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Print managed by Webmart Ltd. 01869 321321. TV HISTORY PROGRAMMES ARE - wait for it - history. That was the verdict
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of the TV critic Joel Golby, published in the Guardians Guide for the first
and Disticor 905 619 6565 (North America). weekend of December. Golby had reached his conclusion having seen a preview
H is t o r y T o d a y (ISSN No: 0018-2753, USPS No: 246-580)
of the new BBCi documentary series, Six Wives with Lucy Worsley. Now, the
is published monthly by History Today Ltd, GBR and
distributed in the USA by Asendia USA, 17B S Middlesex Guide is not the most serious of publications - it delivers its world view with
Ave, Monroe NJ 08831. Periodicals postage paid New tongue very much in cheek. It is also fair to point out that presenter Lucy
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master: send address changes to History Today, 701C Worsley is a fine scholar, who has w ritten for History Today, though not on the
Ashland Avenue, Folcroft PA 19032. Subscription records Tudors. But I, too, despair at the current state of history programmes on TV. It
are maintained at History Today Ltd, 2nd Floor, 9/10
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is as though we need a revolution in the format, akin to th at which has recently
transformed TV drama.
EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Dr Simon Adams University o f Strathclyde Sadly, Six Wives is yet another offering on the Tudors, complete with
Dr John Adamson Peterhouse, Cambridge unconvincing, cheap looking, historical reconstructions, presented by someone
Professor Richard Bessel University of York
Professor Jeremy Black University of Exeter who is not an expert in that period (though dressed up in 16th-century
Professor Paul Dukes University of Aberdeen clothing) and which says nothing that we do not know already. For, despite the
Professor M artin Evans University of Sussex
Juliet Gardiner Historian and author
obsession with the Tudors, there are still new things to say. Why not offer such
Tom Holland Historian and author a series to an expert in the field, for there is no shortage: Suzannah Lipscomb,
Gordon Marsden MP for Blackpool South
Anna Whitelock, Susan Doran and many others are revealing new insights into
Dr Roger M e tta m Queen Mary,
University o f London the period. Still, as someone once said, who needs experts?
Professor Geoffrey Parker The other, better side of the BBC could be found in Lloyd Georges Revolution,
Ohio State University
Professor Paul Preston broadcast on Radio Four on December 3rd and available on iPlayer. A model of
London School o f Economics public history, the constitutional historian Peter Hennessy told the story of
Professor M.C. Ricklefs
The Australian National University
the great political outsider, whose sheer charisma propelled him to the role of
Professor Ulinka Rublack PM during the First World War. It was a work of deep insight, w ith a range of
St John's College, Cambridge
Professor Nigel Saul Royal Holloway,
competing interpretations and superb archival research, including the voices of
University o f London the Welsh Wizards allies and opponents and even his mistress, parliamentary
Dr David Starkey
secretary - and second wife - Frances Stevenson.
Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge
Professor T.P. Wiseman University o f Exeter Occasionally, one sees equally adept history on BBC TV - David Olusogas
Professor Chris Wrigley Black and British: a Forgotten History is worthy of mention - though never on
University of Nottingham
BBCi, where the One Show school of vapid, talked-down history rules, obsessed
All w ritte n material, unless otherwise stated, by the two World Wars - and the Tudors. Is it any wonder that, when people
is the copyright o f H i s t o r y T o d a y
reach for political analogies for our troubled times, they can venture no further
than Hitler and Henry VIII?

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18,161 Jan-Dec 2015
Paul Lay

2 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017


HistoryMatters
Political Debate Uzbekistan The Dollar East India Company

S e ttin g th e
w o rld t o rig hts:
w oodcut o f a
ta v e rn scene,
English, 17th
cen tury.

th e social scale. The growth o f political


awareness and discussion in 17th-
century England - w hat we now call
public opinion - has been associated
w ith th e rise of the coffeehouse from
th e 1650s onwards, a place w here
urbanites could go to read th a t emerg
ing product, th e newspaper, and to
engage in caffeinated chatter over
th e state o f th e nation in a civilised
and rational spirit. But long before
th e coffeehouse came onto th e scene
both tow n and country dwellers o f all
classes had used another site o f liquid
refreshm ent as a place to gather and
Pubs and Politics in Stuart England debate politics: the pub.
Commonly known as th e ale
Divisive political debate is nothing new. In the popular new alehouses house, th e local pub had enjoyed a
of the 17th century, it could end in fisticuffs - even death. period of growing popularity in the
century betw een 1550 and 1650,
M ark Hailwood w ith num bers more th an doubling
exchanges. Division and hostility from around 25,000 to 55,000 - or
POLITICAL DEBATE is eternally fract were, for example, rife in th e face-to- one alehouse for every 90 inhabit
ious. In w hat has been a politically face world o f 17th-century political ants o f England. Almost every village
tum ultuous period it has become an discussion. would have had at least one such
increasingly common assertion th at It might be tem pting to assume establishm ent and part o f its appeal
we are witnessing a rapid deterioration th a t politics was not th e stu ff o f every was the opportunity to engage your
in the decorum of public and political day conversation for anyone outside neighbours in political debate. This
debate. Indeed, th e characteristic tone th e political elite in this period, but was acknowledged by th e authorities
o f such political discussion is now seen historians have long since p u t this idea in both Church and State, who were
as uncivil, divisive, insulting and even to bed and shown th a t political aware always uneasy about th e Tower orders
threatening, a developm ent often ness and engagem ent was high across developing their own political views.
thought to be linked to the grow th Charles I complained in th e 1630s
o f social media and th e image o f the
angry, isolated troll ham m ering away
After evening prayer about th e proliferation o f th e common
peoples idle and discontented speech
at their keyboard. The anonym ity and the people would go es in their alehouses and th e Bishop of
physical distance provided by digital
technology are seen to give rein to
to Tippling houses, Bath and Wells w rote to his king th at
on Sundays after evening prayer the
anger and rancour. and there talk of people would go to tippling houses,
It is self-evident, though, th a t
digital technology is not a prerequisite
matters o f the and there upon their ale-benches talk
of m atters o f th e church or state.
for fractious interpersonal political church or state W hat was th e tone o f these
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 3
HISTORYMATTERS

something that appealed to some, but


not to all: as with Hillary Clinton, some
people (mostly men) do not like a clever
woman. Anna Komnene was a know-
it-all, wrote one contemporary, who did
not care for her drive, her character or
her history writing (a text she wrote in
the 12th century, T heA lexiad, is a jewel of
medieval Greek).
For Komnene, the trouble began
in 1118 when her father was on his
deathbed after nearly 40 years in power.
Like Karimov, he had been relentless
in shutting down opposition. As eyes
turned to the succession, Anna tried to
seize her chance - in vain. Blindsided
by her brother, she was soon removed
from view, banished not to a psychiatric
hospital but to a convent where she
could indulge her interests in privacy,
out of sight and out of mind.
As far as we can tell, she spent the
best part of four decades in isolation,
philanthropist and even a pop star - Jewel of the A similar story occurred 1,000 years albeit in a very comfortable residence
although one British journalist claimed Empire: the ago in Constantinople. Capital of the that included a bakery, a vineyard and
Hagia Sophia.
that the Uzbeks who did not buy her Byzantine Empire - the eastern half of well-appointed buildings. She was not
album were threatened with torture the Roman Empire that survived and happy about it, complaining frequently
(unlike those who did, presumably). flourished after the fall of Rome itself - in The A lexiad about the way she had
Some thought of her as a potential the city was a cosmopolitan metrop been hidden away from view and had
successor, not least since her father olis, by far the most populated city in spent much of her life in isolation.
indulged her whims, or at least was Europe, adorned with palaces, a giant In her pomp, Anna Komnene had
willing to turn a blind eye. Karimova hippodrome and scores of churches, the attended meetings her father held with
seemed bulletproof as she built a largest and most beautiful of which was leading generals, proffering advice on
huge fortune, as US diplomats reported, the cathedral of Hagia Sophia. what would be best for the empire;
by bullyfing] her way into gaining a she had stalked the corridors of power
slice of virtually every lucrative business'
in Uzbekistan and behaving like a
Back the wrong horse and the along with her husband, a man whom
many expected to succeed Alexios on
'robber baron'. consequences could be serious; the throne. Now she sat alone, thinking
That was until she pushed her luck
too far. Somewhere, a switch had been
be the wrong horse and the of what might have been and writing
about how she missed the limelight.
flipped. Karimova was no longer free to consequences could befatal Her husband, the other half of what had
do as she pleased; in fact, she was no once been Constantinople's most gilded,
longer free at all. Two years ago, she In 1081 a new leader took the connected and ambitious power couple,
went o ff the radar. Little had been heard throne, a charismatic emperor named spent tw o decades going through the
of her or from her, until in 2016 news Alexios Komnenos. Two years later, his motions, kept away from his wife and
came that she had been committed to first child was born, a daughter named far from danger. He also took up writing
a psychiatric hospital by the new Presi Anna. She was precocious: fiercely non-fiction, though w ithout the same
dent, Shavkat Mirziyoyev. intelligent, independent-minded diligence as Anna, as his work was un
No one expected her to play a role in and outspoken. Many wondered if she finished at the time of his death in 1138.
the succession after her father's death would succeed her father one day, As the parallel stories of Anna and
- too many bridges had been burnt. But especially after she married Nikephoros Gulnara tell us, even the most powerful
many assumed that she would at least Bryennios, an up-and-coming young woman is subject to the whims and
make an appearance. She did not. Her buck with ambitions of his own. People machinations of men and the princess
mother and sister Lola led the mourn gossiped about Anna, partly because locked in a tower does not get the fairy
ing of the lavish state funeral alone. her siblings did not seem to have what tale ending in real life.
Karimova once strode the international it takes and partly because she had
and national stage. No more. There is no obvious leadership qualities. She was Peter Frankopan is the author o f The Silk Roads:
way back. as decisive as she was whip-smart - A New History of the World (Bloomsbury, 2015),

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 5


HISTORYMATTERS

How a Briton contrast, occupied an economic posi


tion almost unique in history, represent
ing 40 per cent of the global economy.
Robertson, the Cambridge economist
to whom Keynes delegated many key
negotiations, admiring his 'intellectu

Created the American wishes at Bretton Woods to


create the postwar framework would
al subtlety and patience of mind and
tenacity of character to grasp and hold

Almighty Dollar dominate. Given that the US Treasury


had to convince a sceptical Congress of
the wisdom of the International Mone
on to all details and fight them through'.
Robertson was present during the final
discussion of the IMF's charter when the
The choice of the dollar as the tary Fund, which was negotiated at the delegation representing British India
international reserve currency was conference, ceding sovereignty over the demanded that the US define what
currency to a supranational institution exactly 'gold-convertible currency'
controversial but practical.
was a non-starter. meant. To the amazement and delight
Richard Hurowitz Still, the US did wish to prove that of the Americans, Robertson rose to
a collaborative international order was propose its replacement with 'gold
THE SECOND WORLD WAR brought possible and sought to negotiate a and United States dollars', effectively
about many epochal changes, among framework palatable to Britain. Harry crowning the dollar supreme. A giddy
them a complete reworking of the Dexter White, the driving force on the White stayed up until three o'clock in
international financial system. It was American side, hoped to cement the the morning incorporating Robertson's
at the founding of the International supremacy of the dollar. But the US proposal into the draft articles, The rest
Monetary Fund and the World Bank at assumed that a formal identification of is monetary history.
the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 It is unclear what motivated Robert
that the world formally recognised a son. He was, perhaps, like any good in
practical truth: the undisputed status tellectual, merely stating the obvious: as
of the US dollar as the international he later recalled, the world had been on
reserve currency. This moment is often a de facto 'dollar standard' for 15 years.
viewed as the ascendancy of the US The dollar was, in his view, a unique
as the world's monetary leader at the currency, a rara avis. The journalist Ed
expense of Britain. How steeped in Conway believes it all a 'well-intention
irony, then, is the little-known fact that ed error'. Keynes shared the view that
the US has a British economist to thank it was a colossal blunder, becoming so
for the greenback's coronation. livid when he found out about it that
As early as 1941, the US and Britain the dispute led to a permanent strain
began to consider a postwar economic between the two men. But Robertson
framework to avoid the monetary chaos was probably addressing a more paro
that had been a root cause of the Great chial but urgent financial need: Britain
Depression and the subsequent rise of had run up enormous sterling debts to
fascism. The British effort was led by the
great economist John Maynard Keynes,
This moment is often viewed as its colonies during the war - particularly
India and Egypt - who now demanded
who envisaged a clearing union for the ascendancy ofAmerica as the the right to convert the balances into
nations to settle currency imbalances. At
the heart of the system would be a new
worlds monetary leader at the other currencies. The result would be an
immediate run on sterling (as happened
international currency called 'bancor'. expense of Britain in 1947). Robertson believed that, by de
Against the backdrop of the Second claring the dollar as the world's reserve,
World War, this utopian idea sounded their own currency as the official world the pressure would be off the pound
less extreme than it does today, cap reserve would be too aggressive a to allow convertibility, maintaining
turing imaginations on both sides of position diplomatically. When repre breathing room to marshal the nation's
the Atlantic. Alternative names such as sentatives of 44 nations arrived in New resources for another day.
dolphin, bezant, daric, unitas, unicorn Hampshire in July 1944, the US proposed The US may have gone from being
and orb were eagerly floated. Franklin instead a vague euphemism: 'gold-con the world's largest creditor to one of its
Roosevelt himself offered up demos vertible currency'. It fooled no sophis largest debtors, and the dollar may now
and victor. One wag even proposed ticated observer and Keynes called it be unmoored from its gold anchor, but
winfranks, in homage to the tw o leaders 'idiocy'. Given its uniquely vast gold the dollar owes its dominant status in
of the free world. holdings, the US had the only currency large part to its friends across the pond
As exciting as the potential birth Making money: realistically convertible into bullion. But and the actions of a Cambridge don.
delegates at
of a new global currency was, political the US delegation feared diplomatic
the Bretton
realities would win the day. Britains war Woods disaster by trying to codify this fact. Richard Hurowitz is the publisher of the Octavian
effort helped save civilisation but came Conference, Handling the issue at the con Report and has written for the Wall Street Journal
at the cost of its solvency. The US, by 1944 - ference for Britain would be Dennis and The Times.

6 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017


HISTORYMATTERS

had no choice but to sue for peace. They


were only allowed to stay because the
Mughal regime thought that, once they
had been subdued, the English fleet
might make useful allies.
However irrational it might have
seemed, British officers often imagined
they had no choice but to attack or be
attacked even if, like in 1690, violence led
to defeat. Obsessed by the reputation
they would have when they returned to
England, few thought they could take
the risk of appearing weak in the face of
apparent Indian challenges.
But violence did not lead to con
quest at first because Indian states were
powerful and unified enough to block
the Company's aggression until the
1740s. The Mughal empire's capacity to
recruit and command armies centrally
responsibility was to ensure a steady declined in the early 1700s. But the
India versus the flow of profit made its way to the firm's
shareholders. The Company jealous
empire's authority was dispersed in
powerful regional bureaucracies, which

East India Company ly used its monopoly to exclude rival


English merchants - called 'interlopers'
blocked the East India Company's
anxious advance.
- from trade east of the Cape of Good It was the arrival of Persian and
Violence and expansion were integral
Hope. Afghan invaders to India that changed
to the armed bureaucracy that played a Small groups of Company officers the political landscape. The great
crucial role in the early days of Empire. scattered through India were paranoid Persian warlord Nader Shah ransacked
about their security and took every Delhi in 1739 and pushed Indias political
Jon Wilson minor slight from Indian rulers as well as system into crisis. Battles between
other European merchants as a major political rivals in India's provinces made
FROM THE BEGINNING the 'Governor challenge. In the 1680s, English officials the Company uneasy about its security
and Company of the Merchants of in Bengal were particularly anxious again, encouraging the growth of its
London1- more commonly known as that the Mughals had negotiated a armies and forts. Conflict created an op
the English East India Company - was better trading deal with Thomas Pitt, an portunity for British officers to make a
different from other companies. Instead 'interloping' trader who later joined the fortune and a name for themselves. The
of coordinating the commerce of private Company - and became grandfather most famous was the Company clerk-
traders, as other contemporary corpora and great-grandfather to British prime turned-soldier Robert Clive, who began
tions did, the East India Company acted ministers. At the same time, Mughal his military career fighting on behalf of
as a merchant in its own right and used attempts to tax trade were treated as the ruler of south-east India, the Nawab
force to assert its interests. It was an a massive affront. Company officers of Arcot, then as an ally of the Marathas.
armed bureaucracy, not just a federation thought the Mughals had 'got the knack During the 300 years of their political
of merchants. As a result, it had a prickly of trampling upon us, and extorting presence in India, the fate of British
relationship with other traders and with what they please' and imagined the sit power always relied on Indian rulers and
Asian rulers. It was that relationship uation would only be resolved by force. elites. But the East India Company and
which led to war and conquest. With the support of the newly installed its successor in the British Raj fostered
Historians often write as if the East James II, 19 ships were sent from London a monopolistic and bureaucratic ethos
India Company began as a peaceful with six companies of soldiers to display which made long-term cooperation
trading concern, only becoming an the Company's might. impossible and caused violence to recur.
armed political force with the rise of The war of 1686-90 ended in Despite the protestations of its officers,
more aggressive, nationalist ideas in humiliating defeat. The fleet was scat the origins of the Company that con
the late 1700s. In fact, violence was tered, with British officers and soldiers quered India meant British power there
contained in its structure and culture eventually imprisoned or driven out of was always unstable and fragile.
from the start. Stronghold: Fort the province. In the west, at Bombay,
The Company's employees - ship George, India's Mughal soldiers drove the Company's Jon W ilson is Senior Lecturer in history at
first English
captains, clerks and agents - were army into its fort 'with men enough to King's College, London. He is the author of India
fortress, by Jan
allowed to trade on the side, building Van Ryne, 18th have eaten up all the Company's soldiers Conquered: Britain's Raj and the Chaos o f Empire
small private enterprises, but their main century. for breakfast. Eventually, the English (Simon and Schuster, 2016).
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 7
Months JANUARY

JANUARY 20 th 842 Caliphate, which had overthrown the So strongly did Theophilus adhere to
Umayyad Caliphate in 750. Constan iconoclasm that his military defeats were
Death of the tinople had previously come to blows
with the Muslim Arabs. It had withstood
taken as a sign of its folly. Theophilus
personally led the army against the

Byzantine a siege from 674 to 678, when a peace


treaty was signed with the Umayyad
Caliph Al-Ma'mun, who was expanding
into Anatolia. In 831 victory in Cilicia was

Emperor Caliphate. In 698 Arab forces ended


Byzantine rule in North Africa with the
followed by defeat in Cappadocia
and peace was agreed following Al-

Theophilus capture of Carthage and, by 711, had con


quered much of Spain. After the volcanic
eruption that occurred on the Greek
Ma'mums death in 833. Relations dete
riorated when Al-Ma'mum's successor,
Al-Mu'tasim, campaigned in Asia Minor,
THE LAST iconoclast emperor was just island of Thera in 726, the success of the defeating Theophilus at the Battle of
28 when he died of dysentery, still em Muslims was seen increasingly as a sign Anzen in 838. The Abbasid army then
broiled in the conflict with the Abbasid of Byzantium's loss of divine favour. The marched on towards Amorium, the
Caliphate that had dominated his reign. Muslim conquerors forbade the sort of birthplace of Theophilus' father Michael,
With Theophilus, so too died the strict figurative art that decorated much of and the city fell after a 55-day siege.
ban on the veneration of icons that had Constantinople and adorned its currency. The fall of Amorium was a severe blow
been a feature of Byzantine society on to Theophilus' reputation as a military
and o ff for 116 years. leader and shook his faith in the power
Theophilus'father Michael II was of iconoclasm. Thenceforth, he sought
a soldier from Amorium in Phrygia, practical explanations for failure. An
western Anatolia. Michael and his ability to learn from mistakes as well as
colleague Leo V 'the Armenian' had his patronage of scholarship (notably Leo
together overthrown Michael I Rangabe the Mathematician, on whom he con
(811-13), with Leo becoming emperor. ferred a school) were considered among
When their relationship soured, Leo Theophilus' strengths as a ruler.
sentenced his former ally Michael to In 840, with his health failing, The
death. Michael in turn conspired to have ophilus decided to combat the Arabs
Leo assassinated, succeeding in 820, in Sicily, where they had established an
and became emperor himself. Born in jc u ro i*? emirate in 831. This was to occupy the
813, Theophilus, Michael's only son, was c^0-, {cu/jcinuoffy last years of his life and he sought assis
made co-emperor in 821 and ruled out G tp W * * V.' tance from the Frankish king, Theodosius
right after his father's death on October Babutzicus. Theodosius agreed to help,
2nd, 829. Among his first acts was the but Theophilus was dead before Frankish
execution of his father's co-conspira Last of the icons: In the late seventh century the caliphal support could arrive. The official cause
tors against Leo, a decision that helped Theophilus makes
authorities had denounced the vener was dysentery, possibly connected to
a proclamation,
ensure his reputation as a champion of ation and dissimulation of images and pagophagia, brought on by the excessive
the Scylitzes
justice. In Tim arion, a satirical dialogue Chronicle, nth icons as being in breach of the Second consumption of snow or ice in order to
written anonymously in the 12th century, century. Commandment. Support for this within relieve the symptoms of gastric inflam
Theophilus appears alongside the mythi the Empire led to the 'First Iconoclasm', mation. He was survived by his wife,
cal kings Aeacus and Minos as one of the banning the making or worshipping of Theodora, who soon revealed herself to
three judges in Hades who acquit the icons, which was instigated by Leo III in be an iconophile. She became regent to
eponymous protagonist. 726. Inheriting his fathers diluted version Theophilus' successor, his son Michael III
The Byzantine Empire had long been of iconoclasm, Theophilus issued an 'the Drunkard, who, despite his dubious
subjected to attacks at its borders, from edict in 832 prohibiting every display of epithet, saw the abolition of iconoclasm
Vandals, Goths, Persians and, finally, image-worship and forbidding the use and a revival of Byzantine military power.
Ottoman Turks. Theophilus constructed of the word 'holy' before the names of With Michael's success, Theophilus'
northern fortresses as defences against saints. The edict was enforced with sev reputation suffered. His strict clamp
Vikings and Magyars, but the biggest erity, with many iconophiles subjected down on the veneration of icons, it was
threat he faced was the Abbasid to torture. thought, had held the Empire back.
8 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
JANUARY 10 t h 1917 on the frontier - such as his role in
the death of Cheyenne chief Yellow
William Hand during the Sioux W ar of 1876 -
became source material, helping to
Buffalo Bill build his legend.

