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Section 11 - Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps 11-23

not contain feed water. 7.2 One storage tank may be considered sufficient
for auxiliary boiler units.
5.1 Feed water lines for main boilers
7.3 Two evaporators are to be provided for main
5.1.1 Each main boiler is to be provided with a steam producer units.
main and an auxiliary feed water line.
8. Condensate recirculation
5.1.2 Each feed water line is to be fitted with a shut
off valve and a check valve at the boiler inlet. Where 8.1 The main condenser is to be equipped with two
the shut off valve and the check valve are not directly condensate pumps, each of which must be able to
connected in series, the intermediate pipe is to be fitted transfer the maximum volume of condensate produced.
with a drain.
8.2 The condensate of all heating systems used to
5.1.3 Each feed water pump is to be fitted with a heat oil (fuel, lubricating, cargo oil etc.) is to be led to
shut off valve on the suction side and a screw-down condensate observation tanks. These tanks are to be
non-return valve on the delivery side. The pipes are to fitted with air vents.
be so arranged that each pump can supply each feed
water line. 8.3. Heating coils of tank containing fuel or oil
residues, e.g. sludge tanks, leak oil tanks, bilge water
5.2 Feed water lines for auxiliary steam tanks etc. are to be provided at the tank outlet with
producers (auxiliary and exhaust gas shut-off devices and devices for testing the condensate
boilers) for the presence of oil. See Section 10, B.5.4.
5.2.1 The provision of only one feed water line for
auxiliary and exhaust gas boilers is sufficient if the
preheaters and automatic regulating devices are fitted G. Oil Fuel Systems
with by-pass lines.
1. Bunker lines
5.2.2 The requirements in 5.1.2 are to apply as
appropriate to the valves required to be fitted to the The bunkering of oil fuels is to be effected by means
boiler inlet. of permanently installed lines either from the open
deck or from bunkering stations located below deck
5.2.3 Continuous flow boilers need not be fitted which are to be isolated from other spaces.
with the valves required according to 5.1.2 provided
that the heating of the boiler is automatically switched Bunker stations are to be so arranged that the
off should the feed water supply fail and that the feed bunkering can be performed from both sides of the
water pump supplies only one boiler. ship without danger. This requirement is considered to
be fulfilled where the bunkering line is extended to
6. Boiler water circulating systems both sides of the ship. The bunkering lines are to be
6.1 Each forced-circulation boiler is to be fitted with blind flanges on deck.
equipped with two circulating pumps powered inde- 2. Tank filling lines and suction lines
pendently of each other. Failure of the circulating
pump in operation is to be signaled by an alarm. The 2.1 Filling and suction lines from storage, settling
alarm may only be switched off if a circulating pump and daily service tanks situated above the double
is started or when the boiler firing is shut down. bottom and in case of their damage fuel oil may leak,
are to be fitted directly on the tanks with shut off
6.2 The provision of only one circulating pump devices capable of being closed from a safe position
for each boiler is sufficient if: outside the space concerned.
- the boilers are heated only by gases whose In the case of deep tanks situated in shaft or pipe
temperature does not exceed 400 EC or tunnel or similar spaces, shut off devices are to be
- a common stand-by circulating pump is provided fitted on the tanks. The control in the event of fire may
which can be connected to any boiler or be effected by means of an additional shut off device
in the pipe outside the tunnel or similar space. If such
- the burners of oil or gas fired auxiliary boilers additional shut off device is fitted in the machinery
are so arranged that they are automatically shut space it shall be operated from a position outside this
off should the circulating pump fail and the heat space.
stored in the boiler does not cause any
unacceptable evaporation of the available water 2.2 Shut-off devices on fuel oil tanks having a
in the boiler. capacity of less than 500 liters need not be provided
with remote control.
7. Feed water supply, evaporators
2.3 Filling lines are to extend to the bottom of the
7.1 The feed water supply is to be stored in several tank. Short filling lines directed to the side of the tank
tanks. may be admissible.
11-24 Section 11 - Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps

Storage tank suction lines may also be used as filling 3.6 Glass and plastic components are not permitted
lines. in fuel systems.
2.4 Where filling lines are led through the tank top Sight glasses made of glass located in vertical
and end below maximum oil level in the tank, a overflow pipes may be permitted.
non-return valve at the tank top is to be arranged.
3.7 Fuel pumps must be capable of being isolated
2.5 The inlet connections of suction lines are to be from the piping system by shut-off valves.
arranged far enough from the drains in the tank so that
water and impurities which have settled out will not 4. Fuel transfer, feed and booster pumps
enter the suctions. 4.1 Fuel transfer, feed and booster pumps shall be
2.6 For the release of remotely operated shut-off designed for the proposed operating temperature of the
devices, see Section 12, B.10 medium pumped.

3. Pipe layout 4.2 A fuel transfer pump is to be provided. Other

service pumps may be used as a stand-by pump
3.1 Fuel lines may not pass through tanks containing provided they are suitable for this purpose.
feed water, drinking water, lubricating oil or thermal
oil. 4.3 At least two means of oil fuel transfer are to be
provided for filling the service tanks.
3.2 Fuel lines which pass through ballast tanks are to
have an increased wall thickness according to 4.4 Where a feed or booster pump is required to
Table 11.5. supply fuel to main or auxiliary engines, a stand-by
pump shall be provided. Where pumps are attached to
3.3 Fuel lines may not be laid in the vicinity of the engines, a stand-by pump may be dispensed with.
boilers, turbines or equipment with high surface for auxiliary engines.
temperatures (over 220 EC) or in way of other sources
of ignition. 4.5 For emergency shut-down devices, see
Section 12, B.9.
3.4 Flanged and screwed socket connections in fuel
oil lines shall be screened or otherwise suitable 5. Plants with more than one main engine
protected to avoid, as far as practicable, oil spray or oil
leakage onto hot surfaces, into machinery air intakes, For plants with more than one engine, complete spare
or other surfaces of ignition. feed or booster pumps stored on board may be
accepted instead of stand-by pumps provided that the
The number of detachable pipe connections is to be feed or booster pumps are so arranged that they can be
limited. In general, flanged connections according to replaced with the means available on board.
recognized standards shall be used.
For plants with more than one main engine, see also
3.4.1 Flanged and screwed socket connections in Section 2, G.
fuel oil lines which lay directly above hot surfaces or
other sources of ignition are to be screened and 6. Shut-off devices
provided with drainage arrangements.
6.1 On cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage or above
3.4.2 Flanged and screwed socket connections in and on all passenger ships for plants with more than
fuel oil lines with a maximum allowable working one engine shut-off devices for isolating the fuel
pressure of more than 0,18 N/mm2 and with about 3 m supply and overproduction/recirculation lines to any
from hot surfaces or other sources of ignition and engine from a common supply system shall be
direct sight of line must be screened. Drainage provided. These valves shall be operable from a
arrangements need not to be provided position not rendered inaccessible by a fire on any of
the engines.
3.4.3 Flanged and screwed socket connections in
fuel oil lines with a maximum allowable working 6.2 Instead of shut-off devices in the
pressure of more than 0,18 N/mm2 and with about 3 m overproduction/recirculation lines check valves may be
from hot surfaces or other sources of ignition shall be fitted. Where shut-off devices are fitted, they are to be
assessed individual taking into account working locked in the operating position.
pressure, type of coupling and possibility of failure. 7. Filters

