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Part II1:Synthesis

RICHARD H. SMALL

Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia

The analytical relationships developed in Parts I and II which relate the performance

characteristics of the vented-box loudspeaker system to the basic parameters of its com-

ponents make possible the straightforward design of loudspeaker systems meeting speci-

fic performance goals. A set of desired system performance specifications may be

checked for realizability and then used to determine the required physical properties

of all the system components. The most suitable enclosure design for a particular

driver may also be readily determined.

Editor's Note: Part I of Vented-Box Loudspeaker Systems an equivalent QL value of 7 is a very satisfactory start-

appeared in the June issue and Part II in July/August. ing point for design purposes. In this case Fig. 11 is used

to represent the basic relationships between driver pa-

rameters, system parameters, and system response. If a

11. SYSTEM SYNTHESIS higher or lower value of QB is expected with some con-

fidence, one of the other figures is used.

System-Component Relationships The appropriate alignment and response relationships

(Fig. 11 or otherwise) and the efficiency, power capacity,

The relationships between response and system and vent design relationships established in Parts I and

parameter adjustment are given in Part I by Figs. 6 and II permit the design of vented-box systems in complete

9-13 for the "flat" C4-B4-QB3 alignments. Enclosure detail. Procedures are deszribed and illustrated below

losses cannot be known exactly in advance but can be for two important cases, design of an enclosure to suit a

predicted from experience. For example, for numerous particular driver and design of a complete system start-

commercial systems and laboratory enclosures in the ing from required performance specifications.

range cfi 25-100 dm a (1--4 fta) measured in the course

of this research, the most commonly measured values of

QB are between 5 and 10 with a general tendency for Design with a Given Driver

QB to fall with increasing enclosure volume.

For enclosures of moderate size, the assumption of The designof an enclosure to suit a given driver

RICHARD H. SMALL

QL=IO I , .5, , .7

1,111 _-, k ,

QL=7

f3 T IllII F3/fS f3

i ii}111 2 o.,

IIIIIIII " I

II m'

0 .3 .5.7 1 2 3 5 7 10

I I IIll I III o

o(. DC

Fig. 10. Alignment chart for vented-box systems with QB-' Fig. 11. Alignment chart for vented-box systems with QB-'

Q_= 10. Q_---7.

starts with a knowledge of the driver small-signal param- to produce a low value of QE, where [12, eq. (21)]

eters /s, QPs, and VAs; /s and Q_s must be adjusted ff

necessaryto correspond to enclosure mounting condi- Ro+ R_

= -- (53)

tions. If these parameters are not already known, they Q_ QEe RB

may be measured by the methods given in [10] or [12]

using a standard baffle to provide air-mass loading as because in this case [12, eq. (22)]

for an enclosure (see also Section 7 in Part II of the

present paper, including Footnote 3). QT = QEQ_Js/(Q_ + Q_s). (54)

The value of Q_s is of primary importance. If the Both methods reduce Q_ without changing Q_s; thus the

loudspeaker system is to be used with a modern ampli- value of k,{o_ from Eq. (29), and therefore % for the

tier having very low output (Thevenin) resistance, then system, will be lower than could be achieved by altering

Q, for the system will be equal to Q_a for the driver, the magnet design to reduce QEa directly.

From Figs. 6 and 9-13 it is clear that QT must be no Sometimes the value of QTs is found to be undesirably

larger than about 0.6 for successful application irt a Iow. This may be remedied by placing a resistor in

vented enclosure, series with the voice coil to increase R_ and therefore

If Qrs has a reasonable value, then the optimum QBs or by using a positive value of Rg to increase QE.

value of a for a system using the driver is found from, If the driver proves satisfactory and an acceptable

say, Fig. 11 by locating the measured value of Q_s on system design is found, the system reference efficiency

the QT curve in the figure and observing the correspond- is calculated from the basic driver parameters using Eq.