Cody dies O ff the back of his growing popu


larity, Cody produced his Buffalo Bill
THE ULTIMATE entertainer, 'Buffalo Wild West show in 1883. Like a circus
Bill' was as much showman as he was w ith its attractions, it recreated
frontiersman and helped create a the Pony Express, Indian attacks on
fantastical image of the Wild West. wagon trains, sharpshooters and
Born to a farming fam ily on Feb parades of costumed groups on
ruary 26th, 1846, Cody spent his early horseback. Huge audiences came to
years in Iowa, working in a variety watch fantastic battles and dramatic
of short-lived jobs: joining parties deaths, w ith performers playing it
hunting for gold and riding for the King of the Wild up for the enthusiastic crowds. It
Pony Express. During the Civil War, West: 'Buffalo Bill'
featured such personalities as Annie
Cody, late 19th
he was part of a group of anti-slavery Oakley and the Sioux chief Sitting
century.
guerrillas in Kansas, which led to him Bull, but Cody was its star attraction.
joining the Seventh Kansas Volun Bill, the King of Border M en and billed The show peaked a t the 1893
teer Cavalry in 1864. As it expand as 'the wildest and truest story he World's Fair in Chicago, where it
ed through the West, the railroad ever wrote', it was mostly based on attracted six million people. Cody
company hired him to provide meat the life of 'Wild Bill' Hickock. continued to star in the show until his
for their workers, for which he killed In 1872, following Buntline's sug retirem ent in 1912.
up to 12 buffalo a day. It was for this gestion, Cody made his first appear He died in Denver, where 25,000
th a t he earned the name Buffalo Bill'. ance in a play, The Scouts o f the Prairie. people paid respects to his coffin and
In July 1869 he m et the dime nov For the next few years he switched was buried six months later in a steel
elist Ned Buntline, w ho interviewed between scouting for the army, vault on Lookout M ountain overlook
him and w rote a serial for the New guiding hunting parties and touring ing the city. He remains synonymous
York Weekly. Although titled 'Buffalo in plays. On occasion his activities w ith the image of the Wild West.

BORN IN HUMBLE circumstances in The conflict had its roots in the 'Time
Pskov in the far west of Russia, near the of Troubles', made famous by Mussorg
border with modern Estonia, Afanasy sky's opera Boris Godunov, when Russia
Lavrentievich Ordin-Nashchokin (1605- lost Smolensk, among other cities, to the
80) was schooled by his ambitious father Commonwealth. Muscovy had regained
in maths and languages, which made its territories by 1667, gains made official
him a lifelong Germanophile. in the Treaty. The West of Ukraine was
He came to prominence negotiating handed to Poland, while Russia was
the Peace of Stolbovo of 1658, which given Kyiv, too, which it agreed to rule
determined the Russo-Swedish border for just two years, but in 1686 the deal
following a war between the two coun became permanent when Muscovy paid
Russian gain: tries, during which he had established the Poles 146,000 roubles.
Afanasy a reputation as a military commander. The truce continues to resonate in
Lavrentievich It heralded a Russian shift towards modern geopolitics. Ukrainians see it
Ordin-Nashchokin,
the Baltic, which anticipated Peter the as the devouring of their Cossack Het-
17th-century
portrait. Great's focus on the West. But his great manate state by their tw o larger neigh
est triumph came in 1667 with the Truce bours, the first of that country's many
of Andrusovo between Tsarist Russia and divisions. Poles view it as the moment
JANUARY 30 t h 1667
the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, when their then large and powerful

The Truce o f signed on January 30th.


it brought an end to over 13 years of
state was usurped by the emerging
Russian Empire as the region's dominant

Andrusovo war, which began in 1654 when the two


regional superpowers clashed over the
player. Russian nationalists regard it as
a blueprint and justification for future
vast territories between them, in modern
is signed Ukraine and Belarus.
expansion, as evidenced by the recent
annexation of Crimea.

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 9


MEDIEVAL BISHOPS

N NOVEMBER 1164, at the height of his dispute with


Henry II, Thomas Becket crossed the Channel and went
into exile in France. Taking refuge at the Burgundian
Medieval understanding of the soul and the abbey of Pontigny, the Archbishop of Canterbury gave
body meant that a saintly life was a life of himself over to private devotions, adopting the lifestyle
physical restrictions. Katherine Harvey (though not the habit) of his Cistercian hosts. According to
the anonymous author of a 13 th-century verse life, Becket
explores the extreme suffering bishops put ate only the foods/ which were served to the convent/
themselves through, from weeping and plain foods without flavour. Soon, this restricted diet, in
celibacy to starvation and, sometimes, death. combination with a regime o ffasts and prayers/ vigils and
afflictions, began to take its toll and the archbishop fell ill.
Taking to his bed, he became so ill that he seemed likely to
die, until his confessor intervened and commanded him

The Perils by obedience/ that he begin to live differently. Through


changes to his lifestyle, including an increase in his food
intake, Becket was restored to health, able to sustain his
bitter struggle with the crown for a further five years.
Among the many dramas of Thomas Beckets life, this

o f PIETY episode seems relatively insignificant, no more than a brief


distraction on his inexorable march towards martyrdom.
Yet almost all of Beckets many biographers recounted
details of his strict regime at Pontigny, his consequent bout
of ill health and his ultimate restoration to strength. Fur
thermore, this is just one of many examples of the preoccu
pation with episcopal health that characterises medieval

A caladrius bird, w h ic h fo re to ld th e fa te s o f th e sick, o ve r a m an in his bed, fro m a 1 3 th -c e n tu ry copy o f th e 'Physiologus', D u rh am .

JANUARY 2017 HISTORYTODAY 11


MEDIEVAL BISHOPS

chronicles and biographical writings. Most of these texts for high-status individuals, whose dependence on fine food
were written by members of the monastic orders, a group and wine was not merely a form of conspicuous consump
whose attitude to medicine has often been assumed to be tion, but also a concession to the delicacy of the noble con
somewhat negative. Yet a perusal of their writings reveals a stitution. This was such a serious concern that some theolo
rather more complex reality. gians argued against imposing food penances on high-status
Beckets biographers, and the biographers of those other individuals; instead they should say more prayers or give
English saint-bishops whose cults flourished in the decades extra alms. Given that every English saint-bishop of this
surrounding his death, lived in a society which believed period was born into the upper echelons of English society
that the health of the body and the health of the soul were (most were from noble or gentry families; Thomas Becket,
inextricably linked. Contemporary medical theory em the son of a wealthy London merchant was the humblest),
B ecket on his phasised the impact of the passions of the soul, including their adherence to a diet more suitable for a peasant would
sickbed a t
piety and the emotions, on physical health. Ecclesiastical inevitably damage their health.
P ontigny, having
fas te d to o m uch.
authorities taught that doing the wrong things with ones
French, 13th body would imperil ones soul, while also acknowledging ISHOPS WERE well aware of the dangers of over-
ce n tu ry . that sin was among the causes of physical illness. An author

ffotfrtont a s tia ft lit ri? lo ftrc u ilc fl ftfetit ;>vSfiffltmirtrft otnoiiwf nitnto ttolttratiotmtuto-
B restrictive diets for both body and soul and often
rebuked their subordinates for excessive fasting. Yet
several saintly bishops of the 12th and 13th centu
ries were themselves cautioned by associates, who felt that
their asceticism had become too severe. Beckets prede
cessor at Canterbury, Anselm of Bee (whose term ran from
1093-1109), followed a diet so strict that those around him
(including Queen Matilda) became concerned for him and
recommended that he give his body more nourishment. Yet
another archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund of Abingdon
(1233-40), spent the final year of his life at Pontigny, where
he reduced his diet beyond measure. Some of the monks
became seriously concerned for the well-being of their
guest and urged him to moderate his habits, reminding
him that various religious authorities (including Bernard of
Clairvaux) had cautioned against excessive fasting.
Many saintly bishops are said to have suffered serious
physical complaints as a result of their years of fasting.
It had been long-established that the Unsurprisingly, onlookers often remarked on their ema
ciated bodies: the monks of Worcester, for example, were
best way to master ones body was to disturbed by the extreme weight loss of Bishop Wulfstan
(1062-95), who became so thin that his consecration ring
submit oneself to an ascetic regime o f repeatedly fell off his finger. Robert de Bethune, Bishop of
severe self-discipline Hereford (1130-48) suffered from fainting fits due to his
long years of fasting. It was also thought that long-term
fasting could damage the brain. This was apparently the fate
who wanted to understand the true nature of a cleric was, ofWalter de Gray, Archbishop of York (1215-55), who was
therefore, obliged to consider not only his mind but also his seized with a disease in the brain from daily fastings and
body. Consequently, medieval writings on saintly bishops died soon afterwards.
are full of passages designed to demonstrate the holy mans Edmund of Abingdons friends worried that he would
absolute control over his body, which was forced to submit suffer the same fate, but instead his abstention from even
to pious ideals. water meant that both his hair and beard fell out. This
By the 12th century, it had been long-established within loss of hair could not be concealed from his doctors, who
the Christian tradition that the best way to master ones discovered that he was also suffering from desiccation of
body was to submit oneself to an ascetic regime of severe the bones and loss of bone marrow and concluded that his
self-discipline. Fasting was one of the pillars of this life serious ill health was caused by a lack of moisture. This
style, not least because of the strong cultural connection particular set of symptoms, being closely focused on bodily
between gluttony and lust. The story of Adam and Eve dryness, reinforced the connection between fasting and
demonstrated that those who overindulged the former chastity, for how could a man so dried up produce unwanted
appetite would soon fall prey to the latter, while medical bodily fluids?
theory offered a possible remedy. Adherence to a restricted The digestive disorders from which several bishops
diet would prevent the production of semen, which was reportedly suffered were imbued with a similar significance.
thought to be the product of completely digested food, Anselm of Canterbury fasted from his youth and grew so
especially of rich foods such as meat and eggs. Any man who accustomed to eating frugally that later in life his digestive
sought to abide by the demands of clerical celibacy was thus system was found to have constricted so much that it could
obliged to be extremely careful about what he ate. not have coped with rich food, even if he had wanted to
Yet such food practices were not without negative eat it. Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln (1186-1200) spent decades
side-effects and it was widely recognised that long-term on a chilling diet, which so weakened the internal bodily
fasting would damage health. This was a particular danger organs that, the natural heat being lessened, he suffered
12 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
discomfort from the coldness of the stomach and often also The devil appears age and physical frailty as evidence that he was not fit for
from distressing forms of colic. These unpleasant symp over a man in his the role. Throughout his archiepiscopate he was allegedly
toms proved Hughs absolute control over his body. When deathbed.French
struck by weakness of the limbs every time he was obliged
m iniature, c/1300.
he realised that he was unable to perform his strenuous to engage with secular matters. Similarly, Thomas Becket
episcopal duties without relaxing his fast a little, he confi was forced to take to his bed as a result of the annoyance
dently did so, for he knew that through his long mortifica and vexation that he felt at the Council of Northampton,
tion, [his body] was so much under control that there was shortly before he went into exile.
no cause to fear that it would rebel against its master. A bishops pastoral duties, especially those which related
While concerns about diet loom large in contemporary to the sick and the dead, could also expose him to health
commentaries on the episcopal way of life, many other risks. In 12th-century England, there was something of a
pious practices favoured by the medieval episcopate could fashion for charitable efforts directed at lepers. While the
also have serious health consequences. Indeed, it was majority of Christians contented themselves with almsgiv
widely recognised that the burden of episcopal office was ing and hospital building, the most devout went much
a significant one, especially for a man with a religious vo further. St Hugh of Lincoln was famed for his compassion
cation. Anselm was a 6o-year-old Benedictine abbot when for the sick, which was demonstrated most powerfully by
William II appointed him Archbishop of Canterbury and his willingness not only to wash the feet of the leprous, but
he protested vigorously against this promotion, citing his also to kiss them and to touch their sores.
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 13
MEDIEVAL BISHOPS

While Hughs pious enthusiasm for physical


contact with lepers left him at risk of contract
ing the disease, he did not actively seek to do
so. There are, however, a handful of stories in
which a saint actively tried to contract a disease.
When Edmund of Abingdon was approached by
a scholar with a fistula on his arm, he prayed for
the malady to be transferred to him. Not only
was his prayer granted but, miraculously, both
men made a full recovery and were not even left
w ith scarring from their shared illness.
Nor was the fatherly concern of the model
bishop limited to the living. A biography of
Hugh of Lincoln, written shortly after the
saint-bishops death, included a story concern
ing the rotting corpse of an obese abbot. In the
midst of an unusually hot summer, the smell
from the corpse was almost unbearable and
those who were obliged to attend the funeral
held incense or spices to their nose - all except
Hugh, who seemed oblivious as he conducted
the burial service. His servants, on the other
hand, were in a state of extreme anxiety, fearing
that their master might contract a serious inter
nal infection from the contagion of the bad air.
Even when the bishop remained within the
relative safety of his residences, his devotional
practices could pose a threat to his health.
Although fasting was the primary cause of
Thomas Beckets illness at Pontigny, his weak
ness was exacerbated by his nocturnal vigils.
Similarly, Richard Wyche, Bishop of Chichester
(1244-53), spent his nights in prayer and con
templation. When at last he slept, he did not lie
down, but instead propped himself up against tFrom theforce o f the disease and his great
his bed, snatching just as much sleep as was
necessary to survive. In the morning, he rose
fever and sweat, [the hair shirt] had eaten into
before daybreak in order to perform further his sides, almost to the intestines
devotions before celebrating mass. Given the
frequency with which holy bishops are reported
to have engaged in such practices, it is unsurprising that
they were often said to he exhausted.
A bove: The
M a rty rd o m of
HE HEALTH RISK POSED by prayers, vigils and

T
St T ho m as o f
masses was exacerbated by the tears which often C a n te rb u ry ,
accompanied them. The ability to weep while thus G erm any, 15th
ce n tu ry .
engaged could not he taught or imitated, but had to
R ight: A nselm
be granted by God. Such tears served as proof of Gods love o f C a n te rb u ry ,
for the holy man and had the capacity to wash away sins. 1 2 th -c e n tu ry
Thus bishops who had been granted the miracle of tears English m in ia tu re .
and who could (in some cases almost literally) weep buckets
were much admired and their tears would greatly enhance
their chances of being canonised. Less desirably, medical
wisdom suggested that they would also enhance their
chances of blindness and ill health. In the last year of his
life, Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester (1077-1108) suffered
from terrible headaches, which his biographer blamed on
his too frequent tears. His lifelong habit of weeping copi
ously as he prayed and celebrated mass ironically left him
with symptoms that forced him to reduce his devotions as
death approached.
Gundulphs fate was especially unfortunate given the
medieval emphasis on spiritual preparation for death,
14 HISTORYTODAY JANUARY 2017
which meant that pious individuals did their best to con particularly for young men and those with a hot and moist
tinue ascetic practices even on their deathbeds. Thus, in his complexion. Long-term celibacy meant the retention of
last days, Hugh of Lincoln was encouraged to remove his excess semen, which would affect the heart, leading to
hair-shirt, but he refused to do so, even for an hour. When anxiety and depression, which in turn damaged other parts
his corpse was undressed, it was discovered that from of the body. A celibate man could expect to experience
the force of the disease and his great fever and sweat, [the symptoms including headaches and weight loss. For this
shirt] had eaten into his sides, almost to the intestines. reason, numerous non-Christian medical writers, including
Nor was Hugh alone in his attachment to his penitential Galen and Avicenna, recommended masturbation (in mod
garments, as evidence presented during the canonisation eration) as a way for celibate men to deal with the inevit
process ofThomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford (1275-82) able build-up of semen in the body and thus to maintain
demonstrated. Members of the bishops household testified their physical health.
that, although he owned his uncles hair shirt, he did not
consider it coarse enough for his own purposes. Instead, he INCE THE SAINTLY BISHOP was allowed to engage
favoured hair belts, containing as many lice as a man might
hold in his hand, which he wore until his flesh was scarred.
Yet, unpleasant as the consequences of such ascetic
practices could be, from a medical perspective the most
serious health risk faced by medieval bishops came not from
lachrymose devotions or penitential garments, but from a
S in neither sexual intercourse nor masturbation, his
health was potentially in great danger, as suggested
by contemporary stories about bishops who were
advised to give up celibacy for the sake of their health.
In this situation, the less-than-saintly would follow the
doctors advice. Maurice, Bishop of London (1085-1107),
practice that, from the late 11th century, was imposed on was rumoured to have been advised by his doctors to Took
the entire ecclesiastical hierarchy: clerical celibacy. When to the health of his body by the emission of humours and to
married clerics and their supporters argued that denying have chosen to safeguard the flesh by endangering his soul.
priests their wives would force them into unmentionable Of course, the truly saintly bishop would prioritise the
vices (such as masturbation, homosexuality or even besti health of his soul over that of his body. Thomas Beckets
ality), they were not simply being petulant. Instead, there doctor urged him to give up celibacy for the sake of his
was a sound medical basis for their claims. health, but the saint disregarded the physicians advice.
Medieval understandings of the body were based on Archbishop Thomas ofYork (1108-14) also refused to
the Galenic system of the four humours (blood, phlegm, comply with his doctors prescription of sexual intercourse.
black bile and yellow bile). The key concept in this system Even when his friends smuggled a suitable woman into his
was the notion that health was based on the equilibrium of household, he continued to insist that he would die a virgin.
the humours and illness the product of imbalance. In order S t A n selm curing Similar stories circulated about Continental prelates. One
for good health to be maintained, the humours needed a p a tie n t w ho se French bishop vehemently asserted that he could not be
to be kept in balance and this was achieved through the illness is show n
chaste and had not been so prior to his election as bishop.
as t w o w olves
expulsion of various bodily fluids, including semen. Regular After his consecration, he felt obliged to remain celibate
a tta c k in g him .
sexual intercourse was part of a healthy lifestyle for most French, 15th and within a month his genital organs swelled up with an
men and celibacy was potentially dangerous to health, ce n tu ry . immeasurable flatulence. Like Thomas ofYork, he was

JANUARY 2017 HISTORYTODAY IS


MEDIEVAL BISHOPS

advised to take a woman to himself but refused, preferring


to gain eternal life than to dishonour his office. The swelling
grew worse and within days he was dead.
Such stories of death by celibacy clearly held a great
deal of appeal to its opponents, since they raised awkward
questions about its attainability and the level of sacrifice
demanded from priests who were no longer allowed to
have wives. But the trend for such tales was also related
to another significant religious development of the 12th
century: the growth of interest in the humanity (as opposed
to the divinity) of Jesus and the saints, and an increasing
tendency for the devout to attempt to emulate them.

