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Q No.1.

An experiment has high _____ if one has confidence that the experimental treatment has been the
source of change in the dependent variable.
a) Internal validity
b) External validity
c) Internal and external validity
d) Internal and external reliability

Q No.2. _________ is the arbitrary and subjective.


a) Probability sampling
b) Non- Probability sampling
c) Cluster sampling
d) All of the given options

Q No.3. Which of the following is NOT included in the stages of interviewing?


a) Asking questions
b) Recording the responses
c) Probing
d) Coding the data

Q No.4. Critical decision areas in questionnaire construction are____________


a) Question content
b) Question wording
c) Response strategy
d) All of the given options

Q No.5. __________ is based on the concept of random sampling.


a) Non- probability sampling
b) Probability sampling
c) Random sampling
d) Multiple sampling

Q No.6. A sampling design in which the elements in the population do NOT have a known or
predetermined chance of being selected as sample subject is:
a) Convenience sampling
b) Stratified sampling
c) Non-Probability sampling
d) Probability sampling

Q No.7. _________ is the population for which results are required.


a) Finite population
b) Infinite population
c) Target population
d) None of the given options

Q No.8. Which of the following designs permits a comparison of pretest scores to determine the initial
equivalence of groups on the pretest before the treatment variable is introduced into the research setting.
a) One-group pretest-posttest design
b) Pretest-posttest control group design
c) Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups
d) Both b and c

Q No.9. Where do you provide a step-by-step account of what the researcher and participants did during
the research study?
a) Introduction
b) Abstract
c) Procedure
d) Design
Q No.10. Which of the following has high response rate?
a) Mail interviewing
b) Telephone interviewing
c) Personal interviewing
d) None of the given options

Q No.11. Observation studies are also known as ________ research.


a) Experimental
b) Field
c) Quantitative
d) None of the given options

Q No.12. Open-ended questions provide primarily ______ data.


a) Unprocessed data
b) Qualitative data
c) All of the given options
d) None of the given options

Q No.13. Which one of the following is NOT a major method of data collection:?
a) Questionnaires
b) Interviews
c) Focus groups
d) All of the given options are methods of data collection

Q No.14. Which of the following statement is incorrect?


a) In non participant observation the observer is just an observer.
b) In participant observation, the data accuracy is high.
c) Participant observation is also referred to as field research.
d) None of the given options

Q No.15. On which of the following, Scientific knowledge mostly relies?


a) Identification of events
b) Logical understanding
c) Prior knowledge
d) All of the given options

Q No.16. All of the following are true statements about action research EXCEPT;
a) Data are systematically analyzed.
b) Data are collected systematically.
c) Results are generalizable.
d) Results are used to improve practice.

Q No.17. Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?


a) Age
b) Annual income
c) Grade point average
d) Religion

Q No.18. Which of the following is not a role of hypothesis?


a) Guides the direction of the study
b) Identifies relevant and irrelevant facts
c) Provides framework for organizing the conclusions
d) Determine feasibility of conducting the study

Q No.19. Which of the following functions is performed by theoretical framework?


a) Elaborates the relationship among the variables.
b) Explains the logic underlying these relationships.
c) Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
d) All of the given options.

Q No.20. Theoretical framework is trying to develop a ________ model of our study.


a) Functional
b) Conceptual
c) Operational
d) Practical

Q No.21. What is the first step in the research process?


a) Problem definition
b) Define broad problem area
c) Theoretical framework
d) Preliminary data collection

Q No.22. Which of the following is not an example of deception?


a) A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent.
b) To observe code of ethics.
c) To leak out information regarding any confidential matter.
d) To create bias between respondents before the survey.

Q No.23. Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students' ability to conduct a
chemistry experiment in the lab?
a) Aptitude
b) Interest inventory
c) Performance assessment
d) Standardized test

Q No.24. Mr. Ali has described in great detail the major steps he will follow in conducting his study. This
information is likely found in which section of his research plan?
a) Introduction
b) Participants
c) Methodology
d) Data Analysis

Q No.25. Which of the following is NOT a necessary component of survey research?


a) Triangulation of data
b) Literature review
c) Data analysis
d) Validity
Q No.26. Which of the following is not an advantage of the self-completion questionnaire over the structured
interview?
a) It is cheaper to administer.
b) It is quicker to administer.
c) It is easier to prompt the interviewee.
d) It is easier to remove interviewer effects.

