pill, you .. (feel) much better.
10. This evening at 9pm, I (not/watch) television. I . (work) on
a work project instead.

9.2 Cross out the incorrect structure to complete the following sentences:

1. This time next month, Im going to be relaxing/Ill relax on the beach in


Thailand. I cant wait!
2. When I meet Abdul, I'll tell/Ill be telling him you said hello.
3. Im going/Ill be going home after work.
4. If you arrive/youll be arriving late, Ill be waiting in my room.
5. I hope hell call/hell be calling me tomorrow.
6. Im thinking of coming at 6pm. What will you be doing/will you do at that
time?
7. You'll recognise/Youll be recognising me when you get there. I'll be
wearing/I wear jeans and a white shirt.

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10 Future perfect simple/continuous
The future perfect simple (will have + past participle) is used to talk about actions
or situations that will be complete before a specific time in the future:

8am 8.30am 9am

NOW TOMORROW

If you arrive at 9am, I'll have already finished my breakfast.

The future perfect is the future of the present perfect (have/has + past participle).
We use the present perfect to talk about actions or situations that happened
before or up to now:

8am 8.30am NOW (9am)

I've already finished my breakfast.

We often use the future perfect with time expressions such as by and by the time,
by this time next ...:

By this time next year, we'll have been married for nearly ten years.
By the time you get there, she'll have gone home.

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Simple vs. continuous
Compare the future perfect simple with the future perfect continuous (will have
+ been + -ing).

We use the future perfect simple to talk about completed actions:

By 6pm, I'll have left work.

We use the future perfect continuous to talk about activities in progress up to a


point in the future:

By this time next year, I'll have been working in London for almost a decade.

We use the future perfect simple to say how much or how many:

By the end of the year, I'll have been to Greece five times.

We can use the future perfect continuous to say how long:

By August, we'll have been living here for almost six months.

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Exercises
10.1 Karen has a lot of plans and ambitions. Complete her thoughts with the verbs
below.

improve emigrate visit buy

sell start meet

1. I my English.
2. I to Australia.
3. I .. my car.
4. I .. lots of new clothes.
5. I my future husband.
6. I .. my own business.
7. I . lots of new cities.

10.2 Put the verbs in brackets in the future perfect. Use the future perfect continuous
where possible.

1. Don't arrive at the cinema after 9 o'clock. The film . (already/start).


2. If he doesn't arrive soon, I (wait) for almost an hour.
3. By the end of our holidays, we .. (meet) so many interesting
people.
4. How long . (you/live) here this time next year?
5. How many books . (you/read) by this time next year?
6. Mark and Julia fight almost every day. By next year, I think they
(divorce).
7. Call me back in an hour. My job interview . (finish) by then.
8. She'll be very tired when she gets here. She (travel) for almost
two days.

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ANSWERS
1.1 3.2
1. usually wake up 1. met
2. works; is developing 2. 've been
3. usually travel; 'm taking 3. hasn't rained
4. 'm taking 4. has improved
5. enjoy; 'm learning 5. haven't had
6. 'm meeting; see 6. tried; forgot
7. don't have; eat 7. 've never visited; went
8. live; are building 8. made; have you eaten
9. is studying; doesn't have 9. has lost

1.2 3.3
1. I believe 1. didn't win
2. I love; I'm thinking 2. has acted
3. believe; are rising 3. became
4. Do you think; have 4. have never walked
5. I realise; I need 5. haven't been
6. understands;doesn't speak
7. is being/isn't usually 4.2
1. I've been studying
2.1 2. I've ever taken
1. he was having breakfast 3. has visited
2. he was working in the office 4. has she been working
3. he was sleeping 5. hasn't eaten
4. he was having lunch 6. They've been living
5. he was watching a documentary 7. has interviewed
6. he was brushing his teeth 8. have you been swimming
7. he was studying in Japan 9. have you seen; has changed
8. he was drinking coffee in his favourite cafe 10. I've visited

2.2 5.2
1. was making; called 1. 'm going to improve; 'll help
2. met; were working 2. are you going to tidy; 'll do
3. decided; was still shining 3. 'm going to buy; 'll ask
4. wasn't watching; was studying 4. are you going to do; 'll visit
5. nearly had; was driving 5. are you going to come; 'll call
6. started; was attending 6. are you going to do; 'm going to organise
7. finished; forgot; called; was leaving 7. 'm going to sleep; won't disturb
8. went; was still sleeping 8. are going to have; 'm not going to eat
9. broke; was playing
5.3
3.1 1. is going to be
1. has become 2. I will be
2. have risen 3. I'm going to be
3. has become 4. it will snow
4. have changed 5. is going to have
5. has become 6. will drive
6. hasn't become 7. are going to fly
7. hasn't decreased 8. I'm going to have
8. has changed 9. you're going to love
10. I'll let you know

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6.1 9.1
1. didn't use to be 1. 'll be having lunch
2. has 2. will go
3. used to have; works 3. 'll be working; will change
4. used to wear; prefers 4. won't go out
5. used to earn; 5. 'll be waiting
6. is; used to be 6. 'll wait
7. didn't use to have; manages 7. 'll start
8. used to go out; doesn't have 8. will be shining
9. need; 'll be staying
6.2 10. will feel
1. isn't used to 11. won't be watching; 'll be working
2. are used to
3. 'm used to 9.2
4. is used to 1. Im going to be relaxing
5. aren't used to 2. I'll tell
6. 'm used to 3. Im going
4. you arrive
7.1 5. hell call
1. had already left 6. will you be doing
2. has hardly ever rained 7. You'll recognise; I'll be wearing
3. started
4. visited 10.1
5. was 1. 'll have improved
6. 'd never been 2. 'll have emigrated
7. 've never eaten 3. 'll have sold
8. 'd just finished 4. 'll have bought
9. hasn't eaten 5. 'll have met
10. hadn't eaten 6. 'll have started
11. didn't see 7. 'll have visited
12. 've been
13. didn't want 10.2
1. will have already started
7.2 2. 'll have been waiting
1. He'd never eaten sushi before. 3. will have met
2. He'd never used chopsticks before. 4. will you have been living
3. He'd never drunk Japanese wine before. 5. will you have read
4. He'd never travelled on the metro before. 6. 'll have divorced
5. He'd never visited a Buddhist temple before. 7. will have finished
6. He'd never seen tall skyscrapers before. 8. 'll have been travelling

8.1
1. I'd visited
2. I'd been studying
3. I'd ever eaten
4. I'd been studying
5. I hadn't received
6. had never won
7. she'd been working
8. I'd been living

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