HIS INCREASING tendency to humanise the

T divine is perhaps most clearly reflected in contem


porary accounts of episcopal piety. Bishops who
wept as they celebrated mass did so because they
were intensely focused on, and moved by, Christs suffering
on the cross. Thomas Becket, reported one of his biogra
phers, was so caught up in the office of the altar that it
was as if he beheld Christs passion before him in the flesh.
Moreover, in weeping as he celebrated mass, the saintly
bishop was not only empathising with Christ, but also
emulating his tears of pain on the cross. By engaging in un
healthy practices such as tearful prayer and lifelong virgin
ity, bishops were demonstrating the Christ-like behaviour
which 12th-century Christians increasingly expected from
their churchmen.
This growing interest in the humanity of both long-
dead and contemporary holy men was reflected not only
in practice, but also on the page. In a remarkable autobio
graphical passage in his H istory o f the K ings o f E ngland, the
Benedictine monk William of Malmesbury (himself the
author of several biographical works about English bishops)
wrote about his extensive studies. He had read widely in
many areas, including medicine, but his favourite subject
was history, which adds flavour to moral instruction by Edm und Rich, became an important feature of the later medieval saints
imparting a pleasurable knowledge of past events, spurring A rchbishop o f life. It was not enough to know that a bishop had worn a
C a n te rb u ry .
the reader by the accumulation of examples to follow the hair shirt, or restricted his diet, or kept his vow of celibacy.
W o o d c u t fro m
good and shun the bad. By combining medical knowledge th e N u re m b e rg Such statements of fact had to be supplemented by graphic
with the study of recent history, William and his fellow Chronicle, 1493. descriptions of the physical and mental consequences of
authors were able to interpret the bodies and behaviours these practices, for this was how biographers demonstrated
of churchmen past and present and to reach a better that their subject had known suffering; even if he had died
understanding of these individuals. In this way, they could peacefully in his own bed. It is a testament to the power
establish who was a good bishop, who was a bad bishop and and prevalence of this model of sanctity in 12th-century
who was a saintly bishop. England that even the reputation of an archbishop mur
For monks such as William of Malmesbury, cases of dered in his own cathedral could be enhanced by a bout of
death by celibacy provided the ultimate bodily proof of near-fatal fasting.
the validity of an episcopal reputation for sanctity. The
K a th e rin e H a rv e y is a W e llc o m e T ru s t Research F e llo w in th e D e p a rtm e n t o f
willingness of these men to prioritise the health of the soul
H istory, Classics and A rc h a e o lo g y a t B irkbeck, U niv e rs ity o f London.
over that of the body and, if necessary, to cut short their
earthly life in order to gain the rewards of eternal life, was
the ultimate manifestation of a Christian ideal. While lesser FURTHER READING
mortals might succumb to bodily weaknesses, such as food, Robert Bartlett, W h y Can th e D ead D o Such G reat Things?
sleep and sex, the saintly bishop fought an ongoing battle Saints and W orshippers from th e M a rty rs to th e R eform ation
with his body and either won or died trying. And, while the ( P r in c e t o n U n iv e r s it y P re s s , 2 0 1 3 ).
outcome was important, so too was the battle, for it was in
John Guy, Thom as B e c k e t ( P e n g u in , 2 0 1 2 ).
his struggles that the bishop demonstrated the purity of his
mind, manifested in his determination to live a godly life. Linda Kalof ( e d .) , A C u ltura l H isto ry o f th e H um an Body in the
In an age in which, Becket notwithstanding, actual mar M edieval Age ( B lo o m s b u r y , 2 0 1 4 ).

tyrdom was rare, saints were identified not by their grue Andrew Jotischky, A H erm it's Cookbook: M onks, Food and
some deaths but by their exceptional lives. Consequently, Fasting in th e M iddle Ages ( C o n t i n u u m , 2 011).
descriptions of the tribulations of the ascetic lifestyle
16 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
REFUGEES

I ODAYS WAVE of desperate asylum seekers fleeing

The First T the Middle East and North Africa is sometimes seen
as a return to the late 1940s, when millions were
set adrift by the unprecedented violence of the Second
World War. Yet the opening chapter in this age of refugees
came not in 1945 but in 1939, with the exodus ofSpaniards
fleeing the newly installed regime of Francisco Franco.
La Retirada, the retreat ofSpaniards at the conclusion of
the three-year-long Spanish Civil War, purged the country
of half a million republican sympathisers. But, if their flight
was unlamented in Spain, they were no more welcome
in France. The icy reception by the government of France
Franco's 1939 victo ry in th e Spanish would be swiftly followed by the callous treatment of other
Civil W ar saw half a million refugees anti-fascists: Germans, Austrians, Poles, Hungarians and
Jews, among others.
head north to France. They would By late October 193S the elected republican government
of Spain was in dire straits. The government had just 17,000
followed by m any m ore in a decade of rifles to defend Catalonia, the last bastion of the Republic.
disaster, w rites Larry H annant. When Barcelona fell on January 23rd, 1939, hundreds of

j r r r f ? j j p

\1 1
] ! j

* ||Hi
p : Cm
v ' f
W

B!i v S j i e r ic a s* * ^
T ru c k s t r a n s p o r t

fJC
re fu g e e s fle e in g
F ra n c o 's fo rc e s
a lo n g t h e P yre n e e s
in to F rance , 1939. *-
18 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
thousands of soldiers and civilians, fearing Francos wrath, combatants who had fought in the International Brigades,
fled as quickly as their exhausted limbs could move them to including members of the anarchist Durruti Division and
the French border. communists from Germany and Austria.
As they made the perilous trek over the Pyrenees, the Six months later they were joined by another wave of
Spaniards might have hoped that after three years of war anti-fascists. When Germany declared war on September
they had survived the worst. They were disappointed. If war 1st, 1939, France turned sour on another group of the three
was hell, exile in France was hell in a colder climate. million exiles living in its midst. Over the previous six years
Under the Popular Front government, which came to these outcasts had fled Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the
power in 1936, France had officially acted as neutral, but authoritarian regimes of Eastern Europe and the Balkans.
stood in unofficial solidarity with the government in Spain. Arthur Koestler was one of them. Born in Hungary,
But in June 1937 the administration of socialist Leon Blum Koestler had been a member of the Communist Party of
fell to conservative demonstrations, terror and intrigue Germany from 1931 to 1938, before leaving it in disgust on
and the incoming Radical government, with Edouard hearing of Stalins Moscow show trials. During the grim
Daladier at the helm, regarded the Spaniards as dangerous summer of 1939, as Europe hung on tenterhooks over
reds who threatened to destabilise an already politically who might be Hitlers next victim, Koestler was lying low
fragile country. in southern France. He was supposed to be writing what
Ill-prepared for a mass influx of refugees and preoc would become the best-selling anti-communist novel, Dark
cupied with an unpredictable Adolf Hitler, the French ness at Noon. But it was hard to keep his mind on fiction.
government forced hundreds of thousands of Spaniards into Any sense of calm, he wrote later in his memoir The Scum o f
squalid camps scattered across southern France. The exiles the Earth, was drowned by a tide of xenophobia [sweeping]
were interned in 15 improvised sites, some just barbed-wire over France with morbid rapidity.
enclosures laid out over Mediterranean beaches, lacking As one of the hated foreigners with dubious political
shelter and sanitary or cooking facilities. In the first six sentiments, Koestler was arrested a month after the war
dismal months, 14,672 refugees in these reception centres began and interned at the Vernet camp. At the time, he
died from malnutrition or dysentery. thought the conditions were even below the level of Nazi
concentration camps, though 30 of the men in his barrack
NE OF THE MOST notorious of the camps that could make the comparison with greater authority: they

O served as a makeshift holding pen was the Camp


de Rivesaltes, which clung to a windswept
semi-desert near Perpignan. Built in 1938 to acclimatise
had all suffered periods of imprisonment at Dachau, Ora-
nienburg and Wolfsbiittel.
If somebody screamed at night in our barrack, we knew
troops to arid conditions, the camp was hastily reconfigured he had dreamt of the Gestapo. And, regaining conscious
to take in Spanish refugees. For the 8,000 men, women and ness, he recognized with relief the smell of the rotting
children in it, Rivesaltes was only a slight improvement on straw of Vernet, Koestler caustically observed.
the exposed beaches of the camps at Saint-Cyprien, Argeles- One hut at the camp, nicknamed the Leper Barrack, was
sur-Mer and Le Barcares. made up of 350 veterans from Spain. They were remnants
If they lacked adequate food, accommodation and of the International Brigades - once the pride of the Euro
medicine, the refugees there found they had an abundance pean revolutionary movement, the vanguard of the Left.
of another amenity: French guards. Were up to our ears in Koestler recalled that even the most wretched in the other
gendarmes, complained one refugee. The supervision was hutm ents looked upon these with a mixture of horror and
so pervasive and perverse that they spied on us when we dismay. None of them possessed a change of shirt or socks,
had a bowel movement. and [they] went about naked under a thin and ragged jacket.
Another exile recalled that the guards treated us like The barrack was infested with vermin and disease.
dogs; they robbed us; they beat us; they pushed us around. Compared with these ravaged souls, even with internees
For them we were just a bunch of undesirables whom they in his own barrack, Koestler was fortunate. Influential
needed to get rid of as soon as possible, but only after, of friends in England put pressure on the French government
course, they had bled us dry. and after three months at Vernet he was released. Koestler
Little wonder that one of the Spanish artists who graph was one of the last to reach freedom. As he related a week
ically captured the exiles misery, Josep Bartoli, portrayed after France capitulated to Germany on June 22nd, 1940,
French guards as morbidly obese martinets in fancy uni the Gestapo made its first visit to the Vernet camp. What
forms supervising stick figures of half-dressed inmates. a find for Himmlers black-clothed men! Three hundred
Taunted and ill-treated, the refugees understood that thousand pounds of democratic flesh, all labelled, alive, and
the object was to force them back to Spain. In despair, some only slightly damaged.
complied. On return they were greeted at the border by the
Guardia Civil, then sent to prison or, in some cases, execut HE FRENCH DEFEAT further swelled the concen
ed. By December 1939, just under 200,000 Spaniards and
others who fought in Spain remained in France.
If Rivesaltes could be generously labelled a reception
camp - one of several euphemisms used to disguise their
T tration camps, with political opponents now being
joined by those deemed to be untermenschen. In 1942
Marshal Philippe Petain, collaborationist head of the Vichy
government, began to co-operate with the Nazi regimes
true function of internment - another notorious prison at campaign of mass extermination. Jews, Roma, political
Vernet deserved the description assigned it by writer Arthur dissidents and Spanish Republicans were transferred
Koestler: the worst in France. from French internment to the concentration camps of
Initially, the Vernet camp, some 50 kilometres from Germany, Austria and Poland, where they were forced into
Spain, was used to detain the most militant of the foreign slavery, then slaughtered. Almost 5,000 Spanish Civil
JANUARY 2017 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y 19
REFUGEES

Most were assigned to help strengthen the Maginot Line


The defeat of fascism in 1945 allowed in north-east France. When the Phony War ended in May
1940 with a massive German offensive, Spanish Republi
millions o f displaced people to make cans from the work units took up the first acts of sabotage
against the occupiers. Their Spanish comrades in Vichy
their way home. The Spanish refugees, France, skilled in guerrilla war from the campaign against
however, could not do so Franco, escaped imprisonment and helped to form maquis
units in south-western France.
Resistance in the camps also took on artistic forms.
The Catalan artist Josep Franch Clapers had fought against
Franco in 1936. But along with hundreds of thousands
of comrades he found himself in French sojourn camps
in 1939. Throughout the year he spent in two camps he
sketched and painted hundreds of images to document the
inhuman conditions imposed on the Spaniards. After the
war, a show of his work was mounted in Paris.

HE DEFEAT OF FASCISM in 1945 allowed millions

T of displaced people to make their way home. The


Spanish Civil War refugees, however, could not do
so. Their country would remain in the grip of Franco until
his death in 1975. Of the 500,000 Spanish refugees in
France in 1939,160,000 remained in 1962.
At least they were no longer in camps. Ironically, the
space was needed for refugees from Frances failed war
to keep Algeria in its empire. When the eight-year war of
independence ended in 1962, over 90,000 Harkis - Algeri
ans who had fought with the French military against the Al
gerian National Liberation Front - sought refuge in France.
Astonishingly, the camp at Rivesaltes was pressed into
service and between 1962 and 1964 some 20,000 former
soldiers and their dependents were kept in conditions every
bit as primitive as those of two decades before.
Although France encouraged Algerians to remain loyal
to it, when the war was lost the government had no plan
to accommodate the Harkis in the metropolis. For years,
it did not recognise any right for them to stay in France as
residents and citizens. An apology of sorts was offered to
the Harkis in 2012, when President Nicolas Sarkozy recog
nised Frances historical responsibility in abandoning and
interning Harki Algerian veterans.
Spaniards who were interned, even those who fought for
France in the Second World War, are still waiting for a word
of acknowledgement of the sacrifices they made. The writer
Jorge Semprun, a Spanish refugee, had joined the French
Resistance and was captured by the Germans in 1943,
surviving for two years in Buchenwald concentration camp.
In the closing weeks of the war he and other prisoners had
armed themselves and helped to defeat SS units controlling
the camp. After VE Day, waiting for a repatriation bonus in
a Free French government queue, he was denied and told
simply: Youre not French.
War veterans were killed at the Mauthausen concentration
camp in Austria. Larry Hannant is Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of History at
Some Spaniards were able to leave the camps in France the University ofVictoria, British Columbia.
under extraordinary circumstances, by, for example, agree
ing to volunteer for the French Foreign Legion in North FURTHER READING
Africa. There, they later joined up with Allied units to help
Helen Graham, The Spanish C ivil War: A Very S hort
fight the Axis forces.
In tro d u ctio n (O xford U niversity Press, 2005).
Other Spaniards returned to the anti-fascist struggle via
another route. In late 1939, given the alternative of contin Arthur Koestler, The Scum o f th e E arth (M acm illan, 1941).
ued internment or deployment in semi-militarised work Jorge Semprun, Literature o r Life (Viking, 1997).
brigades, about 60,000 opted to aid the French military.
20 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2 0 1 7
REFUGEES

A n g e l S a n z -B r iz
(c e n tre ), w h e n h e
w a s t h e S p a n is h
c o n s u l- g e n e r a l in N e w
Y o rk , J a n u a ry 1963.

THEANGEL
O F BUDAPEST
A d ip lo m a t r e p r e s e n t in g F r a n c o s S p a in a n d h is a c c o m p lic e , a n It a lia n
F a s c is t, b e c a m e u n lik e ly s a v io u r s o f J e w s s t r a n d e d a m id t h e h o r r o r s o f
t h e H u n g a r ia n c a p it a l d u r in g t h e S e c o n d W o r ld W a r , s a y s R o b e r t P h ilp o t .

N THE AUTUMN of 1944, the fate of Budapests Jews from the Vatican, Sweden and the Red Cross, Hungarys

D hung in the balance. Six months previously, uncertain


of the intentions of their hitherto loyal Axis ally, the
Germans had occupied Hungary, bringing with them the
grim machinery of the Final Solution. Within weeks, Adolf
Eichmann, one of the principle architects of the Holocaust,
leader, Admiral Miklos Horthy, ordered the Germans to halt
the deportations. Frustrated, Eichmann left Hungary.
For the Jews of Budapest the reprieve was to prove
temporary. In October, Horthy was ousted, the fascist
Arrow Cross seized power and Eichmann returned to the
had overseen the deportation to Auschwitz of 437,000 city. You see, he told the Hungarian Jewish leader, Rudolf
Hungarian Jews living in the countryside. Kastner, I am back again. You forgot Hungary is still in
As Eichmann now eyed the capitals 150,000 Jews, the shadow of the Reich. My arms are long and I can
reports from four death-camp escapees arrived in the west, reach the Jews of Budapest as well.As Eichmanns willing
bringing with them confirmation that the Nazis were mur Hungarian executioners murdered Jews on the banks of
dering the Hungarians they had deported. Under pressure the Danube, thousands of others were forced by the
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 21
REFUGEES

A b o v e : G io rg io P e rla sca in th e 1940s.


R ig h t: H u n g a ria n o ffic ia ls v ie w
th e b o d ie s o f Je w s m u rd e re d in
th e c o u rty a r d o f H o h a n y T e m p le ,
B u d a p e s t, 1944.

Germans to head west on death marches. Francos rise to power began 80 years ago with the out
For many, it was already too late. For the rest, with any break of the Spanish Civil War. That he managed to weather
semblance of official protection now totally absent, the as the international opprobrium directed at Spain following
sistance and sympathy of individual Hungarians, the clergy Hitlers defeat for a further three decades is, perhaps,
and foreign diplomats would determine their survival. Of less surprising than the fact that the dictator would later
those neutral states still with diplomatic representation in attempt to trum pet his regimes alleged role in rescuing
Hungary, some, such as Sweden and Switzerland, might be Jews from the Holocaust. His propagandists would later,
expected to offer help and most did. for instance, make the grossly exaggerated assertion that
Few, however, placed much faith in Spain. Despite 50,000 Jews had been saved thanks to its efforts.
its neutrality, General Francisco Francos support for the
Germans, who had helped bring him to power in the civil HE CAUDILLO HIMSELF could lay little claim to as
war, was barely concealed and his lack of sympathy for
their victims was all too apparent. On coming to power,
Franco had barred Jews from entry to Spain (although
the country later largely turned a blind eye to those who
T sisting those endangered by the Final Solution. But,
as the final, tragic chapter of the Holocaust unfolded
in Hungary, one Spanish hero did emerge.
Unlike that of Oskar Schindler - the German business
crossed the Pyrenees, as long as they used the country only man responsible for rescuing Polish Jews who was the
as a transit route to Portugal). Indeed, when the Sephardi subject of Steven Spielbergs Schindlers List (1994) - Angel
(the descendants of Iberian Jewry, some of whom held Sanz-Brizs story has not received the Hollywood treat
Spanish papers) were threatened following the German ment. But Spains Schindler was responsible for the rescue
invasion of Greece, Francos foot-dragging contrasted of over 5,000 Budapest Jews from near-certain death.
poorly with the efforts made by fascist Italy to rescue Angel Sanz-Briz was an unlikely hero. A supporter of
Italian Jews from harms way. Franco who had enlisted in the Nationalist army during
22 HISTORYTODAY JANUARY 2017
Left: monument to Raoul Wallenberg,
Gothenburg, Sweden.
Below: Jewish men being executed by
the Danube in Hungary, 1945.

the civil war, Sanz-Briz was the Spanish charge daffaires in to place the Jews he had rescued. With the Spanish flag
Budapest. Giorgio Perlasca, his accomplice, was an Italian flying over them and signs declaring Ex-territorial buildings
Fascist who had volunteered to fight for Franco, having belonging to the Spanish Embassy, these properties offered
previously served in Mussolinis invasion of Abyssinia. safe havens from the atrocities being perpetrated across the
As elsewhere, when the Germans marched into Hungary city on a daily basis by the Arrow Cross. Among those Sanz-
Spain did little to help the countrys imperiled Jews. Unlike Briz sheltered were 500 Jewish children, who had been
Sweden, for example, whose response was to send the offered refuge by Jews in Morocco (then under Spanish
humanitarian Raoul Wallenberg. rule) at their own expense. With the Germans refusing to
Taking charge at the Spanish embassy as special envoy allow them transit to Spain (from where they would head to
to Budapest in the summer of L944, Sanz-Briz decided to Morocco), the children were stranded in Budapest.
act. He joined Swedish, Swiss and Portuguese diplomats in The buildings were overcrowded, with people living in
signing a strongly worded protest organised by the Papal stairways. Some flats housed 50 people, with as many as
Nuncio against the deportation of Jews. Instructions from 28 living in a single room. Sanz-Briz, recalled one survivor,
Madrid urging a less robust approach arrived too late to was a typical Spanish gentleman, who frequently arrived
restrain him. at the apartment block in which she and 1,000 other Jews
In response to an appeal from Budapests Jewish leader sheltered with two embassy cars hlled with food.
ship, he issued 200 passports and around 1,500 transit visas. But, as Sanz-Briz well knew, he was playing a dangerous
To those unable to escape abroad, the diplomat offered game. The number of Jews to whom he had offered protec
1,900 documents on embassy writing paper, which provided tion far outnumbered the quota for Spanish Jews that had
them with the protection of the Spanish government. been negotiated with the Hungarian authorities. Sanz-Briz
Such protection required more than just a piece of paper, had attempted to outwit them by a simple trick: turning
so Sanz-Briz began to rent houses and apartments in which the agreed number of people into family units and then,
JANUARY 2017 H ISTO R Y TO D A Y 23
REFUGEES

Ir o n s h o e s o n t h e
D a n u b e , a m e m o r ia l
t o t h e m u r d e r e d Jew s
o f B u d a p e s t.

as he later explained, multiplying [it] indefinitely by never done anything heroic. AH I did was tell a bunch of fibs.
issuing a Spanish passport or document with a reference With Budapest descending into anarchy, those fibs
number over the agreed figure. - and Perlascas continuing effort to protect his charges -
Unsurprisingly, suspicions were aroused and the build represented the difference between life and death for many
ings under Spanish authority were subject to raids by Hun Jews. When the Arrow Cross stormed one Spanish building,
garian militias. When they were raided, Sanz-Briz would a young Hungarian Jewish boy recalled, suddenly out of
rush to the scene to remonstrate. He usually prevailed. If nowhere Perlasca appeared. Bluffing, he threatened to
he was too late, he would pursue and rescue those ejected cable Madrid and report the violation of Spanish territory,
from his buildings and sent on forced marches to Germany; warning the commander that the resulting damage to
on other occasions, he would drive to the Austrian border Spanish-Hungarian relations would rebound upon him per
in an attempt to intercept Jews being deported. Anybody sonally. Stories circulated that Perlasca had even shouted
amongst you have anything to do with Spain?, he would Spanish territory at Eichmann as he pulled two young
ask. Even the ability to speak a few words in Spanish was Jewish children into the embassy limousine and sped away.
enough for him to offer protection. Apocryphal or not, Sanz-Briz and Perlasca showed enor
mous personal bravery, as the fate of Wallenberg - abducted
S THE TERROR MOUNTED, Giorgio Perlasca, who and murdered by the Soviets when they captured Budapest

A had spent much of the war as a representative of a


meat company purchasing food for the Italian army
but was now concerned for his fate, decided to use the fact
that he had fought for Franco to gain a Spanish passport.
in early 1945 - attests. Sanz-Briz, who resumed his diplo
matic career after the war, did not live to see his actions ac
knowledged in 1990. But the Jews of the Hungarian capital
needed neither officialdom nor Hollywood to tell them of
He found the Spanish embassy besieged by Jews begging the heroism o fthe Angel of Budapest.
for assistance and immediately offered to help. With few
other staff and having ascertained that Perlasca did not seek Robert Philpot is w riting a book about Margaret Thatcher's relationship with
payment, Sanz-Briz placed him in charge of the Spanish safe Britain's Jewish community.
houses. His daily visits helped to assert Spains authority
over the buildings. FURTHER READING
Perlascas role was to become crucial when, as the Red
K r y s z t ia n U n g v a r y , B a ttle fo r B u d a p e st: 100 Days in W o rld
Army advanced towards Budapest in late 1944, Sanz-Briz
W a r ll (I.B. Tauris, 2011).
was ordered home. Without authority, he turned the
embassy w ith its passport forms and other official docu P e r c y P ie r ik , H u n g a ry 7955-1945 - The F o rg o tte n Tragedy:
mentation, over to Perlasca. Taking the Spanish name Jorge, G e rm a ny's Final O ffe n sive s D u rin g W o rld W a r II (A s p e k t, 2015).
the Italian convinced the Hungarians he was the new charge C e c il D . E b y, H u n g a ry a t W a r: C ivilia n s a n d S oldiers in W o rld
daffaires. If I hadnt said that, they would have taken every W a r ll (P en n S tate, 1998).
one away, he later suggested, before denying that he had
24 HISTORYTODAY JANUARY 2017
O ut / ^
A t o f the
The beginning of another year provides Eleanor Parker w ith an opportunity to reflect on a
meditation on time that combines exquisite Old English poetry w ith early medieval science.