lng value of _ on the abscissa. This value of a then de- (25). The approximate displacement-limited acoustic

termines the optimum value of VB using Eq. (46). It power rating of the system is computed from Eq. (41)

also determines the required value of h (and therefore if VD is known. VD usually can be evaluated as described

JR) and the corresponding value of /a for the system as in [22, See. 6]. The approximate displacement-limited in-

indicated on the same figure. If the resulting system put power rating is then found by dividing the acoustic

design is not acceptable (fa too high, VB too large, etc.), power rating by the reference efficiency as indicated by

then it is probable that the driver is not suitable for use Eq. (42). The vent design is carried out in accordance

in a vented-boxsystem, with Section8 of Part II.

The design process may alternatively be begun by se-

lecting an enclosure size VB which suits aesthetic or

architectural requirements. This determines _ and hence Example of Design with a Given Driver

the required enclosure tuning lB, the required value of The following small-signal parameters were measured

QT, and the resulting cutoff frequency Is. If the value of for an 8-inch wide-range driver manufactured in the

fa is not satisfactory, then the driver and the enclosure United States:

size chosen are not compatible. If fa is satisfactory but

the required Qr is very different from QTs, it may be [s ----33 Hz

possible to use the driver as discussed below. Q_s = 2.0

There are limited ways of salvaging a driver having

unsatisfactory parameter values. If the value of Qrs is QBs = 0.45

too high to fit an alignment which is otherwise desirable V_s = 57 dma (2 frs).

in terms of enclosure size and bandwidth, an acoustically

resistive material such as bonded acetate fiber may be The large-signal characteristics specified by the manu-

stretched over the rear of the driver frame to reduce facturer are as follows.

the effective value of Q_rs, thus lowering Qes [17], [27]. 1) "Total linear excursion of one-half inch." From

The correct amount of resistive material is determined this, Xmax= 6 mm, and, assuming a typical effective

experimentally by remeasurement of Qre as material is diaphragm radius of 0.08 m,

added. QT may also be reduced by using a negative

Value of amplifier output resistance Rg [10, Sec. 12], [28] VD = 120 cm s.

550 JOURNAL

OF THEAUDIOENGINEERING

SOCIETY

VENTED-BOX LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEMS PART IIh SYNTHESIS

this it is assumed that for program material the thermal dm3 ft 3 Hz 2.5 5 10 15 25 50

amplifiers of up to 25-watt continuous rating. 300 10 e?9'_ _x._ / / ,,J

By calculationfrom Eqs. (31) and (25). 200 YIn.,.._// ,//

Assuming that the amplifier to be used with the sys- 70 .__ -- / f

tern has negligible Thevenin output resistance, Qe for 5o /

the system will be 0.37. Taking QB = 7 initially, Fig. 11 /,/

Q_s=0.37 ! _'_ :i_'_"//////:i_ -

small; a more likely value of QB is thus about 10. Using 20 _.7 _ _ _"_

Fig. 10 then, a QB3 response with B = 1.0 can be ob- .5 _ .o_,,2

= 1.55 7 s__ _-_

indicates that the enclosure volume will be relatively 305 Ii 2 __2 I I I _'_/_ l_/

h = 1.07 2 3 4 6 8, 10 2Q

fa/ts = 1.16. Lv, inches

Thus the required enclosure volume is

Fig. 21. Nomogram and chart for design of dueted vents.

V_ = VAs/a = 37 dm a (1.3 fta).