Q No.27. Cover letter must include all of the following information, except:
a) How was the respondent selected?
b) Importance of research topic which is going to be conducted
c) Motivation for the respondent
d) Data collecting tools

Q No.28. The most critical area of an article to read is;


a) Introduction
b) Abstract
c) Results section
d) Limitations

Q No.29. Moving up the ladder of the abstraction, concepts become _________.


a) Wider In Scope
b) Specific
c) Measurable
d) None of the given options

Q No.30. Extrapolation in theory refers to:


a) Making generalization on the basis of the present findings
b) Limited scope of the research
c) Accurately measuring the particular phenomenon at hand
d) None of the given options

Q No.31. Dividing a variable in concrete and observable indicators is called:


a) Theory building
b) Operationalization
c) Propositions
d) None of the given options

Q No.32. Which of the following is an example of categorical variable?


a) Age
b) Grade point average
c) Gender
d) Motivation

Q No.33. Which of the following is elaborative exploratory pilot study?


a) Focus group discussion
b) Literature review
c) Document analysis
d) Survey

Q No.34. Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research studies?
a) Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
b) Hypotheses are never used.
c) Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed.
d) Hypotheses are deductively tested

Q No.35. Which of the following is true about the ethics in research context?
a) Ethics means to avoid plagiarism
b) Ethics in the research is applied at all stages
c) Goals of the research should be informed to the respondents
d) All of the given options

Q No.36. The degree to which the measurement questions provide ample coverage of the investigative
questions usually refers to:
a) Face and Content Validity
b) Content and Criterion Validity
c) Criterion and Predictive Validity
d) None of the given options

Q No.37. Personal interviews that are conducted in the shopping plazas are example of:
a) Mail interviews
b) Mall intercept interviews
c) Shopping interview
d) None of the given options

Q No.38. Which of the following are the sources concepts?


a) Personal experiences
b) Creativity
c) Observation
d) All of the given options

Q No.39. Which of the following terms represents the most general, broad concept?
a) Apple
b) Fruit
c) Vegetation
d) None of the given option

Q No.40. Research can help in the following ways for developing methodologies, EXCEPT;
a) Tools of data collection
b) New technique for gathering data
c) Defining a problem
d) Data analysis

Q No.41. Which of the following is the basis of the Scientific Method?


a) To test hypothesis in conditions that is conducive to its success.
b) To formulate a research problem and disprove the hypothesis.
c) To formulate a research problem, test the hypothesis in carefully controlled conditions that challenge the
hypothesis.
d) To test hypothesis and if they are disproved, they should be abandoned completely.

Q No.42. Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, Except.


a) Health care
b) Business
c) Government offices
d) Religion

Q No.43. Which of the following BEST describes quantitative research?


a) The collection of non-numerical data
b) An attempt to confirm the researchs hypotheses
c) Research that is exploratory
d) Research that attempts to generate a new theory

Q No.44. Which of the following is the definition of an independent variable?


a) A variable that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter.
b) A response variable.
c) The behavioural measure made by the experimenter.
d) A dependent variable that is controlled by the experimenter.

Q No.45. Why do you need to review the existing literature?


a) To give your dissertation a proper academic appearance, with lots of references.
b) Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count.
c) To find out what is already known about your area of interest.
d) To help in your general study.

Q No.46. A literature review should be characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT;


a) Summarize and report each article.
b) Use important topics as the organizing structure of the review.
c) Analyze all articles for similarities and differences related to major topics.
d) Discuss implications relative to the research problem.

Q No.47. Which of the following functions is performed by theoretical framework?


a) Elaborates the relationship among the variables.
b) Explains the logic underlying these relationships.
c) Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
d) All of the given options.
Q No.48. When there is a need of generating new ideas for hypotheses or to interpret the results of some
research, which one is the best research deign?
a) Experiment
b) Surveys
c) Focus group discussion
d) Communication analysis

Q No.49. Which of the following is not an example of deception?


a) A part of the truth is not communicated to the respondent.
b) To observe code of ethics.
c) To leak out information regarding any confidential matter.
d) To create bias between respondents before the survey.