HE BEGINNING of a new of the year, between the seasons and the two texts follow their divergent
year prompts reflections on sacred time. The poem begins with courses, reckoning their different
time. Early medieval histo Christmas (not January 1st) and opens: kinds of time.
rians and scholars were fascinated by Christ was born, glory of kings, at When this manuscript was made,
the calculation of time and one of the midwinter. After proceeding through around the middle of the 11th century,
most attractive insights into how they the year, it ends with Christmas, too, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle had been
understood it is an Old English poem reflecting the medieval understanding continuously kept up for about 150
which survives in one of the manu of the meaningful link between the years. A reader could look back over
scripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It astronomical and sacred calendars: the centuries of history it records,
is usually known as the Menologium, Christs birth takes place in deepest year by year, telling of wars, famines,
though one might more poetically call winter, at the solstice, because it is a invasions and the deaths of kings. To
it The Beauties of the Year, since that run your eye down the years
is really its subject. listed in the Chronicle is to see at
The poem moves through the a glance the vagaries of history,
calendar year, month by month, feast the great tally of years making a
by feast, finding something to praise single human life seem tiny by
about every season in the traditional comparison.
language of Old English poetry. It Turning to the poem puts all
marks saints days, the 12 months, the this into a different persp
two solstices and equinoxes and the ective. Instead of recording
beginning of each of the four seasons, hundreds of years, it tells of just
which are dated to the days halfway victory of light over darkness. Cutting and one: a yearly cycle, which is constant,
between each solstice and equinox. What fascinates about this poem is loading wood: regular, sacred and beautified. For
Every significant date or season from an
not only its praise of the glories of the many medieval historians, thinking
Anglo-Saxon
receives its own brief lyrical descrip natural year, but the fact that it was calendar page for about time - what time is, and how we
tion. The beginning of summer, for preserved in one of the manuscripts July, n th century. measure it - was an integral part of the
instance, falls on May 9th and brings of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the study of history and the Menologium
sun-bright days, with warm weather; invaluable vernacular record of Eng hints that the record of years enumer
meadows swiftly bloom with blossom, lands early medieval history. What ated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is to
and joy mounts up throughout the was the reasoning behind putting be read in the light of this understand
earth among many kinds of living these two texts together, making the ing of the years sanctified cycles.
creatures. Menologium serve almost as a preface This poem embodies a profound
A few lines later, the poem extols to the Chronicle? The Anglo-Saxon relationship between history, poetry,
the summer solstice (midway through science and theology, which is far from
the year and exactly midway through a modern conception of the past, but
the poem): the jewel climbs up into This poem embodies a which still has something to offer at
the heavens highest in the year,
brightest of stars... The fairest of lights
profound relationship the beginning of a new year. It sug
gests that thinking about history also
likes then to gaze longer upon the between history, poetry, involves appreciating what does not
earth, to move more slowly across the change, what remains constant at the
fields of the world. science and theology most fundamental level of human ex
This is an exquisite combination istence. It provides a way of reflecting
of Old English poetry and medieval Chronicle also begins with the birth of on our experience of living through
science. It serves a practical function Christ, but it locates the event not in time, shaped as it is by seasons and
by reminding the reader of important reference to the season of midwinter holidays and the calendars which give
dates in the calendar, but its purpose is but to a historical era: its first entry coherence to our years on Earth.
not primarily functional; more impor reads: Octavian ruled 56 years, and in
tant is the relationship the poem ex the 42nd year of his reign Christ was Eleanor Parker is a medievalist and writes a blog
plores between the interlocking cycles born. From that similar starting point at aclerkofoxford.blogspotco.uk.
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 25
GEO. E. READ, In c .
T H E ORIGINAL AND LARGEST

SUBDIVIDERS OF TH E
BEVERLY HILLS FOOTHILLS

BCVt* o % -
STREET MAP 5 ^
W IT H A K E Y T O T H E H O M E S O F 7 ^

M OTION PICTURE CELEBRITIES '


A N D O T H E R . N O T A B L E S

C O M P IL E D D Y J.F S U L L I V A N . S A L E S M A N A G E R . Sc J A C K C O N A N T , A S S IS T A N T S A L E S M A N A G E R .O F

GEO. E. READ, INC.


.4 6 7 -4 6 9 B E V E R L Y D R IV E . B E V E R L Y H IL L S . C A L IF O R N IA . T E L E P H O N E O X F O R D 6177

. .. w

26 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017


ALPHABETICAL KEY TO CELEBRITIES
27 A kin, M ary, 185 G illespie, F ra n k , 235 N iblo, F re d (E n id B e n n e tt), D irecto r,
525 N . B e d fo rd D riv e. C rescen t a n d L ex in g to n . BEV ERLY TERRACE.
104 A n d e rso n , A rc h W . (B a n k e r) 218 G ilb ert, Jo h n , 28 N o rm an d , M ablo,
704 N . C a m d e n D riv e. BEVERLY E STA TES.
C am d en a n d C a rm e lita .
30 A rb u c k le , R osco o C. (D o ris D e a n e ) 57 G illin g w ater, C laude, 34 O a k m an , W heeler,
525 C a n o n D riv e . [D ire c to r. 604 N . B ed fo rd D rive. 512 N . R ex fo rd D rive.
53 A rc h a in b a u d , G eorge, D ire c to r, 158 G ish, L illian, 113 Oldfield, B arn ey ,
603 N . L in d e n D rive. B ev erly H ills H o tel. 708 N . F o o th ill R o ad .
100 A sh er, E . M. (B a n k e r), 7 G ordon, H u n tley . 55 O liver. C has. A., (R u th L aw ),
772 N . L in d e n D riv e. 112 N . P a lm D rive.
74 B a ra , T h e d a , G06 N . R o x b u ry D rive.
222 G ore, A. L 180 O v ia tt, Ja m e s,
622 N . A lp in e D riv e. BEVERLY ESTATES. B E V E R L Y C R E ST .
120 B a rry m o re , L ionel,
223 G oulding, E d m u n d , 11 P acific E le c tric R . R . S ta tio n ,
802 N . R o x b u ry D rive.
60 B easley , O. N . (B a n k e r), BEVERLY ESTATES. S a n ta M onica B lvd. a n d C an o n D rive.
613 N . C am d en D rive. 168 G ra n t, E . J. 67 P e rry , K a th r y n (M rs. O w en M oore).

The lap
101 B e a u m o n t, H a r r y W . (D ire c to r), 906 N . A lp in e D rive. 615 N. C re sc e n t D rive.
1002 N . B e v e rly D riv e. 186 G reen, B u rto n , 117 P e te rs , H o u se,
164 B eery . W alla c e , 1601 L e x in g to n R oad. 806 N . C am den D rive.
C o rn e r D o h e n y R o a d a n d S u n s e t. 206 Griffith, C orrine, 208 P lc k fo rd , M a ry (D o u g las F a irb a n k s ),
I l l B e n n e tt, E n id , 1003 S u m m it D rive. E n d o f C ove W ay.
BEVERLY TERRACE. 230 G riffith, R aym ond, 118 P re v o s t, M arie,
170 B en so n , A m os, BEVERLY TERRACE. 810 N . C am den D rive.
M o u n ta in D riv e a n d S u n s e t. 31 H allo r, E d ith , 153 R ay, C h a rle s (C la ra G ra n t),
158 B e v e rly H ills H o tel, 526 N . C anon D rive. 901 N . C am d en D rive.
1200 S u n s e t B o u le v a rd . 77 H a rg re a v e s , R ic h a rd L., (G race B ry a n ). 1 R ead , Geo. E ., Inc.,

Beverly Hills
12 B e v e rly T h e a tre , 629 N. M aple D rive. 467-469 B e v e rly D rive.
W ils h ire a n d N . B e v e rly D riv e. 118 H a rla n . K e n n e th , (M ario P re v o s t), 197 R ead , Geo. E ., Inc.,
103 B lue, M onte, 810 N . C am d en D rive. B E V E R L Y C R E S T O F F IC E .
716 N . C am d e n D riv e. 33 H e a th c o te , F . W .. (B a n k e r), 178 R ead , Geo. E ., (R esid en ce),
204 B o ld t, C h arles, 522 N. C re sc e n t D rive. B E V E R L Y C R E ST .
1500 B e n e d ic t C an y o n R o ad .
8 B o s w o rth , H o b a rt,
219 N . D o h en y D riv e.
169 B o sw o rth , H o b a rt,
H ille r e s t R o ad .
155

227

184
H eilm an , Irv in g H.,
1600 L e x in g to n R oad.
H e n ry , C arl,
BEVERLY TERRACE.
H o lt, M rs. J a c k ,
35

182

58
R e in a c h , E d w ard .
509 N . A lp in e D rive.
R ev ier, D o ro th y ,
BEV ERLY CREST.
R ob erd s, Ja so n ,
Street Map,
74 B ra b in , C h a s. J . (T h e d a B a r a ) D ire c to r,
622 N . A lp in e D rive.
205 B ro w n , C la re n c e , (D ire c to r),
1022 T o w e r R o ad .
224

224
BEV ERLY CREST.
Ince, M rs. Thos.,
BEVERLY ESTATES.
Ince. E s ta te o f T h o m as,
157

160
616 N. B ed fo rd D rive.
R ob in so n , H . W . (P re s. J . W . R obinson
1008 E ld en W ay.
R ogers, W ill,
[C o m p an y . 1926
27 C arew e, E d w in , (M a ry A k in ), D ire c to r. 925 N . B ev erly D rive.
525 N . B e d fo rd D riv e.
26 C h ad w ick , H elen e, 199
D iaz D orados.
Jo se p h so n , J u lie n ,
162 R osso n , A rth u r. (D ire c to r), UNLIKE MODERN star maps, aimed at
1005 N. R ex fo rd D rive.
513 N . R o x b u ry D riv e.
210 C h a lia p in , F eo d o r, 188
BEV ERLY CREST.
Joyce, W illia m B.,
107 R u ssell. W m . F., (H elen F e rg u so n ) tourists intending to sightsee, this map
710 N . C re sc e n t D rive.
BEVERLY ESTATES.
207 C h a p lin , C h a rle s S p en cer, ( L ita G rey ) 72
1004 E ld e n W ay.
K an e , A r th u r S.,
54 S a n te ll, A lfred, (D ire c to r), was produced as a piece of promotion
601 N . R o x b u ry D rive.
1103 C ove W a y .
52 C h an ey , L o n , 102
626 N . A lp in e D rive.
K eato n , B u ste r,
225 Schenck, Jo sep h , for a residential development by George
BEV ERLY TERRA CE.
604 N . L in d e n D riv e
168 C h ris tie , B ro th e rs , 152
1004 H a rtfo rd W ay.
K e rry , N orm an,
176 S c h ra m , P e te r C., E. Read in 1924. His plan was to market
910 N . B ed fo rd D rive. BEV ERLY CREST.
S u n s e t B o u le v a rd .
80 C h u rc h . R . F . (B a n k e r), 220 K irk w o o d , J a m e s (L ila L e e ), D irecto r. 174 S ch u y ler, W a lte r, Beverly Hills as the home of the stars at a
606 N . M ap le D riv e . D oh en y a n d S c h u y le r R oads.
82 C lifford, K a th le e n , 151
BEVERLY ESTATES.
K yne, P e te r B.,
101 S e b a stia n . A. H ., (P ro d u c e r), time when cinema was changing the face
614 N . P a lm D rive. 713 N . R o x b u ry D rive.
114 C lifford, R u th , 51
909 N. B ed fo rd D rive.
L a n d is, Cullen, 81 S edgw ick, E d w a rd , J r., (D ire c to r) of celebrity.
720 N . F o o th ill R o ad . 613 N . P a lm D rive.
76 Cody, Low ,
606 N . W ald en . D rive.
108 S e ite r, W illiam A., (D ire c to r). By the mid-i920s, studios were pro
609 N . M a p le D riv e. 78 L a P la n te , L a u ra , 718 N . R ex fo rd D rive.
150 C o n sig n y , E u g e n e F . (B a n k e r), 620 N . M ap le D rive. 36 Seitz. Geo. B., (D ire c to r). ducing their own maps with directions
916 N . R o x b u ry D riv e. 25 L a sc a lle , W ard , 520 N . F o o th ill R oad
70 C onti, C a p ta in A lb e rt de.
55
516 N . W a ld e n D rive.
L aw , R u th ,
226 S h eeh an , W infield, R., to their stars homes, cultivating the idea
608 N . R e x fo rd D riv e. BEVERLY TERRACE
183 Cook, Ted,
220
606 N . R o x b u ry D rive.
L ee, L ila, (J a m e s K irk w o o d ), D ire c to r,
59 S h ip m an , L y le T ayo, of celebrity and encouraging fans to see
B E V E R L Y C R EST. 622 N . C am den D rive.
215 C onw ay, J a c k ,
211
BEV ERLY ESTA TES.
L ee, R o w la n d V.,
50 S nell, T hos. T., (B a n k e r), them as icons. As Hollywood grew as the
BEVERLY ESTATES. 620 N . W ald en D rive.
83 C ro sla n d , A lan, 232
BEV ERLY ESTA TES.
L ew is, G eorge,
69 Snow den. E a r l F ., (B a n k e r), centre of celebrity, stars began investing
625 N . C re sc e n t D rive.
626 N . P a lm D riv e.
198 D a n a , V iola, 233
S u m m it o f A ngelo D rive.
Lloyd, H a ro ld (M ild red D a v is),
209 S p au ld in g , S. M., in property there, making their homes
C ove W ay .
BEV ERLY CREST.
6 D a rlin g . W illia m S., ( D ire c to r), 177
1225 B e n e d ic t C an y o n R o ad .
L loyd, H a ro ld , C o rp o ratio n ,
68 S tan ley , F o rre s t,
604 N . C re sc e n t D rive.
symbols of their ascendancy and, thus,
216 N . M ap le D riv e. BEV ERLY CREST.
154 D av ies, M arion, 187 L o m b ard , H a r r y D.,
107A S te a rn s, F re d e ric k K im b all ( E s ta te of)
722 N . C re sc e n t D rive.
tourist sites. Expert on celebrity, Martin
1700 L e x in g to n R o ad .
31 D illon, J o h n F r a n c is (E d ith H a llo r), 105
1006 N . C re sc e n t D rive.
L o n g y e a r, W . D., (B an k er),
110 S tre lin g e r. S e th W . P.,
708 N . R ex fo rd D rive.
Kaplan, has compared the trip to see a
526 N . C a n o n D riv e . [D ire c to r. 721 N . B ev erly D rive. 56 S tro m b e rg , H u n t, (P ro d u c e r),
172 D o heny, E d w a rd L . S r., 62 L u b itsc h , E rn s t, (D ire c to r), 616 N . R o x b u ry D rive. celebrity home to a religious pilgrimage.
501 D o h e n y R o ad . 616 N . B ev erly D rive. 181 S teu erle, L o u is F.,
173 D o h en y , E d w a rd L . J r., 75 L y o n s, E ddie, B E V E R L Y C R E ST .
With the introduction of photography
BEV ERLY CREST. 605 N . E lm D rive. 159 S w an so n , G loria,
165 D u ra n t, R . C., 216 L y tell, B e rt, 904 N. C re sc e n t D rive.
and the moving picture, the notion of
M o u n ta in D riv e a n d S c h u y le r R oad, BEVERLY ESTATES. 32 T a y lo r, S am , (D ire c to r),
2 E d d y , H e le n Je ro m e , 156 M cC arty , W a lte r G., 528 N . C re sc e n t D rive. celebrity changed from notable figures
202 N . C a n o n D rive. L e x in g to n a n d C rescen t. 73 T e rry . E th e l Grey,
200 E llio t, E d w a rd , ( B a n k e r), 9 M cK im , R o b ert, 610 N . A lpine D rive. to film stars. Mary Melton, writing for
C o ld w a te r C a n y o n R o ad . 433 N . P a lm D rive. 231 T hom son, F red ,
208 F a irb a n k s , D o u g la s (M a ry P lc k fo rd ) 231 M arlo n , F ra n c e s,
B EV ER LY TERRA CE. B EV E R L Y T E R R A C E . the Los Angeles Times in 1996, said: The
E n d of C ove W ay .
61 T o rre n c e , D avid,
107 F e rg u s o n , H e le n R.,
710 C re s c e n t D riv e.
65 M acL ean, D ouglas,
618 N. R odeo D rive. maps to the stars homes are as much an
624 N . C an o n D rive.
66 T u rp in , Ben,
10 F i r s t N a tio n a l B an k .
B e v e rly D r. a n d S a n ta M o n ica B lvd.
219 M acL ean, D o u g las,
BEVERLY ESTATES. 602 N . C an o n D rive. archaeological dig as an atlas. They show
112 Ullm&n, S. G eorge,
29 F Itz m a u ric e , G eorge. ( D ire c to r).
516 N . B e v e rly D rive.
106 M ay, T h o m as, (V. P . T h e M ay Co.).
712 N . C an o n D rive.
701 N . F o o th ill R oad. who has enduring fame and who was big
4 F lo o d , J a m e s J., (D ire c to r), 228 V alen tin o , R udolph,
315 N . F o o th ill R o ad .
171 M eyer, B en R., (B a n k e r),
D o h en y R oad. BEV ERLY TERRA CE. in the moment but whose reputation has
3 F ly n n , E m m e tt, 64 M ills, M arily n , 214 V idor, K ing, (D ire c to r),
244 S . C re s c e n t D riv e. 606 N . B ev erly D rive. BEVERLY ESTATES. not endured. Achieving a spot on a star
102 F o r r e s t. A lan, 121 M iller, P a ts y R u th , 217 V idor, F lo ren ce,
707 N . R o x b u ry D riv e . 808 N . C re sc e n t D rive. BEVERLY ESTATES.
map has become a sign of having made
115 F ra n k lin , S id n ey , (D ire c to r). 203 M ix, Tom ,
717 N . P a lm D r. 1010 S u m m it D rive.
68A W ag n er, Bob, (F lo re n c e W elch ),
608 N . C re sc e n t D rive.
it. Notable names on this map include
1G7 F re d e ric k , P a u lin e , 67 M oore, Ow en, 5 W a lth a ll. H e n ry B.,
503 S u n s e t B o u le v a rd . 615 N . C re sc e n t D rive. 414 N . R odeo D rive.
Charlie Chaplin (207 in the key), Buster
79 G allo w ay , F . K ., ( B a n k e r), 158 M oore, Tom , 189 W h ittie r, M ax, ( E s ta te of),
614 N . M ap le D riv e . B e v e rly H ills H otel. 1001 S u n s e t B o ulevard. Keaton (202), Rudolph Valentino (228)
73 G e ra rd , C a rl ( E th e l G re y T e rry ). 206 M orosco, W a lte r (C o rrin e G riffith), 234 W ilson, C arey.
610 N . A lp in e D riv e. 1003 S u m m it D rive. 1003 N . B e n e d ic t C anon R oad. and Gloria Swanson (159).
201 G etz. M ilto n E ., (B a n k e r). 229 M u rra y , Mae, 109 W ilson, L. A.,
1009 N . B e v e rly D rive. BEV ERLY TERRA CE. 716 N . R ex fo rd D rive.
119 G ibson. E . R., (H o o t) 116 N agel, C o n rad , 218 W itw e r, H . C.,
814 N . B e d fo rd D rive. 715 N . P a lm D rive. BEV ERLY ESTATES. Kate W iles
179 G ilm ore, E a rl, 63 N eg ri, P ola, 221 W ra y , J o h n G riffith,
BEVERLY CREST 610 N . B ev erly D rive. BEV ERLY ESTA TES.

JANUARY 2017 H IS TO R Y T O D A Y 27
JAPAN

R e g e n t S tre e t, L o n d o n

vS |

Christopher Harding profiles Natsume Soseki, Japans


Charles Dickens, whose visit to London at the turn of the 20th
century suggested ways of successfully combining western
industrialism w ith Japanese Spirit.