3.4.4 Flanged and screwed socket connections in 7.1 Fuel oil filters are to be fitted in the delivery line
fuel oil lines with a maximum allowable working of the fuel pumps.
pressure of more than 1,6 N/mm2 need normally to be 7.2 For ships with Class Notation OT the filter
screened equipment shall satisfy the requirement of Rules for
3.5 Shut off valves in fuel lines in the machinery Automation, Volume VII, Section 2.
spaces are to be operable from above the floor plates. 7.3 Mesh size and filter capacity are to be in
accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer
Section 11 - Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps 11-25

of the engine. 10 Service tanks

7.4 Uninterrupted supply of filtered fuel has to be 10.1 On cargo ships of 500 gross tons or above and all
ensured under cleaning and maintenance conditions of passenger ships two fuel oil service tanks for each type
filter equipment. In case of automatic back-flushing of fuel used on board necessary for propulsion and
filters it is to be ensured that a failure of the automatic vital systems are to be provided. Equivalent
back-flushing will not lead to a total loss of filtration. arrangements may be permitted.
7.5 Back-flushing intervals of automatic back- 10.2 Each service tank shall have a capacity of at least
flushing filters provided for intermittent back-flushing 8 hours at maximum continuous rating of the
are to be monitored. propulsion plant and normal operation load of the
generator plant.
7.6 Fuel oil filters are to be fitted with differential
pressure monitoring. On engines provided for 11. Operation using heavy fuel oils
operation with gas oil only, differential pressure
monitoring may be dispensed with. 11.1 Heating of heavy fuel oil

7.7 Engine for the exclusive operation of emergency 11.1.1 Heavy fuel oil tanks are to be fitted with a
generators and emergency fire pumps may be fitted heating system.
with simplex filters. The capacity of the tank heating system is to be in
7.8 Fuel transfer units are to be fitted with a simplex accordance with the operating requirements and the
filter on the suction side. quality of fuel oil intended to be used.

7.9 For filter arrangement, see Section 2, G.3. With BKIs consent, storage tanks need not be fitted
with a heating system provided it can be guaranteed
8. Purifiers that the proposed quality of fuel oil can be pumped
under all ambient and environmental conditions.
8.1 Manufacturer of purifiers for cleaning fuel and
lubricating oil must be approved by BKI. For the tank heating system, see Section 10, B.5.
8.2 Where a fuel purifier may exceptionally be used 11.1.2 Heat tracing is to be arranged for pumps,
to purify lubricating oil the purifier supply and filters and oil fuel lines as required.
discharge lines are to be fitted with a change-over ar-
rangement which prevents the possibility of fuel and 11.1.3 Where it is necessary to preheat injection
lubricating oils being mixed. valves of engines running with heavy fuel oil, the in-
jection valve cooling system is to be provided with
Suitable equipment is also to be provided to prevent additional means of heating.
such mixing occurring over control and compression
lines. 11.2 Treatment of heavy fuel oil

8.3 The sludge tanks of purifiers are to be fitted with 11.2.1 Settling tanks
a level alarm which ensures that the level in the sludge Heavy fuel settling tanks or equivalent arrangements
tank cannot interfere with the operation of the purifier. with sufficiently dimensioned heating systems are to
9 Oil firing equipment be provided

Oil firing equipment shall be installed in accordance Settling tanks are to be provided with drains, emptying
with Section 9. Pumps, pipelines and fittings are arrangements and with temperature measuring
subject to the following requirements. instruments.

9.1 Oil fired main boilers shall be equipped with at 11.2.2 Heavy fuel oil cleaning for diesel engines
least two service pumps and two pre-heaters. For filter For cleaning of heavy fuels, purifiers or purifiers
see 7. Pumps and heaters are to rated and arranged that combined with automatic filters are to be provided.
the oil firing equipment remains operational even if
one unit should fail.
This also applies to oil fired auxiliary boilers and 11.2.3 Fuel oil blending and emulsifying
thermal oil heaters unless other means are provided for equipments
maintaining continuous operation at sea even if a Heavy fuel oil/diesel oil blending and emulsifying
single unit fails. equipments require approval by BKI.
9.2 Hose assemblies for the connection of the burner 11.3 Service tanks
may be used. Hose assemblies shall not be longer than
required for retracting of the burners for purpose of 11.3.1 For the arrangement and equipment of
routine maintenance. Only approved hose assemblies service tanks, see Section 10, B.
may be used.
11.3.2 The capacity of the service tanks shall be
11-26 Section 11 - Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps

such that, should the treatment plant fail, the supply to 11.6 End preheaters
all the connected consumers can be maintained for at
least 8 hours. Two mutually independent end preheaters are to be
11.3.3 Where the overflow pipe of the service tank
is terminated in the settling tanks, suitable means shall The arrangement of only one preheater may be ap-
be provided to ensure that no untreated heavy fuel oil proved where it is ensured that the operation with fuel
can penetrate into the service tank in case of over- oil which do not need preheating can be temporary
filling of a settling tank. maintained. The necessary tanks for such fuel oil are
to be arranged.
11.3.4 Daily service tanks are to be provided with
drains and with discharge arrangements. 11.7 Viscosity control

11.4 Change-over arrangement diesel oil/ 11.7.1 Where main and auxiliary engines are oper-
heavy oil ated on heavy fuel oil, automatic viscosity control is to
be provided.
11.4.1 The change-over arrangement of the fuel
supply and return lines is to be so arranged that faulty 11.7.2 Viscosity regulators are to be fitted with a
switching is excluded and to ensure reliable separation local temperature indicator.
of the fuels. 11.7.3 Local control devices
Change-over valves which allow interpositions are not The following local control devices are to be fitted
permitted. directly before the engine
11.4.2 The change-over devices are to be accessible - a pressure gauge,
and permanently marked. Their respective working
position must be clearly indicated. - a temperature indicator.

11.4.3 Remote controlled change-over devices are to 11.8 The heavy fuel system is to be effectively
be provided with limit position indicators at the control insulated as necessary.
11.5 Fuel supply through stand pipes H. Lubricating Oil Systems
11.5.1 Where the capacity of stand pipes exceeds 1. General requirements
500 litres, the outlet pipe is to be fitted with a remote
controlled quick-closing valve operated from outside 1.1 Lubricating oil systems are to be constructed to
the engine room. Stand pipes are to be equipped with ensure reliable lubrication over the whole range of
air/gas vents and with self-closing connections for speed and during run-down of the engines and to
emptying and draining. Stand pipes are to be fitted ensure adequate heat transfer.
with a local temperature indicator.
1.2 Priming pumps
11.5.2 Atmospheric stand-pipes (pressureless)
Where necessary, priming pumps are to be provided
Having regard to the arrangement and the maximum for supplying lubricating oil to the engines.
fuel level in the service tanks, the stand-pipes are to be
so located and arranged that a sufficient free space for 1.3 Emergency lubrication
degasification is available inside the stand pipes. A suitable emergency lubricating oil supply (e.g.
11.5.3 Closed stand-pipes (pressurized systems) gravity tank) is to be arranged for machinery which
may be damaged in case of interruption of lubricating
Closed stand-pipes are to be designed as pressure oil supply.
vessels and are to be fitted with the following
equipment: 1.4 Lubricating oil treatment

- a non-return valve in the recirculating lines from 1.4.1 Equipment necessary for adequate treatment
the engines, of lubricating oil such as purifiers, automatic
back-flushing filters, filters and free-jet centrifuges are
- an automatic degases or a gas blanket monitor to be provided.
with manual degases,
1.4.2 In the case of auxiliary engines running on
- a local pressure gauge, heavy fuel which are supplied from a common
lubricating oil tank, suitable equipment is to be fitted
- a local temperature indicator,
to ensure that in case of failure of the common
- a drain/emptying device, which is to be locked in lubricating oil treatment system of ingress of fuel or
the closed position. cooling water into the lubricating oil circuit, the
auxiliary engines required to safeguard the power
supply in accordance with the Rules for Electrical