The enclosure must be tuned to on the "flat" C4-B4-QB3 alignments, any other desired

alignment may be specified, e.g., the degenerated Che-

/B = hfs = 35 Hz byshev type 2 (DT2) alignment used by Nomura which

and the system cutoff frequency is provides passband peaking [11]. Appendix 1 shows how

the requffed system alignment parameters may be calcu-

/a = 38 Hz. lated from the polynomial coefficients of any desired

From Eq. (41) the displacement-limited program alignment based on the assumed or expected value of

acoustic power rating of the system is Qe. For any alignment in the C4-B4--QB3 range, the

necessary alignment data are provided in Figs. 9-13. The

P.4_ = 3.0 fa 4 VD2 = 90 mW. frequency response specification thus fixes the values of

the parameters a, Qe, ]s, and /B'

The corresponding displacement-limited program input

power rating is For a specifiedfrequency response, the designer may

specify also the enclosure size or the reference efficiency;

PBR = PaR/VD = 20 W. but he may not specify both unless the values satisfy

Because this is less than the manufacturer's input power the realizability requirements of Section 4. If the eh-

rating, it should be quite safe to operate the system with closure volume Vu is specified, the required driver corn-

an amplifier having a continuous power rating of pliance is then

20 watts. V_a = a VB. (46)

From Eq. (52) the minimum diameter of a tubular

vent is (VD/B)_ or 65 mm (2.6 inches). From Fig. 21, The required value of the driver parameter Q_a is found

the required vent length is 175 mm (7 inches) for a from the required value of Q_, by allowing for reason-

tubing of this diameter, able values of Rg (typically zero) and QMs (typically 5,

but varies greatly depending on the amount of mechani-

suppress higher frequency resonances). The system et-

The important performance specifications of a loud- ficiency is then calculated from Eq. (25).

speaker system include frequency response, efficiency, The power capacity of the system may be specified in

power capacity, and enclosure size. The complexity Of terms of either P_ or Para but not both unless the

the vented-box system makes control of all these speci- Values agree with the attainable system efficiency. It is

fications quite difficult when traditional trial-and-error possible to specify both indopendently only if neither

design techniques are Used. In contrast, the analytical re- I/B nor */0 are separately specified; then the required

lationships developed in this paper make possiblethe value of *7ois given by the ratio of PAR to P_R, and the

direct synthesis of a vented-box system to meet any required enclosure volume which will provide this effi-

physically realizable set of small-signal and large-signal ciency for the specified frequency response is found from

specifications and even provide a check on realizability Eqs. (26) and (28) using values of k,(Q) and kn(o): ob-

before design is begunfi tained from Eq. (32) and Fig. 15 and based on the esti-

Specification of system frequency response basically mated or expected values of Q_s and QB.

amounts to specification of an alignment type and a Assuming that V B and PAR are specified and that _70

cutoff frequency fa. While the emphasis in this paper is has been determined from Eq. (25), PB; is given by

4 See [32, Sec. 5 and 61 for an extensive discussion of the

principles of system small-signal response synthesis. The requffed value of Vi> for the driver is found from

SEPTEMBER 1973, VOLUME 21, NUMBER 7 551

RICHARD H. SMALL

Eq. (41) using the given values of fa and P_tR. Check tubular vent should be at least 85 mm (3.4 inches) in

that VD << V_. The thermally limited maximum in- diameter. From Fig. 21, the length should be 115 mm

put power rating of the driver PB(max) must be not less (4.5 inches) for a tubing of this diameter.

than the value of PBR divided by the peak-to-average

power ratio of the program material to be reproduced. 12. DRIVER DESIGN

The vent is designed so that the area Sv satisfies Eq.

(51) and the effective length-to-area ratio gives the re- Driver Specification

quired /B in combination with the enclosure Volume VB The process of system design leads to specification o:f

as determined from Fig. 21. the required driver in terms of the basic design par,am,-

The driver is completely specified by the parameters eters is, Q_s, VAs, Vo, and P/_(max)- TO complete the

calculated above and may be designed by the method _physical specification of the driver, the arbitrary physi-

given in Section 12. cai parameters SD and RD must be selected and the re-

sulting mechanical parameters calculated. This proce_

Example of System Design from Specifications is described in [22, Sec. I0] and is illustrated by the

A loudspeaker system to be used with an amplifier example below.

having very low output resistance must meet the follow- Example of Driver Design

ing specifications:

The basic design parameters of the driver required

fa = 40 Hz for the system in the example of the previous section are

Response = B4

VB =57dm a(2ft a) fa= 40 Hz

PAR = 0.25 W program peaks; expected peak- Q_s = 0.44

to-average power ratio 5 dB. V,_a = 60 dm a

VD = 180 cm a

It is assumed that the enclosure losses will correspond PD(max)= 9.5 W.

to QB = QL = 7 and that the driver mechanical losses

.will correspond to Q_a = 5. These specifications could be met by drivers of 8-15-inch

Using Fig. 11, the B4 response is located at a eom- adverfized diameter [15].

plianceratio of Choosing a 12-inch driver, the effectivediaphragm

radius a will be approximately 0.12 m, giving

a = 1.06

SD =4.5X 10 -2m 2

for which the required system parameters are and

h-- 1.00 SD2 =2.0X10 -am 4.

/ff/a = 1.00 The required mechanical compliance and mass of the

QT = 0.40: driver are then [22, eqs. (61) and (62)]

Therefore the required driver parameters are C_ra = V_ta/(poc2SD2) = 2.14 X 10 -4 m/N

V,_a = 60 dm a (2.1 ft a) M_a = 1/[(2_rfa)2C_a] = 74 g.

fa = 40 Hz

Qva --' 0.40 M_s is the total moving mass including air loads, As-

suming that the driver diaphragm occupies one third of

and the required enclosure tuning is the area of the front baffle of the enclosure and using

IB = 40 Hz. [3, pp. 216;217] to evaluate the air loads, the mass of

the voice coil and diaphragm alone is

Taking Q_s = 5 and using Eq. (31), M_D = M_ts-- (3.15aa + 0.65_rp0aa) = 64g.

Qbe = 0.44. The electromechanical damping resistance must be

From Eq. (25) the reference efficiency of the system [22, eq. (64)]

is then B21_/RD = 2_r/aM_a/Q_a = 42 N' s/re.

_0 = 0.84%

For thepopular 8s2 rating impedance, RD is usually about

and from Eq. (42) the displacement-limited electrical 6.5 tL The required Bl product for such a driver is then

powerrating is Bl -- 16.5 T.m.

This requires that the system amplifier have a continuous the peak linear displacement of the driver must be

power rating of at least 30 watts. For the 5-dB expected

peak-to-average power ratio of the program material, Xmax= VD/SD = 4.0 mm.

the thermal rating PE(max) of the driver must be at least This is approximately the amount of voice-coil overhang

9.5 watts [22, Sec. 5]. required at each end of the magnetic gap. The total

From Eq. (41), the displacement volume of the "throw" of the driver is then 8.0 mm (0.32 inch). This

driver must be requirementpresents no great difficultyso far as the

design of the suspension is concerned.

VD = 180 cm s. The choice of a smaller driver diameter results in a

This is only about 0.3% of VD. Then, from Eq. (52), a lighter diaphragm and a less costly magnetic structure,

552 JOURNAL OF .THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY

VENTED-BOXLOUDSPEAKERSYSTEMS,PART II1:SYNTHESIS

but a greater peak displacement is then required, e.g.,

9 mm (18-mm total throw) for an 8-inch driver.

The voice coil must be able to dissipate 9.5 watts 0 --- --

nominal input power without damage. IGcjw)l, i

The suitability of a prototype driver designed in ac- -10 // + 50 % ....

cordancewith the above method may be checked by _ -50 % ....

measuring the driver parameters as described in [12].