28 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017


C ET UP, GET UP! Lying on the ground sweating and bleeding glued-on peacock feathers, as he put it - and commit himself instead
next to his bicycle - that machine, as he ruefully referred to his own intellectual and even moral path. There had been a range
to it - his cycling instructor heckling from the sidelines, the of formative humiliations similar to Sosekis tussle w ith the machine
young Japanese professors short stay in London had finally in which he had little interest but with which he was forced to forge a
turned from slow-burning tragedy into farce. relationship: policemen tutting, passers-by breaking into laughter or
Natsume Soseki had no interest in cycling, the latest fashionable ironic applause at the wobbling moustachioed Asian man on the bicycle,
craze to hit London at the turn of the 20th century. He was there to one man abusing him as Chinkwhen Sosekis erratic manoeuvrings put
deepen his understanding of English literature, spending what little him in peril. Encounters with boarding-house landladies, at turns cold
money the Japanese government had given him for his short trip on and overweening, helped complete the effect of a melancholy immer
books, on modest board and lodging and on tuition from the Shake sion in the social and architectural landscape of modern London, which
speare scholar William James Craig. To find himself hurt and humiliated turned Soseki from a shy, run-of-the-mill teacher of English literature
on, and mostly off, two wheels, at various locations from Lavender Hill into the man who was to become known as Japans Charles Dickens.
to Clapham Common was irrelevant to the task Soseld had set himself. Soseki was born Natsume ICinnosuke, in the city of Edo in 1866. It
Only later in his career would Soseld realise and appreciate what he would soon become the epicentre of a great and, to this day, unfinished
had learned in London. His major discovery was that his opinions on experiment. Japans old Shogunal order had collapsed. In its place a
English literature were no less valid than those of similarly educated youthful cadre of mostly middle-ranking samurai was determined to
Englishmen; he could and should grow out of borrowed opinions - those build a strong, technologically advanced and outward-looking polity. In
desperate need of a figurehead, they hustled the young Emperor Meiji
from Kyoto all the way to Sosekis city of Edo - now renamed Tokyo.
Top le ft: R e g e n t S tre e t, London, c.1900. Top rig ht: M a in S tre e t, From Japans first prime minister, Ito Hirobumi, to the military
Y o shiw ara, Tokyo a t th e sam e tim e . Inset: N a ts u m e Soseki, c .ig io . leader Yamagata Aritomo, these young samurai are celebrated today
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 29
JAPAN

y f y1
ffff' 1 ypp11 ijfjT

rc ", jM

TON I w i 7

Above: C o ve n t G arden fr u it and v e g e ta b le greatest hits and misses. Their fact-finding mission visited major
m a rk e t, London, 1900s. R ight: N a k a m is e -d o ri cities in 12 countries: Chicago, Washington and Boston; Liverpool and
leading t o t h e Senso-ji te m p le , Tokyo, 1900s. London; Paris, Amsterdam and Berlin; St Petersburg, Stockholm, Rome
and Vienna. They returned with clear ideas about which models of life
as modern Japans founding fathers. In the span of a few years they gave within the modern world they thought fit for Japanese consumption.
the country a constitution and a legal system, world-beating businesses, Education should be done the American way, they argued. For industry
such as Mitsubishi, the most powerful economy in Asia and (for a time and Japans new navy, it had to be Britain, right down to the portraits of
at least) its most respected armed forces. Japan went from being next Nelson, which soon adorned the walls of Japanese naval academies. For
after China on European colonialisms To Do list, to signing treaties the police: France. For political institutions: the heavily circumscribed
and pacts with global players. It suggested serious respect and - almost model of democracy offered by Bismarckian Germany. Hirobumi was so
- equality. Through to the 1940s, Japanese leaders liked to say that their impressed by the great Prussian statesman that he even started holding
country was modernitys beacon in Asia. his cigar the way Bismarck did.
It was a bold experiment and the fate of Sosekis generation was to In this way, models were chosen and tweaked. Impressive though
furnish its first guinea pigs. While modernity in the West was a natural the Paris police undoubtedly were, for a city like Tokyo, whose transport
stage of development upon which fans and critics alike reflected from was still underdeveloped and whose rapidly growing population was not
within, for the Japanese it was a foreign object, to be examined with entirely to be trusted, a network of koban - small police huts housing
circumspection and from all angles before decisions were made about one or two officers - was added to the model so that city dwellers could
whether and how it might be right for Japan. more easily get hold of a police officer, or vice versa.
There was considerable pragmatism in this process. A group of Jap Right from the start, leaders hoped to distinguish modernisation
anese leaders had set out in the early 1870s to explore modernitys from westernisation. One of the most influential new popular slogans
3 0 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y JANUARY 2017
- a key means by which Japans government and bureaucracy tried to NEW EMPEROR was paraded around the country, sug
reach and shape the people - was Western Technology, Japanese Spirit. gesting in his divine person and role as family head of the
The first half of this was a broad ambition, but at least it had the virtue nation both the flag waving and the feel of a community whose
of clarity. The Japanese government brought in westerners to provide identity and purpose transcends the visible and the everyday.
training in everything from engineering to psychiatry, while sending People did not immediately take to him: police had to be called in to
young Japanese, such as Soseki, to study abroad on sustained and highly encourage the masses to take to the streets for his birthday festivities,
specialised versions of the earlier fact-finding mission. The most enthu while at the same time ushering protestors - on issues ranging from
siastic modernisers toyed with English as a new national language and the emperor system to the appalling conditions endured by workers in
even with a policy of intermarriage with westerners, in case there was many of Japans new industries - off the streets and occasionally into
something in the blood which explained the gulf between western jail cells for suspected treason or breaches of the peace.
scientific and cultural achievements and what Japanese critics regarded In later years, a less confected but more dangerous Japaneseness
as their own embarrassing backwater of a society. would coalesce around the countrys military, following a series of
Japanese Spirit was an altogether different matter. It was supposed stunning victories, from the defeat of China in 1895 to the sensational
to function as the special glue that bound together a population in times success of Admiral Togo - the Nelson of the East - in seeing off the
of rapid change and painful personal and financial sacrifice and was Russians in 1905. Into the 1930s, a new generation of Japanese, who had
especially important where that population, as was the case in Japan, not known the national insecurity of the recent past, exaggerated this
had been used to thinking in terms of village, city or region rather militarised ideal o fJapanese spirit, incorporating an often xenophobic
than nation. Japanese returning from abroad noted that, in the West, critique of modernity. Some influential voices in the armed forces even
flag-waving nationalism and Christianity provided two different but lobbied not to receive the latest military technology, on the basis that
complementary sorts of glue. What might work for Japan? spirit trumps hardware every time. ^
JANUARY 2017 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y 31
JAPAN

For Soseki, Londonsfog conjured a vivid visual and


emotional sense o f what modernity had done to England
and was now doing to Japan

OSEKI WAS AMONG THOSE who lampooned the jingoism of from scholar and amateur diarist, via the small but snowballing surprises

S tabloid takes on Japanese spirit at the time of the Russo-Japan


ese War. Admiral Togo possesses the Japanese spirit, and the
local fishmonger has it as well, he wrote. Swindlers and mur
derers also have the Japanese spirit. Since it is a spirit, it is always blurry
and fuzzy; there is no-one in Japan who hasnt had it on the tip of his
and disappointments of the sensitive traveller, to someone possessing
and putting to eloquent use an outsider persona. Upon his return, one
of the Wests greatest modern cities, then modernity itself and finally
modern Tokyo and Japan, were experienced as places that could never
entirely be thought of as home.
For Soseki, Londons fog conjured a vivid visual and emotional sense
tongue, but theres no-one who has actually seen it.
He was satirising a poor answer to a very good question, one with of what modernity had done to England and was now doing to Japan.
which his whole life was to be intertwined: 'what is modernity doing Settling as far as the eye could see, it created a landscape in which the
to we Japanese? colour, energy and rich detail of human life was smudged, suppressed,
London provided answers for Soseki. What is modernity doing to even obliterated and out of which, in its place, modernitys pointless,
us? took on a lived, minute-by-painful-minute specificity, becoming lifeless artefacts rose in relief to be freeze-framed in damp gloom:
what is London doing to me? A doubt and unease that he had felt at
I jumped out o f bed, lifted the curtain over the windowfacing north
Tokyo Imperial University, where he studied English Literature and,
and looked out at the street. The whole scene was blurred ...the garden
to a lesser extent, the secondary school where he later taught it, now
contained nothing but useless ornaments. Motionless and melancholy,
seemed to enter Soseki in the form of profound culture shock and a
everything seemed to be set in ice.
thoroughgoing challenge to his whole sense of himself. Natsume has
gone mad, ran one short missive home from a Japanese visitor to him The neighbouring garden looked just the same. It had a pleasant lawn,
around this time. and when the warm spring arrived, a white-bearded old man went out
Sosekis sojourn in London lasted from 1900 to 1902: he later recalled there to enjoy the sun. He always had a parrot with him perched on his
the crowds along the cortege route at the funeral of Queen Victoria, the right arm, and he p u t hisface so close to its beak, that it looked as i f he was
trees laden with human fruit. But across even this relatively short span about to be pecked. The parrot beat his wings and squawked incessantly.
of time Sosekis moody, impressionistic writings show a man moving When the old man did not appear, a young girl, hitching up the hem o f her

32 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017


that they seemed to be in danger o f snapping. I f one observed the faces
attentively, one noticed that they all had a strained expression. The men
looked straight ahead, the women did not let their gaze wander to either
side, and all were resolutely proceeding towards their chosen destinations.
Their lips were tightly closed. Their eyebrows were so closely knit that they
almost met in the middle. Their noses seemed to stick out and their faces
stretchforwards as i f to keep ahead o f the steps which bore them one after
the other to their respective destinations.

He found himself propelled by this crowd into a building with a high-


domed ceiling. From up the stairs he could see, this time below him,
Londons sea of humanity:

White, black, yellow, blue, violet, red - all the different colours undu
lated together in the distant background like the watery movements o f
the ocean, like tiny multicoloured shells o f wonderful beauty. At that
moment, the spectacle suddenly vanished, giving way to a darkness that
spreadfro m the enormous cupola to the innermost depths. The people
present, who could be counted in thousands, were swallowed up in the
darkness. Everyones existence, w ithout exception, was effaced by the
extreme darkness, and they became as voiceless as if the shadows and
shapes had disappeared...

When I became conscious o f an actual glimmer o f light, I was


able to make o u t... a range o f opaque colours.
Above: Emperor
Yellow, mauve, dark blue... All o f a sudden, the
Meiji, c.1880.
Right: Tokyo, 1890. mist disappeared. Far off, on an expanse o f
Left: Battersea greenery stretching out by the sea, sparkling
Reach from Lindsey under the hot rays o f the sun, a handsome young
Houses, a London man came in sight, wearing a yellow tunic and
scene by James
W histler, 0.1864.
accompanied by a beautiful woman enveloped in
a violet robe w ith long, billowing sleeves... She
sat down in a marble seat in the shade o f an olive
tree. The peaceful sound o f the orchestra came
across the distant sea, its thin notes continuing
without a pause.

The whole hall trembled at the same time. They


had not disappeared in the darkness. In this darkness
they were dreaming o f Greece, which was all sweet
ness and light.

long dress, constantly ran a lawnmower over the grass. This garden, still Soseki had attended a performance of Shakespeares Twelfth Night, set
so clear in my memory, was now swallowed up by thefog, and there was in the ancient Balkan coastal region of Illyria. It was the mirror image of
nothing to distinguish it from the boarding house where I was staying, modern Tokyoite yearnings for some other Japan. Just as use in English
disused and deserted, with the houses all in one unbroken line. of the word bucolicrocketed upwards during the rapid industrialisation
of the middle of the 19th century, so in Japan artists and psychothera
Soseki recalled being trapped alone in the dank dining room of that pists, ethnologists and philosophers busied themselves from the t88os
boarding house, which the sunlight never seemed to enter, as the lady onwards with fantasies of idylls elsewhere.
of the house made her entrance: These often took the form of variations on a theme of a simpler past,
[She was]fa r beyond any fe m in in ity ... All the human weaknesses - collective values and a physical environment untouched by noisy ma
bitterness, envy, obstinacy, rigidity, doubt - m ust have taken a delight in chinery, purposeless rush and architecture of inhuman scale. Time itself
playing with that face to give it that ill-favoured appearance... Turning could be remade. It would no longer be something linear, measured in
her black eyes towards the narcissi withering in the glass vase, she [said] tasks or in the tick-tock of the now ubiquitous clock. Instead, it should
that England, a cold and cloudy country, was not a pleasant place to live. be cyclical, like the seasons. For Japans first and most famous ethnol
No doubt she intended to point out to me that in this country even the ogist, Yanagita Kunio, such time ought to be capable of (re)shaping
flowersfailed to bloom. the whole mentality of a Japanese folk, who would live well without
progress or productivity or international competition, or any of the
Soseki felt sorry for the Londoners around him as he was hustled and other modern concerns urged on them by politicians and bureaucrats.
bustled along the citys streets by faster, taller counterparts: But just as Soseki lambasted the sloganeers Japanese spirit, so he
Everyone walking along the pavement overtook me - even the women. had little time for such archaic fantasies. For him, modernity was not
Placing their hands on their waists and slightly raising their skirts, they an unwanted western gift that could simply be returned. Nor was it a
hurried along with their high-heels tapping the pavement so sharply state of affairs either to be enjoyed for its opportunities or resented as
a corruption of an earlier form of life. What he seemed to see in that
JANUARY 2017 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y 33
JAPAN

London theatre was that to be modern was to learn to live with being w ithout losing ones balance. These two forms o f self-centredness
simultaneously pulled in a variety of directions: hungry for the future could not be more different.
yet attracted to the past; living and working collaboratively with others,
in ever larger conurbations and institutions, yet anxiously concerned OSEKI GAVE HIS SPEECH at the same time that his greatest
with oneself as the ultimate, most meaningful unit of being. In short,
to be modern was to learn to live with a kind of homelessness.
By the time he arrived back in Japan early in 1903, Soseki had an
idea of a possible way forward. His observations while in London - of
himself as well as the population and its conditions of life - persuaded
S work of fiction was published. If the speech sketched a way
forward for Japans urban young, his novel Kokoro (The Heart
of Things) traced its traumatic near-impossibility in practice.
The novel follows a young man as he is about to graduate from Tokyo
University. He becomes friends with an older man known only as Sensei
him that the anxiety he constantly felt in the pit of my stomach came - teacher - who appears to be a comfortably off man of leisure, but is
from a tendency in Japan to believe that the countrys mission to become revealed through the relaxed, open joyfulness of the younger man to be
modern involved reaping the harvest of decades worth of cultural and living an isolated and purposeless life. For reasons unknown, he visits
technological change in the West rather than attempting to sow its a certain graveyard once per month.
own crop. Just as Japanese science was accused, usually by Japanese This relationship and everyday life in Tokyo gradually draws the
scientists, of taking up existing western technologies without doing young man in and away from his rural parents. Returning home to his
the sort of fresh science that might yield real innovation, so for Soseki dying father, he realises just how little he now has in common with his
Japans encounter with modernity had failed to inspire and invigorate relatively unschooled mother and father. Only his fathers last moments
the country. It had burdened it with a facsimile of western moderni bring a brief restoration of intimacy, punctuating the young mans dis
ty, which threatened the sanity of people like himself who tried to tanced disdain.
While at home, he receives a letter from Sensei, into whom
he has until now seemed rapidly to be turning. The letter tells
the story of Senseis youth. Cheated of his inheritance by a selfish
uncle, he moved away to Tokyo and took rooms in a boarding
house, where a childhood friend, K, came to stay w ith him.
When K told Sensei that he had fallen in love with the daughter
of the boarding-house owner, Sensei rushed to undermine his
friend and to propose marriage for himself. K took his own life,
plunging Sensei into long years of melancholy: over the darkness
in his cheating uncle, his discovery of the same in his own heart
(a feeling heightened during his visits to Ks grave) and the sense
that modern life corners people into living such lives.
The letter from Sensei to the young man makes up the final
portion of Kokoro. It turns out to be a suicide note: the year is
t9i2, the Meiji Emperor has died and the subsequent (real-life)
suicide of fidelity undertaken by General Nogi Maresuke gives
Sensei the final push he needs to make a long-planned act of
atonement for his friends death.
Kokoro puts Sosekis words to those students in a new light:
not so much advice about how to live life but a notice of suffer
ing to come, only partially open to mitigation. Where Japans
leaders had once examined modernity from without, Sosekis
own generation had lived it from within: pulled in all those dif
accommodate themselves to it. Sosekis early conviction that he could ferent directions - towards the past and future; outwards in relation
do little better than learn and repeat Englishmens opinions on English ship, inwards into an isolated, claustrophobic absorption. Where those
literature was revealed to be an outcome of this much deeper malaise in leaders had sought desperately to steer clear of the social fall-out from
Japan. Sosekis proposed way forward was to learn to find ones centre modernisation - the poverty and slums they hurried through in that first
of gravity not in borrowed ideals or in others, but in oneself, and then grand tour of the West - it was left to Soseki to document the psycho
to strive to make this individuality the source of how one lived and logical fall-out. First-hand witness to modernity and (auto)biographer
worked in the world. Speaking to students in t9i4, just two years before of its casualties, satirist of easy solutions and curator of his countrys
his death, Soseki warned his young audience that this was the only way conscience then and now: all these things, seeded in London, created
to find a sense of true belonging in the modern world. It would be the for Japan its very own Charles Dickens.
most delicate of balancing acts. This new generation was accused in
the Japanese press of forgetting its sense of duty to family and nation, Christopher Harding is Lecturer in Asian History at the University of Edinburgh.
turning instead to private cultivation, to the use of poetry to inspire and
document inner exploration and to the development of a finely honed
FURTHER READING
aesthetic sense as the ultimate goal in life.
Soseki cautioned his students against being cajoled into doing Natsume Soseki, The T o w e r o f London and O th e r Stories
everything for the sake of the nation: What a horror, he wrote, if we ( P e te r O w e n , 2 0 0 4 ) ; Kokoro ( P e n g u in C la s s ic s , 2 0 1 0 ).

have to eat for the nation, wash our faces for the nation, go to the toilet Van C. Cessel, Three M odern Novelists: Soseki, Tanizaki, K aw abata
for the nation! But equally he urged them not to mistake contemporary (K o d a n s h a A m e r , 1993).
talk o fego and self-awareness for true individualism. The former in Edwin McClellan, 'A n I n t r o d u c t io n t o S o s e k i', H arvard Journal o f
volved centring ones life and work on oneself, turning ever inwards; the A sia tic Studies 22 ( H a r v a r d U n iv e r s ity P ress, 1959).
latter involved centring ones life and work in oneself, turning outwards
34 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
Copyright of History Today is the property of History Today Ltd. and its content may not be
copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's
express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual use.
VICTORIANS

Fallen Women
Attitudes to female sexuality in the 19th century were rigid and unflinching and those
who failed to conform were ostracised and persecuted. Victoria Leslie compares how
fallen women were portrayed in the arts with the real stories of those who fell.

HE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL (w hich continues today as th e Christina Rossetti. The Foundling m others, like th eir fictional coun

T childrens charity Coram) had a long history o f improving the


lives o f children. Established by th e philanthropist Thomas
Coram in 1739 in response to th e num ber of abandoned chil
terparts, were also required to tell th e story o f their fall on applying to
the hospital, detailing how they had been compromised in order to gain
admission for their child. These women had to reconcile th eir stories
dren left to die on Londons streets, its purpose was to take in and
provide for children whose mothers were unable to care for them . Orig
inally th e hospital accepted any child in danger o f being abandoned,
to those th a t were expected o f them by th e hospital com m ittee and
w ith
those th a t were being told tim e and again in th e literature and visual
culture o f th e time.
but demand was so great th a t a ballot system had to be introduced. This The Victorian period was obsessed w ith defining and celebrating the
was to change in the m id-i9th century, w hen th e hospital restricted its idealised form o f femininity. Coventry Patm ores poem The Angel in
entry to illegitimate children only, focusing its admissions criteria on the House, published in 1854, defined th e perfect woman as pious and
th e moral integrity of the unmarried mother. In order to secure a place self-sacrificing. Likewise John Ruskins essay O f Queens Gardens, first
for her child, a womans good character had to be established and her published in 1865, defines man as th e doer, the creator, th e discoverer,
respectability judged by the all-male hospital comm ittee. th e defender, whereas womans rule should be confined to the sphere
The fallen woman became an enduring figure in art and literature, o f domesticity, her skills limited to sw eet ordering, arrangem ent and
w ith an array o f campaigners and reformers keen to fight her corner and decision. Women were supposed to be nurturers and helpmates, to be
raise social awareness, including w riters such as Charles Dickens and obedient and dutiful and, above all, virtuous.
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 35
VICTORIANS

T h e T ho m as C o ram F oundling H o sp ital, by Richard W ilson, c.1746.

This was only one half of the dominant ideology, a dichotomy that the periphery and could be seen as vehicles to keep girls on the straight
presented women as either virgins or whores. The fallen woman, and narrow. In both these paintings, the fallen woman is framed by a
however, was notably different from a prostitute, the distinction being, doorway, representing her crossing of a moral threshold and departure
according to the social historian Lynda Nead, that she had once been from respectable society. One treatment of this theme had a particularly
respectable but had dropped out of respectable society. Possession of powerful impact at the time, telling the story of a married womans
sexual knowledge outside of the institution of marriage was seen as a transgression and the subsequent ruin of her middle-class family.
threat to the established norms and the fallen woman was especially Augustus Leopold Eggs 1858 trilogy, Past and Present, begins by depict
dangerous, because she had known respectability and had chosen to ing a grave-faced man holding a letter, a love letter perhaps, intended
disregard it. She was therefore a deserving target of societys rage and for his wife, who lies imploringly at his feet. In the background, their
persecution, regarded as a social pariah, especially if she bore the proof daughters turn to see what the commotion is about; the house of cards
of her shame, her illegitimate child. In all likelihood both mother and they are building is toppling, as their lives soon will be. The house stands
child would end up in the workhouse or on the streets. on a French novel, suggestive of the immoral foundations their world
There were many cautionary tales of the fallen woman and her is built upon, while a painting in the background depicts Adam and
downward spiral in the art of the period. Though she was a contentious Eves expulsion from the Garden of Eden, further emphasising a loss
subject, owing to the fact that the fallen woman was defined by her of innocence. The Fall of Man, like the wifes fall, is due to eating the
sexual identity, there was a place for paintings that reasserted moral forbidden fruit, though, in the biblical story, Eve is acknowledged as the
values. Paintings such as Richard Redgraves The Outcast (1851) and bigger sinner. References of this kind reinforce the idea that women are
Dante Gabriel Rossettis The Gate o f Memory (1864) depict women on inherently weak and prone to temptation.
36 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
Thefallen womans recurrence in art shows that, while these women
were shunned and overlooked, society was fascinated by their cases
HE FOLLOWING TWO PAINTINGS show th e consequences of respectability was param ount and th e w om en who came to th e Found

T a woman rejecting the security and sanctity o f domestic life by


giving in to her own sexual desires. The second painting depicts
the two daughters, now grown up, in significantly diminished
lodgings from their once affluent middle-class family home. One daughter
gazes out o f the window into the night sky, while th e other weeps into
the elders lap. The suggestion is th a t th e m others sin has ruined the
ling Hospitals doors were judged from th e off: th e hospitals porter
made notes about their appearance and dress and w hether he thought
they were respectable. Many w om en were turned down because their
stories did no t hold w ater w hen investigated further, or because they
received negative character references.
Their stories make hard reading and, in many instances, describe
prospects o f her daughters who carry this stain, preventing them taking w hat is unambiguously rape. Sarah Farquhar, for example, was drugged
their proper place in society. In fact, in th e 1839 Custody o f Infants Act, until she lost consciousness, though never suspected w hat had hap
a woman convicted of adultery was prohibited from seeing her children pened to h er u n til she found h erself pregnant. Many o f th e stories
for fear o f th e immoral influence she m ight assert over them . The final presen t young, naive w om en, misguided by m en. The em ployer o f
painting o f th e trilogy illustrates th e end o f th e story, as th e unfaithful H arriet Fuller wrote:
wife crouches beneath th e Aldephi arches by th e Thames - a h aunt for
Harriet Fuller has lived with us as a servant between six and seven years,
beggars and outcasts - her illegitimate child in her arms. The presence of
during all which time her conduct has been correct and good, excepting
the river in the background is symbolic; many fallen women comm itted
her having been drawn into the commission o f sin and disgrace by a man
suicide by drowning them selves in the Thames.
who took advantage o f her credulity.
There were mixed opinions about the suitability of the trilogy when
it was exhibited at the Royal Academy. Egg never managed to sell these Fuller was n o t alone. Many o f th e p etitions speak o f betrayal at the
paintings in his lifetim e. Though such depictions challenged public hands o f th e m en they trusted, o f promises o f marriage th a t tu rn to
attitudes and notions o f propriety, th e fallen w om ans recurrence in abandonm ent w hen pregnancies are revealed. Annie Culver w rote that
art and literature shows th at, while these women were shunned and th e father o f her child accepted th e paternity but had no intention of
overlooked, society was fascinated by their cases. supporting her: he told me to drown myself and th at he would help me
The w om en w ho petitioned th e Foundling Hospital also had to to do so. In literature many fallen women were lured by drowning: a
engage in a process o f storytelling, along w ith other rigours demanded literal fall th a t carried the symbolic power of water to wash away sins.
by the admissions procedure. This included a form, references to estab The disgrace of having a child outside o f wedlock put unbearable
lish a womans good character and an interview in which she would have pressure on these women. Sarah Farquhar wrote that: My first thought
to discuss the personal details o f her relationship with the childs father, was o f self-destruction and this I attem pted twice but was miraculously
referred to as a criminal conversation - though only one party ever prevented. The stigm a o f being a fallen w om an m eant th a t many of
faced recrim inations for th e so-called crime. D eterm ining a womans th em refrained from telling anyone o f th eir situation, some seeking

T h e second p a in tin g in A ugu stu s Leopold Egg's Past and Present trilo g y .