Q No.50. Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students' ability to conduct a
chemistry experiment in the lab?
a) Aptitude
b) Interest inventory
c) Performance assessment
d) Standardized test

Q No.51. Which of the following is a legitimate purpose of a research plan?


a) It forces you to think through every aspect of a study.
b) It provides detailed procedures to guide the conduct of the study.
c) It provides clear roadmap of the study.
d) Writing a plan facilitates the evaluation of it.

Q No.52. Which of the following surveys are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews?
a) Mail
b) Recorded Interview
c) Focus group
d) Telephonic

Q No.53. All of the following are the characteristics of scientific methods of research, EXCEPT;
a) Cumulative
b) Deterministic
c) Unethical
d) Rationalism

Q No.54. Which of the following is NOT the feature of theoretical framework?


a) Make an inventory of variables
b) Statistical analysis
c) Specify the direction of relationship
d) Make an inventory of propositions

Q No.55. Which of the following study requires the collection of data at one point in time from a large number
of respondents?
a) Case study
b) Cross-sectional study
c) All of the given options
d) Longitudinal study

Q No.56. Which of the following is NOT the goal of the explanatory research?
a) Testing theory
b) Establishing the relationship between different phenomenon
c) Generating new ideas about the topic
d) Replicating a theory to a new area

Q No.57. Basic research can also be called as


a) Practical research
b) Fundamental Research
c) Action research
d) Assessment research

Q No.58. Descriptive hypothesis is also called:


a) Directional Hypothesis
b) Univariate Hypothesis
c) Non directional Hypothesis
d) All of the given options

Q No.59. Logical argument of the researcher can be based on:


a) Personal experience
b) Literature review
c) Arm chair thinking
d) All of the given options

Q No.60. Rationalism is the application of which of the following?


a) Research solution
b) Logic and arguments
c) Intuition
d) Previous findings

Q No.61. Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research studies?
a) Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
b) Hypotheses are never used.
c) Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed.
d) Hypotheses are deductively tested

Q No.62. _______________are more specific that dimensions:


a) Elements
b) Variables
c) Aspects of variables
d) Concepts

Q No.63. Which of the following is an indicator of the job stress?


a) Competitive pay
b) Role conflict
c) Fair policies
d) None of the given options

Q No.64. Which of the following functions is performed by the Ratio scale?


a) All of the given options
b) Distance
c) Order
d) Unique origin

Q No.65. Which of the following effect in internal validity occurs when test units with extreme scores are
used.
a) Statistical regression
b) Selection Bias
c) Maturation
d) Instrumentation

Q No.66. The design where we have no control over the variables and report only what has happened or what
is happening is called___________
a) Research design
b) Contrived design
c) Ex-post-facto design
d) Explanatory design

Q No.67. Which of the following disadvantage of personal interview can be overcome by rapport building?
a) Cost
b) Lack of anonymity of the respondents
c) Scarcity of highly trained interviewers
d) Call backs

Q No.68. Large number of respondents are best interviewed in a (an)__________ way


a) Unstructured
b) Structured
c) Semi structured
d) Open ended

Q No.69. Which one of these is an interviewer-administered questionnaire?


a) Postal questionnaire
b) Delivery and collection questionnaire
c) Telephone questionnaire
d) On-line questionnaire

Q No.70. One of the disadvantages of the internet survey is:


a) All people cannot participate
b) Slow data collection speed
c) Less anonymity
d) High cost

Q No.71. An inductive logic is one that:


a) Involves testing as explicitly defined hypothesis.
b) Does not allow for findings to feed back into the body of knowledge.
c) Uses quantitative methods whenever possible.
d) Allows theory to emerge out of the data.

Q No.72. Which of the following is not a concept?


a) Leadership.
b) Total Quality Management.
c) Human Resource Management.
d) Intelligence Quotient (IQ).
Q No.73. The cause variable or the one that identifies forces or conditions that act on something else is
known as:
a) Moderating variable
b) Independent variable
c) Categorical variable
d) Dependent variable

Q No.74. A measure is reliable if it provides consistent ___________.


a) Hypothesis
b) Results
c) Procedure
d) Sensitivity

Q No.75. Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be applied to this
statement?
a) The type of data collected.
b) The data-collection technique.
c) The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
d) All of the given options.