One of the driver parameters which is difficult to con- /

f _q J _ t I I I I I I I il

trol in production is the mechanical compliance C_e. .3 .5 .7 1 2 3 5 7 10

Any shift in this compliance changes the measured val-

ues of both fs and Q_s as well as Vas. Fortunately, uJT0(nom)

system response is not critically sensitive to the value of Fig. 23. Variation in frequency response of a B4-aligned

CMs so long as M,us and Bel2/RB have the correct values, vented-box system for changes in driver compliance C_,8 of

Thus if the measured value of V,_s is not too far off its -4-50% (from simulator).

specified value, the driver will be satisfactory provided

the quantities /seVAs and fs/Qss, which together indi- size and voice-coil ,resistance (or rating impedance), the

cate the effective moving mass and magnetic coupling, designer needs to know the values of the parameters

correspond to the same combinations of the specified fa, QBs, Q.us, Vas, VD, and P_cm_x)' Conversely, where

parameters, the designerneeds a driver havingparticularvaluesof

The effect of variations in C_as on the response of a these parameters, the driver manufacturer must be able

vented-box system is shown in Fig. 23 for a B4 align- to work .from such specifications to produce the driver.

ment. The ---+50% variation illustrated is larger than Because the basic design parameters above are di-

that commonly encountered. The relative effects are rectly related to the fundamental mechanical parameters

smaller for higher compliance ratios (i.e., QB3 align- such as MMD, CMS, B, and l, which the driver manu-

ments) and larger for lower compliance ratios (C4 align- facturer has long used, there need be no difficulty in

mentS). 5 supplyingthese parameters.There is every likelihood

The completed system may be checked by measuring that feedback from system designers will be helpful to

its parameters as described in Section 7 and comparing driver manufacturers in improving their products, par-

these to the initial specifications. The actual system per- ticul'arly in finding the best tradeoffs among response,

formance may also be verified by measurement in an efficiency, and power capacity requirements which can

anechoic environment or by an indirect method [26]. be obtained for a given cost.

Drivers Becausethe frequencyresponse,referenceefficiency,

The moving-coil or electrodynamic driver has long and displacement-limited power capacity of a vented-box

been the workhorse of the loudspeaker industry. How- loudspeaker system are all directly related to a relatively

ever, system designers have not been fully aware of the small number of easily measured system and driver

importance or usefulness of a knowledge of the im- parameters, there is every incentive for system manu-

portant fundamental parameters of these drivers. They facturers to provide complete data on these fundamental

have instead used trial-and-error design techniques and performance characteristics with the basic system

relied on acoustical measurements of a completed system specifications.

to determine the performance characteristics of the The theoretical relationships developed here refer to

system, a standard radiation load of a 2_r-steradian free field.

The most important message of this paper and those This is only an approximation to average listening-room

that have preceded it is that trial-and-error design tech- conditions [29], but ratings and specifications based on

niques are not only wasteful but unnecessary. Design these relationships are of unquestionable value in corn-

may be carried out by direct synthesis provided the sys- paring the expected performance of different systems in

tem designer either knows the parameters of a given a particular application.

driver or can obtain a desired driver by specifying its There is little doubt that buyers and users of loud-

parameters, speaker systemswould appreciate an increase in the

It is essential for a driver manufacturer to specify all amount of quantitative and directly comparable data

the important parameters of a driver so that system de- supplied with such systems, especially in the categories

signers can completely evaluate the small-signal and of reference efficiency and acoustic power capacity.

large-signal performance obtainable from that driver. In

addition to the specific physical properties of diaphragm 15. CONCLUSION

The vented-box loudspeaker system has been popular

5 A very recent paper by Keele [33] contains exact calcu- for decades but has recently been shunned in favor of

lations of the sensitivity factors of vented-box alignments to the more easily designed closed-box system.

all important driver and system parameters. The sensitivity The quantitative relationships presented in this paper

to driver compliance is shown to be extremely low compared make the design of vented-box systems a relatively

to that for most other parameters over a wide range of align-

ments, simple task, despite the: complexity of these systems.

SEPTEMBER

1973,VOLUME

21, NUMBER

7 553

RICHARDH. SMALL

They also indicate that the vented-box system has sub- and considerable efforts of R. C. Pols in providing an

stantial advantages over the closed-box system in terms English translation of the van Leeuwen paper.

of the attainable values of the efficiency and power-

rating constants, although these advantages are gained REFERENCES

at the expense of transient response and immunity to [3] L. L. Beranek, Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, New

subsonic signals. York,1954).