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 37


VICTORIANS

T h e th ir d p a in tin g
in Egg's Past and
Present trilo g y .

confinement for the duration of their pregnancy with the hope that they
for divorce,fo r custody o f their children. Reactionaries at home and
would be able to resume their lives as before, providing the Foundling
abroad saw this small rebellion loom large and wanted women back in
Hospital admitted their child. Were it not for the admission process, theirplace.
which demanded women disclose their stories, it is likely that such
tales would never have been told. Sexual transgression was not a topic to The idea that gender roles needed to be re-established and reinforced
discuss openly and the shame would have been so extreme that silence to counter a potential feminist threat accounts for the proliferation
and secrecy were the preferable outcome for everyone involved. of literature and art on the subject. But Nead suggests that the fallen
W hether the stories tell the tru th of the matter is impossible to woman fits into another, more distant story altogether. Among other
know, though the petitioners were undoubtedly aware of the Hospital things, mutinies in India in 1857 threatened notions of empire. Impe
criterion and of social expectations regarding womens roles. What the rialism was justified because it was believed England was a superior,
stories omit is female sexual desire. The idea of women possessing a Christian nation. But looking inward, debates arose about the laxity of
sexual appetite ran contrary to the dominant ideology, which presented moral values at home. Changes needed to be made and these had to start
man as active and woman as passive. The petitions that were successful at a domestic level. The mothers of a great nation like England had to
spoke of sexual intercourse occurring just once ora few times under the be respectable, chaste and above reproach. Women who deviated from
assumption that they would soon be married. Women who confessed this archetype threatened the foundations of British society.
to living with the father of their child for a period of time, such as Jane The sad fact is that the mothers of this story never got to be mothers
McNamara, had their petition rejected. Women had to be seen as victims at all. The only socially acceptable outcome for an unmarried pregnant
of male lust, if they were to hope to climb back into respectable society. woman was to give up her child. With regards to the Foundling Hospital,
relatively few children were ever reclaimed by their mothers. This is the
HE FALLENWOMAN was a particularly 19th-century concept, real story of the fallen woman and of the children they gave up so that

T asserts the historian Margaret Reynolds. Women have departed


from respectable norms in other periods but were never perse
cuted quite so severely as in the Victorian age. So why did the

why were they treated so harshly? Nead suggests that paintings such
as Eggs Past and Present, which responds to the Matrimonial Causes
both child and mother could have the hope of a future.

V ictoria Leslie is a PhD student in English and Creative W riting at the University o f
fallen woman occupy such a central position in Victorian culture and
Chichester. Her novel Bodies o f Water, which explores the plight o f the fallen woman, was
published by Salt Publishing in 2016.

legislation of 1857 - allowing men to divorce their wives for infidelity


alone, while a husbands adultery had to be coupled with another mis FURTHER READING
demeanour - were part of a moral panic during which sexual and moral
Fallen W om en exhibitio n guide: h ttp ://fo u n d lin g m u se u m .o rg .u k/w p -
behaviour were perceived as the touchstones of social order. What was
co n ten t/u p lo a d s/2 0 1 3 /io /T h e -F a lle n -W om a n -e xh ib itio n -gu id e .p d f
this moral panic all about? Reynolds considers that:
Lynda Nead, Myths o f Sexuality: Representations o f W om en in V icto rian
It was partly a punitive response to proto-feminist claims of the late B ritain (Basil Blackwell, 1990).
18 th and early 19th centuries. Outspoken critics like Mary WoUstonecraft
Jeremy Paxman, The V ictorians: B rita in Through th e Paintings o f th e Age
in England and Germaine de Stael in France had written about the
(BBC Books, 2009).
needfo r womens education and independence,fo r employment rights,

3 8 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y JANUARY 2017
Copyright of History Today is the property of History Today Ltd. and its content may not be
copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's
express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual use.
AFGHANISTAN

In the post-Taliban era, Afghanistan SIR FRANCIS HUMPHREYS and two senior col

is seeking unifying national heroes


from its past. But, as David Loyn
explains, agreement on who should
be celebrated is hard to reach.
S leagues shot a snipe and a woodcock in a copse not
far from the British Legation in Kabul they called
Woodcock Wood. It was a poor bag, not helped
by the weather. The entry in the legation game book for
November 29th, 1928 recorded the first fall of snow this
season. It would be the last entry in the book until 1930.
Days later, 16,000 Afghan warriors descended on Kabul,
opposed to the reform programme of King Amanullah.
Humphreys spent the winter negotiating aid drops by the

Poster RAF and 80 evacuation flights out, including the depar


ture of Amanullah on January 14th, 1929. According to
the Pioneer newspaper, the king refused to leave his palace
without a British escort. Nothing would induce him to

Boys o f
come out unless the safety of himself and his ladies was
taken in hand by Englishmen, reported one observer. The
journey out was perilous. With the planes fully loaded, they
could not fly over the frontier mountains, but were forced
to navigate below the peaks through the IChyber Pass.

Afghan
Amanullah made an abortive attempt to reclaim power in
Kandahar, the countrys second city, later in the year, but
his years of reform were over. He had pushed too hard to
modernise his country.
Disputes over the history of this period are alive today.

History
On September 1st, 2016 Kabul saw the first gun battle
between rival militias since the Taliban took the city in
September 1996. They were fighting over the reburial of
Habibullah Kalakani, the Tajik warrior who ousted

jjjc 0

P o r t r a i t o f t h e a s s a s s in a te d

M u ja h id in le a d e r A h m a d
S h a h M a s s o u d , C h a r ik a r ,

A fg h a n is ta n .

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 39


AFGHANISTAN

Amanullah, who had lain in an unmarked grave since his


death less than a year after he took power in November
1929. What made the incident even more remarkable was
that some of the gunmen were part of an unofficial private
army kept by the countrys vice president, Abdul Rashid
Dostam. Given Dostams power, the police were powerless
to intervene.
The standard western view of ICalakani was that he was
a bandit who seized power, ousting the reformist Aman
ullah and looting Afghanistans treasury, before being
gunned down by rival warlords. He is widely known by the
contemptuous nickname, Bacha-i-Saqao - son of a water
carrier - a reminder of his lack of noble birth. But his cult
has been growing in recent years, as the northern Tajiks, his
tribe, search for heroes from their past. His image is seen
increasingly on the streets, or stuck on the windscreen of
vehicles, jostling with the faces of other leaders, in a power
battle that pits different interpretations of Afghanistans
past against each other to determine its future. A stall in the
main bazaar in the centre of Kabul does a brisk trade selling
posters and flags showing the faces of revered past leaders.
This contest over history has filled a vacuum created by
the lack of political parties. Since the reform movements
of the 1970s, attempts by democrats to create functioning
parties have always been resisted or ignored by those in
power. The refusal of Daoud Khan to allow the emergence
of a constitutional opposition after he took over in a palace
coup in 1973 removed the pressure valve of informed
debate and led to a hardening of views against him, ending
in his violent overthrow in 1978. A year later Soviet troops
invaded the country. Similarly, after the fall of the Taliban
in 2001, President Hamid Karzai had little desire to see
political parties emerging, governing as an old-fashioned
tribal chief through patronage and mutual responsibility.
His successor, Ashraf Ghani, prefers to rule as a techno
crat and, even without organised political opposition, has
enough trouble negotiating with the chief executive
Abdullah Abdullah, his rival for president, locked as they are
in the power-sharing deal that broke the deadlock over the A shop in Kabul curricula have been problematic in a number of countries,
disputed 2014 election. w ith p o rtra its
such as Bosnia and Macedonia, while school textbooks in
o f M assoud and
D aoud Khan, 2016.
Pakistan tend to ignore the countrys shared history with
HERE IS LITTLE APPETITE in the Afghan parlia India. In Afghanistan, the study of modern history and

T ment for issue-based political groupings. Members


of the lower house, the Wolesi Jirga, should have
faced an election in 2015, but with no agreement
over electoral reform they remain in their seats. In the
interim, many use their position to block appointments
made by the president. This out-of-touch elite act in a way
international affairs stops in the 1970s. Students in human
ities in the countrys most highly regarded state-funded
institution, Kabul University, complain of being taught by
rote by teachers with little appetite for debate. The decline
in education began with the flight of 90 per cent of Afghan
istans professors in the months after the 1978 revolution;
that would have been familiar to the British official who it has never recovered. When I last visited a US-funded
wrote of the 1929 revolution: Afghanistan studies centre at the university, based around
the magnificent collection of newspapers, pamphlets and
The sordid commerciality o f the sycophants and officials, the
pictures given by the late American scholar of Afghan
general treachery o f all classes, the unscrupulous scheming fo r
history Louis Dupree and his widow Nancy Hatch Dupree,
power and wealth, portray an Afghanistan despicable and
there were no PhD students using the archive.
unstable despite the veneer o f civilisation imposed on it by
So what are the competing versions of history that
Amanullah.
fill this political void? Many of the leaders who are most
Western-imposed democracy is a pale mockery of the real revered are the Mujahidin warriors who fought the Soviet
thing: in a reverse of the demand that there be no taxation invaders in the 1980s. The best known of these, and the
without representation, Afghanistan has representation most frequently displayed, is the Tajik commander, Ahmed
without taxation, where elected officials depend mainly on Shah Massoud, the lion of Panjshir. He was killed two days
western aid, rather than their electors. before 9/11 by a bomb concealed in the camera of an Arab
Education has done little to combat this failure to TV crew, which turned out to be al- Qaeda. Massoud was an
address the nations disputes over its past. Post-conflict Islamic fundamentalist, beginning to agitate for a harder
4 0 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y JANUARY 2017
AFGHANISTAN
From independence to the present day

August January 1965


1919 The socialist People's Democratic
Following Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) is
the end of founded.
the Third
Anglo-Afghan July 1973
War, Britain Former prime minister Sardar
signs a treaty Daoud Khan stages a bloodless
recognising coup. Zahir, the last Musahiban
Afghan independence. king, abdicates. Daoud abolishes
Amanullah Khan becomes king the monarchy and declares a
of Afghanistan. republic with himself as its first
president. Daoud attempts to
February 1921 diminish Soviet influence on
Amanullah signs a treaty of Afghanistan.
friendship with Soviet Russia
and pursues a programme of
modernisation backed by Soviet
technology and money.

January
1929 April 1978
Habibullah The PDPA seizes power in
Kalakani, an the Saur Revolution. Daoud is
ethnic Tajik, murdered. The PDPA establishes
launches a the Democratic Republic
revolt and of Afghanistan with Nur
deposes Muhammad Taraki as general
Amanullah. secretary.
Kalakani becomes ruler.
September 1979
October 1929 Hafizullah Amin replaces
Mohammed Nadir Shah, Taraki, who is executed. Amin

Many of the leaders who Amanullah's former minister of


war, recaptures Kabul. Kalakani
is unpopular and opposition to
the communist regime grows.
are most revered are the is hanged on Novemberist.
Nadir becomes king, reversing
Relations with Soviet Union
deteriorate.
Mujahidin warriors who many of Amanullah's reforms.
December 1979
fought the Soviet invaders November 1933 Soviet forces invade and

in the 1980s Nadir Shah is assassinated. His


son, Mohammed Zahir Khan
capture Hafizullah Amin during
Operation Storm-333. Babrak
becomes king and reigns for four Karmal is installed as general
line in the early 1970s, 20 years before the Taliban came on decades. secretary. The Soviet-Afghan
the scene. The French anthropologist, Olivier Roy, wrote War between the Mujahidin
in 1985 of the way that Islam filled a gap left as state and 1934 and the Soviet and Afghan army
other institutions collapsed: The resistance movement has Afghanistan joins League of begins.
brought with it a strengthening of Islams role in shaping Nations.
the social order. Sharia made sense of chaos, but Afghan 1981/5
society was coarsened by this process. In the refugee camps 1947 Seven Mujahidin groups emerge,
in Pakistan, where more than two million Afghans fled Creation of Pakistan. supported by the US, Pakistan
during the fighting in the 1980s, membership of one of and Saudi Arabia.
the seven Mujahidin groups was an essential condition for October 1964
receiving a ration card: violent Islamic resistance became a The Afghanistan Constitution is 1985
way of life and its martyrs are held in high esteem. put into effect, creating a new An estimated 50 per cent of the
Massoud is everywhere, with one of the capitals main parliament with ability to pass Afghan population is displaced
intersections outside the US embassy named after him. legislation contrary to sharia law. by the war.
Mujahidin Day, April 28th, is a day of celebration for his
JANUARY 2017 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y 41
A F G H A N IS T A N

supporters. With the streets empty for a national holiday,


1986 north-east o f the country as the young men race around Kabul, weapons bristling from the
The US supplies the Mujahidin Northern Alliance. windows of Toyota Corollas, waving Massoud flags. Opposi
w ith Stinger missiles. tion to this festival is seen as unpatriotic. Communists and
1997 minorities, particularly Hazaras, keep their mouths closed
Septem ber 1987 Taliban recognised as legitimate and stay indoors.
Soviet-approved Mohammad rulers o f Afghanistan by Saudi Other former Mujahidin leaders have their followers,
Najibullah Ahmadzai, former Arabia, Pakistan and the UAE. too, among them Abdul Rassul Sayyaf, who stood for
head o f the brutal Afghan state president in 2014, and Ishmael Khan, with his power base
intelligence agency KHAD, 1998 in the west of the country, who was Sayyafs vice-presi
becomes president. Al-Qaeda is suspected o f bombing dential running mate. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, a Pashtun
tw o US embassies in East Africa. thug whose speciality as a student leader in the 1970s
1988 The US launches missile strikes was throwing acid in the face of women with their heads
Al-Qaeda, a m ilitant Sunni Islamist against suspected Afghan bases of uncovered, recently negotiated a deal with the government
organisation, founded. Osama Bin Laden. to come in from the cold, after opposing the US engage
ment until this year. His followers, too, display his picture.
April 1988 Septem ber 2001 General Dostam, the current vice president, whose follow
Geneva Accords signed between Massoud, leader o f the main ers attempted to stop the reburial of Kalakani, is widely
Afghanistan and Pakistan opposition to the Taliban, is killed. displayed. Hazaras also show their heroes. This community
w ith Soviet Union and US as The 9/11 attacks in the US kill is increasingly wealthy and assisted in social progress by al
guarantors. Soviet troops to be thousands. Osama bin Laden, the lowing women to work - almost all the female cadets at the
w ithdraw n from Afghanistan by prime suspect, is known to be British-funded officer training academy are Hazaras. Both
February 1989. hiding in Afghanistan. Ghani and Abdullah have Hazara deputies and images of
war leaders such as Karim Khalili are displayed prominently
1989 O ctober 2001 in Hazara areas.
Soviet w ithdrawal from US and British airstrikes launched
Afghanistan. Afghan Civil War against Afghanistan. HE DIFFERENCES dividing these former allies
breaks out between the PDPA
governm ent and the Mujahidin.

Decem ber 1991


Dissolution o f the Soviet Union.
Russian aid to Afghanistan stops
N ovem ber 2001
The Northern Alliance enters
Kabul, pushing Taliban south.

Decem ber 2001


T against the Soviet invasion are not over political
policy, but patronage. Government jobs, even
university lectureships, are handed out through
a careful balance of opposing tribal and jihadi interests,
in an effort to keep the state from blowing apart. Dostam
is powerful in the north and demands roles for his Uzbek
soon after. Taliban surrenders its last territory, followers. Hekmatyar has solid support among the Ghilzai
the province o f Zabul. Pashtuns, the sub-group of Afghanistans largest tribe, who
are strong in the east and straddle the frontier with Paki
1vi August 200 3 stan. He has burnished his Mujahidin credentials by contin
NATO takes control of uing to fight until now. Sayyaf has a following in Paghman
Afghanistans multinational west of Kabul, with support across Pashtun lands, his
peacekeeping force, its first assumed name meaning one who is good with a sword. He
April 1992 com m itm ent outside Europe in its had contacts with extremist Arab fighters and is believed to
Fall o f the Moscow-backed 54-year history. have facilitated Osama bin Ladens return to Afghanistan
government in Kabul, after general in 1996, into an area then not yet underTaliban control.
Abdul Rashid Dostam defects to D ecem ber 2 0 0 4 He has also been named by human rights investigators for
the Mujahidin, whose groupings Hamid Karzai, interim head of several assaults on civilians, including the worst incident
fig h t among themselves, reducing state, is elected president w ith 55 of the civil war in Kabul in the early 1990s, a massacre of
the capital city to rubble. per cent o f vote. Hazaras in the Afshar suburb of Kabul in 1993.
The head of the civil service, Nader Nadery, currently
1994 attempting to reform the administration and open up re
The Taliban form in Kandahar, cruitment, once ran the well-funded Afghanistan Independ
mainly by fighters disillusioned by ent Human Rights Commission, which exposed violent
fighting among other Mujahidin acts by former warlords, including the Afshar massacre. But
groups. They draw support from the men whose images are carried so proudly in the streets
Pakistan. of the capital won immunity from prosecution in the early
years of the Karzai government and have since succeeded
1996 in entrenching their influence in a country whose modern
Having taken control o f 90 per Septem ber 2014 institutions are too frail to resist their power.
cent o f the country, the Taliban Ashraf Ghani becomes president. This is not the only version of recent Afghan history.
establish the Islamic Emirate of Support for Najibullah, longest-serving of the Soviet-backed
Afghanistan. Leaders from the D ecem ber 2014 leaders in the 1980s, was once kept quiet. Shopkeepers
Islamic State o f Afghanistan, NATO ends 13-year combat might keep a discreet picture of him in the back room,
including Massoud, control the mission in Afghanistan. which is now openly displayed. He is remembered as a com
petent, tough administrator, the sort of person Europeans
42 HISTORYTODAY JANUARY 2017
Massoud at prayer,
an image reproduced
on a carpet for sale in
Kabul's market, 2016.

might say made the trains run on totem to combat the received wisdom that Afghanistan
Divided Country time - if there were trains in Afghan cannot be led by anyone but a Pashtun. Kalakani was put
Afghanistans ethnic complexity istan. He stabilised Afghanistan after into an unmarked grave when his revolution was swept
is evident from the countrys taking office in 1985 and succeeded in aside less than a year after he took office by an army led by
national anthem, which holding the country against the Mu the former commander of Amanullahs forces, Nadir Shah,
mentions 14 different groups. jahidin even after Soviet forces w ith who then became king in turn - a Tajik stabbed in the back
The lyrics, however, are in drew in 1989, losing power only in by a Pashtun according to the Shura-i-nazar view of history.
Pashto, the language spoken by 1992 when Russia stopped giving him The decision to move his grave was prompted by the
the countrys largest group, the financial support after the collapse of discovery in 2008 of Daoud Khans remains in a mass grave
Pashtun, roughly 40 per cent the Soviet Union. He had little diffi with other family members who were killed with him in
of the population. The Pashtun culty in recruiting volunteer militias the Saur Revolution in 1978. He was positively identified
have traditionally controlled to defend Kabul, including womens and reburied with full national honours on a discreet hill
Afghanistan and borne the brunt brigades, opposed to the arrival of side in a military training area to the west of Kabul. If the
o f foreign invasion. As such, Islamic fundamentalists from the nation would honour the disgraced Daoud in this way, went
the Taliban is largely a Pashtun mountains. Attacks on womens rights Tajik rhetoric, then they should look after their own.
movement. They are also the did not begin with the arrival of the The other person whose face is often displayed - and
second largest ethnic group in Taliban, but when the Mujahidin took more acceptable officially than the ad hoc windscreen
Pakistan, forging strong ties over after ousting Najibullah in 1992. snapshots of the Mujahidin - is Amanullah, the reformist
between the two countries. Open support for Najibullah in the king ousted by Kalakani. He can be seen on the walls of
The Persian-speaking Tajik 21st century is not just the post-Talib police stations and army bases, dressed in grand robes, and
and Hazara are the second and an confidence of people in a more free wearing an Afghan astrakhan hat, more revered now than
third largest Afghan groups, society; it is a reaction to the domi when he was alive, a reminder of a period of reform in a
respectively. The Hazara differ nance of the old warlords and support country where stable progress remains elusive.
from most other Afghans in for the aspiration that Afghanistan
practising Shia rather than might be better governed. David Loyn is Visiting Senior Research Fellow in the Departm ent o f W ar Studies
Sunni Islam. They have faced The appearance o fBacha Saqao, at King's College, London. He was BBC Afghanistan correspondent until 2015.
discrimination for centuries. Habibullah Kalakani, onto this
crowded stage of historical figures FURTHER READING
jostling for attention, has taken some
David Loyn, B u tche r and Bolt: Two H undred Years o f Foreign
by surprise. It denotes increased frustration by the Shura-
E ngagem ent in A fgha nistan (Windmill, 2009),
i-nazar, the northern alliance, a mainly Tajik grouping
once led by Massoud. Its present leader is another former Thomas Barfield, A fgha nistan: a C u ltura l and P o litica l H is to ry
Mujahidin warlord, Mohammed Atta, who governs Balkh (Princeton, 2012).
province, the wealthy northern gateway to central Asia. Angelo Rasanayagam, A fgha nistan: a M od e m H isto ry
He is openly hostile to President Ghani, but too powerful (I.B. Tauris, 2005).
to dismiss. The Shura-i-nazar are using Kalakani as a new
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 43
CULLODEN

The Battle of Culloden, which vanquished for good Jacobite claims to the British
throne, is a much mythologised and misunderstood event. Murray Pittock cuts
through the fog of war to find out what really happened in April 1746.