Q No.76. Cross cultural studies are an example of:


a) Comparative design.
b) Longitudinal design.
c) Experimental design.
d) Case study design.

Q No.77. When constructing a questionnaire, there are few principles to which you should adhere.Which of
the following is NOT one of those principles?
a) Avoid using "leading" or "loaded" questions
b) Avoid double-barreled questions
c) Avoid ambiguity and confusion
d) Avoid arranging questions in a sequence

Q No.78. Which of the following represents excellent advice for conducting an interview?
a) Listen more and talk less
b) Don't interrupt
c) Don't be judgmental about the interviewee's beliefs or views
d) All of the given options

Q No.79. Which of the following could NOT be a cause of variation in high school achievement?
a) Reading ability
b) Parental involvement
c) Teacher expectations
d) College attendance

Q No.80. The statistic used to determine the relationship between two variables is:
a) Analysis of covariance
b) Chi square
c) Standard deviation
d) Pearson "r"
Q No.81. Which of the following is true about validity?
a) A study can be internally valid but not externally valid.
b) A study can be externally valid but not internally valid.
c) A study must be both internally and externally valid.
d) The internal and external validity of studies are not related in any way.

Q No.82. Testing most likely, negatively affect internal validity when:


a) The information tested is attitudinal in nature
b) The time between pre- and posttest is short
c) The instrument is unreliable
d) The participants are very low scorers

Q No.83. Ecological validity refers to:


a) The participants to whom results generalize
b) The instruments used to measure the independent and dependent variables
c) The internal validity of a study
d) The context to which results generalize

Q No.84. Which one is not the part of non-reactive research?


a) Physical traces
b) Archives
c) Observations
d) Interviews

Q No.85. Which advice would you offer a novice researcher conducting his first observation?
a) Observe only one behavior at a time
b) Allow variables to emerge from the context
c) Record behaviors only after leaving the site
d) Develop a preconceived notion of what is going to help structure the observation

Q No.86. How the Procedure for data processing and analysis can be evaluated in Pilot Testing ?
a) Make dummy tables
b) Work output of each member
c) Length of Questionnaire
d) Format Tools

Q No.87. Which of the following is the complete group of specific population elements relevant to
the research project?
a) Element
b) Target Population
c) Sampling Frame
d) Sampling Unit

Q No.88. Which of the following is the summary description of a given variable in a population?
a) Statistic
b) Observation Unit
c) Parameter
d) Sampling Unit
Q No.89. Which of the following is that element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of
sampling?
a) Parameter
b) Sampling Unit
c) Observation Unit
d) Statistic

Q No.90. If you are going on the street and suddenly a TV reporter starts taking your interview regarding any
issue, which of the following sampling technique is used by the TV reporter?
a) Purposive Sampling
b) Snowball Sampling
c) Convenience Sampling
d) Quota Sampling

Q No.91. Which of the following sampling is most often used during the exploratory phase of a
research project and is perhaps the best way of getting some basic information quickly and efficiently?
a) Convenience Sampling
b) Quota Sampling
c) Snowball Sampling
d) Purposive Sampling

Q No.92. Which of the following sampling method is the best way to select a group of people for a study if
you are interested in making statements about the larger population?
a) Convenience sampling
b) Quota sampling
c) Purposive sampling
d) Random sampling

Q No.93. In which of the following conditions, each part of the construct should be measured with at least
one indicator?
a) Unidimensionality
b) Scale
c) Weighing
d) Index Construction

Q No.94. Which of the following number of variables involved in Descriptive Statistics?


a) Bivariate
b) Multivariate
c) Univariate
d) All of the given options

Q No.95. All of the following are types of personal communication, except;


a) Letters
b) Memos
c) Telephone conversations
d) Emails

Q No.96. Which of the following terms refers to a statistical method that can be used to statistically
equate groups on a protest or some other variable?
a) Experimental control
b) Differential influence
c) Matching
d) Analysis of covariance