As the design of vented-box systems becomes better [10] A. N. Ilaiele, "Loudspeakers in Vented Boxes,"

understood, interest in these systems may be expected Proc. IREE (Australia), vol. 22, p. 487 (Aug. 1961); re-

published in J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 19, p. 382 (May

to increase again. This does not mean that the popu- 1971), and p. 471 (June 1971).

larity of well-designed closed-box systems will diminish. [11] Y. Nomura, "An Analysis of Design Conditions

The choice of one or the other will depend on the re- of a Bass-Reflex Loudspeaker Enclosure for Flat Re-

quirements of a particular application, sponse," Electron. Commun. Japan, vol. 52-A, no. 10, p.

The ease with which the low-frequency performance 1 (1969).

[12] R. H. Small, "Direct-Radiator Loudspeaker Sys-

of a loudspeaker system may be specified in terms of tem Analysis," IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust., vol.

simply measured system parameters should encourage AU-19, p. 269 (Dec. 1971 ); republished in J. Audio Eng.

more complete specification by manufacturers of the Soc., vol. 20, p. 383 (June 1972).

important frequency response, reference efficiency, and [15] J. of

surement R. Loudspeaker

Ashley and M. D. Swan,

Driver "Improved

Parameters," Mea-

presented

power capacity characteristics of their products, at the 40th Convention of the Audio Engineering So-

ciety, Los Angeles (Apr. 1971). Preplint 803.

16. ACKNOWLEDGMENT [17] J. F. Novak, "Designing a Ducted-Port Bass-Re-

flex Enclosure," Electron. World, vol. 75, p. 25 (Jan.

This paper is part of the result of a program of post- 1966).

graduate research into t'he low-frequency performance [22] R. H. Small, "Closed-Box Loudspeaker Systems,"

of direct-radiator electrodynamic loudspeaker systems. J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 20, p. 798 (Dec. 1972); vol. 21,

I am indebted to the School of Electrical Engineering p. [26]

11 (Jan./Feb. 1973).

R. H. Small, "Simplified Loudspeaker Measure-

of the University of Sydney for providing research facili- ments at Low Frequencies," Proc. IREE (Australia), vol.

ties, supervision, and assistance, and to the Australian 32, p. 299 (Aug. 1971); ,republished in J. Audio Eng.

Commonwealth Department of Education and Science Soc., vol. 20, p. 28 (Jan./Feb. 1972).

[27] J. L. Grauer, "Acoustic Resistance Damping for

for financial support. Loudspeakers," Audio, vol. 49, p. 22 (Mar. 1965).

My indebtedness to A. N. Thiele for the inspiration [28] W. Steiger, "Transistor Power Amplifiers with

behind the research program has already been acknowl- Negative Output Impedance," IRE Trans. Audio, vol.

edged. We are also grateful for his considerable en- AU-8, p. 195 (Nov./Dec. 1960).

[29] R. F. Allison and R. Berkovitz, "The Sound Field

couragement, helpful suggestions, and valuable criti- in Home Listening Rooms," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 20,

cisms of techniques and results, p. 459 (July/Aug. 1972).

I am further indebted to J. E. Benson for his gen- [32] J. E. Benson, "Theory and Design of Loudspeaker

erous assistance in discussing the subject matter of this Enclosures, Part 3--Introduction to Synthesis of Vented

paper and in examining and criticizing early manuscripts, Systems," A.W.A. Tech. Rev., vol. 14, p. 369 (Nov.

and to Dr. R. H. Frater for his valuable contributions 1972).

[33] D. B. Keele, Jr., "Sensitivity of Thiele's Vented

to the organization of this paper. Loudspeaker Enclosure Alignments to Parameter Varia-

Finally, I acknowledge with gratitude the generous tions," J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 21, p. 246 (May 1973).

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