OR TWO CENTURIES, British historiography poorly armed primitives sacrificing themselves with point

F has defined Jacobitism as primitive: first, it was


demeaned because of the very real threat it posed
to the Hanoverian state; second, because of the
role played by the Jacobite defeat in the creation myth of
the British Empire. It is no coincidence that this approach
less nobility on the orders of an Italian princeling, Bonnie
Prince Charlie. That they are not remembered entirely with
contempt is due to the fact that all agree that they were
defending an ancient way of life.
Arguably no battle beyond living memory is remem
began to founder in the 1970s, as the former imperial bered so powerfully and so falsely. On Culloden Moor, what
state, which grew to maturity in part as a consequence of was in some ways the last Scottish army, with its Franco-
the defeat of the Jacobites, took on a more fragmentary, Irish and Scoto-French allies, sought to restore Charles Ed
modern and multicultural existence. Yet the popular image wards father, James (known to his supporters as James III
of the Jacobites, not least at the Battle of Culloden, fought and VIII), to a multi-kingdom monarchy more aligned with
on April 16th, 1746, remains. Though the Jacobite armies European politics than colonial struggle. They were in many
were well armed and decently led by officers familiar with ways more of a regular army than many have given them
the courts of Europe, both British Whig history and Scot credit for. Outnumbered but not outgunned, it was the
tish patriot nostalgia relies on an image of them as dirty, Hanoverian cavalry that proved their downfall. Archival

Blades not A f t e r t h e b a ttle :

bullets
Culloden M o o r
Looking Across the
M o ra y Firth, 1746,
e n g ra v in g b y H.
G riffith s , 0.1830.

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 45


CULLODEN

research and recent battlefield archaeology of Culloden and the tendency of units returning from the night attack
demonstrate that it was not British artillery that brought to congregate a kilometre behind the lines near the Jacobite
down kilted swordsmen as much as dragoon blades that cut headquarters at Culloden House, it was not the site on
down Jacobite musketeers. The effect of flanking cavalry on which they finally deployed.
an over-extended infantry formation with little effective The next day, the 16th, the Jacobite army formed up
reserve had been a constant in warfare for centuries and it is on a mildly convex site, where the left and right wings
the key to understanding what happened at Culloden. The were both mutually invisible. Rainfall levels and drainage
battle as it happened is much more interesting than as it is mean that such a site tends to drain to boggy ground at the
remembered. extremes of left and right, which would impede the speed
of the Highland Charge, so crucial to Jacobite strategy, and
ISTORIANS HAVE LONG argued that the eventual the ability to attack the enemy flank. In addition, it is likely

H field of battle was ill-chosen; that it gave the Duke


of Cumberland, commander of the British forces,
considerable advantages, especially for his artillery
and cavalry. This interpretation originates in a dispute
between the advocates of Lord George Murray, Charles
that, to the extent that the farmland was well drained,
the land adjacent to it would be correspondingly wetter.
Sullivans view that the enclosures at Culloden House
and nearby Culwhiniac would provide protection from a
flanking attack was not ridiculous: he was probably think
Edwards lieutenant-general, and those of John Sullivan, ing of the French practice of deploying a mobile reserve
a respected French regular, who was quartermaster and to reinforce the flanks. There were some signs of this at
adjutant general for the Jacobite army. Culloden, but there were too few in the Jacobite second line
The first site, scouted by staff officers in retreat from the to carry this out effectively. The Jacobite cavalry, though
Jacobite campaign south of the border, was near Dalcross its screen (a move used to obscure what lies behind it) on
Castle, five kilometres east of the final battlefield. From the right held well into the battle, was woefully deficient
here, the Jacobites sought to defend the main road into in numbers. The National Trust for Scotland battlefield site
Inverness, which was Sullivans aim. But, two days before covers a smaller footprint than it did for the combatants,
the actual battle, Sullivan advised against it. It is easy to which has had the effect, as the archaeologist Tony Pollard
see why he was wise to make that decision: the distance has observed, of reinforcing interpretations that marginal
between the two armies would leave them within effective ise or ignore the central role played by cavalry action.
musket range of each other and it has been estimated that
the superior, highly disciplined firepower of the British HE INITIAL ARTILLERY exchange (the Jacobites
army could have killed or wounded as many as 300 Jacobites
a minute. Contesting a fire fight or adopting a defensive
position were not traditional Jacobite strengths, which de
pended more on the Highland Charge and mobile, individu
al sharpshooters picking off individual troops.
On the 15th, Murray sent his own party to examine
T possessed 85 pieces of artillery at its peak) lasted
for about nine minutes, maybe a little longer.

Some 30 to 90 rounds were fired from the British


armys cannon. When the 4th Regiment of Foot was
broken by the Jacobite advance, the breach was narrow and,
a site further west, near Daviot Castle, on the southern forming 20 or 30 deep to push through, the Jacobite infan
bank of the River Nairn, two kilometres south-west of the try could not bring fire to bear over a wide enough front.
final battlefield. It was an odd choice for a general who had In a three-minute struggle, five or six volleys from three
complained that Jacobite food supplies in Inverness were British infantry regiments sent a huge volume of ball into
both the remnants of the 4th and the Jacobite front, halting
the charge. The Jacobites returned fire: multiple ball holes
The Jacobite cavalry was woefully were reported in the clothing of at least one British officer.
As recent archaeology has demonstrated, the Jacobites fired
deficient in regard to the numbers set more ball per man than the British: isolated fire fights on
the flanks, forming into squares to screen the retreat and
against the British the volleying of relatively intact units such as Lord Ogilvys
infantry regiment all played their part. But retreating Jaco
not being effectively distributed to his troops, as it was bite battalions, disorganised by soggy ground, poor visibility,
some distance from the Inverness road and so could not canister and musketry, were swept aside by a dragoon pincer
defend Jacobite access to the city. Murray was criticised for movement when their cavalry screen on the right gave way.
his choice, that it looked like shunning the Enemy... at a Culloden was always going to be a difficult battle for
greater Distance from Inverness ... a great deal of Ammuni the Jacobites to win, but the improvised nature of the final
tion and Baggage being left there. That judgment, ignored site, the lack of any reserve and sufficient cavalry to build
by Murrays advocates, was surely correct. Instead, Sullivan on the protection offered by the obstacles on their flanks,
suggested a site one kilometre east of the final battlefield, as well as the strength of the British cavalry and their use
which covered the road into Inverness. late in the battle (not too early, as at previous encounters
Of the three battle sites, Sullivans final choice was the at Prestonpans and Falkirk) made all the difference. In
best. Its only disadvantage was that it was visible to the remembering the Battle of Culloden correctly, we should
Royal Navy in the Moray Firth and, given the high levels realise that the British armys most effective weapons
of spring light in Scotland by mid-April, the movement of that day in 1746 were the cavalrys blades rather than the
the Jacobite army might have alerted government troops infantrys bullets.
at Nairn before the Jacobites were in position to attack. Murray Pittock is Bradley Professor at the University o f Glasgow and the
However, due to the disorganisation of the Jacobite army author o f Culloden: Great Battles (Oxford University Press, 2016).

46 HISTORYTODAY JANUARY 2017


BRITAIN

HE REPRESENTATION of the People Act of 1918

T gave the parliamentary franchise to women - or at


least those women over 30 years of age who were
either occupiers of property with an annual rent
of 5 or over, or were householders, wives of householders
or graduates of British universities. This partial franchise
had been won by the suffrage movement after 70 years of
campaigning, but it would be another ten years before the
Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act of 1928
was passed, which enabled all women, like all men since
1918, to vote at age 21.
The winning of the parliamentary franchise energised
the activities of First World War womens organisations
and saw new associations proliferate across Britain. Local
Women CitizensAssociations (WCAs) began to spring up
across the country, reaching a peak between 1918 and 1930,
although there was a revival of womens activism following
the end of the Second World War. The earliest branches
were established in Liverpool and Manchester in 1913; the
Dundee branch held regular meetings until 2002.

After
The purpose of WCAs was to unite women as citizens
with a vote and to encourage and give voice to those who
had not previously been active in the politics of their local
communities. The Manchester and Salford branches, in
particular, had some noteworthy success in recruiting such

the
women to their ranks during the interwar decades, though

The winning of the


parliamentaryfranchise

Vote energised the activities of


First World War womens
organisations

was the leaders and organisers in cities such as Cambridge,


Cardiff and Edinburgh were often experienced in campaign
ing, having been active in the earlier suffrage movement.
Among their numbers were both those who had sought to

Won
obtain the vote by peaceful means and suffragettes who had
engaged in militant campaigns.
There is a debate among historians about what differ
ence the vote made to the development of such organi
sations. It used to be thought that, after the gain of the
partial and equal franchises of 1918 and 1928, a period of
Winning the vote for women stagnation and decline set in. Yet more recent accounts by
scholars, which examine the everyday activities and
brought new energy to campaigns campaigns undertaken by an array of womens organisa
for social and political equality. tions, offer new perspectives. They argue that we need to
Joanne Smith looks at the consider the activities of the movement more widely and
reflect on how activists saw their own roles. The WCAs
remarkable flowering of womens were engaged in a diverse array of activities and were effec
associations in Britain during the tive in bringing about improvements locally, as well as on
national and international matters. The womens move
20th century.
ment did not, as was once thought, decline after the vote
for women was won.
S u ffra g e tte s in prison u n ifo rm head to a The National Women Citizens Association (NWCA)
d e m o n s tra tio n in C helm sford, Essex d uring had been formed in 1917, just as women were on the verge
a p a rlia m e n ta ry b y -e le c tio n in 1908. of winning the parliamentary franchise, and it sought
JANUARY 2017 HISTORYTODAY 47
BRITAIN

A membership
card for the
Womens Social
and Political
Union, 1908.

48 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017


to educate women so they could make the most of their and charitable organisations under the umbrella of the
position as enfranchised citizens. It was organised by the Liverpool Council of Voluntary Aid in 1909, which sought
president of the National Union of Women Workers, May to enhance the provision of welfare services for women and
Ogilvie Gordon, a distinguished palaeontologist who had children throughout Merseyside.
been the first woman to be awarded a science doctorate by Rathbone was also a key figure in the constitutional suf
the University of London. Under her leadership, individuals Eleanor R athbone, frage movement. In 1896 she had served on the executive
from womens societies were recruited and the proposed c.1910. committee of the National Union of Womens Suffrage Soci
name of the London-based eties, playing an influential role for more than two decades.
NWCA was adopted, with Helena When women became eligible to stand for election to local
Normanton - who in 1922 became city councils, Rathbone was one of the first women in Liver
the first female barrister to prac pool to mount a campaign and was successfully elected in
tise in England - as its first sec 1909. She served on the council until 1935.
retary. The NWCA operated until After the partial franchise had been won in 1918, suf
1974 and remained a fluid entity frage organisations reformulated and reinvigorated their
throughout its existence: in 1947 campaigns. Rathbone became the president of the National
it amalgamated with the National Union for Societies of Equal Citizenship, campaigning
Council for Equal Citizenship and for the vote on equal terms with men, which was finally
then, in 1949, with Women for achieved in 1928. A variety of other issues were pursued
Westminster. Consequently, with with notable success, including divorce law reform, widows
the increase in the size of the pensions and the equal guardianship of children.
national body, local WCA branch Throughout the First World War, Rathbone had recog
es were organised into regional nised the importance of the payment o fseparation allow
federations. Not all WCA branch ances, the portion of a soldiers pay which was matched by
es were the same. Though most the government to ensure that the combatants dependants
remained affiliated to the parent
organisation, some, including
those in Manchester and Edin
Women sought to use their status as citizens with
burgh, remained autonomous as the power of the vote to bring about improvements
some issues or campaigns, such
as those for equal pay or for a to the lives o f women
clean and cheap milk supply, were
best served independently from the central association. were not left destitute, alleviating womens dependency on
Scotland, where legislation was often significantly different mens pay. This led directly to the development of a peace
from that of England and Wales, had its own needs, reflect time model, which advocated the payment of an allowance
ing its singular political and legal culture. directly to the mother of children. Rathbone pursued this
Eleanor Rathbone, founder of the Women Citizens vigorously when she was elected in 1919 as MP for the Com
Association in Liverpool and a prolific activist in the bined English Universities, a position she held until her
citys political environment before the First World War, death in 1946. Throughout the interwar years and during
epitomised this remarkable generation of campaigners. the Second World War, Rathbone wrote a variety of public
The ubiquitous Rathbone united the citys philanthropic ations advocating family allowances. She joined the Family
Endowment Society to promote the cause and, along with
help from prominent individuals such as the social reformer
William Beveridge and with support from like-minded MPs,
her campaign culminated in the passing of the Family
Allowance Act of 1945, the first time that British law ar
ranged for child benefit to be paid directly to the mother.

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 49


BRITAIN

Throughout her life, Rathbone was also engaged in a


range of international causes and sought to improve the
social, economic and political position of women in colonial
countries. She campaigned against child marriages in India,
argued against the appeasement of Nazi Germany and
objected to the rise of the Franco regime in Spain. As a con
sequence, she became an expert on the plight of European
refugees. Rathbone pursued a number of different causes
throughout her life and was engaged in attempts to improve
the lives of German citizens at the end of the Second World
War when she died suddenly on January 2nd, 1946 at her
home in Middlesex aged 74.

OR MANY OTHER WOMEN their participation in

F organisations that pre-dated the WCA was a major


influence on developments postwar. Mabel Howell,
for example, who joined the CardiffWCA in 1921 as
its honorary secretary, had held the same post in the local
branch of the Cardiff and District Womens Suffrage Society
and had worked at the University Settlement of Wales,
Badge o f th e N a tio n a l U nion o f W o m e n 's S uffrage Societies,
formed in 1900 to encourage Cardiffs undergraduates to 0 9 0 8 .
work with the citys poorer citizens in providing useful
social and educational work. Similarly, Elizabeth Needham
joined the Manchester Women CitizensAssociation in
1915, becoming the organisations chair in 1921, and had
been active in the Manchester branch of the Ladies Public
Health Society, the Society for Womens Suffrage and the
Manchester Womens Liberal Council. In Scotland, the
Edinburgh WCA had prominent women, such as Sarah
Elizabeth Siddons Mair, who had been a leading figure in
the Scottish womens movement as president of the Ladies
Edinburgh Debating Society. She was also the founder of
the Edinburgh Association for the University Education of
Women and, from 1907, president of the Edinburgh Nation
al Society for Womens Suffrage.
From the mid-i9th century, women had participated in
creasingly in public life: by visiting and nursing the sick and
elderly, serving on school boards and as poor law guardians.
From 1907, following the Qualification of Women (County

Beginning in 1922 the ,


Manchester WCA mounted a
sustained six-year campaign
to challenge the bar on
married women teachers
and Borough Councils) Act, they could also be elected as
town councillors. It was not surprising that women sought
to intervene in the politics of their communities, as munici
pal authorities wielded significant power over the develop
ment of social policy, particularly in the inter war years.
Local Education Authorities throughout England and
Wales had demanded the resignation of women teachers
when they married, although this policy was relaxed to a
certain extent during the First World War, largely due to the
shortage of male teachers following military conscription
in 1916. It was rigorously applied again, however, during the
interwar period. Beginning in 1922, the Manchester WCA
mounted a six-year campaign to challenge the marriage
SO HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
bar. It worked with similar organisations, such as the local
branch of the National Council of Women and the Equal
Citizenship Group, and garnered support from the Liberal
supporting Manchester Guardian. Pivotal to their success,
however, was a shift in the political composition of the
citys council when, in 1928, Liberal and Labour city coun
cillors worked together to defeat Conservative opposition
and rescinded the marriage bar against women teachers.
Women saw their exclusion from the workplace as a
contravention of their citizenship rights. Campaigns to
rescind the barrier were fought across Britain by many
like-minded organisations but patriarchal attitudes and a
backlash against the advances women had made during the
First World War made it difficult to achieve. It was not until
the introduction of the Education Act of r944 that this
policy was rescinded nationally.
In South Wales, the Cardiff WCA sought to improve
road safety and lobbied Cardiff Members of Parliament
to support the passing of the Road Traffic Bill in 1934.
A d e m o n s tra tio n by m e m b e rs o f th e W o m en 's S uffrage Societies, 1908.
Working in collaboration with the Pedestrians Association,
they sent repeated deputations to the local city councils
watch and public works committees throughout the 1920s
and 1930s, ultimately securing the provision of some road
traffic islands and traffic calming measures. International
issues were also a concern. In Cardiff there were close ties
to the peace movement following the outbreak of the First
World War and a representative from the Womens Interna
tional League for Peace and Freedom reported her experi
ences of the Peace Pilgrimage to the local branch.

KEY POLICY and aim of most WCAs was to

A increase the representation of women in political


office, although it was difficult for women to
be elected to town, city and borough councils,
since these were viewed by political parties as dry runs for
general elections. There was frequently overt opposition
to womens participation in local politics and they faced
serious challenges when trying to stand as independent
women citizens candidates as party politics often domi
nated. In Cambridge, however, the local WCA was able to
secure the election of its own independent women citizens
candidates. Throughout the interwar period the Cambridge
WCA was able to return a few of its candidates to the town
council, helped by the particular political environment of
the university city.

W omens Social and Political Union,


4. CLEMENTS INN. STRAND.

VOTES FOR W OM EN.


. TWO .
Public Meetings for Women
Will he held on Friday, I Oth May, 1907,
IN THE GRAND HOTEL. II IN THE PRIORY ROOMS.
Ai 3.30 p.m. || At 8 p.m.
BIRMINGHAM.
S p e a k e r :

Miss CHR1STABEL PANKHURST,


Mrs. NELLIE A. MARTEL,
Mrs. BAINES, and others.

A n n o u n c e m e n t fo r a public m e e tin g , B irm ing ham , M a y 1907.

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 51


BRITAIN

N PARTS OF SCOTLAND, women were also active in Above: inside the


non-party organisations. In the Edinburgh WCA, women duplicating office
of th e Women's
campaigned for the extension of the parliamentary
Social and Political
franchise, for the appointment of women police and Union, 1911.
probation officers, for improved child welfare services and Right: campaign
for improved standards of housing. Similar to the WCAs ers for an anti-
discrimination
in England and Wales, the Edinburgh branch was part of
parliam entary bill,
an array of womens organisations and networks across London, 1973.
Scotland. They worked with a number of local, national and
international organisations; in their efforts to secure the
election of women to public office they campaigned with
the Society for Equal Citizenship, the Womens Co-op
erative Guild and the Womens Freedom League in the
Edinburgh Local Elections Committee. They also undertook and effective in bringing real improvement to the lives of
a range of other campaigns including, notably, the drive to citizens across Britain. The Women Citizens Associations
address the high levels of maternal mortality in Edinburgh. that developed over the course of the 20th century were
Although similar initiatives were carried out across England part of the vibrant and dynamic array of womens organ
and Wales, the high rate of maternal mortality in Scotland isations which developed once the vote was won and, as
made it a special point of focus. Studies carried out by gov such, deserve to be integrated into the history of the British
ernments throughout the 1920s revealed that medical mis womens movement.
management, poor housing conditions and general poverty
all contributed to the high death rates. The Edinburgh J o a n n e S m it h is S e n io r L e c tu re r in H is to r y a t M a n c h e s te r M e tr o p o lita n
WCA set up a maternity subcommittee to investigate how U n iv e rs ity .
the local authority could improve its health provision for
pregnant women and, in 1928, this enquiry was extended
to the rest of Scotland. It made several recommendations FURTHER READING
to improve the management of maternity services and Susan Pedersen, 'Eleanor Florence Rathbone (1872-1946),
suggested an increase in hospital and antenatal provision. Oxford Dictionary o f National Biography (OUP, 2004).
It also campaigned for health insurance for all women, not
Susan Pedersen, Eleanor Rathbone and the Politics o f
just for those who worked outside the home, and for home
Conscience (Yale University Press, 2004).
helps, free milk and free meals for women with children.
In the 1930s, it called for a national maternity service and Esther B reitenbach and V alerie W rig h t, Women as

expanded its discussions and campaigns to include birth Active Citizens: Glasgow and Edinburgh c. 1918-1939',

control, abortion and sex education. Women's History Review, 23, 3, May 2014.
Winning the vote for women was not an end to demands P at Thane, 'Women and Political Participation in
for emancipation; it was a symbol that enhanced and legit England, 1918-1970', in Esther B reintenbach and
imised the extension of womens activities in public life. P at T h an e (eds). Women and Citizenship in Britain and
Women who joined WCAs engaged in an array of campaigns Ireland in the Twentieth Century (Continuum, 2010).
and activities. In many instances they could be influential
52 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
Portrait
THROUGHOUT his life, Naguib intellect, with which mathematical
Mahfouz felt caught between the time was understood. It could only
timelessness of Egypts ancient past perceive the unchanging and the discon
and the turbulence of its recent history. tinuous. It conceived of a process as a

o f the Even as a boy, he had felt it. Growing up


in a devout Muslim household in one
of Cairos oldest quarters, his childhood
had been shaped by the unchanging
sequence of unrelated moments. From it
sprang a closed morality. This was static
and rule-bound; it prioritised social
cohesion; it excluded others and sought

Author obligations of faith and overshadowed


by the legacy of the past. When he was
not studying the Koran, he was playing
war; and it invented gods to ensure
obedience to its dogmas. On the other
hand, there was intuition, necessary for

as a in the streets of al-Gamaliya, not fax


from Saladins Citadel, or visiting the
pyramids with his mother. But, though
it was easy to believe that he was insu
understanding duration. This did not
draw distinctions, but comprehended
the totality of whatever it perceived.
From it arose an open morality. This