Q No.97. In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect produced by
which of the following?
a) Dependent variable
b) Extraneous variable
c) Independent variable
d) Confounding variable

Q No.98. Which of the following is referred to as the influence of a single independent variable?
a) Interaction effect
b) Reactive effect
c) Main effect
d) Proactive effect

Q No.99. Which of the following is the process of marking segments of data with symbols, descriptive words
or category?
a) Concurring
b) Coding
c) Coloring
d) Segmenting

Q No.100. A census taker often collects data through which of the following?
a) Standardized tests
b) Interviews
c) Secondary data
d) Observations

Q No.101. Which one is NOT an advantage of personal interviewing?


a) Interviewer influence
b) Probing complex questions
c) Visual aids
d) High completion rate

Q No.102. All of the following are the characteristics of scientific methods of research, EXCEPT;
a) Cumulative
b) Deterministic
c) Unethical
d) Rationalism

Q No.103. On which of the following, Scientific knowledge mostly relies?


a) Identification of events
b) Logical understanding
c) Prior knowledge
d) All of the given options

Q No.104. All of the following are true about theories, except:


a) They organize and summarize existing knowledge about a topic.
b) They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
c) They provide possible explanations for the phenomenon under study.
d) They lead to testable hypotheses through the process of deduction.

Q No.105. A variable that is presumed to cause a change in another variable is known as:
a) Discontinuous variable
b) Dependent variable
c) Independent variable
d) Intervening variable

Q No.106. Which of the following can best be described as a categorical variable?


a) Age
b) Annual income
c) Grade point average
d) Religion

Q No.107. There is no relationship between higher motivation level and higher efficiency is an example of
which type of hypothesis?
a) Alternative
b) Correlational
c) Null
d) Research

Q No.108. Which two of the following are legitimate frameworks for setting out a literature
review: Constructing intertextual coherence, 2. Deconstruction of textual coherence, 3. Problematizing the
situation, 4. Resolving discovered problems?
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3
d) 2 and 4

Q No.109. Which of the following refers to "A review that only demonstrates familiarity with an area is rarely
published but it often is part of an educational program is which type of review"?
a) Integrative review
b) Theoretical review
c) Self-study review
d) Historical review

Q No.110. Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?
a) Context review
b) Integrated review
c) Methodological review
d) Theoretical review

Q No.111. Which of the following functions is performed by theoretical framework?


a) Elaborates the relationship among the variables.
b) Explains the logic underlying these relationships.
c) Describes the nature, and direction of the relationships.
d) All of the given options.

Q No.112. Which type of measurement scale describes the typical test scores that range from 0 to 100?
a) Nominal
b) Ordinal
c) Interval
d) Ratio

Q No.113. Which of the following is the appropriate way in which to view the reliability of observational data?
a) Test-retest
b) Parallel forms
c) Internal consistency
d) Inter-observer reliability

Q No.114. Which of the following BEST describes an assessment that examines students' ability to conduct a
chemistry experiment in the lab?
a) Performance assessment
b) Interest inventory
c) Aptitude
d) Standardized test

Q No.115. Which of the following functions is performed by the Ordinal scale?


a) Categorize
b) Distance
c) Order
d) Unique origin

Q No.116. Which of the following is NOT the implication of Ordinal scale?


a) Characteristics of nominal scale
b) Rank the object
c) Does not provide magnitude of object
d) Provide rate

Q No.117. Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of an experimental design?
a) Maturation
b) Interaction of setting and treatment
c) Interaction effects of pre-testing
d) Reactive effects of experimental arrangements

Q No.118. Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be applied to this
statement?
a) The type of data collected.
b) The data-collection technique.
c) The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
d) All of the given options.

Q No.119. Which of the following is NOT a source of literature review?


a) Scholarly Books
b) Dissertations
c) Policy Reports and Presented Papers
d) Story book

Q No.120. The most critical area of an article to read is;


a) Introduction
b) Abstract
c) Results section
d) Limitations

Q No.121. Time consumed in mall intercept interview is representing which of the following type?
a) High
b) Moderate
c) Low
d) Nill

Q No.122. Which of the following is to convince reviewers that the researcher is capable of successfully
conducting the proposed research project?
a) Literature review
b) Research question
c) Research proposal
d) Research project