Historian lated from times flux, he could see that


Egypt was changing around him. Over
the preceding 40 years it had embarked
on a process of rapid social and economic
was creative and expansive; it insisted
on no fixed doctrines; it was universal
and pacific; and it was mystical, rather
than dogmatic.
The ideas of a French modernisation. Industrial development In his first novel, The Game o f Fates
philosopher provided the was spurred on by foreign investment, (1939), Mahfouz combined Bergsons
new roads and railways were construct idea of duration with Egyptian history
great Egyptian novelist w ith a ed, educational reforms were implem to reconcile the timelessness of ancient
way of assessing the good and ented and scientific rationalism was monuments with the flux of exper
exalted. Political changes were in the ienced time. The story takes place
the bad in his nations past, air, too. Though Egypt was notionally a during the reign of the Pharaoh Khufu
writes Alexander Lee. British protectorate, liberal nationalism (d.2566 bc ). At its heart is Khufus
was on the rise and, before Mahfouz had determination to impress his will on
turned eight, calls for independence had eternity. He has already begun building
spilled over into violent revolution. the Great Pyramid, both as his resting
place and as a monument for all time.
T im e a n d m o r a lit y Having fathered many sons, he reasons
As a young man, Mahfouz was torment that the succession is secure. But one
ed by the tensions between eternity and day, a soothsayer foretells that none of
change, openness and nationalism, rel Khufus children will rule after him.
igion and modernity. But, while he was Instead, the son of a priest of Ra - born
studying at the University of Cairo, he that day - will assume the throne.
chanced upon a solution in the philoso Khufu immediately sets out to thwart
phy of Henri Bergson (1859-1941). the prophecy by killing the newborn
Two things caught his attention. boy, Djedef. But the priest is forewarned
One was Bergsons understanding of and sends his son to safety before the
time. According to mathematicians, pharaoh arrives. Unaware of what has
time consisted of infinite homogenous happened, Khufu kills a maids baby in
units. Though wholly independent, the belief that he is the priests child.
M o ral q uandary: N aguib M a h fo u z in Cairo, 1989.
each moment was just like any other. Shielded from his true identity, Djedef
But Bergson believed this was wrong. It is raised by the inspector of the pyramid.
was not how human beings experienced He grows to become a superb soldier
time. He pointed out that we are only and, after saving the crown princes life,
conscious of our existence because we is made commander of the royal guard.
perceive change. And we are only able to Later, he saves the pharaoh from an
NO.7 do so because each moment is connect
ed to, but different from, the next. Thus,
attempted coup, killing the deceitful
crown prince in the process. Out of grat
Naguib the time that each individual experienc
es (what Bergson called duration) was
itude, Khufu names Djedef his heir. On
his deathbed, however, Khufu discovers

Mahfouz not only heterogeneous, but also con


tinually in flux, dependent on memory
the truth. He has unwittingly fulfilled
the prophecy. While the physical
and utterly unforeseeable. In turn, each remains of his reign will endure forever,
persons duration formed a small but he sees that life is constantly in flux.
Born: December nth, 1911, Cairo, Egypt.
unique part of the wider continuum of
Died: August 30th, 2006, Agouza, Egypt. human duration. B e tw e e n p a s t a n d p re s e n t
The other was Bergsons understand If change was an inevitable part of
ing of perception and morality. There human life, this was not to say that
were two kinds of each. There was the modernity should be welcomed with
54 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
open arms. Though initially sympa was to strike a balance between past and
thetic to the Wafd party, Mahfouz was present by embracing an open morality.
critical of liberal nationalism. In Thebes As he intimated in He Who Lives in the
at War (1943), he used Bergsons idea Truth (1985) - a fictionalised historical
of morality and the example of ancient enquiry into the reign of the reforming
history to expose its dangers. Set in the Pharaoh Akhenaten (d.1336 bc ) -
16th century bc , it tells of the Egyptians the intellect should surrender to
struggle against the white skinned intuition; memory of the past should
Hyksos, who had ruled the north for inspire change for the future; dogmatic,
over a century. After many years of bitter rule-bound religion should give way to
conflict, the Pharaoh Ahmose at last mysticism; and nationalism should yield
liberates the country from the foreign to an outward-looking cosmopolitanism.
tyrants. But his victory is unedifying.
Although he has fallen in love with Before th e th ro n e
Amenridis, a Hyksos princess, during By the time Egypt achieved its indep
the campaign, they cannot be together. endence, Mahfouz had realised that this
Committed to narrow Egyptian nation could not be achieved without sacrifice
alism, he must forsake her. Though they and was not ignorant of the personal
continue to write to one another, he tragedy this could entail. In the Cairo
discovers that Amenridis views him as a Trilogy (1956-7) - an epic account of the
little more than a pygmy. The implica life of a Cairene family between 1917
tion was clear. Even if Egypt succeeded and 1944 - he told of how a mother
in ejecting the British, the closed and father are destroyed by grief when
morality on which nationalism was their son, Fahmi, dies while agitating
based meant that it would not be any for Islamic socialism during the 1919
more fulfilled. revolution. But by exercising intuition,
rather than intellect - as Bergson had
urged - this could be put in its proper
Egypts best hope historical perspective. While the finality
of an individuals death might seem
was to strike a tragic, it could be seen that the sacrifice
balance between contributed to alleviating the broader Key works
tragedies of modern life and to advanc The Cairo Trilogy: Palace
past and present ing the development of human society.
Walk (1956), Palace o f Desire
It was against this standard that late
by embracing an in his life Mahfouz judged Egypts polit (1957), Sugar Street (1957)
ical history. In Before the Throne (1983),
iopen morality9 leaders from Menes to Anwar Sadat Accepting the Nobel Prize for Lit
were interrogated and allocated a place erature in 1988, Naguib Mahfouz
But nor did Mahfouz advocate taking in heaven, purgatory or hell. Those like defined himself as the son of two
refuge in an unchanging past. Egypts Pharaoh Tuthmosis III (1481-25 bc ), civilisations that at a certain age in
history should not be a haven. To his who embodied an open morality and history have formed a happy mar
mind, the backward-looking religious enriched the whole nation with a crea
riage. The first was the 7,000-year-
dogmatism of the Muslim Brother tive outlook, were admitted to heaven.
hood (founded in 1928) was as much
old Pharaonic civilisation; the
Those like Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-
a manifestation of Bergsons closed 70), who embraced a closed morality
second was the 1,400-year-old
morality as the liberal nationalism it and put their own interests above the Islamic one. As someone from
opposed. This was dramatised in Khan common good, leading the country to the developing world he was, he
al-Khalili (1945). Set in the middle of the war, were sent straight to hell. Those asserted, a vessel coloured by
Second World War, it follows the story who meant well, but were overcome by what it contains. Mahfouz had
of a Cairene family that moves from the circumstances beyond their power, were written several novels before
modern quarter of al-Sakakani to the consigned to purgatory. the 1952 revolution overthrew
religious neighbourhood of Khan Now that Egypt is again torn King Farouk, hastening the end
al-Khalili. But though they hope that between the rigid Islamic fundamen of British occupation. He worked
the nearby al-Hussein mosque will talism of the Muslim Brotherhood and
for the government despite the
protect them from German bombs, it secular nationalism, it is worth asking
is no safer. The youngest son dies from where history will place Egypts current
popularity of his books, many of
tuberculosis. His brother is forced to see president, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
which were banned in other Arab
that the inflexible religion he adores is countries on grounds of blasphe
just as vulnerable as the rational moder Alexander Lee is a fellow in the Centre for the my. He was widely recognised as
nity he despises. Study o f the Renaissance at the University o f the Arab worlds most prominent
Under Bergsons influence, Mahfouz Warwick. His most recent book, The Ugly novelist on his death in 2006.
came to believe that Egypts best hope Renaissance, is published by Arrow.
JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 55
R o b e r t C o o k o n U S p r e s id e n ts g r e a t a n d m e d io c r e D a n ie l B e e r c o n s id e rs a c e n tu r y
t h a t c h a n g e d E u ro p e C la re M u lle y o n th e w o r k o f th e S p e c ia l O p e r a tio n s E x e c u tiv e

REVIEWS
m a r t in L U T H E R
REFORMATION renegade and m u m t i

The
Flawed
Reformer
Two new accounts of martin
Luther's life reveal the
complexities of the public
VISIONARY REFORMER
and private man, w ithout
flinching from his failings 1C O T T
and contradictions.

LYNDAL ROPERs superb new on the Jews spring more readily anniversary of Luthers posting Ropers Martin Luther: Renegade
biography of Martin Luther sums to mind, considered harsh even of the 95 Theses to the door of and Prophet. Both are by scholarly
her subject up beautifully: Luther by his own contemporaries the castle church in the Saxon heavyweights. Hendrix is Emer
is, she notes, a difficult hero. broadly antisemitic standards, city of Wittenberg, as his first itus Professor of Reformation
The German monk who rebelled and disconcertingly prophetic of real public protest against the History at Princeton Theological
against both pope and Holy what would happen 400 years Church. One wonders just how Seminary, having produced
Roman emperor; the theologian later under Nazism. If Luthers the numerous commemorative numerous works on Luther and
who brought the message of On the Jews and Their Lies of 1543 events planned will ever do the Reformation over the course
salvation by faith alone; and the is an undeniably chilling read, justice to such an important yet of his career. The Australian
communicator who harnessed his views on women (Let them complex life. historian Lyndal Roper is Regius
the power of the new-fangled bear children to death) also It is, therefore, particularly Professor of History at Oxford
printing press to create the regularly raise modern eyebrows, welcome to have two new and has written paradigm-
worlds first media storm, is the as does the venom with which biographies of Luther appear shifting studies on aspects of
man who today more than 60 Luther attacked the robbing and at a time when that legacy will the social, gender and religious
million Lutherans worldwide call murdering hordes of peasants be under fresh scrutiny: Scott history of early modern Europe.
the father of their movement. who rebelled in 1525 in his name. H. Hendrixs Martin Luther: As one might expect from two
Yet, for others, Luthers opinions October 31st, 2017 is the 500th Visionary Reformer and Lyndal biographies of the same man,
56 HISTORY TODAY JANUARY 2017
there are clear areas of similarity. oiled and his evidently happy This book is a b o u t an
Both scholars faced the deli family life after his marriage to angry, to rm e n te d genius; it is
cious horror quickly discovered the former nun Katharina von also a b o u t friendship. A p art
by anyone who tries to work Bora in 1525. fro m M o n e t him self, th e m ain
on Luther: the sheer weight of Where Hendrix and Ropers c h arac ter w h o em erges is th e
source material he left behind, biographies of Luther differ, g re a t French sta tes m an Georges
including 120 volumes of his col however, is in their approach to C lem enceau. Know n as 'the
lected works. Little wonder that this life. Hendrix takes the argu Tiger', C lem enceau n o t only
Roper notes that her biography ably more traditional approach, engineered th e comm ission
of Luther was ten years in the basing his study on three secure, fo r th e Grande Decoration, b ut
making. Both scholars have pro if unsurprising, touchstones: sm oothed n eg otiatio ns w ith
duced biographies that do, osten that Luther was neither a hero th e French s ta te w h e n M o n e t
sibly, what all biographies should nor a villain; that he was not a (w h o m he nicknam ed th e
do, which is to take the reader reformer in isolation; and that Hedgehog') failed to deliver. In
in an engaging and informative none of what happens in Luthers co n tras t to his antisocial and
way through the entirety of life should be judged by modern Mad Enchantment irascible friend, C lem enceau is
Luthers life, from his upbringing criteria. Claude M o n e t and th e Painting
show n as outgoing, brave and
in Mansfeld, Saxony, as the eldest Roper, by contrast, does the o f th e W a te r Lilies
fearless, surviving an assassina
son of a leading figure in the exact opposite, drawing on the by Ross King
tio n a tte m p t, m aking fre q u e n t
local mining industry, through modern psychological approach B lo o m s b u ry 4 i6pp 25
visits to th e fro n t line during th e
to a rejection at the age of 22 of a es that have served her well in First W orld W a r and leading th e
career in law for a life in a closed previous work to delve beneath A VISIT TO M o net's W ater Lilies French n ation to victo ry. By co n
Augustinian monastery in Erfurt. what is already known of the ex a t th e O ran g erie in Paris is a tra s t, M o n e t used his position
Both then chart the development ternals of Luthers life to explore profoundly m oving experience. during th e w a r to ensure th a t
of Luthers career as a Doctor his complex personality. Roper is Surrounded on all sides by he received regu lar supplies of
careful not to overplay her hand w avin g plants and dazzling re cigarettes, coal and petrol, w hile
Luther is one of the here: she, more than anyone else, flections, th e visito r is im m ersed th e rest o f th e n ation endured
is well aware of the potential in a w a te ry realm o f p ure light shortages.
very few historical problems of such an approach, and colour. This glorious cycle
actors about whose but quite rightly notes, that of o f paintings, a m em o rial to Monet comes
all figures in the 16th century, th e First W orld W ar, is view ed
personality and Luther is one of very few histor to d a y in m u ted light, filte red across as a brilliant
inner life we do know ical actors about whose person th ro u g h gauze screens, in o rder yet impossible
ality and inner life we do know to enhance th e m ood o f calm
a great deal, even a great deal, even down to his and so lem nity. H o w ever, as Ross
individual... This is a
down to his dreams dreams and his bouts of crippling King relates in th is engross book about an angry,
spiritual torment and doubt. ing history, th e p ath to w a rd s
and his bouts of We also know that Luthers tormented genius,
co m p letion w as fa r fro m serene.
crippling spiritual personality had a major impact Failing eyesight, fo llo w ed by and aboutfriendship
on the course of the Lutheran
torment and doubt... loss o f colour d e fin itio n - th e
Reformation and Roper makes result o f a gruelling c a taract This scholarly sto ry o f
Roper and Hendrix a persuasive case that links the o p eratio n - severely ham pered M o net's g re a te s t project is told
offer impressive vicissitudes of Luthers relation M o net's progress and it w as only w ith tre m e n d o u s h u m o u r and is
ship with authority figures in his posthum ously t h a t th e Grande filled w ith fascinating insights,
biographies life to his reaction to events and D ecoration cam e to fru itio n . gleaned fro m correspondence,
to the content of his theology N o to riou sly difficult, w ith new spapers, periodicals and a
of Theology at the University of itself. The result is a challenging a sh o rt tem p e r, M o n e t comes p le th o ra o f o th e r sources. The
Wittenberg before the period of and deeply stimulating study of across as a b rillian t y e t impossi n a rra tiv e unfurls against th e
high drama in Luthers life, from a major historical figure about ble individual. R ecently w id o w ed backdrop o f th e co n flict and
his first statement against the whom many hold an opinion, by th e d eath o f his beloved Alice, M o n e t's long and successful
abuse of indulgences in 1517 to but have often struggled to fully he rails ag ain st th e w orld , refus career: his n eg o tiatio n s w ith a rt
his excommunication and obsti understand. Together, Ropers ing to receive m a n y o f th e artists dealers and collectors - am ong
nacy before Emperor Charles V at work, along with Hendrixs fine w h o m ake th e pilgrim age to his th e m Kojiro M a ts u k a ta , w h o
the Diet ofWorms in 1521, where if more conventional biography, hom e a t Giverny, bello w in g a t b ou g ht M o n e t's paintings fo r his
he told the young ruler that my offer impressive contributions to his devo ted d a u g h te r-in -la w , Pavilion o f Pure Pleasure' - as
conscience is captive to the Word Martin Luthers ongoing legacy. Blanche Hoschede, and refusing w ell as his friendships w ith lu m
of God. I cannot and will not Elaine Fulton to hide his irrita tio n w hen inaries, such as G ustave G effroy
recant. dealing w ith his long-suffering (a fe llo w g astron o m e and one
Both Hendrix and Roper M artin Luther: Renegade and Prophet eye d o c to r Charles C outela. o f th e founders o f th e A cadem ie
also act as able guides through by Lyndal Roper
A long w ith his garden, food and G oncourt), th e a r t critic O ctave
T he B o dle y H e a d 592pp 16.99
Luthers numerous writings, the drink are his only pleasures. M irb eau and th e a c to r and film
M artin Luther: Visionary Reformer
seemingly endless controversies by Scott H. Hendrix Painting, th ou gh , is M o net's d irec to r Sacha G uitry.
in which he later became embr Yale U n iv e rs ity Press 36 8 p p 14.99 obsession. F ra n c e s F o w le

JANUARY 2017 HISTORY TODAY 57


HAVE YOUR SAY

Letters E m a il p .la y(s > h isto ry to d ay .c o m


P o s t to H is to r y T o d a y , 2nd Flo o r,
9 S ta p le In n , L o ndon W C iV 7Q H
^ 0 C o n n e c t w ith us on T w it t e r
t w it t e r .c o m /h is t o r y t o d a y

R evision Too Far N o b o d y 's Poodles the Warwick tribunal, aggrieved There have been other mentally
As Churchill scholars and family Rebecca Pyne-Edwards Banks when one of their decisions was and physically incompetent pres
members, we would like to essay (Court of the Conscripts, overturned on appeal, withdrew idents, notably Woodrow Wilson
protest at Mihir Boses statement November) rightly indicates the their labour for a week. This may after his stroke, but he did not
that Winston Churchill wanted presence of First World War mili be the only case of a tribunal have access to nuclear codes. The
to destroy Hinduism (A Hatred tary service tribunal documenta going on strike, but it shows they extent of Reagans Alzheimers
for Hindus, December 2016). tion in archives. Although some were nobodys poodles. while in office is disputed but
From one admittedly intemper collections are well known, it is P h ilip S p in k s there is no doubt his staff were
ate remark reportedly made by still possible that more may be Stratford-upon-Avon, seriously concerned. This story
Churchill at dinner in February discovered. Pyne-Edwards Banks Warwickshire may attract more attention with
i945, Bose has constructed also helps to destroy the myths
Im p o s in g Convoys
the recent election of a 70-year-
a completely unrecognisable that only conscientious objectors old president, whose mental
theory that Churchill wanted to could apply for exemption and Malcolm Murfetts article (The
stability (unlike Reagans) has
destroy a religion followed by that local tribunals comprised Sinking of Japan, December)
already frequently been called
hundreds of millions of people, country gentry and local bigwigs does not recognise that the
into question.
several million of whom were who dealt with cases in an arbi attitude of the Japanese navy to
serving as volunteers in the trary manner. the convoy system was far from M ic h a e l H o r s m a n

unique. In his book, On the Psy via email


armed forces of the Crown at Hitherto, most tribunal
the time. history has been biased towards chology o f Military Incompetence,
B rau d e l W as French
In the same article it is incor Norman Dixon points out that
conscientious objectors, giving The letter from Anthony Kinder
rectly stated that the journalist scant regard to those who both the British and US navies
in the October issue not only
Beverley Nichols was a Nazi resisted the use of convoys and
claimed exemption on other repeats the falsehood that
sympathiser, when in fact he emphasised the role of the fleet
grounds; the fiction continues Fernand Braudel was born in
was a prominent peace activist as an attack force. Dixon attrib
to the present: To keep the Germany, but even crows that
and, indeed, he is quoted criticis utes this to an officer psychology
army supplied [with men], if you [I]t is important that such errors
ing Hitler and fascism. It is also which saw defensive strategies,
were a single man aged 18 to 4t, are identified and published,
claimed that Churchill wanted such as convoys, as passive and
not in a job essential to the war otherwise these errors are just
to convert to Islam, which is unmanly.
effort, and were fit, you were allowed to continue.
untrue, and that he deliberately The difference is that the
in the army, unless you could How true! So let me confirm
lied to wartime US President civilian governments of Britain
show a conscientious objection that, as Alexander Lee wrote
Franklin Delano Roosevelt about and the US imposed the convoy
... [and appear before] the hastily in the original article (Portrait
the number of Muslims fighting system on reluctant admirals.
convened tribunals for objectors. of the Author as a Historian,
in the Indian army, without The Japanese military govern
(Dan Snow, Voices o f the First August), Braudel was born on
giving any proof. ment did not do so, probably
World War, BBC Radio 4, June August 24th, 1902 at Lumeville-
Churchill revisionism is a because its members shared the
29th, 2016). en-Ornois, a village on the
very well-known phenomenon, attitudes of its admirals.
Local tribunal members were French side of the post-i87t
but we are surprised that as M a r t i n J e n k in s
confronted with the almost frontier. Please do not allow
respected a journal as History Plumstead, London
impossible task of balancing the the error that Braudel was not
Today should stoop to claiming armys needs with that of the R eag an For Good a n d III French to continue.
that Churchill ever wanted to local community. The chairman I would not dissent from Iwan G e o ffre y P a rk e r
destroy the majority population of the Stratford-upon-Avon Morgans assessment of Ronald The Ohio State University
of a country that was the jewel in tribunal remarked that some Reagans achievements in ending
the crown of an Empire to which of the public claimed we had the Cold War (From the Archive, M a p M is ta k e
he was so dedicated. let too many through; in other December), though whether it is The map of Tenochtitlan
D r L a r r y P. A r n n words that the tribunal were the greatest achievement of any (October) has a mistaken
M ic h a e l F. B is h o p too lenient, concluding that the US President since 1945 seems description of part of it. The
R a n d o lp h C h u r c h ill tribunal membership would smaller map to the left of the
doubtful when you consider,
P a u l C o u r te n a y
gladly change places with any of for instance, Trumans creative city map is the Gulf of Mexico,
D r W a rre n D o c k te r
their critics (Stratford-upon-Avon containment policy, which was not the Caribbean Basin, and the
L a u r e n c e G e lle r
Herald, December 15th, 1916). followed by all presidents for 40 tip of Cuba is its western tip, not
D r A rth u r H e rm a n
R ic h a r d M . L a n g w o r t h
My research indicates that years, or Johnsons epoch-mak its eastern. Florida can be seen
A lle n P a c k w o o d local tribunals were rarely influ ing civil rights legislation. clearly labeled, as is the Yucatan.
P ro f A n d r e w R o b e rts enced by the military or external Where Reagans presidency is However, it is shown as an island,
C e lia S a n d y s authorities; they guarded their remarkable is in the example of rather than a peninsula.
E d w in a S a n d y s independence fiercely. In late a mentally and physically declin S h ir le y F o w le y
N ic h o la s S o a m e s , M P October 1916 the members of ing president in the nuclear age. W a te rlo o , Ontario, Canada
66 H IS T O R Y T O D A Y JANUARY 2017